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The 1991 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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#Suffrage: universal at age 21

#Elections:

Grand National Assembly—last held 29 November 1987 (next to be held November 1992); results—ANAP 36%, SHP 25%, DYP 19%, other 20%; seats—(450 total) ANAP 275, SHP 82, DYP 60, HEP 9, SBP 4, DMP 2, BAP 1, independent 6, vacant 11

#Communists: strength and support negligible

#Member of: AsDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN (observer), COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NATO, NEA, OECD, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UNRWA, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Nuzhet KANDEMIR; Chancery at 1606 23rd Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 387-3200; there are Turkish Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, and New York;

US—Ambassador Morton ABRAMOWITZ; Embassy at 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Ankara (mailing address is APO New York 09257-0006); telephone [90] (4) 126 54 70; there are US Consulates General in Istanbul and Izmir, and a Consulate in Adana

#Flag: red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening

*Economy #Overview: The economic reforms that Turkey launched in 1980 continue to bring an impressive stream of benefits. The economy has grown steadily since the early 1980s, with real growth in per capita GDP increasing more than 6% annually. Agriculture remains the most important economic sector, employing about 55% of the labor force, accounting for almost 20% of GDP, and contributing about 20% to exports. Impressive growth in recent years has not solved all of the economic problems facing Turkey. Inflation and interest rates remain high, and a large budget deficit will continue to provide difficulties for a country undergoing a substantial transformation from a centrally controlled to a free market economy. The government has launched a multimillion-dollar development program in the southeastern region, which includes the building of a dozen dams on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers to generate electric power and irrigate large tracts of farmland. The planned tapping of huge additional quantities of Euphrates water has raised serious concern in the downstream riparian nations of Syria and Iraq.

#GDP: $178.0 billion, per capita $3,100; real growth rate 7.6% (1990)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 60.3% (1990)

#Unemployment rate: 10.4% (1990 est.)

#Budget: revenues $27.6 billion; expenditures $34.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $6.6 billion (1991)

#Exports: $11.8 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities—industrial products 78%, crops and livestock products 20%;

partners—FRG 18%, Italy 8%, Iraq 8%, US 8%, UK 5%, France 4%

#Imports: $16.0 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities—crude oil, machinery, transport equipment, metals, pharmaceuticals, dyes, plastics, rubber, mineral fuels, fertilizers, chemicals;

partners—FRG 15%, US 11%, Iraq 10%, Italy 7%, France 6%, UK 5%

#External debt: $42.8 billion (June 1990)

#Industrial production: growth rate 5.9% (1989 est.); accounts for 32% of GDP

#Electricity: 14,315,000 kW capacity; 41,000 million kWh produced, 720 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: textiles, food processing, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron minerals), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper

#Agriculture: accounts for 20% of GDP and employs majority of population; products—tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulses, citrus fruit, variety of animal products; self-sufficient in food most years

#Illicit drugs: one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate

#Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $2.3 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $8.6 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $665 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $4.5 billion

#Currency: Turkish lira (plural—liras); 1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100 kurus

#Exchange rates: Turkish liras (TL) per US$1—2,873.9 (December 1990), 2,608.6 (1990), 2,121.7 (1989), 1,422.3 (1988), 857.2 (1987), 674.5 (1986), 522.0 (1985)

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Railroads: 8,401 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; 479 km electrified

#Highways: 49,615 km total; 26,915 km bituminous; 16,500 km gravel or crushed stone; 4,000 km improved earth; 2,200 km unimproved earth (1985)

#Inland waterways: about 1,200 km

#Pipelines: 1,738 km crude oil; 2,321 km refined products; 708 km natural gas

#Ports: Iskenderun, Istanbul, Mersin, Izmir

#Merchant marine: 340 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,583,720 GRT/6,220,642 DWT; includes 8 short-sea passenger, 1 passenger-cargo, 190 cargo, 1 container, 4 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo, 1 livestock carrier, 37 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 9 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 7 combination ore/oil, 1 specialized tanker, 72 bulk, 4 combination bulk

#Civil air: 39 major transport aircraft (1990)

#Airports: 115 total, 109 usable; 64 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways over 3,659 m; 30 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 26 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: fair domestic and international systems; trunk radio relay network; 3,400,000 telephones; stations—15 AM; 45 (60 repeaters) FM; 67 (504 repeaters) TV; satellite communications ground stations operating in the INTELSAT (2 Atlantic Ocean) and EUTELSAT systems; 1 submarine telephone cable

*Defense Forces #Branches: Land Forces, Navy (including Naval Air and Naval Infantry), Air Force, Coast Guard, Gendarmerie

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 14,861,358; 9,083,559 fit for military service; 606,871 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: $5.6 billion, 5% of GDP (1990) % @Turks and Caicos Islands (dependent territory of the UK) *Geography Total area: 430 km2; land area: 430 km2

#Comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

#Land boundaries: none

#Coastline: 389 km

#Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Climate: tropical; marine; moderated by trade winds; sunny and relatively dry

#Terrain: low, flat limestone; extensive marshes and mangrove swamps

#Natural resources: spiny lobster, conch

#Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures; 0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 98%

#Environment: 30 islands (eight inhabited); subject to frequent hurricanes

#Note: located 190 km north of the Dominican Republic in the North Atlantic Ocean

*People #Population: 9,983 (July 1991), growth rate 2.2% (1991)

#Birth rate: 25 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 14 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: no noun or adjectival forms

#Ethnic divisions: majority of African descent

#Religion: Baptist 41.2%, Methodist 18.9%, Anglican 18.3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.7%, other 19.9% (1980)

#Language: English (official)

#Literacy: 98% (male 99%, female 98%) age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)

#Labor force: NA; majority engaged in fishing and tourist industries; some subsistence agriculture

#Organized labor: Saint George's Industrial Trade Union

*Government #Long-form name: none

#Type: dependent territory of the UK

#Capital: Grand Turk (Cockburn Town)

#Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

#Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

#Constitution: introduced 30 August 1976, suspended in 1986, and a Constitutional Commission is currently reviewing its contents

#Legal system: based on laws of England and Wales with a small number adopted from Jamaica and The Bahamas

#National holiday: Constitution Day, 30 August (1976)

#Executive branch: British monarch, governor, Executive Council

#Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council

#Judicial branch: Supreme Court

#Leaders:

Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1953), represented by Governor Michael J. BRADLEY (since 1987);

Head of Government—Chief Minister Oswald O. SKIPPINGS (since 3 March 1988)

#Political parties and leaders: People's Democratic Movement (PDM), Oswald SKIPPINGS; Progressive National Party (PNP), Dan MALCOLM and Norman SAUNDERS; National Democratic Alliance (NDA), Ariel MISSICK

#Suffrage: universal at age 18

#Elections:

Legislative Council—last held on 3 March 1988 (next to be held NA); results—PDM 60%, PNP 30%, other 10%; seats—(20 total, 13 elected) PDM 11, PNP 2

#Communists: none

#Member of: CDB

#Diplomatic representation: as a dependent territory of the UK, the interests of the Turks and Caicos Islands are represented in the US by the UK;

US—none

#Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the colonial shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield is yellow and contains a conch shell, lobster, and cactus

*Economy #Overview: The economy is based on fishing, tourism, and offshore banking. Subsistence farming—corn and beans—exists only on the Caicos Islands, so that most foods, as well as nonfood products, must be imported.

#GDP: $44.9 million, per capita $5,000; real growth rate NA% (1986)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

#Unemployment rate: 12% (1989)

#Budget: revenues $12.4 million; expenditures $15.8 million, including capital expenditures of $2.6 million (FY87)

#Exports: $2.9 million (f.o.b., FY84);

commodities—lobster, dried and fresh conch, conch shells;

partners—US, UK

#Imports: $26.3 million (c.i.f., FY84);

commodities—foodstuffs, drink, tobacco, clothing;

partners—US, UK

#External debt: $NA

#Industrial production: growth rate NA%

#Electricity: 9,050 kW capacity; 11.1 million kWh produced, 1,140 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: fishing, tourism, offshore financial services

#Agriculture: subsistence farming prevails, based on corn and beans; fishing more important than farming; not self-sufficient in food

#Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $100 million

#Currency: US currency is used

#Exchange rates: US currency is used

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Highways: 121 km, including 24 km tarmac

#Ports: Grand Turk, Salt Cay, Providenciales, Cockburn Harbour

#Civil air: Air Turks and Caicos (passenger service) and Turks Air Ltd. (cargo service)

#Airports: 7 total, 7 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 2,439 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: fair cable and radio services; 1,446 telephones; stations—3 AM, no FM, several TV; 2 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK % @Tuvalu *Geography Total area: 26 km2; land area: 26 km2

#Comparative area: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

#Land boundaries: none

#Coastline: 24 km

#Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Climate: tropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March to November); westerly gales and heavy rain (November to March)

#Terrain: very low-lying and narrow coral atolls

#Natural resources: fish

#Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

#Environment: severe tropical storms are rare

#Note: located 3,000 km east of Papua New Guinea in the South Pacific Ocean

*People #Population: 9,317 (July 1991), growth rate 1.9% (1991)

#Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 33 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 61 years male, 63 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Tuvaluans(s); adjective—Tuvaluan

#Ethnic divisions: 96% Polynesian

#Religion: Church of Tuvalu (Congregationalist) 97%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.4%, Baha'i 1%, other 0.06%

#Language: Tuvaluan, English

#Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

#Labor force: NA

#Organized labor: none

*Government #Long-form name: none

#Type: democracy

#Capital: Funafuti

#Administrative divisions: none

#Independence: 1 October 1978 (from UK; formerly Ellice Islands)

#Constitution: 1 October 1978

#National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October (1978)

#Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

#Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Palamene)

#Judicial branch: High Court

#Leaders:

Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Tupua LEUPENA (since 1 March 1986);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Bikenibeu PAENIU (since 16 October 1989); Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Alesana SELUKA (since October 1989)

#Political parties and leaders: none

#Suffrage: universal at age 18

#Elections:

Parliament—last held 28 September 1989 (next to be held by September 1993); results—percent of vote NA; seats—(12 total)

#Member of: ACP, C (special), ESCAP, SPC, SPF, UPU

#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant);

US—none

#Flag: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the outer half of the flag represents a map of the country with nine yellow five-pointed stars symbolizing the nine islands

*Economy #Overview: Tuvalu consists of a scattered group of nine coral atolls with poor soil. The country has no known mineral resources and few exports. Subsistence farming and fishing are the primary economic activities. The islands are too small and too remote for development of a tourist industry. Government revenues largely come from the sale of stamps and coins and worker remittances. Substantial income is received annually from an international trust fund established in 1987 by Australia, New Zealand, and the UK and supported also by Japan and South Korea.

#GNP: $4.6 million, per capita $530; real growth rate NA% (1989 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.9% (1984)

#Unemployment rate: NA%

#Budget: revenues $4.3 million; expenditures $4.3 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1989)

#Exports: $1.0 million (f.o.b., 1983 est.);

commodities—copra;

partners—Fiji, Australia, NZ

#Imports: $2.8 million (c.i.f., 1983 est.);

commodities—food, animals, mineral fuels, machinery, manufactured goods;

partners—Fiji, Australia, NZ

#External debt: $NA

#Industrial production: growth rate NA

#Electricity: 2,600 kW capacity; 3 million kWh produced, 330 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: fishing, tourism, copra

#Agriculture: coconuts, copra

#Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $1 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $96 million

#Currency: Tuvaluan dollar and Australian dollar (plural—dollars); 1 Tuvaluan dollar ($T) or 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

#Exchange rates: Tuvaluan dollars ($T) or Australian dollars ($A) per US$1—1.2834 (January 1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905 (1986), 1.4269 (1985)

#Fiscal year: NA

*Communications #Highways: 8 km gravel

#Ports: Funafuti, Nukufetau

#Merchant marine: 1 passenger-cargo (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,043 GRT/450 DWT

#Civil air: no major transport aircraft

#Airports: 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: stations—1 AM, no FM, no TV; 300 radiotelephones; 4,000 radios; 108 telephones

*Defense Forces #Branches: Police Force

#Manpower availability: NA

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP % @Uganda *Geography Total area: 236,040 km2; land area: 199,710 km2

#Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

#Land boundaries: 2,698 km total; Kenya 933 km, Rwanda 169 km, Sudan 435 km, Tanzania 396 km, Zaire 765 km

#Coastline: none—landlocked

#Maritime claims: none—landlocked

#Climate: tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast

#Terrain: mostly plateau with rim of mountains

#Natural resources: copper, cobalt, limestone, salt

#Land use: arable land 23%; permanent crops 9%; meadows and pastures 25%; forest and woodland 30%; other 13%; includes irrigated NEGL%

#Environment: straddles Equator; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion

#Note: landlocked

*People #Population: 18,690,070 (July 1991), growth rate 3.7% (1991)

#Birth rate: 51 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 94 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 52 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 7.3 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Ugandan(s); adjective—Ugandan

#Ethnic divisions: African 99%, European, Asian, Arab 1%

#Religion: Roman Catholic 33%, Protestant 33%, Muslim 16%, rest indigenous beliefs

#Language: English (official); Luganda and Swahili widely used; other Bantu and Nilotic languages

#Literacy: 48% (male 62%, female 35%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

#Labor force: 4,500,000 (est.); subsistence agriculture 94%, wage earners (est.) 6%; 50% of population of working age (1983)

#Organized labor: 125,000 union members

*Government #Long-form name: Republic of Uganda

#Type: republic

#Capital: Kampala

#Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Busoga, Central, Eastern, Karamoja, Nile, North Buganda, Northern, South Buganda, Southern, Western

#Independence: 9 October 1962 (from UK)

#Constitution: 8 September 1967, in process of constitutional revision

#Legal system: government plans to restore system based on English common law and customary law and reinstitute a normal judicial system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

#National holiday: Independence Day, 9 October (1962)

#Executive branch: president, prime minister, three deputy prime ministers, Cabinet

#Legislative branch: unicameral National Resistance Council

#Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court

#Leaders:

Chief of State—President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since 29 January 1986); Vice President Samson Babi Mululu KISEKKA (since NA January 1991);

Head of Government—Prime Minister George Cosmas ADYEBO (since NA January 1991)

#Political parties and leaders: only party—National Resistance Movement (NRM); note—the Uganda Patriotic Movement (UPM), Ugandan People's Congress (UPC), Democratic Party (DP), and Conservative Party (CP) are all proscribed from conducting public political activities

#Suffrage: universal at age 18

#Elections:

National Resistance Council—last held 11-28 February 1989 (next to be held after January 1995); results—NRM is the only party; seats—(278 total, 210 indirectly elected) 210 members elected without party affiliation

#Other political parties or pressure groups: Uganda People's Front (UPF), Uganda People's Christian Democratic Army (UPCDA), Ruwenzori Movement

#Communists: possibly a few sympathizers

#Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Stephen Kapimpina KATENTA-APULI; 5909 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20011; telephone (202) 726-7100 through 7102;

US—Ambassador James CARSON; Embassy at Parliament Avenue, Kampala (mailing address is P. O. Box 7007, Kampala); telephone [256] (41) 259792, 259793, 259795

#Flag: six equal horizonal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a red-crested crane (the national symbol) facing the staff side

*Economy #Overview: Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, and sizable mineral deposits of copper and cobalt. The economy has been devastated by much political instability, mismanagement, and civil war since independence in 1962, keeping Uganda poor with a per capita income of about $300. (GDP remains below the levels of the early 1970s, as does industrial production.) Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee is the major export crop and accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986 the government has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing petroleum prices, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation, which was running at over 300% in 1987, and boosting production and export earnings.

#GDP: $4.9 billion, per capita $290 (1988); real growth rate 6.1% (1989 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30% (FY90)

#Unemployment rate: NA%

#Budget: revenues $365 million; expenditures $545 million, including capital expenditures of $165 million (FY89 est.)

#Exports: $273 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities—coffee 97%, cotton, tea;

partners—US 25%, UK 18%, France 11%, Spain 10%

#Imports: $652 million (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities—petroleum products, machinery, cotton piece goods, metals, transportation equipment, food;

partners—Kenya 25%, UK 14%, Italy 13%

#External debt: $1.9 billion (1990 est.)

#Industrial production: growth rate 15.0% (1989 est.); accounts for 5% of GDP

#Electricity: 173,000 kW capacity; 312 million kWh produced, 18 kWh per capita (1989)

#Industries: sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles, cement

#Agriculture: accounts for 57% of GDP and 83% of labor force; cash crops—coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco; food crops—cassava, potatoes, corn, millet, pulses; livestock products—beef, goat meat, milk, poultry; self-sufficient in food

#Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-89), $145 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $1.2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $60 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $169 million

#Currency: Ugandan shilling (plural—shillings); 1 Ugandan shilling (USh) = 100 cents

#Exchange rates: Ugandan shillings (USh) per US$1—563.18 (January 1991), 428.85 (1990), 223.09 (1989), 106.14 (1988), 42.84 (1987), 14.00 (1986), 6.72 (1985)

#Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

*Communications #Railroads: 1,300 km, 1.000-meter-gauge single track

#Highways: 26,200 km total; 1,970 km paved; 5,849 km crushed stone, gravel, and laterite; remainder earth roads and tracks

#Inland waterways: Lake Victoria, Lake Albert, Lake Kyoga, Lake George, Lake Edward; Victoria Nile, Albert Nile; principal inland water ports are at Jinja and Port Bell, both on Lake Victoria

#Merchant marine: 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,697 GRT

#Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft

#Airports: 37 total, 28 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 10 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: fair system with radio relay and radio communications stations; 61,600 telephones; stations—10 AM, no FM, 9 TV; satellite communications ground stations—1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT

*Defense Forces #Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, about 3,980,637; about 2,162,241 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: $68 million, 1.5% of GDP (1988) % @United Arab Emirates *Geography Total area: 83,600 km2; land area: 83,600 km2

#Comparative area: slightly smaller than Maine

#Land boundaries: 1,016 km total; Oman 410 km, Saudi Arabia 586 km, Qatar 20 km

#Coastline: 1,448 km

#Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: defined by bilateral boundaries or equidistant line

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm (assumed), 12 nm for Ash Shariqah (Sharjah)

#Disputes: boundary with Qatar is in dispute; no defined boundary with Saudi Arabia; no defined boundary with most of Oman, but Administrative Line in far north; claims three islands in the Persian Gulf occupied by Iran (Jazireh-ye Abu Musa or Abu Musa, Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg or Greater Tunb, and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek or Lesser Tunb)

#Climate: desert; cooler in eastern mountains

#Terrain: flat, barren coastal plain merging into rolling sand dunes of vast desert wasteland; mountains in east

#Natural resources: crude oil and natural gas

#Land use: arable land NEGL%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 2%; forest and woodland NEGL%; other 98%; includes irrigated NEGL%

#Environment: frequent dust and sand storms; lack of natural freshwater resources being overcome by desalination plants; desertification

#Note: strategic location along southern approaches to Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil

*People #Population: 2,389,759 (July 1991), growth rate 5.7% (1991)

#Birth rate: 30 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 3 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: 30 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 23 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 74 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 4.9 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Emirian(s), adjective—Emirian

#Ethnic divisions: Emirian 19%, other Arab 23%, South Asian (fluctuating) 50%, other expatriates (includes Westerners and East Asians) 8%; less than 20% of the population are UAE citizens (1982)

#Religion: Muslim 96% (Shia 16%); Christian, Hindu, and other 4%

#Language: Arabic (official); Persian and English widely spoken in major cities; Hindi, Urdu

#Literacy: 68% (male 70%, female 63%) age 10 and over but definition of literacy not available (1980)

#Labor force: 580,000 (1986 est.); industry and commerce 85%, agriculture 5%, services 5%, government 5%; 80% of labor force is foreign

#Organized labor: trade unions are illegal

*Government #Long-form name: United Arab Emirates (no short-form name); abbreviated UAE

#Type: federation with specified powers delegated to the UAE central government and other powers reserved to member emirates

#Capital: Abu Dhabi

#Administrative divisions: 7 emirates (imarat, singular—imarah); Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi), Ajman, Al Fujayrah, Ash Shariqah, Dubayy, Ras al Khaymah, Umm al Qaywayn

#Independence: 2 December 1971 (from UK; formerly Trucial States)

#Constitution: 2 December 1971 (provisional)

#Legal system: secular codes are being introduced by the UAE Government and in several member shaykhdoms; Islamic law remains influential

#National holiday: National Day, 2 December (1971)

#Executive branch: president, vice president, Supreme Council of Rulers, prime minister, Council of Ministers

#Legislative branch: unicameral Federal National Council (Majlis Watani Itihad)

#Judicial branch: Union Supreme Court

#Leaders:

Chief of State—President Shaykh Zayid bin Sultan Al NUHAYYAN, (since 2 December 1971), ruler of Abu Dhabi; Vice President Shaykh Maktum bin Rashid al-MAKTUM (since 8 October 1990), ruler of Dubayy;

Head of Government—Prime Minister Shaykh Maktum bin Rashid al-MAKTUM (since 8 October 1990), ruler of Dubayy; Deputy Prime Minister Sultan bin Zayid Al NUHAYYAN (since 20 November 1990)

#Political parties and leaders: none

#Suffrage: none

#Elections: none

#Communists: NA

#Other political or pressure groups: a few small clandestine groups are active

#Member of: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abdullah bin Zayid Al NUHAYYAN; Chancery at Suite 740, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037; telephone (202) 338-6500;

US—Ambassador Edward S. WALKER, Jr.; Embassy at Al-Sudan Street, Abu Dhabi (mailing address is P. O. Box 4009, Abu Dhabi); telephone [971] (2) 336691; there is a US Consulate General in Dubayy (Dubai)

#Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and black with a thicker vertical red band on the hoist side

*Economy #Overview: The UAE has an open economy with one of the world's highest incomes per capita outside the OECD nations. This wealth is based on oil and gas, and the fortunes of the economy fluctuate with the prices of those commodities. Since 1973, when petroleum prices shot up, the UAE has undergone a profound transformation from an impoverished region of small desert principalities to a modern state with a high standard of living. At present levels of production, crude oil reserves should last for over 100 years.

#GDP: $27.3 billion, per capita $12,100; real growth rate 10% (1989 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3-4% (1989 est.)

#Unemployment rate: NEGL (1988)

#Budget: revenues $3.8 billion; expenditures $3.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)

#Exports: $15.0 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities—crude oil 65%, natural gas, reexports, dried fish, dates;

partners—US, EC, Japan

#Imports: $9.0 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities—food, consumer and capital goods;

partners—EC, Japan, US

#External debt: $11.0 billion (December 1989 est.)

#Industrial production: growth rate - 9.3% (1986)

#Electricity: 5,773,000 kW capacity; 15,400 million kWh produced, 6,830 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: petroleum, fishing, petrochemicals, construction materials, some boat building, handicrafts, pearling

#Agriculture: accounts for 2% of GNP and 5% of labor force; cash crop—dates; food products—vegetables, watermelons, poultry, eggs, dairy, fish; only 25% self-sufficient in food

#Economic aid: donor—pledged $9.1 billion in bilateral aid to less developed countries (1979-89)

#Currency: Emirian dirham (plural—dirhams); 1 Emirian dirham (Dh) = 100 fils

#Exchange rates: Emirian dirhams (Dh) per US$1—3.6710 (fixed rate)

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Highways: 2,000 km total; 1,800 km bituminous, 200 km gravel and graded earth

#Pipelines: 830 km crude oil; 870 km natural gas, including natural gas liquids

#Ports: Al Fujayrah, Khawr Fakkan, Mina Jabal Ali, Mina Khalid, Mina Rashid, Mina Saqr, Mina Zayid

#Merchant marine: 57 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 925,424 GRT/1,543,716 DWT; includes 22 cargo, 8 container, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 20 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 5 bulk

#Civil air: 8 major transport aircraft

#Airports: 38 total, 35 usable; 20 with permanent-surface runways; 7 with runways over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: adequate system of radio relay and coaxial cable; key centers are Abu Dhabi and Dubayy; 386,600 telephones; stations—8 AM, 3 FM, 12 TV; satellite communications ground stations—1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT; submarine cables to Qatar, Bahrain, India, and Pakistan; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; radio relay to Saudi Arabia

*Defense Forces #Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Federal Police Force

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 940,130; 516,218 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: $1.59 billion, 6.8% of GDP (1988) % @United Kingdom *Geography Total area: 244,820 km2; land area: 241,590 km2; includes Rockall and Shetland Islands

#Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

#Land boundary: Ireland 360 km

#Coastline: 12,429 km

#Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: as defined in continental shelf orders or in accordance with agreed upon boundaries;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Disputes: Northern Ireland question with Ireland; Gibraltar question with Spain; Argentina claims Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas); Argentina claims South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Mauritius claims island of Diego Garcia in British Indian Ocean Territory; Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and Ireland (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area); territorial claim in Antarctica (British Antarctic Territory)

#Climate: temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic Current; more than half of the days are overcast

#Terrain: mostly rugged hills and low mountains; level to rolling plains in east and southeast

#Natural resources: coal, crude oil, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica

#Land use: arable land 29%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 48%; forest and woodland 9%; other 14%; includes irrigated 1%

#Environment: pollution control measures improving air, water quality; because of heavily indented coastline, no location is more than 125 km from tidal waters

#Note: lies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 km from France and now being linked by tunnel under the English Channel

*People #Population: 57,515,307 (July 1991), growth rate 0.3% (1991)

#Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 79 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Briton(s), British (collective pl.); adjective—British

#Ethnic divisions: English 81.5%, Scottish 9.6%, Irish 2.4%, Welsh 1.9%, Ulster 1.8%, West Indian, Indian, Pakistani, and other 2.8%

#Religion: Anglican 27.0 million, Roman Catholic 5.3 million, Presbyterian 2.0 million, Methodist 760,000, Jewish 410,000

#Language: English, Welsh (about 26% of population of Wales), Scottish form of Gaelic (about 60,000 in Scotland)

#Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1978 est.)

#Labor force: 28,966,000; services 60.6%, manufacturing and construction 27.2%, government 8.9%, energy 2.1%, agriculture 1.2% (June 1990)

#Organized labor: 35.7% of labor force (1989)

*Government #Long-form name: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; abbreviated UK

#Type: constitutional monarchy

#Capital: London

#Administrative divisions: 47 counties, 7 metropolitan counties, 26 districts, 9 regions, and 3 islands areas;

England—39 counties, 7 metropolitan counties*; Avon, Bedford, Berkshire, Buckingham, Cambridge, Cheshire, Cleveland, Cornwall, Cumbria, Derby, Devon, Dorset, Durham, East Sussex, Essex, Gloucester, Greater London*, Greater Manchester*, Hampshire, Hereford and Worcester, Hertford, Humberside, Isle of Wight, Kent, Lancashire, Leicester, Lincoln, Merseyside*, Norfolk, Northampton, Northumberland, North Yorkshire, Nottingham, Oxford, Shropshire, Somerset, South Yorkshire*, Stafford, Suffolk, Surrey, Tyne and Wear*, Warwick, West Midlands*, West Sussex, West Yorkshire*, Wiltshire;

Northern Ireland—26 districts; Antrim, Ards, Armagh, Ballymena, Ballymoney, Banbridge, Belfast, Carrickfergus, Castlereagh, Coleraine, Cookstown, Craigavon, Down, Dungannon, Fermanagh, Larne, Limavady, Lisburn, Londonderry, Magherafelt, Moyle, Newry and Mourne, Newtownabbey, North Down, Omagh, Strabane;

Scotland—9 regions, 3 islands areas*; Borders, Central, Dumfries and Galloway, Fife, Grampian, Highland, Lothian, Orkney*, Shetland*, Strathclyde, Tayside, Western Isles*;

Wales—8 counties; Clwyd, Dyfed, Gwent, Gwynedd, Mid Glamorgan, Powys, South Glamorgan, West Glamorgan

#Independence: 1 January 1801, United Kingdom established

#Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice

#Dependent areas: Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Hong Kong (scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region of China in 1997), Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands

#Legal system: common law tradition with early Roman and modern continental influences; no judicial review of Acts of Parliament; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

#National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second Saturday in June), 10 June 1989

#Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, Cabinet

#Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or House of Lords and a lower house or House of Commons

#Judicial branch: House of Lords

#Leaders:

Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Heir Apparent Prince CHARLES (son of the Queen, born 14 November 1948);

Head of Government—Prime Minister John MAJOR (since 28 November 1990)

#Political parties and leaders: Conservative and Unionist Party, John MAJOR; Labor Party, Neil KINNOCK; Social and Liberal Democratic Party (SLDP; formed from the merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party), Jeremy (Paddy) ASHDOWN; Scottish National Party, Alex SALMOND; Welsh National Party (Plaid Cymru), Dafydd THOMAS; Ulster Unionist Party (Northern Ireland), James MOLYNEAUX; Democratic Unionist Party (Northern Ireland), Rev. Ian PAISLEY; Ulster Popular Unionist Party (Northern Ireland), James KILFEDDER; Social Democratic and Labor Party (SDLP, Northern Ireland), John HUME; Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland), Gerry ADAMS; Alliance Party (Northern Ireland), John ALDERDICE; Communist Party, Nina TEMPLE

#Suffrage: universal at age 18

#Elections:

House of Commons—last held 11 June 1987 (next to be held by June 1992); results—Conservative 43%, Labor 32%, Liberal/Social Democratic 23%, other 2%; seats—(650 total) Conservative 376, Labor 228, Liberal/Social Democratic 22, Ulster Unionist (Northern Ireland) 9, Scottish National 4, Welsh National 3, Democratic Unionist (Northern Ireland) 3, Social Democratic and Labor (Northern Ireland) 3, Ulster Popular Unionist (Northern Ireland) 1, Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland) 1; note—the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party merged to become the Social and Liberal Democratic Party in 1988

#Communists: 15,961

#Other political or pressure groups: Trades Union Congress, Confederation of British Industry, National Farmers' Union, Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament

#Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, BIS, C, CCC, CDB, CE, CERN, COCOM, CP, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECA (associate), ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESCAP, ESA, FAO, G-5, G-7, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NATO, NEA, OECD, PCA, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UN Security Council, UN Trusteeship Council, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Sir Antony ACLAND; Chancery at 3100 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 462-1340; there are British Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco, and Consulates in Dallas, Miami, and Seattle;

US—Ambassador Raymond SEITZ; Embassy at 24/31 Grosvenor Square, London, W.1A1AE, (mailing address is FPO New York 09509); telephone [44] (71) 499-9000; there are US Consulates General in Belfast and Edinburgh

#Flag: blue with the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of England) edged in white superimposed on the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick (patron saint of Ireland) which is superimposed on the diagonal white cross of Saint Andrew (patron saint of Scotland); known as the Union Flag or Union Jack; the design and colors (especially the Blue Ensign) have been the basis for a number of other flags including dependencies, Commonwealth countries, and others

*Economy #Overview: The UK is one of the world's great trading powers and financial centers, and its economy ranks among the four largest in Europe. The economy is essentially capitalistic with a generous admixture of social welfare programs and government ownership. Over the last decade the Thatcher government halted the expansion of welfare measures and promoted extensive reprivatization of the government economic sector. Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs with only 1% of the labor force. Industry is a mixture of public and private enterprises, employing about 27% of the work force and generating 22% of GDP. The UK is an energy-rich nation with large coal, natural gas, and oil reserves; primary energy production accounts for 12% of GDP, one of the highest shares of any industrial nation. In mid-1990 the economy fell into recession after eight years of strong economic expansion, which had raised national output by one quarter. Britain's inflation rate, which has been consistently well above those of her major trading partners, is expected to decline in 1991. Between 1986 and 1990 unemployment fell from 11% to about 6%, but it is now rising rapidly because of the economic slowdown. As a major trading nation, the UK will continue to be greatly affected by world boom or recession, swings in the international oil market, productivity trends in domestic industry, and the terms on which the economic integration of Europe proceeds.

#GDP: $858.3 billion, per capita $15,000; real growth rate 0.8% (1990)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.3% (1990)

#Unemployment rate: 5.7% (1990)

#Budget: revenues $385.0 billion; expenditures $385.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $35.0 billion (FY91 est.)

#Exports: $188.9 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities—manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, chemicals, semifinished goods, transport equipment;

partners—EC 50.7% (FRG 11.9%, France 10.2%, Netherlands 7.0%), US 13.1%

#Imports: $222 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities—manufactured goods, machinery, semifinished goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods;

partners—EC 52.6% (FRG 16.6%, France 8.9%, Netherlands 7.9%), US 10.8%

#External debt: $10.5 billion (1990)

#Industrial production: growth rate 0% (1990)

#Electricity: 98,000,000 kW capacity; 316,500 million kWh produced, 5,520 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: machinery and transportation equipment, metals, food processing, paper and paper products, textiles, chemicals, clothing, other consumer goods, motor vehicles, aircraft, shipbuilding, petroleum, coal

#Agriculture: accounts for only 1.5% of GNP and 1% of labor force; highly mechanized and efficient farms; wide variety of crops and livestock products produced; about 60% self-sufficient in food and feed needs; fish catch of 665,000 metric tons (1987)

#Economic aid: donor—ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $21.0 billion

#Currency: British pound or pound sterling (plural—pounds); 1 British pound (5) = 100 pence

#Exchange rates: British pounds (5) per US$1—0.5171 (January 1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817 (1986), 0.7714 (1985)

#Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

*Communications #Railroads: Great Britain—16,629 km total; British Railways (BR) operates 16,629 km 1.435-meter standard gauge (4,205 km electrified and 12,591 km double or multiple track); several additional small standard-gauge and narrow-gauge lines are privately owned and operated; Northern Ireland Railways (NIR) operates 332 km 1.600-meter gauge, 190 km double track

#Highways: UK, 362,982 km total; Great Britain, 339,483 km paved (including 2,573 km limited-access divided highway); Northern Ireland, 23,499 km (22,907 paved, 592 km gravel)

#Inland waterways: 2,291 total; British Waterways Board, 606 km; Port Authorities, 706 km; other, 979 km

#Pipelines: 933 km crude oil, almost all insignificant; 2,993 km refined products; 12,800 km natural gas

#Ports: London, Liverpool, Felixstowe, Tees and Hartlepool, Dover, Sullom Voe, Southampton

#Merchant marine: 251 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,643,056 GRT/6,214,450 DWT; includes 7 passenger, 21 short-sea passenger, 39 cargo, 34 container, 22 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 10 refrigerated cargo, 1 vehicle carrier, 1 railcar carrier, 74 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 9 liquefied gas, 1 combination ore/oil, 1 specialized tanker, 25 bulk, 2 combination bulk

#Civil air: 618 major transport aircraft

#Airports: 520 total, 388 usable; 252 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 37 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 133 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: modern, efficient domestic and international system; 30,200,000 telephones; excellent countrywide broadcast systems; stations—223 AM, 165 (401 relays) FM, 207 (3,210 relays) TV; 40 coaxial submarine cables; satellite communication ground stations operating in INTELSAT (7 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean), MARISAT, and EUTELSAT systems

*Defense Forces #Branches: Army, Royal Navy (including Royal Marines), Royal Air Force

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 14,475,433; 12,167,324 fit for military service; no conscription

Defense expenditures: $41 billion, 4.8% of GDP (FY90) % @United States *Geography Total area: 9,372,610 km2; land area: 9,166,600 km2; includes only the 50 states and District of Colombia

#Comparative area: about four-tenths the size of USSR; about one-third the size of Africa; about one-half the size of South America (or slightly larger than Brazil); slightly smaller than China; about two and one-half times the size of Western Europe

#Land boundaries: 12,248 km total; Canada 8,893 km (including 2,477 km with Alaska), Mexico 3,326 km, Cuba (US naval base at Guantanamo) 29 km

#Coastline: 19,924 km

#Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: not specified;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Disputes: maritime boundary disputes with Canada; US Naval Base at Guantanamo is leased from Cuba and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease; Haiti claims Navassa Island; US has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other nation; Marshall Islands claims Wake Island

#Climate: mostly temperate, but varies from tropical (Hawaii) to arctic (Alaska); arid to semiarid in west with occasional warm, dry chinook wind

#Terrain: vast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low mountains in east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska; rugged, volcanic topography in Hawaii

#Natural resources: coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc, crude oil, natural gas, timber

#Land use: arable land 20%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 26%; forest and woodland 29%; other 25%; includes irrigated 2%

#Environment: pollution control measures improving air and water quality; acid rain; agricultural fertilizer and pesticide pollution; management of sparse natural water resources in west; desertification; tsunamis, volcanoes, and earthquake activity around Pacific Basin; continuous permafrost in northern Alaska is a major impediment to development

#Note: world's fourth-largest country (after USSR, Canada, and China)

*People #Population: 252,502,000 (July 1991), growth rate 0.8% (1991)

#Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 79 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—American(s); adjective—American

#Ethnic divisions: white 85%, black 12%, other 3% (1985)

#Religion: Protestant 61% (Baptist 21%, Methodist 12%, Lutheran 8%, Presbyterian 4%, Episcopalian 3%, other Protestant 13%), Roman Catholic 25%, Jewish 2%, other 5%, none 7%

#Language: predominantly English; sizable Spanish-speaking minority

#Literacy: 97% (male 97%, female 97%) age 15 and over having completed 5 or more years of schooling (1980)

#Labor force: 126,424,000 (includes armed forces and unemployed); civilian labor force 124,787,000 (1990)

#Organized labor: 16,729,000 members; 16.1% of total wage and salary employment which was 103,905,000 (1990)

*Government #Long-form name: United States of America; abbreviated US or USA

#Type: federal republic; strong democratic tradition

#Capital: Washington, DC

#Administrative divisions: 50 states and 1 district*; Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia*, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

#Independence: 4 July 1776 (from England)

#Constitution: 17 September 1787, effective 4 June 1789

#Dependent areas: American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island; Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island. Since 18 July 1947, the US has administered the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, but recently entered into a new political relationship with three of the four political units. The Northern Mariana Islands is a Commonwealth associated with the US (effective 3 November 1986). Palau concluded a Compact of Free Association with the US that was approved by the US Congress but to date the Compact process has not been completed in Palau, which continues to be administered by the US as the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. The Federated States of Micronesia signed a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 3 November 1986). The Republic of the Marshall Islands signed a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 21 October 1986).

#Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

#National holiday: Independence Day, 4 July (1776)

#Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

#Legislative branch: bicameral Congress consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

#Judicial branch: Supreme Court

#Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government—President George BUSH (since 20 January 1989); Vice President Dan QUAYLE (since 20 January 1989)

#Political parties and leaders: Republican Party, Clayton YEUTTER, national committee chairman; Jeanie AUSTIN, co-chairman; Democratic Party, Ronald H. BROWN, national committee chairman; several other groups or parties of minor political significance

#Suffrage: universal at age 18

#Elections:

President—last held 8 November 1988 (next to be held 3 November 1992); results—George BUSH (Republican Party) 53.37%, Michael DUKAKIS (Democratic Party) 45.67%, other 0.96%;

Senate—last held 6 November 1990 (next to be held 3 November 1992); results—Democratic Party 51%, Republican Party 47%, other 2%; seats—(100 total) Democratic Party 56, Republican Party 44;

House of Representatives—last held 6 November 1990 (next to be held 3 November 1992); results—Democratic Party 52%, Republican Party 44%, other 4%; seats—(435 total) Democratic Party 267, Republican Party 167, Socialist 1

#Communists: Communist Party (claimed 15,000-20,000 members), Gus HALL, general secretary; Socialist Workers Party (claimed 1,800 members), Jack BARNES, national secretary

#Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), ANZUS, APEC, AsDB, BIS, CCC, COCOM, CP, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, FAO, ESCAP, G-2, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NATO, NEA, OAS, OECD, PCA, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UN Security Council, UN Trusteeship Council, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

#Diplomatic representation: US Representative to the UN, Ambassador Thomas R. PICKERING; Mission at 799 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017; telephone (212) 415-4444 (afternoon hours)

#Flag: thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 50 small white five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of five stars; the 50 stars represent the 50 states, the 13 stripes represent the 13 original colonies; known as Old Glory; the design and colors have been the basis for a number of other flags including Chile, Liberia, Malaysia, and Puerto Rico

*Economy #Overview: The US has the most powerful, diverse, and technologically advanced economy in the world, with a per capita GNP of $21,800, the largest among major industrial nations. In 1989 the economy enjoyed its seventh successive year of substantial growth, the longest in peacetime history. The expansion featured moderation in wage and consumer price increases and a steady reduction in unemployment to 5.2% of the labor force. In 1990, however, growth slowed to 1% because of a combination of factors, such as the worldwide increase in interest rates, Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in August, the subsequent spurt in oil prices, and a general decline in business and consumer confidence. Ongoing problems for the 1990s include inadequate investment in education and other economic infrastructure, rapidly rising medical costs, and sizable budget and trade deficits.

#GNP: $5,465 billion, per capita $21,800; real growth rate 1.0% (1990)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.4% (1990)

#Unemployment rate: 5.5% (1990)

#Budget: revenues $1,106 billion; expenditures $1,272 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90 est.)

#Exports: $393.9 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities—capital goods, automobiles, industrial supplies and raw materials, consumer goods, agricultural products;

partners—Western Europe 27.3%, Canada 22.1%, Japan 12.1% (1989)

#Imports: $516.2 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities—crude and partly refined petroleum, machinery, automobiles, consumer goods, industrial raw materials, food and beverages;

partners—Western Europe 21.5%, Japan 19.7%, Canada 18.8% (1989)

#External debt: $581 billion (December 1989)

#Industrial production: growth rate 1.0% (1990)

#Electricity: 776,550,000 kW capacity; 3,020,000 million kWh produced, 12,080 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: leading industrial power in the world, highly diversified; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer goods, fishing, lumber, mining

#Agriculture: accounts for 2% of GNP and 2.8% of labor force; favorable climate and soils support a wide variety of crops and livestock production; world's second-largest producer and number-one exporter of grain; surplus food producer; fish catch of 5.0 million metric tons (1988)

#Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for domestic consumption with 1987 production estimated at 3,500 metric tons or about 25% of the available marijuana; ongoing eradication program aimed at small plots and greenhouses has not reduced production

#Economic aid: donor—commitments, including ODA and OOF, (FY80-89), $115.7 billion

#Currency: United States dollar (plural—dollars); 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

#Exchange rates: British pounds (5) per US$—0.5171 (January 1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817 (1986), 0.7714 (1985);

Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$—1.1559 (January 1991), 1.1668 (1990), 1.1840 (1989), 1.2307 (1988), 1.3260 (1987), 1.3895 (1986), 1.3655 (1985);

French francs (F) per US$—5.1307 (January 1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852 (1985);

Italian lire (Lit) per US$—1,134.4 (January 1991), 1,198.1 (1990), 1.372.1 (1989), 1,301.6 (1988), 1,296.1 (1987), 1,490.8 (1986), 1,909.4 (1985);

Japanese yen (3) per US$—133.88 (January 1991), 144.79 (1990), 137.96 (1989), 128.15 (1988), 144.64 (1987), 168.52 (1986), 238.54 (1985);

German deutsche marks (DM) per US$—1.5100 (January 1991), 1.6157 (1990), 1.8800 (1989), 1.7562 (1988), 1.7974 (1987), 2.1715 (1986), 2.9440 (1985)

#Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

*Communications #Railroads: 270,312 km

#Highways: 6,365,590 km, including 88,641 km expressways

#Inland waterways: 41,009 km of navigable inland channels, exclusive of the Great Lakes (est.)

#Pipelines: 275,800 km petroleum, 305,300 km natural gas (1985)

#Ports: Anchorage, Baltimore, Beaumont, Boston, Charleston, Cleveland, Duluth, Freeport, Galveston, Hampton Roads, Honolulu, Houston, Jacksonville, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Milwaukee, Mobile, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, Portland (Oregon), Richmond (California), San Francisco, Savannah, Seattle, Tampa, Wilmington

#Merchant marine: 404 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling NA GRT/NA DWT); includes 3 passenger-cargo, 44 cargo, 23 bulk, 180 tanker, 13 tanker tug-barge, 11 liquefied gas, 130 intermodal; in addition there are 231 government-owned vessels

#Civil air: 3,297 commercial multiengine transport aircraft, including 2,989 jet, 231 turboprop, 77 piston (1985)

#Airports: 14,177 total, 12,417 usable; 4,820 with permanent surface-runways; 63 with runways over 3,659 m; 325 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2,524 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: 182,558,000 telephones; stations—4,892 AM, 5,200 FM (including 3,915 commercial and 1,285 public broadcasting), 7,296 TV (including 796 commercial, 300 public broadcasting, and 6,200 commercial cable); 495,000,000 radio receivers (1982); 150,000,000 TV sets (1982); satellite communications ground stations—45 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 16 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

*Defense Forces #Branches: Department of the Army, Department of the Navy (including Marine Corps), Department of the Air Force

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 66,458,000; NA fit for military service

Defense expenditures: $312.9 billion, 5.7% of GNP (1990) % @Uruguay *Geography Total area: 176,220 km2; land area: 173,620 km2

#Comparative area: slightly smaller than Washington State

#Land boundaries: 1,564 km total; Argentina 579 km, Brazil 985 km

#Coastline: 660 km

#Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 200 nm (overflight and navigation permitted beyond 12 nm)

#Disputes: short section of boundary with Argentina is in dispute; two short sections of the boundary with Brazil are in dispute (Arroyo de la Invernada area of the Rio Quarai and the islands at the confluence of the Rio Quarai and the Uruguay)

#Climate: warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown

#Terrain: mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland

#Natural resources: soil, hydropower potential, minor minerals

#Land use: arable land 8%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 78%; forest and woodland 4%; other 10%; includes irrigated 1%

#Environment: subject to seasonally high winds, droughts, floods

*People #Population: 3,121,101 (July 1990), growth rate 0.6% (1991)

#Birth rate: 17 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: - 1 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 22 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 76 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Uruguayan(s); adjective—Uruguayan

#Ethnic divisions: white 88%, mestizo 8%, black 4%

#Religion: Roman Catholic (less than half adult population attends church regularly) 66%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, nonprofessing or other 30%

#Language: Spanish

#Literacy: 96% (male 97%, female 96%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

#Labor force: 1,300,000; government 25%, manufacturing 19%, agriculture 11%, commerce 12%, utilities, construction, transport, and communications 12%, other services 21% (1988 est.)

#Organized labor: Interunion Workers' Assembly/National Workers' Confederation (PIT/CNT) Labor Federation

*Government #Long-form name: Oriental Republic of Uruguay

#Type: republic

#Capital: Montevideo

#Administrative divisions: 19 departments (departamentos, singular—departamento); Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno, Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo, Treinta y Tres

#Independence: 25 August 1828 (from Brazil)

#Constitution: 27 November 1966, effective February 1967, suspended 27 June 1973, new constitution rejected by referendum 30 November 1980

#Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

#National holiday: Independence Day, 25 August (1828)

#Executive branch: president, vice president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

#Legislative branch: bicameral General Assembly (Asamblea General) consists of an upper chamber or Chamber of Senators (Camara de Senadores) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Representatives (Camera de Representantes)

#Judicial branch: Supreme Court

#Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government—President Luis Alberto LACALLE (since 1 March 1990); Vice President Gonzalo AGUIRRE (since 1 March 1990)

#Political parties and leaders: National (Blanco) Party, Luis Alberto LACALLE Herrera; Colorado Party, Jorge BATLLE Ibanez; Broad Front Coalition, Liber SEREGNI Mosquera—includes Communist Party led by Jaime PEREZ and National Liberation Movement (MLN) or Tupamaros led by Eleuterio FERNANDEZ Huidobro; New Space Coalition consists of the Party of the Government of the People (PGP), Hugo BATALLA; Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Hector LESCANO; and Civic Union, Humberto CIGANDA

#Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

#Elections:

President—last held 26 November 1989 (next to be held November 1994); results—Luis Alberto LACALLE Herrera (Blanco) 37%, Jorge BATLLE Ibanez (Colorado) 29%, Liber SEREGNI Mosquera (Broad Front) 20%;

Chamber of Senators—last held 26 November 1989 (next to be held November 1994); results—Blanco 40%, Colorado 30%, Broad Front 23% New Space 7%; seats—(30 total) Blanco 12, Colorado 9, Broad Front 7, New Space 2;

Chamber of Representatives—last held NA November 1989 (next to be held November 1994); results—Blanco 39%, Colorado 30%, Broad Front 22%, New Space 8%, other 1%; seats—(99 total) number of seats by party NA

#Communists: 50,000

#Member of: AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UNMOGIP, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Eduardo MACGILLICUDDEY; Chancery at 1918 F Street NW, Washington DC 20006; telephone (202) 331-1313 through 1316; there are Uruguayan Consulates General in Los Angeles, Miami, and New York, and a Consulate in New Orleans;

US—Ambassador Richard C. BROWN; Embassy at Lauro Muller 1776, Montevideo (mailing address is APO Miami 34035); telephone [598] (2) 23-60-61

#Flag: nine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and bottom) alternating with blue; there is a white square in the upper hoist-side corner with a yellow sun bearing a human face known as the Sun of May and 16 rays alternately triangular and wavy

*Economy #Overview: The economy is slowly recovering from the deep recession of the early 1980s. In 1988 real GDP grew by only 0.5% and in 1989 by 1.5%. The recovery was led by growth in the agriculture and fishing sectors, agriculture alone contributing 20% to GDP, employing about 11% of the labor force, and generating a large proportion of export earnings. Raising livestock, particularly cattle and sheep, is the major agricultural activity. In 1990, despite healthy exports and an improved current account, domestic growth remained weak because of government concentration on the external sector, adverse weather conditions, and prolonged strikes. Bringing down high inflation, reducing a large fiscal deficit, and avoiding frequent strikes remain major economic problems for the government.

#GDP: $9.2 billion, per capita $2,970; real growth rate 1% (1990 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 129% (1990)

#Unemployment rate: 8.8% (1990 est.)

#Budget: revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $1.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $165 million (1988)

#Exports: $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities—hides and leather goods 17%, beef 10%, wool 9%, fish 7%, rice 4%;

partners—Brazil 17%, US 15%, FRG 10%, Argentina 10% (1987)

#Imports: $1.28 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities—fuels and lubricants 15%, metals, machinery, transportation equipment, industrial chemicals;

partners—Brazil 24%, Argentina 14%, US 8%, FRG 8% (1987)

#External debt: $4.2 billion (1990 est.)

#Industrial production: growth rate - 2.1% (1989 est.)

#Electricity: 1,950,000 kW capacity; 5,274 million kWh produced, 1,740 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: meat processing, wool and hides, sugar, textiles, footwear, leather apparel, tires, cement, fishing, petroleum refining, wine

#Agriculture: large areas devoted to extensive livestock grazing; wheat, rice, corn, sorghum; self-sufficient in most basic foodstuffs

#Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $105 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $293 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $69 million

#Currency: new Uruguayan peso (plural—pesos); 1 new Uruguayan peso (N$Ur) = 100 centesimos

#Exchange rates: new Uruguayan pesos (N$Ur) per US$1—1,626.4 (January 1991), 1,171.0 (1990), 605.5 (1989), 359.44 (1988), 226.67 (1987), 151.99 (1986), 101.43 (1985)

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Railroads: 3,000 km, all 1.435-meter standard gauge and government owned

#Highways: 49,900 km total; 6,700 km paved, 3,000 km gravel, 40,200 km earth

#Inland waterways: 1,600 km; used by coastal and shallow-draft river craft

#Ports: Montevideo, Punta del Este

#Merchant marine: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 65,212 GRT/116,613 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 container, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker

#Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft

#Airports: 91 total, 86 usable; 16 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 17 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: most modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo; new nationwide radio relay network; 337,000 telephones; stations—99 AM, no FM, 26 TV, 9 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

*Defense Forces #Branches: Army, Navy (including Naval Air Arm and Marines), Air Force, Coast Guard, Grenadier Guards, Police

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 735,971; 597,302 fit for military service; no conscription

Defense expenditures: $168 million, 2.2% of GDP (1988) % @Vanuatu *Geography Total area: 14,760 km2; land area: 14,760 km2; includes more than 80 islands

#Comparative area: slightly larger than Connecticut

#Land boundary: none

#Coastline: 2,528 km

#Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Climate: tropical; moderated by southeast trade winds

#Terrain: mostly mountains of volcanic origin; narrow coastal plains

#Natural resources: manganese, hardwood forests, fish

#Land use: arable land 1%; permanent crops 5%; meadows and pastures 2%; forest and woodland 1%; other 91%

#Environment: subject to tropical cyclones or typhoons (January to April); volcanism causes minor earthquakes

#Note: located 5,750 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean about three-quarters of the way between Hawaii and Australia

*People #Population: 170,319 (July 1991), growth rate 3.1% (1991)

#Birth rate: 36 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 36 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 72 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 5.4 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Ni-Vanuatu (singular and plural); adjective—Ni-Vanuatu

#Ethnic divisions: indigenous Melanesian 94%, French 4%, remainder Vietnamese, Chinese, and various Pacific Islanders

#Religion: Presbyterian 36.7%, Anglican 15%, Catholic 15%, indigenous beliefs 7.6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6.2%, Church of Christ 3.8%, other 15.7%

#Language: English and French (official); pidgin (known as Bislama or Bichelama)

#Literacy: 53% (male 57%, female 48%) age 15 and over can read and write (1979)

#Labor force: NA

#Organized labor: 7 registered trade unions—largest include Oil and Gas Workers' Union, Vanuatu Airline Workers' Union

*Government #Long-form name: Republic of Vanuatu

#Type: republic

#Capital: Port-Vila

#Administrative divisions: 11 island councils; Ambrym, Aoba/Maewo, Banks/Torres, Efate, Epi, Malakula, Paama, Pentecote, Santo/Malo, Shepherd, Tafea

#Independence: 30 July 1980 (from France and UK; formerly New Hebrides)

#Constitution: 30 July 1980

#Legal system: unified system being created from former dual French and British systems

#National holiday: Independence Day, 30 July (1980)

#Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

#Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament; note—the National Council of Chiefs advises on matters of custom and land

#Judicial branch: Supreme Court

#Leaders:

Chief of State—President Frederick TIMAKATA (since 30 January 1989);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Father Walter Hadye LINI (since 30 July 1980); Deputy Prime Minister (vacant)

#Political parties and leaders: National Party (Vanua'aku Pati), Donald KALPOKAS; Union of Moderate Parties, Maxine CARLOT; Melanesian Progressive Party, Barak SOPE

#Suffrage: universal at age 18

#Elections:

Parliament—last held 30 November 1987 (next to be held by November 1991); byelections were held in December 1988 to fill vacancies resulting from the expulsion of opposition members for boycotting sessions; results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(46 total) National Party 26, Union of Moderate Parties 19, independent 1

#Member of: ACCT, ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFC, IMF, IMO, IOC, ITU, NAM, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

#Diplomatic representation: Vanuatu does not have a mission in Washington;

US—the ambassador in Papua New Guinea is accredited to Vanuatu

#Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green (bottom) with a black isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) all separated by a black-edged yellow stripe in the shape of a horizontal Y (the two points of the Y face the hoist side and enclose the triangle); centered in the triangle is a boar's tusk encircling two crossed namele leaves, all in yellow

*Economy #Overview: The economy is based primarily on subsistence farming that provides a living for about 80% of the population. Fishing and tourism are the other mainstays of the economy. Mineral deposits are negligible; the country has no known petroleum deposits. A small light industry sector caters to the local market. Tax revenues come mainly from import duties.

#GDP: $137 million, per capita $860; real growth rate 4.3% (1989 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.8% (1989 est.)

#Unemployment rate: NA%

#Budget: revenues $90.0 million; expenditures $103.0 million, including capital expenditures of $45.0 million (1989 est.)

#Exports: $14.5 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities—copra 59%, cocoa 11%, meat 9%, fish 8%, timber 4%;

partners—Netherlands 34%, France 27%, Japan 17%, Belgium 4%, New Caledonia 3%, Singapore 2% (1987)

#Imports: $58.4 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities—machines and vehicles 25%, food and beverages 23%, basic manufactures 18%, raw materials and fuels 11%, chemicals 6%;

partners—Australia 36%, Japan 13%, NZ 10%, France 8%, Fiji 5% (1987)

#External debt: $30 million (1990 est.)

#Industrial production: growth rate NA%

#Electricity: 17,000 kW capacity; 30 million kWh produced, 180 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: food and fish freezing, forestry processing, meat canning

#Agriculture: export crops—copra, cocoa, coffee, and fish; subsistence crops—copra, taro, yams, coconuts, fruits, and vegetables

#Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $565 million

#Currency: vatu (plural—vatu); 1 vatu (VT) = 100 centimes

#Exchange rates: vatu (VT) per US$1—109.62 (January 1991), 116.57 (1990), 116.04 (1989), 104.43 (1988), 109.85 (1987), 106.08 (1986), 106.03 (1985)

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Railroads: none

#Highways: 1,027 km total; at least 240 km sealed or all-weather roads

#Ports: Port-Vila, Luganville, Palikoulo, Santu

#Merchant marine: 129 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,242,850 GRT/3,447,671 DWT; includes 33 cargo, 13 refrigerated cargo, 8 container, 11 vehicle carrier, 1 livestock carrier, 5 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 55 bulk, 1 combination bulk; note—a flag of convenience registry; the USSR has 2 ships under the Vanuatu flag

#Civil air: no major transport aircraft

#Airports: 32 total, 28 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: stations—2 AM, no FM, no TV; 3,000 telephones; satellite communications ground stations—1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

*Defense Forces #Branches: no military forces; Vanuatu Police Force, paramilitary force

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 41,183; NA fit for military service

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP % @Vatican City *Geography Total area: 0.438 km2; land area: 0.438 km2

#Comparative area: about 0.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

#Land boundary: 3.2 km with Italy

#Coastline: none—landlocked

#Maritime claims: none—landlocked

#Climate: temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to mid-May) with hot, dry summers (May to September)

#Terrain: low hill

#Natural resources: none

#Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

#Environment: urban

#Note: landlocked; enclave of Rome, Italy; world's smallest state; outside the Vatican City, 13 buildings in Rome and Castel Gandolfo (the pope's summer residence) enjoy extraterritorial rights

*People #Population: 778 (July 1991), growth rate NEGL% (1991)

#Nationality: no noun or adjectival forms

#Ethnic divisions: primarily Italians but also Swiss and other nationalities

#Religion: Roman Catholic

#Language: Italian, Latin, and various other languages

#Literacy: 100% (male NA%, female NA%)

#Labor force: high dignitaries, priests, nuns, guards, and 3,000 lay workers who live outside the Vatican

#Organized labor: Association of Vatican Lay Workers, 1,800 members (1987)

*Government #Long-form name: State of the Vatican City; note—the Vatican City is the physical seat of the Holy See, which is the central government of the Roman Catholic Church

#Type: monarchical-sacerdotal state

#Capital: Vatican City

#Independence: 11 February 1929 (from Italy)

#Constitution: Apostolic Constitution of 1967 (effective 1 March 1968)

#National holiday: Installation Day of the Pope (John Paul II), 22 October (1978); note—Pope John Paul II was elected on 16 October 1978

#Executive branch: pope

#Legislative branch: unicameral Pontifical Commission

#Judicial branch: none; normally handled by Italy

#Leaders:

Chief of State—Pope JOHN PAUL II (Karol WOJTYLA; since 16 October 1978);

Head of Government—Secretary of State Archbishop Angelo SODANO

#Political parties and leaders: none

#Suffrage: limited to cardinals less than 80 years old

#Elections:

Pope—last held 16 October 1978 (next to be held after the death of the current pope); results—Karol WOJTYlA was elected for life by the College of Cardinals

#Communists: NA

#Other political or pressure groups: none (exclusive of influence exercised by church officers)

#Member of: CSCE, IAEA, ICFTU, IMF (observer), INTELSAT, IOM (observer), ITU, OAS (observer), UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNHCR, UPU, WIPO, WTO (observer)

#Diplomatic representation: Apostolic Pro-Nuncio Archbishop Agostino CACCIAVILLAN; 3339 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 333-7121;

US—Ambassador Thomas P. MELADY; Embassy at Villino Pacelli, Via Aurelia 294, 00165 Rome (mailing address is APO New York 09794); telephone [396] 639-0558

#Flag: two vertical bands of yellow (hoist side) and white with the crossed keys of Saint Peter and the papal tiara centered in the white band

*Economy #Overview: This unique, noncommercial economy is supported financially by contributions (known as Peter's Pence) from Roman Catholics throughout the world, the sale of postage stamps, tourist mementos, fees for admission to museums, and the sale of publications. The incomes and living standards of lay workers are comparable to, or somewhat better than, those of counterparts who work in the city of Rome.

#Budget: revenues $76.6 million; expenditures $168 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991)

#Electricity: 5,000 kW standby capacity (1990); power supplied by Italy

#Industries: printing and production of a small amount of mosaics and staff uniforms; worldwide banking and financial activities

#Currency: Vatican lira (plural—lire); 1 Vatican lira (VLit) = 100 centesimi

#Exchange rates: Vatican lire (VLit) per US$1—1,134.4 (January 1991), 1,198.1 (1990), 1,372.1 (1989), 1,301.6 (1988), 1,296.1 (1987), 1,490.8 (1986), 1,909.4 (1985); note—the Vatican lira is at par with the Italian lira which circulates freely

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Railroads: 850 m, 750 mm gauge (links with Italian network near the Rome station of Saint Peter's)

#Highways: none; all city streets

#Telecommunications: stations—3 AM, 4 FM, no TV; 2,000-line automatic telephone exchange; no communications satellite systems

*Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of Italy; Swiss Papal Guards are posted at entrances to the Vatican City % @Venezuela *Geography Total area: 912,050 km2; land area: 882,050 km2

#Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of California

#Land boundaries: 4,993 km total; Brazil 2,200 km, Colombia 2,050 km, Guyana 743 km

#Coastline: 2,800 km

#Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 15 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Disputes: claims all of Guyana west of the Essequibo river; maritime boundary dispute with Colombia in the Gulf of Venezuela

#Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

#Terrain: Andes mountains and Maracaibo lowlands in northwest; central plains (llanos); Guyana highlands in southeast

#Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite, other minerals, hydropower, diamonds

#Land use: arable land 3%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 20%; forest and woodland 39%; other 37%; includes irrigated NEGL%

#Environment: subject to floods, rockslides, mudslides; periodic droughts; increasing industrial pollution in Caracas and Maracaibo

#Note: on major sea and air routes linking North and South America

*People #Population: 20,189,361 (July 1991), growth rate 2.4% (1991)

#Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 26 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 78 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 3.4 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Venezuelan(s); adjective—Venezuelan

#Ethnic divisions: mestizo 67%, white 21%, black 10%, Indian 2%

#Religion: nominally Roman Catholic 96%, Protestant 2%

#Language: Spanish (official); Indian dialects spoken by about 200,000 Amerindians in the remote interior

#Literacy: 88% (male 87%, female 90%) age 15 and over can read and write (1981 est.)

#Labor force: 5,800,000; services 56%, industry 28%, agriculture 16% (1985)

#Organized labor: 32% of labor force

*Government #Long-form name: Republic of Venezuela

#Type: republic

#Capital: Caracas

#Administrative divisions: 20 states (estados, singular—estado), 2 territories* (territorios, singular—territorio), 1 federal district** (distrito federal), and 1 federal dependence*** (dependencia federal); Amazonas*, Anzoategui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolivar, Carabobo, Cojedes, Delta Amacuro*, Dependencias Federales***, Distrito Federal**, Falcon, Guarico, Lara, Merida, Miranda, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Trujillo, Yaracuy, Zulia; note—the federal dependence consists of 11 federally controlled island groups with a total of 72 individual islands

#Independence: 5 July 1811 (from Spain)

#Constitution: 23 January 1961

#Legal system: based on Napoleonic code; judicial review of legislative acts in Cassation Court only; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

#National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1811)

#Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

#Legislative branch: bicameral Congress of the Republic (Congreso de la Republica) consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados)

#Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justica)

#Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government—President Carlos Andres PEREZ (since 2 February 1989)

#Political parties and leaders: Social Christian Party (COPEI), Eduardo FERNANDEZ, secretary general; Democratic Action (AD), Gonzalo BARRIOS, president, and Humberto CELLI, secretary general; Movement Toward Socialism (MAS), Argelia LAYA, president, and Freddy MUNOZ, secretary general

#Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18, though poorly enforced

#Elections:

President—last held 4 December 1988 (next to be held December 1993); results—Carlos Andres PEREZ (AD) 54.6%, Eduardo FERNANDEZ (COPEI) 41.7%, other 3.7%;

Senate—last held 4 December 1988 (next to be held December 1993); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(49 total) AD 23, COPEI 22, other 4; note—3 former presidents (1 from AD, 2 from COPEI) hold lifetime senate seats;

Chamber of Deputies—last held 4 December 1988 (next to be held December 1993); results—AD 43.7%, COPEI 31.4%, MAS 10.3%, other 14.6%; seats—(201 total) AD 97, COPEI 67, MAS 18, other 19

#Communists: 10,000 members (est.)

#Other political or pressure groups: FEDECAMARAS, a conservative business group; Venezuelan Confederation of Workers, the Democratic Action-dominated labor organization

#Member of: AG, CDB, CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-11, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPEC, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Simon Alberto CONSALVI Bottaro; Chancery at 2445 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 797-3800; there are Venezuelan Consulates General in Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico);

US—Ambassador Michael Martin SKOL; Embassy at Avenida Francisco de Miranda and Avenida Principal de la Floresta, Caracas (mailing address is P. O. Box 62291, Caracas 1060-A, or APO Miami 34037); telephone [58] (2) 285-3111 or 2222; there is a US Consulate in Maracaibo

#Flag: three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), blue, and red with the coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band and an arc of seven white five-pointed stars centered in the blue band

*Economy #Overview: Petroleum is the cornerstone of the economy and accounted for 21% of GDP, 60% of central government revenues, and 81% of export earnings in 1989. President Perez introduced an economic readjustment program when he assumed office in February 1989. Lower tariffs and price supports, a free market exchange rate, and market-linked interest rates have thrown the economy into confusion, causing about an 8% decline in GDP in 1989, but the economy recovered part way in 1990.

#GDP: $42.4 billion, per capita $2,150; real growth rate 4.4% (1990 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 40.7% (1990)

#Unemployment rate: 10.4% (1990)

#Budget: revenues $8.4 billion; expenditures $8.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.9 billion (1989)

#Exports: $12.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities—petroleum 81%, bauxite and aluminum, iron ore, agricultural products, basic manufactures;

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