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The 1990 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency
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Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds

Terrain: volcanic in origin with central mountains

Natural resources: timber, tropical fruit, deepwater harbors

Land use: 15% arable land; 26% permanent crops; 3% meadows and pastures; 9% forest and woodland; 47% other

Environment: lies on edge of hurricane belt; hurricane season lasts from June to November

Note: islands of the Grenadines group are divided politically with St. Vincent and the Grenadines

- People Population: 84,135 (July 1990), growth rate - 0.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 36 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 33 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 30 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 74 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Grenadian(s); adjective—Grenadian

Ethnic divisions: mainly of black African descent

Religion: largely Roman Catholic; Anglican; other Protestant sects

Language: English (official); some French patois

Literacy: 85%

Labor force: 36,000; 31% services, 24% agriculture, 8% construction, 5% manufacturing, 32% other (1985)

Organized labor: 20% of labor force

- Government Long-form name: none

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Saint George's

Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 1 dependency*; Carriacou and Little Martinique*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick

Independence: 7 February 1974 (from UK)

Constitution: 19 December 1973

Legal system: based on English common law

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 February (1974)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister, Ministers of Government (cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Paul SCOON (since 30 September 1978);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Nicholas BRATHWAITE (since 13 March 1990)

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Congress (NDC), Nicholas Brathwaite; Grenada United Labor Party (GULP), Sir Eric Gairy; The National Party (TNP), Ben Jones; New National Party (NNP), Keith Mitchell; Maurice Bishop Patriotic Movement (MBPM), Terrence Merryshow; New Jewel Movement (NJM), Bernard Coard

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: House of Representatives—last held on 13 March 1990 (next to be held by March 1996); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(15 total) NDC 8, GULP 3, TNP 2, NNP 2

Communists: about 450 members of the New Jewel Movement (pro-Soviet) and the Maurice Bishop Patriotic Movement (pro-Cuban)

Member of: ACP, CARICOM, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, ITU, NAM, OAS, OECS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Albert O. XAVIER; Chancery at 1701 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 265-2561; there is a Grenadian Consulate General in New York; US—Charge d'Affaires James F. COOPER; Embassy at Ross Point Inn, Saint George's (mailing address is P. O. Box 54, Saint George's); telephone p440o 1731 or 1734

Flag: a rectangle divided diagonally into yellow triangles (top and bottom) and green triangles (hoist side and outer side) with a red border around the flag; there are seven yellow five-pointed stars with three centered in the top red border, three centered in the bottom red border, and one on a red disk superimposed at the center of the flag; there is also a symbolic nutmeg pod on the hoist-side triangle (Grenada is the world's second-largest producer of nutmeg, after Indonesia); the seven stars represent the seven administrative divisions

- Economy Overview: The economy is essentially agricultural and centers on the traditional production of spices and tropical plants. Agriculture accounts for about 20% of GDP and 90% of exports and employs 24% of the labor force. Tourism is the leading foreign exchange earner, followed by agricultural exports. Manufacturing remains relatively undeveloped, but with a more favorable private investment climate since 1983, it is expected to grow. Despite an impressive average annual growth rate for the economy of 5.5% during the period 1984-88, unemployment remains high at about 26%.

GDP: $129.7 million, per capita $1,535; real growth rate 5% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.0% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 26% (1988)

Budget: revenues $74.2 million; expenditures $82.3 million, including capital expenditures of $27.8 million (1989 est.)

Exports: $31.8 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities—nutmeg 35%, cocoa beans 15%, bananas 13%, mace 7%, textiles; partners—US 4%, UK, FRG, Netherlands, Trinidad and Tobago

Imports: $92.6 million (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities—machinery 24%, food 22%, manufactured goods 19%, petroleum 8%; partners—US 32%, UK, Trinidad and Tobago, Japan, Canada

External debt: $108 million (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 5.8% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 11,400 kW capacity; 24 million kWh produced, 280 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food and beverage, textile, light assembly operations, tourism, construction

Agriculture: accounts for 20% of GDP and 90% of exports; bananas, cocoa, nutmeg, and mace account for two-thirds of total crop production; world's second-largest producer and fourth-largest exporter of nutmeg and mace; small-size farms predominate, growing a variety of citrus fruits, avocados, root crops, sugarcane, corn, and vegetables

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY84-88), $60 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $61 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $32 million

Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural—dollars); 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1—2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Highways: 1,000 km total; 600 km paved, 300 km otherwise improved; 100 km unimproved

Ports: Saint George's

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: automatic, islandwide telephone system with 5,650 telephones; new SHF links to Trinidad and Tobago and St. Vincent; VHF and UHF links to Trinidad and Carriacou; stations—1 AM, no FM, 1 TV

- Defense Forces Branches: Royal Grenada Police Force

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA —————————————————————————— Country: Guadeloupe (overseas department of France) - Geography Total area: 1,780 km2; land area: 1,760 km2

Comparative area: 10 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 306 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: subtropical tempered by trade winds; relatively high humidity

Terrain: Basse-Terre is volcanic in origin with interior mountains; Grand-Terre is low limestone formation

Natural resources: cultivable land, beaches, and climate that foster tourism

Land use: 18% arable land; 5% permanent crops; 13% meadows and pastures; 40% forest and woodland; 24% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: subject to hurricanes (June to October); La Soufriere is an active volcano

Note: located 500 km southeast of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean Sea

- People Population: 342,175 (July 1990), growth rate 0.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 20 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 6 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 17 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 77 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Guadeloupian(s); adjective—Guadeloupe

Ethnic divisions: 90% black or mulatto; 5% white; less than 5% East Indian, Lebanese, Chinese

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic, 5% Hindu and pagan African

Language: French, creole patois

Literacy: over 70%

Labor force: 120,000; 53.0% services, government, and commerce, 25.8% industry, 21.2% agriculture

Organized labor: 11% of labor force

- Government Long-form name: Department of Guadeloupe

Type: overseas department of France

Capital: Basse-Terre

Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

Independence: none (overseas department of France)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French legal system

National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Executive branch: government commissioner

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council and unicameral Regional Council

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal (Cour d'Appel) with jurisdiction over Guadeloupe, French Guiana, and Martinique

Leaders: Chief of State—President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981);

Head of Government—Commissioner of the Republic Jean-Paul PROUST (since November 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic (RPR), Marlene Captant; Communist Party of Guadeloupe (PCG), Christian Medard Celeste; Socialist Party (PSG), Dominique Larifla; Independent Republicans; Union for French Democracy (UDF); Union for a New Majority (UNM)

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: General Council —last held NA 1986 (next to be held by NA 1992); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(42 total) number of seats by party NA;

Regional Council—last held on 16 March 1986 (next to be held by 16 March 1992); results—RPR 33.1%, PS 28.7%, PCG 23.8%, UDF 10.7%, others 3.8%; seats—(41 total) RPR 15, PS 12, PCG 10, UDF 4;

French Senate—last held on 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held June 1994); Guadeloupe elects two representatives; results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(2 total) PCG 1, PS 1;

French National Assembly—last held on 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held June 1994); Guadeloupe elects four representatives; results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(4 total) PS 2 seats, RPR 1 seat, PCG 1 seat

Communists: 3,000 est.

Other political or pressure groups: Popular Union for the Liberation of Guadeloupe (UPLG); Popular Movement for Independent Guadeloupe (MPGI); General Union of Guadeloupe Workers (UGTG); General Federation of Guadeloupe Workers (CGT-G); Christian Movement for the Liberation of Guadeloupe (KLPG)

Member of: WFTU

Diplomatic representation: as an overseas department of France, the interests of Guadeloupe are represented in the US by France

Flag: the flag of France is used

- Economy Overview: The economy depends on agriculture, tourism, light industry, and services. It is also dependent upon France for large subsidies and income and social transfers. Tourism is a key industry, with most tourists from the US. In addition, an increasingly large number of cruise ships visit the islands. The traditionally important sugarcane crop is slowly being replaced by other crops, such as bananas (which now supply about 50% of export earnings), eggplant, and flowers. Other vegetables and root crops are cultivated for local consumption, although Guadeloupe is still dependent on imported food, which comes mainly from France. Light industry consists mostly of sugar and rum production. Most manufactured goods and fuel are imported. Unemployment is especially high among the young.

GDP: $1.1 billion, per capita $3,300; real growth rate NA% (1987)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.0% (1987)

Unemployment rate: 25% (1983)

Budget: revenues $251 million; expenditures $251 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1985)

Exports: $109 million (f.o.b., 1986); commodities—bananas, sugar, rum; partners—France 72%, Martinique 16% (1984)

Imports: $792 million (c.i.f., 1986); commodities—vehicles, foodstuffs, clothing and other consumer goods, construction materials, petroleum products; partners—France 59% (1984)

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 103,000 kW capacity; 315 million kWh produced, 920 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: construction, cement, rum, sugar, tourism

Agriculture: cash crops—bananas and sugarcane; other products include tropical fruits and vegetables; livestock—cattle, pigs, and goats; not self-sufficient in food

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $4 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $7.7 billion

Currency: French franc (plural—francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1—5.7598 (January 1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: privately owned, narrow-gauge plantation lines

Highways: 1,940 km total; 1,600 km paved, 340 km gravel and earth

Ports: Pointe-a-Pitre, Basse-Terre

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 9 total, 9 usable, 8 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: domestic facilities inadequate; 57,300 telephones; interisland radio relay to Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, and Martinique; stations—2 AM, 8 FM (30 private stations licensed to broadcast FM), 9 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT ground station

- Defense Forces Note: defense is responsibility of France —————————————————————————— Country: Guam (territory of the US) - Geography Total area: 541 km2; land area: 541 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than three times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 125.5 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; generally warm and humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season from January to June, rainy season from July to December; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: volcanic origin, surrounded by coral reefs; relatively flat coraline limestone plateau (source of most fresh water) with steep coastal cliffs and narrow coastal plains in north, low-rising hills in center, mountains in south

Natural resources: fishing (largely undeveloped), tourism (especially from Japan)

Land use: 11% arable land; 11% permanent crops; 15% meadows and pastures; 18% forest and woodland; 45% other

Environment: frequent squalls during rainy season; subject to relatively rare, but potentially very destructive typhoons (especially in August)

Note: largest and southernmost island in the Mariana Islands archipelago; strategic location in western North Pacific Ocean 5,955 km west-southwest of Honolulu about three-quarters of the way between Hawaii and the Philippines

- People Population: 141,039 (July 1990), growth rate 2.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 5 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 12 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 75 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Guamanian(s); adjective—Guamanian

Ethnic divisions: 47% Chamorro, 25% Filipino, 10% Caucasian, 18% Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and other

Religion: 98% Roman Catholic, 2% other

Language: English and Chamorro, most residents bilingual; Japanese also widely spoken

Literacy: 90%

Labor force: 54,000; 42% government, 58% private (1988)

Organized labor: 13% of labor force

- Government Long-form name: Territory of Guam

Type: organized, unincorporated territory of the US

Capital: Agana

Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US)

Independence: none (territory of the US)

Constitution: Organic Act of 1 August 1950

Legal system: NA

National holiday: Guam Discovery Day (first Monday in March), 6 March 1989

Executive branch: US president, governor, lieutenant governor, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislature

Judicial branch: Superior Court of Guam (Federal District Court)

Leaders: Chief of State—President George BUSH (since 20 January 1989);

Head of Government—Governor Joseph A. ADA (since NA November 1986)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party (controls the legislature); Republican Party (party of the Governor)

Suffrage: universal at age 18; US citizens, but do not vote in US presidential elections

Elections: Governor—last held on NA November 1986 (next to be held November 1990);

Legislature—last held on 8 November 1988 (next to be held November 1990); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(21 total) Democratic 13, Republican 8;

US House of Representatives—last held 8 November 1988 (next to be held November 1990); Guam elects one nonvoting delegate; results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(1 total) Republican 1

Communists: none

Note: relations between Guam and the US are under the jurisdiction of the Office of Territorial and International Affairs, US Department of the Interior

Diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)

Flag: dark blue with a narrow red border on all four sides; centered is a red-bordered, pointed, vertical ellipse containing a beach scene, outrigger canoe with sail, and a palm tree with the word GUAM superimposed in bold red letters

- Economy Overview: The economy is based on US military spending and on revenues from tourism. Over the past 20 years the tourist industry has grown rapidly, creating a construction boom for new hotels and the expansion of older ones. Visitors numbered about 800,000 in 1989. The small manufacturing sector includes textile and clothing, beverage, food, and watch production. About 58% of the labor force works for the private sector and the rest for government. Most food and industrial goods are imported, with about 75% from the US. In 1989 the unemployment rate was about 3%, down from 10% in 1983.

GNP: $1.0 billion, per capita $7,675; real growth rate 20% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.9% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 3% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $208.0 million; expenditures $175 million, including capital expenditures of $17 million (1987 est.)

Exports: $39 million (f.o.b., 1983); commodities—mostly transshipments of refined petroleum products, copra, fish; partners—US 25%, others 75%

Imports: $611 million (c.i.f., 1983); commodities—mostly crude petroleum and petroleum products, food, manufactured goods; partners—US 77%, others 23%

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 500,000 kW capacity; 2,300 million kWh produced, 16,660 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: US military, tourism, petroleum refining, construction, concrete products, printing and publishing, food processing, textiles

Agriculture: relatively undeveloped with most food imported; fruits, vegetables, eggs, pork, poultry, beef, copra

Aid: NA

Currency: US currency is used

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

- Communications Highways: 674 km all-weather roads

Ports: Apra Harbor

Airports: 5 total, 4 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 26,317 telephones (1989); stations—3 AM, 3 FM, 3 TV; 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT ground stations

- Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of the US —————————————————————————— Country: Guatemala - Geography Total area: 108,890 km2; land area: 108,430 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Tennessee

Land boundaries: 1,687 km total; Belize 266 km, El Salvador 203 km, Honduras 256 km, Mexico 962 km

Coastline: 400 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claims Belize, but boundary negotiations are under way

Climate: tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow coastal plains and rolling limestone plateau (Peten)

Natural resources: crude oil, nickel, rare woods, fish, chicle

Land use: 12% arable land; 4% permanent crops; 12% meadows and pastures; 40% forest and woodland; 32% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: numerous volcanoes in mountains, with frequent violent earthquakes; Caribbean coast subject to hurricanes and other tropical storms; deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution

Note: no natural harbors on west coast

- People Population: 9,097,636 (July 1990), growth rate 2.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 3 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 61 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 60 years male, 65 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Guatemalan(s); adjective—Guatemalan

Ethnic divisions: 56% Ladino (mestizo—mixed Indian and European ancestry), 44% Indian

Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic; also Protestant, traditional Mayan

Language: Spanish, but over 40% of the population speaks an Indian language as a primary tongue (18 Indian dialects, including Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi)

Literacy: 50%

Labor force: 2,500,000; 57.0% agriculture, 14.0% manufacturing, 13.0% services, 7.0% commerce, 4.0% construction, 3.0% transport, 0.8% utilities, 0.4% mining (1985)

Organized labor: 8% of labor force (1988 est.)

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Guatemala

Type: republic

Capital: Guatemala

Administrative divisions: 22 departments (departamentos, singular—departamento); Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula, El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa, Jutiapa, Peten, Quezaltenango, Quiche, Retalhuleu, Sacatepequez, San Marcos, Santa Rosa, Solola, Suchitepequez, Totonicapan, Zacapa

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

Constitution: 31 May 1985, effective 14 January 1986

Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—President Mario Vinicio CEREZO Arevalo (since 14 January 1986); Vice President Roberto CARPIO Nicolle (since 14 January 1986)

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party (DCG), Marco Vinicio Cerezo Arevalo; National Centrist Union (UCN), Jorge Carpio Nicolle; National Liberation Movement (MLN), Mario Sandoval Alarcon; Social Action Movement (MAS), Jorge Serrano Elias; Revolutionary Party (PR) in coalition with National Renewal Party (PNR), Alejandro Maldonado Aguirre; Social Democratic Party (PSD), Mario Solarzano Martinez; National Authentic Center (CAN), Mario David Garcia; United Anti-Communist Party (PUA), Leonel Sisniega; Emerging Movement for Harmony (MEC), Louis Gordillo; Democratic Party of National Cooperation (PDCN), Adan Fletes; Democratic Institutional Party (PID), Oscar Rivas; Nationalist United Front (FUN), Gabriel Giron

Suffrage: universal at age 18, compulsory for literates, voluntary for illiterates

Elections: President—last held on 3 December 1985 (next to be held 3 November 1990); results—Mario Vinicio Cerezo Arevalo (DCG) 38.7%, Jorge Carpio Nicolle (UCN) 20.2%, Jorge Serrano Elias (PDCN/PR) 14.8%;

National Congress—last held on 3 November 1985 (next to be held 3 November 1990); results—DCG 38.7%, UCN 20.2%, PDCN/PR 13.8%, MLN/PID 12.6%, CAN 6.3%, PSD 3.4%, PNR 3.2%, PUA/FUN/MEC 1.9%; seats—(100 total) DCG 51, UCN 22, MLN 12, PDCN/PR 11, PSD 2, PNR 1, CAN 1

Communists: Guatemalan Labor Party (PGT); main radical left guerrilla groups—Guerrilla Army of the Poor (EGP), Revolutionary Organization of the People in Arms (ORPA), Rebel Armed Forces (FAR), and PGT dissidents

Other political or pressure groups: Federated Chambers of Commerce and Industry (CACIF), Mutual Support Group (GAM), Unity for Popular and Labor Action (UASP), Agrarian Owners Group (UNAGRO), Committee for Campesino Unity (CUC)

Member of: CACM, CCC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB—Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ISO, ITU, IWC—International Wheat Council, OAS, ODECA, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPEB, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Rodolfo ROHRMOSER V; Chancery at 2220 R Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 745-4952 through 4954; there are Guatemalan Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco; US—Ambassador Thomas F. STROOCK; Embassy at 7-01 Avenida de la Reforma, Zone 10, Guatemala City (mailing address is APO Miami 34024); telephone p502o (2) 31-15-41

Flag: three equal vertical bands of light blue (hoist side), white, and light blue with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms includes a green and red quetzal (the national bird) and a scroll bearing the inscription LIBERTAD 15 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1821 (the original date of independence from Spain) all superimposed on a pair of crossed rifles and a pair of crossed swords and framed by a wreath

- Economy Overview: The economy is based on agriculture, which accounts for 25% of GDP, employs about 60% of the labor force, and supplies two-thirds of exports. Industry accounts for about 20% of GDP and 15% of the labor force. The economy has reentered a slow-growth phase, but is hampered by political uncertainty. In 1988 the economy grew by 3.7%, the third consecutive year of mild growth. Government economic reforms introduced since 1986 have stabilized exchange rates and have helped to stem inflationary pressures. The inflation rate has dropped from 36.9% in 1986 to 15% in 1989.

GDP: $10.8 billion, per capita $1,185; real growth rate 1.3% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 13%, with 30-40% underemployment (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $771 million; expenditures $957 million, including capital expenditures of $188 million (1988)

Exports: $1.02 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—coffee 38%, bananas 7%, sugar 7%, cardamom 4%; partners—US 29%, El Salvador, FRG, Costa Rica, Italy

Imports: $1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—fuel and petroleum products, machinery, grain, fertilizers, motor vehicles; partners—US 38%, Mexico, FRG, Japan, El Salvador

External debt: $3.0 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.5% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 807,000 kW capacity; 2,540 million kWh produced, 280 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: sugar, textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals, petroleum, metals, rubber, tourism

Agriculture: accounts for 25% of GDP; most important sector of economy and contributes two-thirds to export earnings; principal crops—sugarcane, corn, bananas, coffee, beans, cardamom; livestock—cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens; food importer

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium poppy and cannabis for the international drug trade; the government has engaged in aerial eradication of opium poppy; transit country for cocaine shipments

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $869 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $7.7 billion

Currency: quetzal (plural—quetzales); 1 quetzal (Q) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: free market quetzales (Q) per US$1—3.3913 (January 1990), 2.8261 (1989), 2.6196 (1988), 2.500 (1987), 1.875 (1986), 1.000 (1985); note—black-market rate 2.800 (May 1989)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 870 km 0.914-meter gauge, single track; 780 km government owned, 90 km privately owned

Highways: 26,429 km total; 2,868 km paved, 11,421 km gravel, and 12,140 unimproved

Inland waterways: 260 km navigable year round; additional 730 km navigable during high-water season

Pipelines: crude oil, 275 km

Ports: Puerto Barrios, Puerto Quetzal, Santo Tomas de Castilla

Merchant marine: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,129 GRT/6,450 DWT

Civil air: 10 major transport aircraft

Airports: 451 total, 391 usable; 11 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 19 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fairly modern network centered in Guatemala pcityo; 97,670 telephones; stations—91 AM, no FM, 25 TV, 15 shortwave; connection into Central American Microwave System; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,028,875; 1,327,374 fit for military service; 107,251 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 1% of GDP, or $115 million (1990 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: Guernsey (British crown dependency) - Geography Total area: 194 km2; land area: 194 km2; includes Alderney, Guernsey, Herm, Sark, and some other smaller islands

Comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 50 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: temperate with mild winters and cool summers; about 50% of days are overcast

Terrain: mostly level with low hills in southwest

Natural resources: cropland

Land use: NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures; NA% forest and woodland; NA% other; about 50% cultivated

Environment: large, deepwater harbor at St. Peter Port

Note: 52 km west of France

- People Population: 57,227 (July 1990), growth rate 0.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 6 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Channel Islander(s); adjective—Channel Islander

Ethnic divisions: UK and Norman-French descent

Religion: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Baptist, Congregational, Methodist

Language: English, French; Norman-French dialect spoken in country districts

Literacy: NA%, but universal education

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: NA

- Government Long-form name: Bailiwick of Guernsey

Type: British crown dependency

Capital: St. Peter Port

Administrative divisions: none (British crown dependency)

Independence: none (British crown dependency)

Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice

Legal system: English law and local statute; justice is administered by the Royal Court

National holiday: Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)

Executive branch: British monarch, lieutenant governor, bailiff, deputy bailiff

Legislative branch: States of Deliberation

Judicial branch: Royal Court

Leaders: Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government—Lieutenant Governor Lt. Gen. Sir Alexander BOSWELL (since 1985); Bailiff Sir Charles FROSSARD (since 1982)

Political parties and leaders: none; all independents

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: States of Deliberation—last held NA (next to be held NA); results—percent of vote NA; seats—(60 total, 33 elected), all independents

Communists: none

Diplomatic representation: none (British crown dependency)

Flag: white with the red cross of St. George (patron saint of England) extending to the edges of the flag

- Economy Overview: Tourism is a major source of revenue. Other economic activity includes financial services, breeding the world-famous Guernsey cattle, and growing tomatoes and flowers for export.

GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate 9% (1987)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $145.0 million; expenditures $117.2 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1985)

Exports: $NA; commodities—tomatoes, flowers and ferns, sweet peppers, eggplant, other vegetables; partners—UK (regarded as internal trade)

Imports: $NA; commodities—coal, gasoline and oil; partners—UK (regarded as internal trade)

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 173,000 kW capacity; 525 million kWh produced, 9,340 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, banking

Agriculture: tomatoes, flowers (mostly grown in greenhouses), sweet peppers, eggplant, other vegetables and fruit; Guernsey cattle

Aid: none

Currency: Guernsey pound (plural—pounds); 1 Guernsey (LG) pound = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Guernsey pounds (LG) per US$1—0.6055 (January 1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817 (1986), 0.7714 (1985); note—the Guernsey pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Ports: St. Peter Port, St. Sampson

Airport: 1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m (La Villiaze)

Telecommunications: stations—1 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 41,900 telephones; 1 submarine cable

- Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK —————————————————————————— Country: Guinea - Geography Total area: 245,860 km2; land area: 245,860 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries: 3,399 km total; Guinea-Bissau 386 km, Ivory Coast 610 km, Liberia 563 km, Mali 858 km, Senegal 330 km, Sierra Leone 652 km

Coastline: 320 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds

Terrain: generally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior

Natural resources: bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium, hydropower, fish

Land use: 6% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 12% meadows and pastures; 42% forest and woodland; 40% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season; deforestation

- People Population: 7,269,240 (July 1990), growth rate 2.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 22 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 147 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 40 years male, 44 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Guinean(s); adjective—Guinean

Ethnic divisions: Fulani, Malinke, Sousou, 15 smaller tribes

Religion: 85% Muslim, 5% indigenous beliefs, 1.5% Christian

Language: French (official); each tribe has its own language

Literacy: 20% in French; 48% in local languages

Labor force: 2,400,000 (1983); 82.0% agriculture, 11.0% industry and commerce, 5.4% services; 88,112 civil servants (1987); 52% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: virtually 100% of wage earners loosely affiliated with the National Confederation of Guinean Workers

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Guinea

Type: republic

Capital: Conakry

Administrative divisions: 29 administrative regions (regions administratives, singular—region administrative); Beyla, Boffa, Boke, Conakry, Dabola, Dalaba, Dinguiraye, Dubreka, Faranah, Forecariah, Fria, Gaoual, Gueckedou, Kankan, Kerouane, Kindia, Kissidougou, Koundara, Kouroussa, Labe, Macenta, Mali, Mamou, Nzerekore, Pita, Siguiri, Telimele, Tougue, Yomou

Independence: 2 October 1958 (from France; formerly French Guinea)

Constitution: 14 May 1982, suspended after coup of 3 April 1984

Legal system: based on French civil law system, customary law, and decree; legal codes currently being revised; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Second Republic, 3 April (1984)

Executive branch: president, Military Committee for National Recovery (Comite Militaire de Redressement National or CMRN), Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: People's National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale Populaire) was dissolved after the 3 April 1984 coup

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal (Cour d'Appel)

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—Gen. Lansana CONTE (since 5 April 1984)

Political parties and leaders: none; following the 3 April 1984 coup all political activity was banned

Suffrage: none

Elections: none

Communists: no Communist party, although there are some sympathizers

Member of: ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB—Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, Mano River Union, Niger River Commission, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Kekoura CAMARA; Chancery at 2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 483-9420; US—Ambassador Samuel E. LUPO; Embassy at 2nd Boulevard and 9th Avenue, Conakry (mailing address is B. P. 603, Conakry); telephone 44-15-20 through 24

Flag: three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Rwanda which has a large black letter R centered in the yellow band

- Economy Overview: Although possessing many natural resources and considerable potential for agricultural development, Guinea is one of the poorest countries in the world. The agricultural sector contributes about 40% to GDP and employs more than 80% of the work force, while industry accounts for about 25% of GDP. Guinea possesses over 25% of the world's bauxite reserves; exports of bauxite and alumina accounted for more than 80% of total exports in 1986.

GDP: $2.5 billion, per capita $350; real growth rate 5.0% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 27.0% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $357 million; expenditures $480 million, including capital expenditures of $229 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $553 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities—alumina, bauxite, diamonds, coffee, pineapples, bananas, palm kernels; partners—US 33%, EC 33%, USSR and Eastern Europe 20%, Canada

Imports: $509 million (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities—petroleum products, metals, machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, textiles and other grain; partners—US 16%, France, Brazil

External debt: $1.6 billion (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 113,000 kW capacity; 300 million kWh produced, 40 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: bauxite mining, alumina, diamond mining, light manufacturing and agricultural processing industries

Agriculture: accounts for 40% of GDP (includes fishing and forestry); mostly subsistence farming; principal products—rice, coffee, pineapples, palm kernels, cassava, bananas, sweet potatoes, timber; livestock—cattle, sheep and goats; not self-sufficient in food grains

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $203 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $882 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $120 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $446 million

Currency: Guinean franc (plural—francs); 1 Guinean franc (FG) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Guinean francs (FG) per US$1—505.00 (October 1988), 440.00 (January 1988), 440.00 (1987), 235.63 (1986), 22.47 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 1,045 km; 806 km 1.000-meter gauge, 239 km 1.435-meter standard gauge

Highways: 30,100 km total; 1,145 km paved, 12,955 km gravel or laterite (of which barely 4,500 km are currently all-weather roads), 16,000 km unimproved earth (1987)

Inland waterways: 1,295 km navigable by shallow-draft native craft

Ports: Conakry, Kamsar

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 16 total, 16 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 9 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system of open-wire lines, small radiocommunication stations, and new radio relay system; 10,000 telephones; stations—3 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 12,000 TV sets; 125,000 radio receivers; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: Army (ground forces), Navy (acts primarily as a coast guard), Air Force, paramilitary National Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,657,787; 834,777 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 3.1% of GDP (1984) —————————————————————————— Country: Guinea-Bissau - Geography Total area: 36,120 km2; land area: 28,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: 724 km total; Guinea 386, Senegal 338 km

Coastline: 350 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: the International Court of Justice (ICJ) has rendered its decision on the Guinea-Bissau/Senegal maritime boundary (in favor of Senegal)—that decision has been rejected by Guinea-Bissau

Climate: tropical; generally hot and humid; monsoon-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds

Terrain: mostly low coastal plain rising to savanna in east

Natural resources: unexploited deposits of petroleum, bauxite, phosphates; fish, timber

Land use: 11% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 43% meadows and pastures; 38% forest and woodland; 7% other

Environment: hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season

- People Population: 998,963 (July 1990), growth rate 2.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 19 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 127 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 44 years male, 48 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Guinea-Bissauan(s); adjective—Guinea-Bissauan

Ethnic divisions: about 99% African (30% Balanta, 20% Fula, 14% Manjaca, 13% Mandinga, 7% Papel); less than 1% European and mulatto

Religion: 65% indigenous beliefs, 30% Muslim, 5% Christian

Language: Portuguese (official); Criolo and numerous African languages

Literacy: 34% (1986)

Labor force: 403,000 (est.); 90% agriculture, 5% industry, services, and commerce, 5% government; 53% of population of working age (1983)

Organized labor: only one trade union—the National Union of Workers of Guinea-Bissau (UNTG)

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Guinea-Bissau

Type: republic; highly centralized one-party regime since September 1974

Capital: Bissau

Administrative divisions: 9 regions (regioes, singular—regiao); Bafata, Biombo, Bissau, Bolama, Cacheu, Gabu, Oio, Quinara, Tombali

Independence: 24 September 1973 (from Portugal; formerly Portuguese Guinea)

Constitution: 16 May 1984

Legal system: NA

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 September (1973)

Executive branch: president of the Council of State, vice presidents of the Council of State, Council of State, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Assembly (Assembleia Nacional Popular)

Judicial branch: none; there is a Ministry of Justice in the Council of Ministers

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—President of the Council of State Brig. Gen. Joao Bernardo VIEIRA (assumed power 14 November 1980 and elected President of Council of State on 16 May 1984); First Vice President Col. Iafai CAMARA (since 7 November 1985); Second Vice President Vasco CABRAL (since 21 June 1989)

Political parties and leaders: only party—African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde (PAIGC), President Joao Bernardo Vieira, leader; the party decided to retain the binational title despite its formal break with Cape Verde

Suffrage: universal at age 15

Elections: President of Council of State—last held 19 June 1989 (next to be held 19 June 1994); results—Brig. Gen. Joao Bernardo Vieira was reelected without opposition by the National People's Assembly;

National People's Assembly—last held 15 June 1989 (next to be held 15 June 1994); results—PAIGC is the only party; seats—(150 total) PAIGC 150, appointed by Regional Councils;

Regional Councils—last held 1 June 1989 (next to be held 1 June 1994); results—PAIGC is the only party; seats—(473 total) PAIGC 473, by public plebiscite

Communists: a few Communists, some sympathizers

Member of: ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB—Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, IRC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Alfredo Lopes CABRAL; Chancery (temporary) at the Guinea-Bissauan Permanent Mission to the UN, Suite 604, 211 East 43rd Street, New York, NY 10017; telephone (212) 661-3977; US—Ambassador William L. JACOBSEN; Embassy at 17 Avenida Domingos Ramos, Bissau (mailing address is C. P. 297, Bissau); telephone p245o 212816, 21817, 213674

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green with a vertical red band on the hoist side; there is a black five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Cape Verde which has the black star raised above the center of the red band and is framed by two corn stalks and a yellow clam shell

- Economy Overview: Guinea-Bissau ranks among the poorest countries in the world, with a per capita GDP below $200. Agriculture and fishing are the main economic activities, with cashew nuts, peanuts, and palm kernels the primary exports. Exploitation of known mineral deposits is unlikely at present because of a weak infrastructure and the high cost of development. The government's four-year plan (1988-91) has targeted agricultural development as the top priority.

GDP: $152 million, per capita $160 (1988); real growth rate 5.6% (1987)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $20 million; expenditures $25 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1987)

Exports: $15 million (f.o.b., 1987); commodities—cashews, fish, peanuts, palm kernels; partners—Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, Cape Verde, China

Imports: $49 million (f.o.b., 1987); commodities—capital equipment, consumer goods, semiprocessed goods, foods, petroleum; partners—Portugal, USSR, EC countries, other Europe, Senegal, US

External debt: $465 million (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate - 1.7% (1986 est.)

Electricity: 22,000 kW capacity; 28 million kWh produced, 30 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: agricultural processing, beer, soft drinks

Agriculture: accounts for over 50% of GDP, nearly 100% of exports, and 80% of employment; rice is the staple food; other crops include corn, beans, cassava, cashew nuts, peanuts, palm kernels, and cotton; not self-sufficient in food; fishing and forestry potential not fully exploited

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $46 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $519 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $41 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $68 million

Currency: Guinea-Bissauan peso (plural—pesos); 1 Guinea-Bissauan peso (PG) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Guinea-Bissauan pesos (PG) per US$1—650 pesos (December 1989), NA (1988), 851.65 (1987), 238.98 (1986), 173.61 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Highways: 3,218 km; 2,698 km bituminous, remainder earth

Inland waterways: scattered stretches are important to coastal commerce

Ports: Bissau

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 37 total, 18 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: poor system of radio relay, open-wire lines, and radiocommunications; 3,000 telephones; stations—1 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: People's Revolutionary Armed Force (FARP); Army, Navy, and Air Force are separate components

Military manpower: males 15-49, 215,552; 122,824 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 3.2% of GDP (1987) —————————————————————————— Country: Guyana - Geography Total area: 214,970 km2; land area: 196,850 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Idaho

Land boundaries: 2,462 km total; Brazil 1,119 km, Suriname 600 km, Venezuela 743 km

Coastline: 459 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: outer edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Essequibo area claimed by Venezuela; Suriname claims area between New (Upper Courantyne) and Courantyne/Kutari Rivers (all headwaters of the Courantyne)

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; two rainy seasons (May to mid-August, mid-November to mid-January)

Terrain: mostly rolling highlands; low coastal plain; savanna in south

Natural resources: bauxite, gold, diamonds, hardwood timber, shrimp, fish

Land use: 3% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 6% meadows and pastures; 83% forest and woodland; 8% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: flash floods a constant threat during rainy seasons; water pollution

- People Population: 764,649 (July 1990), growth rate - 0.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 19 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 40 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Guyanese (sing., pl.); adjective—Guyanese

Ethnic divisions: 51% East Indian, 43% black and mixed, 4% Amerindian, 2% European and Chinese

Religion: 57% Christian, 33% Hindu, 9% Muslim, 1% other

Language: English, Amerindian dialects

Literacy: 85%

Labor force: 268,000; 44.5% industry and commerce, 33.8% agriculture, 21.7% services; public-sector employment amounts to 60-80% of the total labor force (1985)

Organized labor: 34% of labor force

- Government Long-form name: Co-operative Republic of Guyana

Type: republic

Capital: Georgetown

Administrative divisions: 10 regions; Barima-Waini, Cuyuni-Mazaruni, Demerara-Mahaica, East Berbice-Corentyne, Essequibo Islands-West Demerara, Mahaica-Berbice, Pomeroon-Supenaam, Potaro-Siparuni, Upper Demerara-Berbice, Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo

Independence: 26 May 1966 (from UK; formerly British Guiana)

Constitution: 6 October 1980

Legal system: based on English common law with certain admixtures of Roman-Dutch law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Republic Day, 23 February (1970)

Executive branch: executive president, first vice president, prime minister, first deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Judicature

Leaders: Chief of State—President Hugh Desmond HOYTE (since 6 August 1985); First Vice President Hamilton GREEN (since 6 August 1985);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Hamilton GREEN (since 6 August 1985)

Political parties and leaders: People's National Congress (PNC), Hugh Desmond Hoyte; People's Progressive Party (PPP), Cheddi Jagan; Working People's Alliance (WPA), Eusi Kwayana, Rupert Roopnarine, Moses Bhagwan; Democratic Labor Movement (DLM), Paul Tennassee; People's Democratic Movement (PDM), Llewellyn John; National Democratic Front (NDF), Joseph Bacchus; United Force (UF), Marcellus Feilden Singh; Vanguard for Liberation and Democracy (VLD, also known as Liberator Party), Gunraj Kumar, J. K. Makepeace Richmond

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: Executive President—last held on 9 December 1985 (next to be held late 1990); Hugh Desmond Hoyte was elected president (the leader of the party with the most votes in the National Assembly elections—PNC 78%);

National Assembly—last held on 9 December 1985 (next to be held by 9 December 1990); results—PNC 78%, PPP 16%, UF 4%, WPA 2%; seats—(65 total, 53 elected) PNC 42, PPP 8, UF 2, WPA 1

Communists: 100 (est.) hardcore within PPP; top echelons of PPP and PYO (Progressive Youth Organization, militant wing of the PPP) include many Communists; small but unknown number of orthodox Marxist-Leninists within PNC, some of whom formerly belonged to the PPP

Other political or pressure groups: Trades Union Congress (TUC); Guyana Council of Indian Organizations (GCIO); Civil Liberties Action Committee (CLAC); the latter two organizations are small and active but not well organized

Member of: ACP, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICJ, IDA, IDB—Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IRC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dr. Cedric Hilburn GRANT; Chancery at 2490 Tracy Place NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-6900; there is a Guyanese Consulate General in New York; US—Ambassador Theresa A. TULL; Embassy at 31 Main Street, Georgetown; telephone p592o (02) 54900 through 54909

Flag: green with a red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) superimposed on a long yellow arrowhead; there is a narrow black border between the red and yellow, and a narrow white border between the yellow and the green

- Economy Overview: After growing on average at less than 1% a year in 1984-87, GDP dropped by 3% in 1988, the result of bad weather, labor trouble in the canefields, and flooding and equipment problems in the bauxite industry. Consumer prices rose about 35%, and the current account deficit widened substantially as sugar and bauxite exports fell. Moreover, electric power is in short supply and constitutes a major barrier to future gains in national output. The government, in association with international financial agencies, seeks to reduce its payment arrears and to raise new funds. The government's stabilization program—aimed at establishing realistic exchange rates, reasonable price stability, and a resumption of growth—requires considerable public administrative abilities and continued patience by consumers during a long incubation period.

GDP: $323 million, per capita $420; real growth rate - 3.0% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 35% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $173 million; expenditures $414 million, including capital expenditures of $75 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $215 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.) commodities—bauxite, sugar, rice, shrimp, gold, molasses, timber, rum; partners—UK 37%, US 12%, Canada 10.6%, CARICOM 4.8% (1986)

Imports: $216 million (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities—manufactures machinery, food, petroleum; partners—CARICOM 41%, US 18%, UK 9%, Canada 3% (1984)

External debt: $1.8 billion, including arrears (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate - 5.0% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 221,000 kW capacity; 583 million kWh produced, 760 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: bauxite mining, sugar, rice milling, timber, fishing (shrimp), textiles, gold mining

Agriculture: most important sector, accounting for 25% of GDP and over 50% of exports; sugar and rice are key crops; development potential exists for fishing and forestry; not self-sufficient in food, especially wheat, vegetable oils, and animal products

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $109 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $234 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $242 million

Currency: Guyanese dollar (plural—dollars); 1 Guyanese dollar (G$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Guyanese dollars (G$) per US$1—33.0000 (January 1990), 27.159 (1989), 10.000 (1988), 9.756 (1987), 4.272 (1986), 4.252 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 187 km total, all single track 0.914-meter gauge

Highways: 7,665 km total; 550 km paved, 5,000 km gravel, 1,525 km earth, 590 km unimproved

Inland waterways: 6,000 km total of navigable waterways; Berbice, Demerara, and Essequibo Rivers are navigable by oceangoing vessels for 150 km, 100 km, and 80 km, respectively

Ports: Georgetown

Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft

Airports: 66 total, 63 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 2,439 m; 12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system with radio relay network; over 27,000 telephones; tropospheric scatter link to Trinidad; stations—4 AM, 3 FM, no TV, 1 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: Guyana Defense Force (including Maritime Corps and Air Corps), Guyana Police Force, Guyana People's Militia, Guyana National Service

Military manpower: males 15-49, 201,104; 152,958 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 4.3% of GDP, or $13.8 million (1988 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: Haiti - Geography Total area: 27,750 km2; land area: 27,560 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundary: 275 km with the Dominican Republic

Coastline: 1,771 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claims US-administered Navassa Island

Climate: tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds

Terrain: mostly rough and mountainous

Natural resources: bauxite

Land use: 20% arable land; 13% permanent crops; 18% meadows and pastures; 4% forest and woodland; 45% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; deforestation

Note: shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic

- People Population: 6,142,141 (July 1990), growth rate 2.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 45 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 16 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 6 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 107 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 55 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Haitian(s); adjective—Haitian

Ethnic divisions: 95% black, 5% mulatto and European

Religion: 75-80% Roman Catholic (of which an overwhelming majority also practice Voodoo), 10% Protestant

Language: French (official) spoken by only 10% of population; all speak Creole

Literacy: 23%

Labor force: 2,300,000; 66% agriculture, 25% services, 9% industry; shortage of skilled labor, unskilled labor abundant (1982)

Organized labor: NA

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Haiti

Type: republic

Capital: Port-au-Prince

Administrative divisions: 9 departments, (departements, singular—departement); Artibonite, Centre, Grand'Anse, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est

Independence: 1 January 1804 (from France)

Constitution: 27 August 1983, suspended February 1986; draft constitution approved March 1987, suspended June 1988, most articles reinstated March 1989

Legal system: based on Roman civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 January (1804)

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale) consisted of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives, but was dissolved on 20 June 1988 after the coup of 19 June 1988 (there was a subsequent coup on 18 September 1988); after naming a civilian as provisional president on 13 March 1990, it was announced that a Council of State was being formed

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal (Cour de Cassation)

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—Provisional President Ertha PASCAL-TROUILLOT (since 13 March 1990)

Political parties and leaders: Haitian Christian Democratic Party (PDCH), Sylvio Claude; Haitian Social Christian Party (PSCH), Gregoire Eugene; Movement for the Installation of Democracy in Haiti (MIDH), Marc Bazin; National Alliance Front (FNC), Gerard Gourgue; National Agricultural and Industrial Party (PAIN), Louis Dejoie; Congress of Democratic Movements (CONACOM), Victor Bono; National Progressive Revolutionary Party (PANPRA), Serge Gilles; National Patriotic Movement of November 28 (MNP-28), Dejean Belizaire; Movement for the Organization of the Country (MOP), Gesner Comeau; Mobilization for National Development (MDN), Hubert De Ronceray

Suffrage: none

Elections: President—last held 17 January 1988 (next to be held by mid-June 1990); on 13 March 1990 Ertha Pascal-Trouillot became provisional president after the resignation of President Lieut. Gen Prosper Avril;

Legislature—last held 17 January 1988, but dissolved on 20 June 1988; the government has promised an election by mid-June 1990

Communists: United Party of Haitian Communists (PUCH), Rene Theodore (roughly 2,000 members)

Other political or pressure groups: Democratic Unity Confederation (KID), Roman Catholic Church, Confederation of Haitian Workers (CTH), Federation of Workers Trade Unions (FOS), Autonomous Haitian Workers (CATH), National Popular Assembly (APN)

Member of: CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB—Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ITU, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant), Charge d'Affaires Fritz VOUGY; Chancery at 2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-4090 through 4092; there are Haitian Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York, and San Juan (Puerto Rico); US—Ambassador Alvin ADAMS; Embassy at Harry Truman Boulevard, Port-au-Prince (mailing address is P. O. Box 1761, Port-au-Prince), telephone p509o (1) 20354 or 20368, 20200, 20612

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms which contains a palm tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength)

- Economy Overview: About 85% of the population live in absolute poverty. Agriculture is mainly small-scale subsistence farming and employs 65% of the work force. The majority of the population does not have ready access to safe drinking water, adequate medical care, or sufficient food. Few social assistance programs exist, and the lack of employment opportunities remains the most critical problem facing the economy.

GDP: $2.4 billion, per capita $380; real growth rate 0.3% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.8% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 50% (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $252 million; expenditures $357 million, including capital expenditures of $NA million (1988)

Exports: $200 million (f.o.b., FY88); commodities—light manufactures 65%, coffee 17%, other agriculture 8%, other products 10%; partners—US 77%, France 5%, Italy 4%, FRG 3%, other industrial 9%, less developed countries 2% (FY86)

Imports: $344 million (c.i.f., FY88); commodities—machines and manufactures 36%, food and beverages 21%, petroleum products 11%, fats and oils 12%, chemicals 12%; partners—US 65%, Netherlands Antilles 6%, Japan 5%, France 4%, Canada 2%, Asia 2% (FY86)

External debt: $820 million (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate - 2% (FY87)

Electricity: 230,000 kW capacity; 482 million kWh produced, 75 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: sugar refining, textiles, flour milling, cement manufacturing, bauxite mining, tourism, light assembly industries based on imported parts

Agriculture: accounts for 32% of GDP and employs 65% of work force; mostly small-scale subsistence farms; commercial crops—coffee and sugarcane; staple crops—rice, corn, sorghum, mangoes; shortage of wheat flour

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $638 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $627 million

Currency: gourde (plural—gourdes); 1 gourde (G) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: gourdes (G) per US$1— 5.0 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

- Communications Railroads: 40 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge, single-track, privately owned industrial line

Highways: 4,000 km total; 950 km paved, 900 km otherwise improved, 2,150 km unimproved

Inland waterways: negligible; less than 100 km navigable

Ports: Port-au-Prince, Cap-Haitien

Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft

Airports: 15 total, 10 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: domestic facilities barely adequate, international facilities slightly better; 36,000 telephones; stations—33 AM, no FM, 4 TV, 2 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Corps

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,264,238; 679,209 fit for military service; 59,655 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: NA —————————————————————————— Country: Heard Island and McDonald Islands (territory of Australia) - Geography Total area: 412 km2; land area: 412 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 101.9 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploration;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: Heard Island—bleak and mountainous, with an extinct volcano; McDonald Islands—small and rocky

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: primarily used as research stations

Note: located 4,100 km southwest of Australia in the southern Indian Ocean

- People Population: uninhabited

- Government Long-form name: Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands

Type: territory of Australia administered by the Antarctic Division of the Department of Science in Canberra (Australia)

- Economy Overview: no economic activity

- Communications Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

- Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia —————————————————————————— Country: Honduras - Geography Total area: 112,090 km2; land area: 111,890 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries: 1,520 km total; Guatemala 256 km, El Salvador 342 km, Nicaragua 922 km

Coastline: 820 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: several sections of the boundary with El Salvador are in dispute

Climate: subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains

Terrain: mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains

Natural resources: timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore, antimony, coal, fish

Land use: 14% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 30% meadows and pastures; 34% forest and woodland; 20% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: subject to frequent, but generally mild, earthquakes; damaging hurricanes along Caribbean coast; deforestation; soil erosion

- People Population: 5,259,699 (July 1990), growth rate 3.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 62 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 67 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Honduran(s); adjective—Honduran

Ethnic divisions: 90% mestizo (mixed Indian and European), 7% Indian, 2% black, 1% white

Religion: about 97% Roman Catholic; small Protestant minority

Language: Spanish, Indian dialects

Literacy: 56%

Labor force: 1,300,000; 62% agriculture, 20% services, 9% manufacturing, 3% construction, 6% other (1985)

Organized labor: 40% of urban labor force, 20% of rural work force (1985)

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Honduras

Type: republic

Capital: Tegucigalpa

Administrative divisions: 18 departments (departamentos, singular—departamento); Atlantida, Choluteca, Colon, Comayagua, Copan, Cortes, El Paraiso, Francisco Morazan, Gracias a Dios, Intibuca, Islas de la Bahia, La Paz, Lempira, Ocotepeque, Olancho, Santa Barbara, Valle, Yoro

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

Constitution: 11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982

Legal system: rooted in Roman and Spanish civil law; some influence of English common law; accepts ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justica)

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—Rafael Leonardo CALLEJAS Romero (since 26 January 1990)

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party (PLH)—faction leaders, Carlos Flores Facusse (leader of Florista Liberal Movement), Carlos Montoya (Azconista subfaction), Ramon Villeda Bermudez and Jorge Arturo Reina (M-Lider faction); National Party (PNH), Ricardo Maduro, party president; PNH faction leaders—Oswaldo Ramos Soto and Rafael Leonardo Callejas (Monarca faction); National Innovation and Unity Party-Social Democrats (PINU-SD), Enrique Aguilar Cerrato Paz; Christian Democratic Party (PDCH), Jorge Illescas; Democratic Action (AD), Walter Lopez Reyes

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Elections: President—last held on 26 November 1989 (next to be held November 1993); results—Leonardo Rafael Callejas (PNH) 51%, Jose Azcona Hoyo (PLH) 43.3%, others 5.7%;

National Congress—last held on 24 November 1985 (next to be held November 1993); results—PLH 51%, PNH 45%, PDCH 1.9%, PINU 1.5%, others 0.65; seats—(134 total) PLH 62, PNH 71, PINU 1

Communists: up to 1,500; Honduran leftist groups—Communist Party of Honduras (PCH), Party for the Transformation of Honduras (PTH), Morazanist Front for the Liberation of Honduras (FMLH), People's Revolutionary Union/Popular Liberation Movement (URP/MPL), Popular Revolutionary Forces-Lorenzo Zelaya (FPR/LZ), Socialist Party of Honduras Central American Workers Revolutionary Party (PASO/PRTC)

Other political or pressure groups: National Association of Honduran Campesinos (ANACH), Honduran Council of Private Enterprise (COHEP), Confederation of Honduran Workers (CTH), National Union of Campesinos (UNC), General Workers Confederation (CGT), United Federation of Honduran Workers (FUTH), Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in Honduras (CODEH), Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations (CCOP)

Member of: CACM, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB—Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ISO, ITU, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPEB, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jorge Ramon HERNANDEZ Alcerro; Chancery at Suite 100, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 966-7700 through 7702; there are Honduran Consulates General in Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco, and Consulates in Baton Rouge, Boston, Detroit, Houston, and Jacksonville; US—Ambassador Crescencio ARCOS; Embassy at Avenida La Paz, Tegucigalpa (mailing address is APO Miami 34022); telephone p504o 32-3120

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with five blue five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band; the stars represent the members of the former Federal Republic of Central America—Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua; similar to the flag of El Salvador which features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Nicaragua which features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom, centered in the white band

- Economy Overview: Honduras is one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, accounting for nearly 30% of GDP, employing 62% of the labor force, and producing two-thirds of exports. Productivity remains low, however, leaving considerable room for improvement. Although industry is still in its early stages, it employs nearly 15% of the labor force, accounts for 23% of GDP, and generates 20% of exports. The service sectors, including public administration, account for 48% of GDP and employ nearly 20% of the labor force. Basic problems facing the economy include a high population growth rate, a high unemployment rate, a lack of basic services, a large and inefficient public sector, and an export sector dependent mostly on coffee and bananas, which are subject to sharp price fluctuations.

GDP: $4.4 billion, per capita $890; real growth rate 4.0% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 12% unemployed, 30-40% underemployed (1988)

Budget: revenues $1,053 million; expenditures $949 million, including capital expenditures of $159 million (1989)

Exports: $1.0 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—bananas, coffee, shrimp, lobster, minerals, lumber; partners—US 52%, FRG 11%, Japan, Italy, Belgium

Imports: $1.4 billion (c.i.f. 1988); commodities—machinery and transport equipment, chemical products, manufactured goods, fuel and oil, foodstuffs; partners—US 39%, Japan 9%, CACM, Venezuela, Mexico

External debt: $3.2 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1988)

Electricity: 655,000 kW capacity; 1,980 million kWh produced, 390 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: agricultural processing (sugar and coffee), textiles, clothing, wood products

Agriculture: most important sector, accounting for nearly 30% of GDP, over 60% of the labor force, and two-thirds of exports; principal products include bananas, coffee, timber, beef, citrus fruit, shrimp; importer of wheat

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, cultivated on small plots and used principally for local consumption; transshipment point for cocaine

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $1.3 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $776 million

Currency: lempira (plural—lempiras); 1 lempira (L) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: lempiras (L) per US$1—2.00 (fixed rate); 3.50 parallel exchange and black-market rate (October 1989)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 785 km total; 508 km 1.067-meter gauge, 277 km 0.914-meter gauge

Highways: 8,950 km total; 1,700 km paved, 5,000 km otherwise improved, 2,250 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 465 km navigable by small craft

Ports: Puerto Castilla, Puerto Cortes, San Lorenzo

Merchant marine: 149 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 438,495 GRT/660,990 DWT; includes 2 passenger-cargo, 87 cargo, 12 refrigerated cargo, 9 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 17 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 1 specialized tanker, 1 vehicle carrier, 17 bulk; note—a flag of convenience registry

Civil air: 9 major transport aircraft

Airports: 180 total, 140 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: improved, but still inadequate; connection into Central American Microwave System; 35,100 telephones; stations—176 AM, no FM, 28 TV, 7 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

- Defense Forces Branches: Armed Forces, Naval Forces, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,222,858; 727,851 fit for military service; 61,493 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.9% of GDP, or $82.5 million (1990 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: Hong Kong (colony of the UK) - Geography Total area: 1,040 km2; land area: 990 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than six times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundary: 30 km with China

Coastline: 733 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 3 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Disputes: scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region of China in 1997

Climate: tropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall

Terrain: hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north

Natural resources: outstanding deepwater harbor, feldspar

Land use: 7% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures; 12% forest and woodland; 79% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: more than 200 islands; occasional typhoons

- People Population: 5,759,990 (July 1990), growth rate 1.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 76 years male, 82 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: adjective—Hong Kong

Ethnic divisions: 98% Chinese, 2% other

Religion: 90% eclectic mixture of local religions, 10% Christian

Language: Chinese (Cantonese), English

Literacy: 75%

Labor force: 2,640,000; 35.8% manufacturing; 22.7% wholesale and retail trade, restaurants and hotel, 17.1% services, 7.5% construction, 8.4% transport and communications, 6.1% financing, insurance, and real estate (1986)

Organized labor: 15% of labor force (1986)

- Government Long-form name: none; abbreviated HK

Type: colony of the UK; scheduled to revert to China in 1997

Capital: Victoria

Administrative divisions: none (colony of the UK)

Independence: none (colony of the UK); the UK signed an agreement with China on 19 December 1984 to return Hong Kong to China on 1 July 1997; in the joint declaration, China promises to respect Hong Kong's existing social and economic systems and lifestyle for 50 years after transition

Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice

Legal system: based on English common law

National holiday: Liberation Day, 29 August (1945)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor, chief secretary of the Executive Council

Legislative branch: Legislative Council

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government—Governor Sir David Clive WILSON (since 9 April 1987); Chief Secretary Sir David Robert FORD (since NA February 1987)

Political parties: none

Suffrage: limited to about 71,000 professionals of electoral college and functional constituencies

Elections: Legislative Council—indirect elections last held 26 September 1985 (next to be held in September 1991) seats—(58 total; 26 elected, 32 appointed)

Communists: 5,000 (est.) cadres affiliated with Communist Party of China

Other political or pressure groups: Federation of Trade Unions (Communist controlled), Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade Union Council (Nationalist Chinese dominated), Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, Chinese General Chamber of Commerce (Communist controlled), Federation of Hong Kong Industries, Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union, and several small pro-democracy groups.

Member of: ADB, ESCAP (associate member), GATT, IMO, INTERPOL, Multifiber Arrangement, WMO

Diplomatic representation: as a British colony, the interests of Hong Kong in the US are represented by the UK; US—Consul General Donald M. ANDERSON; Consulate General at 26 Garden Road, Hong Kong (mailing address is Box 30, Hong Kong, or FPO San Francisco 96659-0002); telephone p852o (5) 239011

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with the Hong Kong coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a shield (bearing two junks below a crown) held by a lion (representing the UK) and a dragon (representing China) with another lion above the shield and a banner bearing the words HONG KONG below the shield

- Economy Overview: Hong Kong has a free-market economy and is autonomous in financial affairs. Natural resources are limited and food and raw materials must be imported. Manufacturing is the backbone of the economy, accounting for more than 20% of GDP, employing 36% of the labor force, and exporting about 90% of output. Real GDP growth averaged a remakable 8% in 1987-88, then slowed to a respectable 3% in 1989. Unemployment, which has been declining since the mid-1980s, is now less than 2%. A shortage of labor continues to put upward pressure on prices and the cost of living. Short-term prospects remain solid so long as major trading partners continue to be prosperous. The crackdown in China in 1989 casts a long shadow over the longer term economic outlook.

GDP: $57 billion, per capita $10,000; real growth rate 3% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.5% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 1.6% (1988)

Budget: $6.9 billion (FY89)

Exports: $63.2 billion (f.o.b., 1988), including reexports of $22.9 billion; commodities—clothing, textile yarn and fabric, footwear, electrical appliances, watches and clocks, toys; partners—US 31%, China 14%, FRG 8%, UK 6%, Japan 5%

Imports: $63.9 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—foodstuffs, transport equipment, raw materials, semimanufactures, petroleum; partners—China 31%, Japan 20%, Taiwan 9%, US 8%

External debt: $9.6 billion (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 7.0% (1988)

Electricity: 7,800,000 kW capacity; 23,000 million kWh produced, 4,030 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: textiles, clothing, tourism, electronics, plastics, toys, watches, clocks

Agriculture: minor role in the economy; rice, vegetables, dairy products; less than 20% self-sufficient; shortages of rice, wheat, water

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $141.2 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $899.8 million

Currency: Hong Kong dollar (plural—dollars); 1 Hong Kong dollar (HK$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Hong Kong dollars (HK$) per US$—7.800 (March 1989), 7.810 (1988), 7.760 (1987), 7.795 (1986), 7.811 (1985); note—linked to the US dollar at the rate of about 7.8 HK$ per 1 US$ since 1985

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications Railroads: 35 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, government owned

Highways: 1,100 km total; 794 km paved, 306 km gravel, crushed stone, or earth

Ports: Hong Kong

Merchant marine: 134 ships (1,000 GRT or over), totaling 4,391,102 GRT/7,430,337 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 1 short-sea passenger, 11 cargo, 10 refrigerated cargo, 13 container, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 10 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 9 combination ore/oil, 7 liquefied gas, 69 bulk; note—a flag of convenience registry; ships registered in Hong Kong fly the UK flag and an estimated 500 Hong Kong-owned ships are registered elsewhere

Civil air: 16 major transport aircraft

Airports: 2 total; 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: modern facilities provide excellent domestic and international services; 2,300,000 telephones; microwave transmission links and extensive optical fiber transmission network; stations—6 AM, 6 FM, 4 TV; 1 British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) relay station and 1 British Forces Broadcasting Service relay station; 2,500,000 radio receivers; 1,312,000 TV sets (1,224,000 color TV sets); satellite earth stations—1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT and 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT; coaxial cable to Guangzhou, China; links to 5 international submarine cables providing access to ASEAN member nations, Japan, Taiwan, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe

- Defense Forces Branches: Headquarters of British Forces, Gurkha Brigade, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force, Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force, Royal Hong Kong Police Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,703,890; 1,320,914 fit for military service; 46,440 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 0.5% of GDP, or $300 million (1989 est.); this represents one-fourth of the total cost of defending the colony, the remainder being paid by the UK

Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK —————————————————————————— Country: Howland Island (territory of the US) - Geography Total area: 1.6 km2; land area: 1.6 km2

Comparative area: about 2.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 6.4 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain: low-lying, nearly level, sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef; depressed central area

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until late 1800s)

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 5% forest and woodland; 95% other

Environment: almost totally covered with grasses, prostrate vines, and low-growing shrubs; small area of trees in the center; lacks fresh water; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife; feral cats

Note: remote location 2,575 km southwest of Honolulu in the North Pacific Ocean, just north of the Equator, about halfway between Hawaii and Australia

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