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The 1990 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency
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- People Population: uninhabited

Note: American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during World War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by special-use permit only and generally restricted to scientists and educators

- Government Long-form name: none

Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge System

- Economy Overview: no economic activity

- Communications Airports: airstrip constructed in 1937 for scheduled refueling stop on the round-the-world flight of Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan—they left Lae, New Guinea, for Howland Island, but were never seen again; the airstrip is no longer serviceable

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only, one boat landing area along the middle of the west coast

Note: Earhart Light is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast that was partially destroyed during World War II, but has since been rebuilt in memory of famed aviatrix Amelia Earhart

- Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US Coast Guard —————————————————————————— Country: Hungary - Geography Total area: 93,030 km2; land area: 92,340 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries: 2,251 km total; Austria 366 km, Czechoslovakia 676 km, Romania 443 km, USSR 135 km, Yugoslavia 631 km

Coastline: none—landlocked

Maritime claims: none—landlocked

Disputes: Transylvania question with Romania; Nagymaros Dam dispute with Czechoslovakia

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains

Natural resources: bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils

Land use: 54% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 14% meadows and pastures; 18% forest and woodland; 11% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: levees are common along many streams, but flooding occurs almost every year

Note: landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between USSR and Mediterranean basin

- People Population: 10,568,686 (July 1990), growth rate - 0.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 15 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 75 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Hungarian(s); adjective—Hungarian

Ethnic divisions: 96.6% Hungarian, 1.6% German, 1.1% Slovak, 0.3% Southern Slav, 0.2% Romanian

Religion: 67.5% Roman Catholic, 20.0% Calvinist, 5.0% Lutheran, 7.5% atheist and other

Language: 98.2% Hungarian, 1.8% other

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 4,860,000; 43.2% services, trade, government, and other, 30.9% industry, 18.8% agriculture, 7.1% construction (1988)

Organized labor: 96.5% of labor force; Central Council of Hungarian Trade Unions (SZOT) includes 19 affiliated unions, all controlled by the government; independent unions legal; may be as many as 12 small independent unions in operation

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Hungary

Type: republic

Capital: Budapest

Administrative divisions: 19 counties (megyek, singular—megye) and 1 capital city* (fovaros); Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Budapest*, Csongrad, Fejer, Gyor-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Komarom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar, Szolnok, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala

Independence: 1001, unification by King Stephen I

Constitution: 18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19 April 1972 and 18 October 1989

Legal system: based on Communist legal theory, with both civil law system (civil code of 1960) and common law elements; Supreme Court renders decisions of principle that sometimes have the effect of declaring legislative acts unconstitutional; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Liberation, 4 April (1945)

Executive branch: president, premier, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Orszaggyules)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—President-designate Arpad GONCZ (since 2 May 1990);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Jozsef ANTALL (since 23 May 1990)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Forum, Jozsef Antall, chairman; Free Democrats, Janos Kis, chairman; Independent Smallholders, Istvan Prepeliczay, president; Hungarian Socialist Party (MSP), Rezso Nyers, chairman; Young Democrats; Christian Democrats, Sandor Keresztes, president; note—the Hungarian Socialist (Communist) Workers' Party (MSZMP) renounced Communism and became the Hungarian Socialist Party (MSP) in October 1989

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: National Assembly—last held on 25 March 1990 (first round, with the second round held 8 April 1990); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(394 total) Democratic Forum 165, Free Democrats 92, Independent Smallholders 43, Hungarian Socialist Party (MSP) 33, Young Democrats 21, Christian Democrats 21, independent candidates or jointly sponsored candidates 19; an additional 8 seats will be given to representatives of minority nationalities

Communists: fewer than 100,000 (December 1989)

Member of: CCC, CEMA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, IBEC, ICAC, ICAO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, Warsaw Pact, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dr. Peter VARKONYI; Chancery at 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 362-6730; there is a Hungarian Consulate General in New York; US—Ambassador-designate Charles THOMAS; Embassy at V. Szabadsag Ter 12, Budapest (mailing address is APO New York 09213); telephone p36o (1) 126-450

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green

- Economy Overview: Hungary's postwar Communist government spurred the movement from a predominantly agricultural to an industrialized economy. The share of the labor force in agriculture dropped from over 50% in 1950 to under 20% in 1989. Agriculture nevertheless remains an important sector, providing sizable export earnings and meeting domestic food needs. Industry accounts for about 40% of GNP and 30% of employment. Nearly three-fourths of foreign trade is with the USSR and Eastern Europe. Low rates of growth reflect the inability of the Soviet-style economy to modernize capital plant and motivate workers. GNP grew about 1% in 1988 and declined by 1% in 1989. Since 1985 external debt has more than doubled, to nearly $20 billion. In recent years Hungary has moved further than any other East European country in experimenting with decentralized and market-oriented enterprises. These experiments have failed to jump-start the economy because of: limitations on funds for privatization; continued subsidization of insolvent state enterprises; and the leadership's reluctance to implement sweeping market reforms that would cause additional social dislocations in the short term.

GNP: $64.6 billion, per capita $6,108; real growth rate - 1.3% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 18% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 0.4% (1989)

Budget: revenues $14.0 billion; expenditures $14.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $944 million (1988)

Exports: $19.1 billion (f.o.b. 1988); commodities—capital goods 36%, foods 24%, consumer goods 18%, fuels and minerals 11%, other 11%; partners USSR 48%, Eastern Europe 25%, developed countries 16%, less developed countries 8% (1987)

Imports: $18.3 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—machinery and transport 28%, fuels 20%, chemical products 14%, manufactured consumer goods 16%, agriculture 6%, other 16%; partners—USSR 43%, Eastern Europe 28%, less developed countries 23%, US 3% (1987)

External debt: $19.6 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 0.6% (1988)

Electricity: 7,250,000 kW capacity; 30,300 million kWh produced, 2,870 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining, metallurgy, engineering industries, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals)

Agriculture: including forestry, accounts for about 15% of GNP and 19% of employment; highly diversified crop-livestock farming; principal crops—wheat, corn, sunflowers, potatoes, sugar beets; livestock—hogs, cattle, poultry, dairy products; self-sufficient in food output

Aid: donor—$1.8 billion in bilateral aid to non-Communist less developed countries (1962-88)

Currency: forint (plural—forints); 1 forint (Ft) = 100 filler

Exchange rates: forints (Ft) per US$1—62.5 (January 1990), 59.2 (1989), 50.413 (1988), 46.971 (1987), 45.832 (1986), 50.119 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 7,770 km total; 7,513 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 222 km narrow gauge (mostly 0.760-meter), 35 km 1.524-meter broad gauge; 1,138 km double track, 2,088 km electrified; all government owned (1987)

Highways: 130,000 km total; 29,701 km national highway system—26,727 km asphalt and bitumen, 146 km concrete, 55 km stone and road brick, 2,345 km macadam, 428 km unpaved; 58,495 km country roads (66% unpaved), and 41,804 km (est.) other roads (70% unpaved) (1987)

Inland waterways: 1,622 km (1986)

Pipelines: crude oil, 1,204 km; refined products, 600 km; natural gas, 3,800 km (1986)

Ports: Budapest and Dunaujvaros are river ports on the Danube; maritime outlets are Rostock (GDR), Gdansk (Poland), Gdynia (Poland), Szczecin (Poland), Galati (Romania), and Braila (Romania)

Merchant marine: 16 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 77,141 GRT/103,189 DWT

Civil air: 22 major transport aircraft

Airports: 90 total, 90 usable; 20 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 15 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations—13 AM, 11 FM, 21 TV; 8 Soviet TV relays; 3,500,000 TV sets; 5,500,000 receiver sets; at least 1 satellite earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: Hungarian People's Army, Frontier Guard, Air and Air Defense Command

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,645,016; 2,112,651 fit for military service; 86,481 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 43.7 billion forints, NA% of total budget (1989); note—conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the official administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading results —————————————————————————— Country: Iceland - Geography Total area: 103,000 km2; land area: 100,250 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Kentucky

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 4,988 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Ireland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area)

Climate: temperate; moderated by North Atlantic Current; mild, windy winters; damp, cool summers

Terrain: mostly plateau interspersed with mountain peaks, icefields; coast deeply indented by bays and fiords

Natural resources: fish, hydroelectric and geothermal power, diatomite

Land use: NEGL% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 23% meadows and pastures; 1% forest and woodland; 76% other

Environment: subject to earthquakes and volcanic activity

Note: strategic location between Greenland and Europe; westernmost European country

- People Population: 257,023 (July 1990), growth rate 1.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 80 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Icelander(s); adjective—Icelandic

Ethnic divisions: homogeneous mixture of descendants of Norwegians and Celts

Religion: 95% Evangelical Lutheran, 3% other Protestant and Roman Catholic, 2% no affiliation

Language: Icelandic

Literacy: 100%

Labor force: 134,429; 55.4% commerce, finance, and services, 14.3% other manufacturing, 5.8% agriculture, 7.9% fish processing, 5.0% fishing (1986)

Organized labor: 60% of labor force

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Iceland

Type: republic

Capital: Reykjavik

Administrative divisions: 23 counties (syslar, singular—sysla) and 14 independent towns* (kaupstadar, singular—kaupstadur); Akranes*, Akureyri*, Arnessysla, Austur-Bardhastrandarsysla, Austur-Hunavatnssysla, Austur-Skaftafellssysla, Borgarfjardharsysla, Dalasysla, Eyjafjardharsysla, Gullbringusysla, Hafnarfjordhur*, Husavik*, Isafjordhur*, Keflavik*, Kjosarsysla, Kopavogur*, Myrasysla, Neskaupstadhur*, Nordhur-Isafjardharsysla, Nordhur-Mulasysla, Nordhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Olafsfjordhur*, Rangarvallasysla, Reykjavik*, Saudharkrokur*, Seydhisfjordhur*, Siglufjordhur*, Skagafjardharsysla, Snaefellsnes-og Hanppadalssysla, Strandasysla, Sudhur-Mulasysla, Sudhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Vestmannaeyjar*, Vestur-Bardhastrandarsysla, Vestur-Hunavatnssysla, Vestur-Isafjardharsysla, Vestur-Skaftafellssysla

Independence: 17 June 1944 (from Denmark)

Constitution: 16 June 1944, effective 17 June 1944

Legal system: civil law system based on Danish law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Establishment of the Republic, 17 June (1944)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Althing) with an Upper House (Efri Deild) and a Lower House (Nedri Deild)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Haestirettur)

Leaders: Chief of State—President Vigdis FINNBOGADOTTIR (since 1 August 1980);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Steingrimur HERMANNSSON (since 28 September 1988)

Political parties and leaders: Independence (conservative), Thorsteinn Palsson; Progressive, Steingrimur Hermannsson; Social Democratic, Jon Baldvin Hannibalsson; People's Alliance (left socialist), Olafur Ragnar Grimsson; Citizens Party (conservative nationalist), Julius Solnes; Women's List

Suffrage: universal at age 20

Elections: President—last held on 29 June 1980 (next scheduled for June 1992); results—there were no elections in 1984 and 1988 as President Vigdis Finnbogadottir was unopposed;

Parliament—last held on 25 April 1987 (next to be held by 25 April 1991); results—Independence 27.2%, Progressive 18.9%, Social Democratic 15.2%, People's Alliance 13.4%, Citizens Party 10.9%, Womens List 10.1%, other 4.3%;

seats—(63 total) Independence 18, Progressive 13, Social Democratic 10, People's Alliance 8, Citizens Party 7, Womens List 6, Regional Equality Platform 1

Communists: less than 100 (est.), some of whom participate in the People's Alliance

Member of: CCC, Council of Europe, EC (free trade agreement pending resolution of fishing limits issue), EFTA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICES, IDA, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, IWC—International Whaling Commission, NATO, Nordic Council, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ingvi S. INGVARSSON; Chancery at 2022 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-6653 through 6655; there is an Icelandic Consulate General in New York; US—Ambassador Charles E. COBB; Embassy at Laufasvegur 21, Reykjavik (mailing address is FPO New York 09571-0001); telephone p354o (1) 29100

Flag: blue with a red cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

- Economy Overview: Iceland's prosperous Scandinavian-type economy is basically capitalistic, but with extensive welfare measures, low unemployment, and comparatively even distribution of income. The economy is heavily dependent on the fishing industry, which provides nearly 75% of export earnings. In the absence of other natural resources, Iceland's economy is vulnerable to changing world fish prices. National output declined for the second consecutive year in 1989, and two of the largest fish farms filed for bankruptcy. Other economic activities include livestock raising and aluminum smelting. A fall in the fish catch is expected for 1990, resulting in a continuation of the recession.

GDP: $4.0 billion, per capita $16,200; real growth rate - 1.8% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 17.4% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 1.3% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $1.5 billion; expenditures $1.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA million (1988)

Exports: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—fish and fish products, animal products, aluminum, diatomite; partners—EC 58.9% (UK 23.3%, FRG 10.3%), US 13.6%, USSR 3.6%

Imports: $1.6 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs, textiles; partners—EC 58% (FRG 16%, Denmark 10.4%, UK 9.2%), US 8.5%, USSR 3.9%

External debt: $1.8 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.7% (1987 est.)

Electricity: 1,063,000 kW capacity; 5,165 million kWh produced, 20,780 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: fish processing, aluminum smelting, ferro-silicon production, hydropower

Agriculture: accounts for about 25% of GDP (including fishing); fishing is most important economic activity, contributing nearly 75% to export earnings; principal crops—potatoes and turnips; livestock—cattle, sheep; self-sufficient in crops; fish catch of about 1.6 million metric tons in 1987

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $19.1 million

Currency: krona (plural—kronur); 1 Icelandic krona (IKr) = 100 aurar

Exchange rates: Icelandic kronur (IKr) per US$1—60.751 (January 1990), 57.042 (1989), 43.014 (1988), 38.677 (1987), 41.104 (1986), 41.508 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Highways: 12,343 km total; 166 km bitumen and concrete; 1,284 km bituminous treated and gravel; 10,893 km earth

Ports: Reykjavik, Akureyri, Hafnarfjordhur, Keflavik, Seydhisfjordhur, Siglufjordur, Vestmannaeyjar; numerous minor ports

Merchant marine: 18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 62,867 GRT/87,610 DWT; includes 9 cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo, 1 container, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 2 bulk

Civil air: 20 major transport aircraft

Airports: 99 total, 92 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 14 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: adequate domestic service, wire and radio communication system; 135,000 telephones; stations—10 AM, 17 (43 relays) FM, 14 (132 relays) TV; 2 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: Police, Coast Guard

Military manpower: males 15-49, 68,688; 61,553 fit for military service; no conscription or compulsory military service

Defense expenditures: none —————————————————————————— Country: India - Geography Total area: 3,287,590 km2; land area: 2,973,190 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than one-third the size of the US

Land boundaries: 14,103 km total; Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km

Coastline: 7,000 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: boundaries with Bangladesh, China, and Pakistan; water sharing problems with downstream riparians, Bangladesh over the Ganges and Pakistan over the Indus

Climate: varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north

Terrain: upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north

Natural resources: coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, crude oil, limestone

Land use: 55% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 4% meadows and pastures; 23% forest and woodland; 17% other; includes 13% irrigated

Environment: droughts, flash floods, severe thunderstorms common; deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; air and water pollution; desertification

Note: dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes

- People Population: 849,746,001 (July 1990), growth rate 2.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 30 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 89 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 57 years male, 59 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Indian(s); adjective—Indian

Ethnic divisions: 72% Indo-Aryan, 25% Dravidian, 3% Mongoloid and other

Religion: 82.6% Hindu, 11.4% Muslim, 2.4% Christian, 2.0% Sikh, 0.7% Buddhist, 0.5% Jains, 0.4% other

Language: Hindi, English, and 14 other official languages—Bengali, Telgu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; 24 languages spoken by a million or more persons each; numerous other languages and dialects, for the most part mutually unintelligible; Hindi is the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people; English enjoys associate status but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindustani, a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu, is spoken widely throughout northern India

Literacy: 36%

Labor force: 284,400,000; 67% agriculture (FY85)

Organized labor: less than 5% of the labor force

- Government Long-form name: Republic of India

Type: federal republic

Capital: New Delhi

Administrative divisions: 24 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Delhi*, Goa and Daman and Diu*, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; note—Goa may have become a state with Daman and Diu remaining a union territory

Independence: 15 August 1947 (from UK)

Constitution: 26 January 1950

Legal system: based on English common law; limited judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 26 January (1950)

Executive branch: president, vice president, prime minister, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Sansad) consists of an upper house or Government Assembly (Rajya Sabha) and a lower house or People's Assembly (Lok Sabha)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—President Ramaswamy Iyer VENKATARAMAN (since 25 July 1987); Vice President Dr. Shankar Dayal SHARMA (since 3 September 1987);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Vishwanath Pratap SINGH (since 2 December 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Janata Dal Party, Prime Minister V. P. Singh; Congress (I) Party, Rajiv Gandhi; Bharatiya Janata Party, L. K. Advani; Communist Party of India (CPI), C. Rajeswara Rao; Communist Party of India/Marxist (CPI/M), E. M. S. Namboodiripad; Communist Party of India/Marxist-Leninist (CPI/ML), Satyanarayan Singh; All-India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazagham (AIADMK), a regional party in Tamil Nadu, Jayalalitha; Dravida Munnetra Kazagham, M. Karunanidhi; Akali Dal factions representing Sikh religious community in the Punjab; Telugu Desam, a regional party in Andhra Pradesh, N. T. Rama Rao; National Conference (NC), a regional party in Jammu and Kashmir, Farooq Abdullah; Asom Gana Parishad, a regional party in Assam, Prafulla Mahanta

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: People's Assembly—last held 22, 24, 26 November 1989 (next to be held by November 1994, subject to postponement); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(544 total), 525 elected—Congress (I) Party 193, Janata Dal Party 141, Bharatiya Janata Party 86, Communist Party of India (Marxist) 32, independents 18, Communist Party of India 12, AIADMK 11, Akali Dal 6, Shiv Sena 4, RSP 4, Forward Bloc 3, BSP 3, Telugu Desam 2, Congress (S) Party 1, others 9

Communists: 466,000 members claimed by CPI, 361,000 members claimed by CPI/M; Communist extremist groups, about 15,000 members

Other political or pressure groups: various separatist groups seeking greater communal autonomy; numerous senas or militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Shiv Sena (in Bombay), Anand Marg, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh

Member of: ADB, AIOEC, ANRPC, CCC, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITC, ITU, IWC—International Wheat Council, NAM, SAARC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador-designate Abid HUSSEIN; Chancery at 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 939-7000; there are Indian Consulates General in Chicago, New York, and San Francisco; US—Ambassador William CLARK; Embassy at Shanti Path, Chanakyapuri 110021, New Delhi; telephone p91o (11) 600651; there are US Consulates General in Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Niger which has a small orange disk centered in the white band

- Economy Overview: India's Malthusian economy is a mixture of traditional village farming and handicrafts, modern agriculture, old and new branches of industry, and a multitude of support services. It presents both the entrepreneurial skills and drives of the capitalist system and widespread government intervention of the socialist mold. Growth of 4% to 5% annually in the 1980s has softened the impact of population growth on unemployment, social tranquility, and the environment. Agricultural output has continued to expand, reflecting the greater use of modern farming techniques and improved seed that have helped to make India self-sufficient in food grains and a net agricultural exporter. However, tens of millions of villagers, particularly in the south, have not benefited from the green revolution and live in abject poverty. Industry has benefited from a liberalization of controls. The growth rate of the service sector has also been strong.

GNP: $333 billion, per capita $400; real growth rate 5.0% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.5% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 20% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $48 billion; expenditures $53 billion, including capital expenditures of $13.6 billion (1989)

Exports: $17.2 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities—tea, coffee, iron ore, fish products, manufactures; partners—EC 25%, USSR and Eastern Europe 17%, US 19%, Japan 10%

Imports: $24.7 billion (c.i.f., 1989); commodities—petroleum, edible oils, textiles, clothing, capital goods; partners—EC 33%, Middle East 19%, Japan 10%, US 9%, USSR and Eastern Europe 8%

External debt: $48.7 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 8.8% (1989)

Electricity: 59,000,000 kW capacity; 215,000 million kWh produced, 260 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: textiles, food processing, steel, machinery, transportation equipment, cement, jute manufactures, mining, petroleum, power, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, electronics

Agriculture: accounts for about 33% of GNP and employs 67% of labor force; self-sufficient in food grains; principal crops—rice, wheat, oilseeds, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; livestock—cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats and poultry; fish catch of about 3 million metric tons ranks India in the world's top 10 fishing nations

Illicit drugs: licit producer of opium poppy for the pharmaceutical trade, but some opium is diverted to international drug markets; major transit country for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $4.2 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-87), $18.6 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $315 million; USSR (1970-88), $10.0 billion; Eastern Europe (1970-88), $105 million

Currency: Indian rupee (plural—rupees); 1 Indian rupee (Re) = 100 paise

Exchange rates: Indian rupees (Rs) per US$1—16.965 (January 1990), 16.226 (1989), 13.917 (1988), 12.962 (1987), 12.611 (1986), 12.369 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications Railroads: 61,850 km total (1986); 33,553 km 1.676-meter broad gauge, 24,051 km 1.000-meter gauge, 4,246 km narrow gauge (0.762 meter and 0.610 meter); 12,617 km is double track; 6,500 km is electrified

Highways: 1,633,300 km total (1986); 515,300 km secondary and 1,118,000 km gravel, crushed stone, or earth

Inland waterways: 16,180 km; 3,631 km navigable by large vessels

Pipelines: crude oil, 3,497 km; refined products, 1,703 km; natural gas, 902 km (1989)

Ports: Bombay, Calcutta, Cochin, Kandla, Madras, New Mangalore, Port Blair (Andaman Islands)

Merchant marine: 296 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,855,842 GRT/9,790,260 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 8 passenger-cargo, 95 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 8 container, 53 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 10 chemical tanker, 9 combination ore/oil,109 bulk, 2 combination bulk

Civil air: 93 major transport aircraft

Airports: 345 total, 292 usable; 202 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 57 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 91 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: poor domestic telephone service, international radio communications adequate; 3,200,000 telephones; stations—170 AM, no FM, 14 TV (government controlled); domestic satellite system for communications and TV; 3 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; submarine cables to Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and Pakistan

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Border Security Forces, Coast Guard, Paramilitary Forces

Military manpower: males 15-49, 227,436,282; 134,169,114 fit for military service; about 9,403,063 reach military age (17) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.6% of GNP, or $8.7 billion (FY90 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: Indian Ocean - Geography Total area: 73,600,000 km2; Arabian Sea, Bass Strait, Bay of Bengal, Java Sea, Persian Gulf, Red Sea, Strait of Malacca, Timor Sea, and other tributary water bodies

Comparative area: slightly less than eight times the size of the US; third-largest ocean (after the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean, but larger than the Arctic Ocean)

Coastline: 66,526 km

Climate: northeast monsoon (December to April), southwest monsoon (June to October); tropical cyclones occur during May/June and October/November in the north Indian Ocean and January/February in the south Indian Ocean

Terrain: surface dominated by counterclockwise gyre (broad, circular system of currents) in the south Indian Ocean; unique reversal of surface currents in the north Indian Ocean—low pressure over southwest Asia from hot, rising, summer air results in the southwest monsoon and southwest-to-northeast winds and currents, while high pressure over northern Asia from cold, falling, winter air results in the northeast monsoon and northeast-to-southwest winds and currents; ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge and subdivided by the Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge, Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge, and Ninety East Ridge; maximum depth is 7,258 meters in the Java Trench

Natural resources: oil and gas fields, fish, shrimp, sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules

Environment: endangered marine species include the dugong, seals, turtles, and whales; oil pollution in the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Red Sea

Note: major choke points include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz, Strait of Malacca, southern access to the Suez Canal, and the Lombok Strait; ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme south near Antarctica from May to October

- Economy Overview: The Indian Ocean provides a major transportation highway for the movement of petroleum products from the Middle East to Europe and North and South American countries. Fish from the ocean are of growing economic importance to many of the bordering countries as a source of both food and exports. Fishing fleets from the USSR, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan also exploit the Indian Ocean for mostly shrimp and tuna. Large reserves of hydrocarbons are being tapped in the offshore areas of Saudi Arabia, Iran, India, and Western Australia. An estimated 40% of the world's offshore oil production comes from the Indian Ocean. Beach sands rich in heavy minerals and offshore placer deposits are actively exploited by bordering countries, particularly India, South Africa, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand.

Industries: based on exploitation of natural resources, particularly marine life, minerals, oil and gas production, fishing, sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits

- Communications Ports: Bombay (India), Calcutta (India), Madras (India), Colombo (Sri Lanka), Durban (South Africa), Fremantle (Australia), Jakarta (Indonesia), Melbourne (Australia), Richard's Bay (South Africa)

Telecommunications: no submarine cables —————————————————————————— Country: Indonesia - Geography Total area: 1,919,440 km2; land area: 1,826,440 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: 2,602 km total; Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km

Coastline: 54,716 km

Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Continental shelf: to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: East Timor question with Portugal

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains

Natural resources: crude oil, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

Land use: 8% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 7% meadows and pastures; 67% forest and woodland; 15% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: archipelago of 13,500 islands (6,000 inhabited); occasional floods, severe droughts, and tsunamis; deforestation

Note: straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

- People Population: 190,136,221 (July 1990), growth rate 1.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 27 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 75 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 58 years male, 63 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Indonesian(s); adjective—Indonesian

Ethnic divisions: majority of Malay stock comprising 45.0% Javanese, 14.0% Sundanese, 7.5% Madurese, 7.5% coastal Malays, 26.0% other

Religion: 88% Muslim, 6% Protestant, 3% Roman Catholic, 2% Hindu, 1% other

Language: Bahasa Indonesia (modified form of Malay; official); English and Dutch leading foreign languages; local dialects, the most widely spoken of which is Javanese

Literacy: 62%

Labor force: 67,000,000; 55% agriculture, 10% manufacturing, 4% construction, 3% transport and communications (1985 est.)

Organized labor: 3,000,000 members (claimed); about 5% of labor force

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Indonesia

Type: republic

Capital: Jakarta

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular—propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular—daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Bengkulu, Irian Jaya, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Lampung, Maluku, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Timor Timur, Yogyakarta*

Independence: 17 August 1945 (from Netherlands; formerly Netherlands or Dutch East Indies)

Constitution: August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR); note—the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) includes the DPR plus 500 indirectly elected members who meet every five years to elect the president and vice president and, theoretically, to determine national policy

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung)

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—President Gen. (Ret.) SOEHARTO (since 27 March 1968); Vice President Lt. Gen. (Ret.) SUDHARMONO (since 11 March 1983)

Political parties and leaders: GOLKAR (quasi-official party based on functional groups), Lt. Gen. (Ret.) Wahono, general chairman; Indonesia Democracy Party (PDI—federation of former Nationalist and Christian Parties), Soeryadi, chairman; Development Unity Party (PPP, federation of former Islamic parties), Ismail Hasan Metareum, chairman

Suffrage: universal at age 17 and married persons regardless of age

Elections: House of Representatives—last held on 23 April 1987 (next to be held 23 April 1992); results—Golkar 73%, UDP 16%, PDI 11%; seats—(500 total—400 elected, 100 appointed) Golkar 299, UDP 61, PDI 40

Communists: Communist Party (PKI) was officially banned in March 1966; current strength about 1,000-3,000, with less than 10% engaged in organized activity; pre-October 1965 hardcore membership about 1.5 million

Member of: ADB, ANRPC, ASEAN, Association of Tin Producing Countries, CCC, CIPEC, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB—Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ISO, ITC, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abdul Rachman RAMLY; Chancery at 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202) 775-5200; there are Indonesian Consulates General in Houston, New York, and Los Angeles, and Consulates in Chicago and San Francisco; US—Ambassador John C. MONJO; Embassy at Medan Merdeka Selatan 5, Jakarta (mailing address is APO San Francisco 96356); telephone p62o (21) 360-360; there are US Consulates in Medan and Surabaya

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland which is white (top) and red

- Economy Overview: Indonesia is a mixed economy with many socialist institutions and central planning but with a recent emphasis on deregulation and private enterprise. Indonesia has extensive natural wealth but, with a large and rapidly increasing population, it remains a poor country. GNP growth in 1985-89 averaged about 4%, somewhat short of the 5% rate needed to absorb the 2.3 million workers annually entering the labor force. Agriculture, including forestry and fishing, is the most important sector, accounting for 21% of GDP and over 50% of the labor force. The staple crop is rice. Once the world's largest rice importer, Indonesia is now nearly self-sufficient. Plantation crops—rubber and palm oil—are being encouraged for both export and job generation. The diverse natural resources include crude oil, natural gas, timber, metals, and coal. Of these, the oil sector dominates the external economy, generating more than 20% of the government's revenues and 40% of export earnings in 1989. Japan is Indonesia's most important customer and supplier of aid.

GNP: $80 billion, per capita $430; real growth rate 5.7% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.5% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 3.1% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $20.9 billion; expenditures $20.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $7.5 billion (FY89)

Exports: $21.0 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities—petroleum and liquefied natural gas 40%, timber 15%, textiles 7%, rubber 5%, coffee 3%; partners—Japan 42%, US 16%, Singapore 9%, EC 11% (1988)

Imports: $13.2 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities—machinery 39%, chemical products 19%, manufactured goods 16%; partners—Japan 26%, EC 19%, US 13%, Singapore 7% (1988)

External debt: $55.0 billion, medium and long-term (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.8% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 11,600,000 kW capacity; 38,000 million kWh produced, 200 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, textiles, mining, cement, chemical fertilizer production, timber, food, rubber

Agriculture: subsistence food production; small-holder and plantation production for export; rice, cassava, peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, copra, other tropical products

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade, but not a major player; government actively eradicating plantings and prosecuting traffickers

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $4.2 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $19.8 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $213 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $175 million

Currency: Indonesian rupiah (plural—rupiahs); 1 Indonesian rupiah (Rp) = 100 sen (sen no longer used)

Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiahs (Rp) per US$1—1,804.9 (January 1990), 1,770.1 (1989), 1,685.7 (1988), 1,643.8 (1987), 1,282.6 (1986), 1,110.6 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications Railroads: 6,964 km total; 6,389 km 1.067-meter gauge, 497 km 0.750-meter gauge, 78 km 0.600-meter gauge; 211 km double track; 101 km electrified; all government owned

Highways: 119,500 km total; 11,812 km state, 34,180 km provincial, and 73,508 km district roads

Inland waterways: 21,579 km total; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Celebes 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km

Pipelines: crude oil, 2,505 km; refined products, 456 km; natural gas, 1,703 km (1989)

Ports: Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Palembang, Ujungpandang, Semarang, Surabaya

Merchant marine: 313 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,480,912 GRT/2,245,233 DWT; includes 5 short-sea passenger, 13 passenger-cargo, 173 cargo, 6 container, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 vehicle carrier, 77 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 6 specialized tanker, 1 livestock carrier, 24 bulk

Civil air: about 216 commercial transport aircraft

Airports: 468 total, 435 usable; 106 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 62 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: interisland microwave system and HF police net; domestic service fair, international service good; radiobroadcast coverage good; 763,000 telephones (1986); stations—618 AM, 38 FM, 9 TV; satellite earth stations—1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station; and 1 domestic satellite communications system

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

Military manpower: males 15-49, 49,283,496; 29,137,291 fit for military service; 2,098,169 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.1% of GNP (1987) —————————————————————————— Country: Iran - Geography Total area: 1,648,000 km2; land area: 1,636,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries: 5,492 km total; Afghanistan 936 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, USSR 1,690 km

Coastline: 3,180 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Exclusive fishing zone: 50 nm in the Sea of Oman, median-line boundaries in the Persian Gulf;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Iran began formal UN peace negotiations with Iraq in August 1988 to end the war that began on 22 September 1980—troop withdrawal, freedom of navigation, sovereignty over the Shatt al Arab waterway and prisoner-of-war exchange are the major issues for negotiation; Kurdish question among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and the USSR; occupies three islands in the Persian Gulf claimed by UAE (Jazireh-ye Abu Musa or Abu Musa, Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg or Greater Tunb, and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek or Lesser Tunb); periodic disputes with Afghanistan over Helmand water rights; Boluch question with Afghanistan and Pakistan

Climate: mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast

Terrain: rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur

Land use: 8% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 27% meadows and pastures; 11% forest and woodland; 54% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: deforestation; overgrazing; desertification

- People Population: 55,647,001 (July 1990), growth rate 3.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 45 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 5 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 91 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 63 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Iranian(s); adjective—Iranian

Ethnic divisions: 51% Persian, 25% Azerbaijani, 9% Kurd, 8% Gilaki and Mazandarani, 2% Lur, 1% Baloch, 1% Arab, 3% other

Religion: 95% Shia Muslim, 4% Sunni Muslim, 2% Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Bahai

Language: 58% Persian and Persian dialects, 26% Turkic and Turkic dialects, 9% Kurdish, 2% Luri, 1% Baloch, 1% Arabic, 1% Turkish, 2% other

Literacy: 48% (est.)

Labor force: 15,400,000; 33% agriculture, 21% manufacturing; shortage of skilled labor (1988 est.)

Organized labor: none

- Government Long-form name: Islamic Republic of Iran

Type: theocratic republic

Capital: Tehran

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (ostanha, singular—ostan); Azarbayjan-e Bakhtari, Azarbayjan-e Khavari, Bakhtaran, Bushehr, Chahar Mahall va Bakhtiari, Esfahan, Fars, Gilan, Hamadan, Hormozgan, Ilam, Kerman, Khorasan, Khuzestan, Kohkiluyeh va Buyer Ahmadi, Kordestan, Lorestan, Markazi, Mazandaran, Semnan, Sistan va Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan

Independence: 1 April 1979, Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed

Constitution: 2-3 December 1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of the presidency

Legal system: the new Constitution codifies Islamic principles of government

National holiday: Islamic Republic Day, 1 April (1979)

Executive branch: cleric (faqih), president, Council of Cabinet Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majlis-e-Shura-e-Islami)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Cleric and functional Chief of State—Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Ali Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since 3 June 1989);

Head of Government—President Ali Akbar RAFSANJANI (since 3 August 1989);

Political parties and leaders: there are at least seven licensed parties; the two most important are—Militant Clerics Association, Mehdi Mahdavi-Karubi and Mohammad Asqar Musavi-Khoinima; Fedaiyin Islam Organization, Sadeq Khalkhali

Suffrage: universal at age 15

Elections: President—last held NA July 1989 (next to be held April 1993); results—Ali Akbar Rafsanjani was elected with only token opposition;

Islamic Consultative Assembly—last held 8 April and 13 May 1988 (next to be held April 1992); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(270 seats total) number of seats by party NA

Communists: 1,000 to 2,000 est. hardcore; 15,000 to 20,000 est. sympathizers; crackdown in 1983 crippled the party; trials of captured leaders began in late 1983 and remain incomplete

Other political or pressure groups: groups that generally support the Islamic Republic include Hizballah, Hojjatiyeh Society, Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution, Muslim Students Following the Line of the Imam, and Tehran Militant Clergy Association; Mojahedin Khalq Organization (MKO), People's Fedayeen, and Kurdish Democratic Party are armed political groups that have been almost completely repressed by the government

Member of: CCC, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, IDA, IDB, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, IPU, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UNICEF, UNIDO, WHO

Diplomatic representation: none; protecting power in the US is Algeria—Iranian Interests Section, 2209 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington DC 20007; telephone (202) 965-4990; US—protecting power in Iran is Switzerland

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red; the national emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah) in red is centered in the white band; Allah Akbar (God is Great) in white Arabic script is repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and 11 times along the top edge of the red band

- Economy Overview: Since the 1979 revolution, the banks, petroleum industry, transportation, utilities, and mining have been nationalized, but the new five-year plan—the first since the revolution—passed in January 1990, calls for the transfer of many government-controlled enterprises to the private sector. War-related disruptions, massive corruption, mismanagement, demographic pressures, and ideological rigidities have kept economic growth at depressed levels. Oil accounts for 90% of export revenues. A combination of war damage and low oil prices brought a 2% drop in GNP in 1988. GNP probably rose slightly in 1989, considerably short of the 3.4% population growth rate in 1989. Heating oil and gasoline are rationed. Agriculture has suffered from the war, land reform, and shortages of equipment and materials. The five-year plan seeks to reinvigorate the economy by increasing the role of the private sector, boosting nonoil income, and securing foreign loans. The plan is overly ambitious but probably will generate some short-term relief.

GNP: $97.6 billion, per capita $1,800; real growth rate 0-1% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 50-80% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 30% (1989)

Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $55.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $11.5 billion (FY88 est.)

Exports: $12.3 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—petroleum 90%, carpets, fruits, nuts, hides; partners—Japan, Turkey, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, France, FRG

Imports: $12.0 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—machinery, military supplies, metal works, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, technical services, refined oil products; partners—FRG, Japan, Turkey, UK, Italy

External debt: $4-5 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 14,579,000 kW capacity; 40,000 million kWh produced, 740 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other building materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production), metal fabricating (steel and copper)

Agriculture: principal products—rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts, cotton, dairy products, wool, caviar; not self-sufficient in food

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium poppy for the domestic and international drug trade

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $1.0 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.5 billion; Communist countries (1970-88), $976 million; note—aid fell sharply following the 1979 revolution

Currency: Iranian rial (plural—rials); 1 Iranian rial (IR) = 100 dinars; note—domestic figures are generally referred to in terms of the toman (plural—tomans), which equals 10 rials

Exchange rates: Iranian rials (IR) per US$1—70.019 (January 1990), 72.015 (1989), 68.683 (1988), 71.460 (1987), 78.760 (1986), 91.052 (1985)

Fiscal year: 21 March-20 March

- Communications Railroads: 4,601 km total; 4,509 km 1.432-meter gauge, 92 km 1.676-meter gauge; 730 km under construction from Bafq to Bandar Abbas

Highways: 140,072 km total; 46,866 km gravel and crushed stone; 49,440 km improved earth; 42,566 km bituminous and bituminous-treated surfaces; 1,200 km (est.) of rural road network

Inland waterways: 904 km; the Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by maritime traffic for about 130 km, but closed since September 1980 because of Iran-Iraq war

Pipelines: crude oil, 5,900 km; refined products, 3,900 km; natural gas, 3,300 km

Ports: Abadan (largely destroyed in fighting during 1980-88 war), Bandar Beheshti, Bandar-e Abbas, Bandar-e Bushehr, Bandar-e Khomeyni, Bandar-e Shahid Rajai, Khorramshahr (largely destroyed in fighting during 1980-88 war)

Merchant marine: 133 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,631,836 GRT/8,662,454 DWT; includes 36 cargo, 6 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 33 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 3 refrigerated cargo, 49 bulk, 2 combination bulk

Civil air: 42 major transport aircraft

Airports: 201 total, 175 usable; 82 with permanent-surface runways; 17 with runways over 3,659 m; 17 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 68 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: radio relay extends throughout country; system centered in Tehran; 2,143,000 telephones; stations—62 AM, 30 FM, 250 TV; satellite earth stations—2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT; HF and microwave to Turkey, Pakistan, Syria, Kuwait, and USSR

- Defense Forces Branches: Islamic Republic of Iran Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force, and Revolutionary Guard Corps (includes Basij militia and own ground, air, and naval forces), Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 12,302,967; 7,332,614 fit for military service; 569,647 reach military age (21) annually

Defense expenditures: 8% of GNP, or $7.8 billion (1989 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: Iraq - Geography Total area: 434,920 km2; land area: 433,970 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Idaho

Land boundaries: 3,454 km total; Iran 1,458 km, Iraq - Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone 191 km, Jordan 134 km, Kuwait 240 km, Saudi Arabia 495 km, Syria 605 km, Turkey 331 km

Coastline: 58 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Iraq began formal UN peace negotiations with Iran in August 1988 to end the war that began on 22 September 1980—sovereignty over the Shatt al Arab waterway, troop withdrawal, freedom of navigation, and prisoner of war exchange are the major issues for negotiation; Kurdish question among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and the USSR; shares Neutral Zone with Saudi Arabia—in July 1975, Iraq and Saudi Arabia signed an agreement to divide the zone between them, but the agreement must be ratified before it becomes effective; disputes Kuwaiti ownership of Warbah and Bubiyan islands; periodic disputes with upstream riparian Syria over Euphrates water rights; potential dispute over water development plans by Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

Climate: desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers

Terrain: mostly broad plains; reedy marshes in southeast; mountains along borders with Iran and Turkey

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur

Land use: 12% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 9% meadows and pastures; 3% forest and woodland; 75% other; includes 4% irrigated

Environment: development of Tigris-Euphrates river systems contingent upon agreements with upstream riparians (Syria, Turkey); air and water pollution; soil degradation (salinization) and erosion; desertification

- People Population: 18,781,770 (July 1990), growth rate 3.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 67 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 68 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Iraqi(s); adjective—Iraqi

Ethnic divisions: 75-80% Arab, 15-20% Kurdish, 5% Turkoman, Assyrian or other

Religion: 97% Muslim (60-65% Shia, 32-37% Sunni), 3% Christian or other

Language: Arabic (official), Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian

Literacy: 55-65% (1989 est.)

Labor force: 3,400,000 (1984); 39% services, 33% agriculture, 28% industry, severe labor shortage (1987); expatriate labor force about 1,000,000 (1989)

Organized labor: less than 10% of the labor force

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Iraq

Type: republic

Capital: Baghdad

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (muhafazat, singular—muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, As Sulaymaniyah, At Tamim, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Arbil, Karbala, Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit

Independence: 3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)

Constitution: 22 September 1968, effective 16 July 1970 (interim Constitution); new constitution now in final stages of drafting

Legal system: based on Islamic law in special religious courts, civil law system elsewhere; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 17 July (1968)

Executive branch: president, vice president, chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council, vice chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council, prime minister, first deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Majlis al Umma)

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—President Saddam HUSAYN (since 16 July 1979); Vice President Taha Muhyi al-Din MARUF (since 21 April 1974)

Political parties: National Progressive Front is a coalition of the Arab Bath Socialist Party, Kurdistan Democratic Party, and Kurdistan Revolutionary Party

Suffrage: universal adult at age 18

Elections: National Assembly—last held on 1 April 1989 (next to be held NA); results—Shia Arabs 30%, Kurds 15%, Sunni Arabs 53%, Christians 2% est.; seats—(250 total) number of seats by party NA

Communists: about 1,500 hardcore members

Other political or pressure groups: political parties and activity severely restricted; possibly some opposition to regime from disaffected members of the regime, Army officers, and religious and ethnic dissidents

Member of: ACC, Arab League, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB—Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dr. Mohamed Sadiq AL-MASHAT; Chancery at 1801 P Street NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202) 483-7500; US—Ambassador April C. GLASPIE; Embassy in Masbah Quarter (opposite the Foreign Ministry Club), Baghdad (mailing address is P. O. Box 2447 Alwiyah, Baghdad); telephone p964o (1) 719-6138 or 719-6139, 718-1840, 719-3791

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with three green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band; similar to the flags of the YAR which has one star and Syria which has two stars (in a horizontal line centered in the white band)—all green and five-pointed; also similar to the flag of Egypt which has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band

- Economy Overview: The Bathist regime engages in extensive central planning and management of industrial production and foreign trade while leaving some small-scale industry and services and most agriculture to private enterprise. The economy is dominated by the oil sector, which provides about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. Since the early 1980s financial problems, caused by war expenditures and damage to oil export facilities by Iran, have led the government to implement austerity measures and to reschedule foreign debt payments. Oil exports have gradually increased with the construction of new pipelines. Agricultural development remains hampered by labor shortages, salinization, and dislocations caused by previous land reform and collectivization programs. The industrial sector, although accorded high priority by the government, is under financial constraints. New investment funds are generally allocated only to projects that result in import substitution or foreign exchange earnings.

GNP: $35 billion, per capita $1,940; real growth rate 5% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30-40% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: less than 5% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $NA billion; expenditures $35 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (1989)

Exports: $12.5 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—crude oil and refined products, machinery, chemicals, dates; partners—US, Brazil, USSR, Italy, Turkey, France, Japan, Yugoslavia (1988)

Imports: $10.2 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—manufactures, food; partners—Turkey, US, FRG, UK, France, Japan, Romania, Yugoslavia, Brazil (1988)

External debt: $40 billion (1988 est.), excluding debt to Persian Gulf Arab states

Industrial production: NA%

Electricity: 9,902,000 kW capacity; 20,000 million kWh produced, 1,110 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, chemicals, textiles, construction materials, food processing

Agriculture: accounts for less than 10% of GNP but 33% of labor force; principal products—wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, other fruit, cotton, wool; livestock—cattle, sheep; not self-sufficient in food output

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $3 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $607 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1980-89), $37.2 billion; Communist countries (1970-88), $3.9 billion

Currency: Iraqi dinar (plural—dinars); 1 Iraqi dinar (ID) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Iraqi dinars (ID) per US$1—0.3109 (fixed rate since 1982)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 2,962 km total; 2,457 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 505 km 1.000-meter gauge

Highways: 25,479 km total; 8,290 km paved, 5,534 km improved earth, 11,655 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 1,015 km; Shatt al Arab usually navigable by maritime traffic for about 130 km, but closed since September 1980 because of Iran-Iraq war; Tigris and Euphrates navigable by shallow-draft steamers (of little importance); Shatt al Basrah canal navigable in sections by shallow-draft vessels

Ports: Umm Qasr, Khawr az Zubayr

Merchant marine: 44 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 947,721 GRT/1,703,988 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 1 passenger-cargo, 18 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 19 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker

Pipelines: crude oil, 4,350 km; 725 km refined products; 1,360 km natural gas

Civil air: 64 major transport aircraft (including 30 IL-76s used by the Iraq Air Force)

Airports: 111 total, 101 usable; 72 with permanent-surface runways; 8 with runways over 3,659 m; 53 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 14 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good network consists of coaxial cables, radio relay links, and radiocommunication stations; 632,000 telephones; stations—9 AM, 1 FM, 81 TV; satellite earth stations—1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 GORIZONT Atlantic Ocean in the Intersputnik system; coaxial cable and radio relay to Kuwait, Jordan, Syria, and Turkey

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Border Guard Force, mobile police force, Republican Guard

Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,097,190; 2,284,417 fit for military service; 219,701 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: NA —————————————————————————— Country: Iraq - Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone - Geography Total area: 3,520 km2; land area: 3,520 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 389 km total; 191 km Iraq, 198 km Saudi Arabia

Coastline: none—landlocked

Maritime claims: none—landlocked

Climate: harsh, dry desert

Terrain: sandy desert

Natural resources: none

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other (sandy desert)

Environment: harsh, inhospitable

Note: landlocked; located west of quadripoint with Iraq, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia

- People Population: uninhabited

- Government Long-form name: none

Type: joint administration by Iraq and Saudi Arabia; in July 1975, Iraq and Saudi Arabia signed an agreement to divide the zone between them, but the agreement must be ratified, however, before it becomes effective.

- Economy Overview: no economic activity

- Communications Highways: none; some secondary roads

- Defense Forces Note: defense is the joint responsibility of Iraq and Saudi Arabia —————————————————————————— Country: Ireland - Geography Total area: 70,280 km2; land area: 68,890 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundary: 360 km with UK

Coastline: 1,448 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: no precise definition;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: maritime boundary with the UK; Northern Ireland question with the UK; Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area)

Climate: temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time

Terrain: mostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by rugged hills and low mountains; sea cliffs on west coast

Natural resources: zinc, lead, natural gas, crude oil, barite, copper, gypsum, limestone, dolomite, peat, silver

Land use: 14% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 71% meadows and pastures; 5% forest and woodland; 10% other

Environment: deforestation

- People Population: 3,500,212 (July 1990), growth rate -0.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 10 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Irishman(men), Irish (collective pl.); adjective—Irish

Ethnic divisions: Celtic, with English minority

Religion: 94% Roman Catholic, 4% Anglican, 2% other

Language: Irish (Gaelic) and English; English is the language generally used, with Gaelic spoken in a few areas, mostly along the western seaboard

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 1,310,000; 57.3% services, 19.1% manufacturing and construction, 14.8% agriculture, forestry, and fishing (1988)

Organized labor: 36% of labor force

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Ireland

Type: republic

Capital: Dublin

Administrative divisions: 26 counties; Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork, Donegal, Dublin, Galway, Kerry, Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Leitrim, Limerick, Longford, Louth, Mayo, Meath, Monaghan, Offaly, Roscommon, Sligo, Tipperary, Waterford, Westmeath, Wexford, Wicklow

Independence: 6 December 1921 (from UK)

Constitution: 29 December 1937; adopted 1937

Legal system: based on English common law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: St. Patrick's Day, 17 March

Executive branch: president, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Oireachtas) consists of an upper house or Senate (Seanad Eireann) and a lower house or House of Representatives (Dail Eireann)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—President Dr. Patrick J. HILLERY (since 3 December 1976);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Charles J. HAUGHEY (since 12 July 1989, the fourth time elected as prime minister)

Political parties and leaders: Fianna Fail, Charles Haughey; Labor Party, Richard Spring; Fine Gael, Alan Dukes; Communist Party of Ireland, Michael O'Riordan; Workers' Party, Proinsias DeRossa; Sinn Fein, Gerry Adams; Progressive Democrats, Desmond O'Malley; note—Prime Minister Haughey heads a coalition consisting of the Fianna Fail and the Progressive Democrats

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: President—last held 21 October 1983 (next to be held October 1990); results—Dr. Patrick Hillery reelected;

Senate—last held on 17 February 1987 (next to be held February 1992); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(60 total, 49 elected) Fianna Fail 30, Fine Gael 16, Labor 3, Independents 11;

House of Representatives—last held on 12 July 1989 (next to be held NA June 1994); results—Fianna Fail 44.0%, Fine Gael 29.4%, Labor Party 9.3%, Progressive Democrats 5.4%, Workers' Party 4.9%, Sinn Fein 1.1%, independents 5.9%; seats—(166 total) Fianna Fail 77, Fine Gael 55, Labor Party 15, Workers' Party 7, Progressive Democrats 6, independents 6

Communists: under 500

Member of: CCC, Council of Europe, EC, EMS, ESA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICES, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC—International Wheat Council, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Padraic N. MACKERNAN; Chancery at 2234 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 462-3939; there are Irish Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, New York, and San Francisco; US—Ambassador Richard A. MOORE; Embassy at 42 Elgin Road, Ballsbridge, Dublin; telephone p353o (1) 688777

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and orange; similar to the flag of the Ivory Coast which is shorter and has the colors reversed—orange (hoist side), white, and green; also similar to the flag of Italy which is shorter and has colors of green (hoist side), white, and red

- Economy Overview: The economy is small, open, and trade dependent. Agriculture, once the most important sector, is now dwarfed by industry, which accounts for 35% of GNP and about 80% of exports and employs 20% of the labor force. The government has successfully reduced the rate of inflation from double-digit figures in the late 1970s to about 4% in 1989. In 1987, after years of deficits, the balance of payments was brought into the black. Unemployment, however, is a serious problem. A 1989 unemployment rate of 17.7% placed Ireland along with Spain as the countries with the worst jobless records in Western Europe.

GDP: $31.4 billion, per capita $8,900; real growth rate 4.3% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.2% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 17.7% (1989)

Budget: revenues $10.9 billion; expenditures $11.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.5 billion (1989)

Exports: $20.3 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities—live animals, animal products, chemicals, data processing equipment, industrial machinery; partners—EC 74% (UK 35%, FRG 11%, France 9%), US 8%

Imports: $17.3 billion (c.i.f., 1989); commodities—food, animal feed, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum products, machinery, textiles, clothing; partners—EC 66% (UK 42%, FRG 9%, France 4%), US 16%

External debt: $16.1 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 9.5% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 4,957,000 kW capacity; 14,480 million kWh produced, 4,080 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food products, brewing, textiles, clothing, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, machinery, transportation equipment, glass and crystal

Agriculture: accounts for 11% of GNP and 14.8% of the labor force; principal crops—turnips, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, wheat; livestock—meat and dairy products; 85% self-sufficient in food; food shortages include bread grain, fruits, vegetables

Aid: NA

Currency: Irish pound (plural—pounds); 1 Irish pound (LIr) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Irish pounds (LIr) per US$1—0.6399 (January 1990), 0.7047 (1989), 0.6553 (1988), 0.6720 (1987), 0.7454 (1986), 0.9384 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: Irish National Railways (CIE) operates 1,947 km 1.602-meter gauge, government owned; 485 km double track; 38 km electrified

Highways: 92,294 km total; 87,422 km surfaced, 4,872 km gravel or crushed stone

Inland waterways: limited for commercial traffic

Pipelines: natural gas, 225 km

Ports: Cork, Dublin, Shannon Estuary, Waterford

Merchant marine: 67 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 113,569 GRT/139,681 DWT; includes 3 short-sea passenger, 29 cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo, 2 container, 23 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 specialized tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 5 bulk

Civil air: 23 major transport aircraft

Airports: 40 total, 37 usable; 18 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: small, modern system using cable and radio relay circuits; 900,000 telephones; stations—45 AM, 16 (29 relays) FM, 18 (68 relays) TV; 5 coaxial submarine cables; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Naval Service, Army Air Corps

Military manpower: males 15-49, 870,161; 705,765 fit for military service; 33,259 reach military age (17) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.6% of GDP, or $500 million (1989 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: Israel (also see separate Gaza Strip and West Bank entries) Note: The Arab territories occupied by Israel since the 1967 war are not included in the data below. As stated in the 1978 Camp David Accords and reaffirmed by President Reagan's 1 September 1982 peace initiative, the final status of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, their relationship with their neighbors, and a peace treaty between Israel and Jordan are to be negotiated among the concerned parties. The Camp David Accords further specify that these negotiations will resolve the location of the respective boundaries. Pending the completion of this process, it is US policy that the final status of the West Bank and Gaza Strip has yet to be determined (see West Bank and Gaza Strip entries). On 25 April 1982 Israel relinquished control of the Sinai to Egypt. Statistics for the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights are included in the Syria entry.

- Geography Total area: 20,770 km2; land area: 20,330 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than New Jersey

Land boundaries: 1,006 km total; Egypt 255 km, Jordan 238 km, Lebanon 79 km, Syria 76 km, West Bank 307, Gaza Strip 51 km

Coastline: 273 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 6 nm

Disputes: separated from Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank by the 1949 Armistice Line; differences with Jordan over the location of the 1949 Armistice Line which separates the two countries; West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli occupied with status to be determined; Golan Heights is Israeli occupied; Israeli troops in southern Lebanon since June 1982; water-sharing issues with Jordan

Climate: temperate; hot and dry in desert areas

Terrain: Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central mountains; Jordan Rift Valley

Natural resources: copper, phosphates, bromide, potash, clay, sand, sulfur, asphalt, manganese, small amounts of natural gas and crude oil

Land use: 17% arable land; 5% permanent crops; 40% meadows and pastures; 6% forest and woodland; 32% other; includes 11% irrigated

Environment: sandstorms may occur during spring and summer; limited arable land and natural water resources pose serious constraints; deforestation;

Note: there are 173 Jewish settlements in the West Bank, 35 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 18 in the Gaza Strip, and 14 Israeli-built Jewish neighborhoods in East Jerusalem

- People Population: 4,409,218 (July 1990), growth rate 1.5% (1989); includes 70,000 Jewish settlers in the West Bank, 10,500 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 2,500 in the Gaza Strip, and 110,000 in East Jerusalem (1989 est.)

Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (July 1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 76 years male, 79 years female (July 1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Israeli(s); adjective—Israeli

Ethnic divisions: 83% Jewish, 17% non-Jewish (mostly Arab)

Religion: 83% Judaism, 13.1% Islam (mostly Sunni Muslim), 2.3% Christian, 1.6% Druze

Language: Hebrew (official); Arabic used officially for Arab minority; English most commonly used foreign language

Literacy: 88% Jews, 70% Arabs

Labor force: 1,400,000 (1984 est.); 29.5% public services; 22.8% industry, mining, and manufacturing; 12.8% commerce; 9.5% finance and business; 6.8% transport, storage, and communications; 6.5% construction and public works; 5.5% agriculture, forestry, and fishing; 5.8% personal and other services; 1.0% electricity and water (1983)

Organized labor: 90% of labor force

- Government Long-form name: State of Israel

Type: republic

Capital: Israel proclaimed Jerusalem its capital in 1950, but the US, like nearly all other countries, maintains its Embassy in Tel Aviv

Administrative divisions: 6 districts (mehozot, singular—mehoz); Central, Haifa, Jerusalem, Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv

Independence: 14 May 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)

Constitution: no formal constitution; some of the functions of a constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the basic laws of the Parliament (Knesset), and the Israeli citizenship law

Legal system: mixture of English common law, British Mandate regulations, and, in personal matters, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim legal systems; in December 1985 Israel informed the UN Secretariat that it would no longer accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 May 1989; Israel declared independence on 14 May 1948, but the Jewish calendar is lunar and the holiday may occur in April or May

Executive branch: president, prime minister, vice prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Knesset

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—President Gen. Chaim HERZOG (since 5 May 1983);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Yitzhak SHAMIR (since 20 October 1986); Vice Prime Minister Shimon PERES (Prime Minister from 13 September 1984 to 20 October 1986, when he rotated to Vice Prime Minister)

Political parties and leaders: Israel currently has a national unity government comprising five parties that hold 95 of the Knesset's 120 seats; Members of the unity government—Likud bloc, Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir; Labor Party, Vice Prime Minister and Finance Minister Shimon Peres; Sephardic Torah Guardians (SHAS), Minister of Immigrant Absorption Yitzhak Peretz; National Religious Party, Minister of Religious Affairs Zevulun Hammer; Agudat Yisrael, Deputy Minister of Labor and Social Welfare Moshe Zeev Feldman;

Opposition parties—Tehiya Party, Yuval Ne'eman; Tzomet Party, Rafael Eytan; Moledet Party, Rehavam Ze'evi; Degel HaTorah, Avraham Ravitz; Citizens' Rights Movement, Shulamit Aloni; United Workers' Party (MAPAM), Yair Tzaban; Center Movement-Shinui, Amnon Rubenstein; New Communist Party of Israel (RAKAH), Meir Wilner; Progressive List for Peace, Muhammad Mi'ari; Arab Democratic Party, Abd Al Wahab Darawshah

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: President—last held 23 February 1988 (next to be held February 1994); results—Gen. Chaim Herzog reelected by Knesset;

Parliament—last held 1 November 1988 (next to be held by November 1992); seats—(120 total) Likud bloc 40, Labor Party 39, SHAS 6, National Religious Party 5, Agudat Yisrael 5, Citizens' Rights Movement 5, RAKAH 4, Tehiya Party 3, MAPAM 3, Tzomet Party 2, Moledet Party 2, Degel HaTorah 2, Center Movement-Shinui 2, Progressive List for Peace 1, Arab Democratic Party 1

Communists: Hadash (predominantly Arab but with Jews in its leadership) has some 1,500 members

Other political or pressure groups: Gush Emunim, Jewish nationalists advocating Jewish settlement on the West Bank and Gaza Strip; Peace Now, critical of government's West Bank/Gaza Strip and Lebanon policies

Member of: CCC, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IDB—Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, IOOC, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, IWC—International Wheat Council, OAS (observer), UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Moshe ARAD; Chancery at 3514 International Drive NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 364-5500; there are Israeli Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, and San Francisco; US—Ambassador William A. BROWN; Embassy at 71 Hayarkon Street, Tel Aviv (mailing address is APO New York 09672); telephone p972o (3) 654338; there is a US Consulate General in Jerusalem

Flag: white with a blue hexagram (six-pointed linear star) known as the Magen David (Shield of David) centered between two equal horizontal blue bands near the top and bottom edges of the flag

- Economy Overview: Israel has a market economy with substantial government participation. It depends on imports for crude oil, food, grains, raw materials, and military equipment. Despite limited natural resources, Israel has developed its agriculture and industry sectors on an intensive scale over the past 20 years. Industry accounts for about 23% of the labor force, agriculture for 6%, and services for most of the balance. Diamonds, high-technology machinery, and agricultural products (fruits and vegetables) are the biggest export earners. The balance of payments has traditionally been negative, but is offset by large transfer payments and foreign loans. Nearly two-thirds of Israel's $16 billion external debt is owed to the US, which is its major source for economic and military aid. To earn needed foreign exchange, Israel must continue to exploit high-technology niches in the international market, such as medical scanning equipment. In 1987 the economy showed a 5.2% growth in real GNP, the best gain in nearly a decade; in 1988-89 the gain was only 1% annually, largely because of the economic impact of the Palestinian uprising (intifadah). Inflation dropped from an annual rate of over 400% in 1984 to about 16% in 1987-88 without any major increase in unemployment.

GNP: $38 billion, per capita $8,700; real growth rate 1% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 9% (December 1989)

Budget: revenues $24.2 billion; expenditures $26.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $7 billion (FY89 est.)

Exports: $10.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities—polished diamonds, citrus and other fruits, textiles and clothing, processed foods, fertilizer and chemical products, military hardware, electronics; partners—US, UK, FRG, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Italy

Imports: $12.4 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.); commodities—military equipment, rough diamonds, oil, chemicals, machinery, iron and steel, cereals, textiles, vehicles, ships, aircraft; partners—US, FRG, UK, Switzerland, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg

External debt: $16.4 billion (March 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate - 1.5% (1989)

Electricity: 4,392,000 kW capacity; 17,500 million kWh produced, 4,000 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food processing, diamond cutting and polishing, textiles, clothing, chemicals, metal products, military equipment, transport equipment, electrical equipment, miscellaneous machinery, potash mining, high-technology electronics, tourism

Agriculture: accounts for 5% of GNP; largely self-sufficient in food production, except for bread grains; principal products—citrus and other fruits, vegetables, cotton; livestock products—beef, dairy, and poultry

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $15.8 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $2.2 billion

Currency: new Israeli shekel (plural—shekels); 1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot

Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1—1.9450 (January 1990), 1.9164 (1989), 1.5989 (1988), 1.5946 (1987), 1.4878 (1986), 1.1788 (1985)

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