Passing through Erie, Michigan, Captain Glazier reached Monroe, July twenty-fourth, the committee of the Custer Monument Association receiving him at the City Hall. Arrangements were made for the delivery of a lecture in the interest of the fund for the erection of the monument. This was of course most congenial to Glazier's feelings, Custer being his beau ideal of a soldier, and he therefore at once placed himself in the hands of the committee, offering them the entire proceeds of the lecture. The Monroe Monitor, of July twenty-sixth, noticed the proposal thus:
"The lecture announced to be given for the benefit of the Custer Monument Fund, on Monday evening at the City Hall, was postponed for various reasons until Thursday evening at the same place. On Monday evening several members of the association met Captain Glazier, and were most favorably impressed with him. They are convinced that he is thoroughly in earnest, and his proposition is a most liberal one. He offers to give the entire proceeds of his lectures to the association; and not only in this city but throughout the State, he generously offers to do the same thing. This is certainly deserving of the warm recognition of our own people at least, and we hope on Thursday evening to see the City Hall filled. Captain Glazier comes with the strongest endorsements from well-known gentlemen in the East, both as to his character as a gentleman and a soldier, and his ability as a speaker and writer. The captain served under the late General Custer in the cavalry, and has something to say regarding his personal knowledge of the dead hero...."
The lecture was duly delivered, and the following certificate placed in his hands:
Headquarters, Custer National Monument Association, Monroe, Mich., July 28th, 1876.
This is to certify that the proceeds of the lecture by Captain Willard Glazier in this city on Thursday evening, July 27th, 1876, have been paid into the treasury of this association; for which the members hereby tender him their sincere thanks.
T. E. Wing, Treasurer.
The following also is evidence of the benevolent aims of Captain Glazier during his journey in the saddle:
Headquarters, Custer National Monument Association, Monroe, Mich., July 28th, 1876. To Auxiliary Societies and Associations of the Custer Monument Association:
Captain Willard Glazier having kindly and generously volunteered to devote the proceeds of his lectures through Michigan to the fund being raised by this Association for the erection of a monument to the memory of the late General George A. Custer, he has made arrangements to remit to our treasurer here the money derived from such lectures, and we bespeak for him your earnest endeavors in aid of our common, glorious cause. Respectfully,
J. M. Bulkley, Secretary.
Before leaving Monroe, Glazier called upon Mr. E. J. Custer, the father of the deceased general, whom he represents as nearly crushed by the melancholy news of his son's tragic death. The worthy old gentleman was very courteous, and showed him some photographs and an oil-portrait of the late general, together with some relics from the Indian country which the general had sent him at different times. Mr. Custer seemed greatly interested in the journey on horseback, and asked the captain many questions concerning his plans for crossing the plains. Finally, he accompanied Captain Glazier as far as Strong's Hotel, and witnessed his start from Monroe. During his stay in Monroe our soldier-author was introduced to several prominent gentlemen of the place, and plans were discussed for availing themselves of his proffered services in behalf of the monument. The lecture was a financial success, and the whole of the proceeds were turned over to the Treasurer, Judge T. E. Wing. "I gave them all, although they generously offered to divide with me," is the simple entry in his journal under date July twenty-eighth.
Passing through Rockwood, Trenton, Wyandotte, and Ecorse, all in the State of Michigan, he reached Detroit on the thirty-first of July, and was met by General William A. Throop at the Russell House, as one of a committee appointed to confer with him on the subject of his lecture. At the usual hour the lecture was delivered to a full house at Saint Andrew's Hall, General L. S. Trowbridge introducing the lecturer to the audience in very complimentary terms.
The next morning the proceeds were turned over to the monument fund as indicated in the following letter to the treasurer, and its acknowledgment by the local committee.
Detroit, Michigan, August 1st, 1876.
T. E. Wing, Esq., Treasurer, Custer National Monument Association:
Dear Sir: I send you through General L. S. Trowbridge of this city the net proceeds of my lecture delivered at St. Andrew's Hall last night, the same to be applied to the fund of the Custer National Monument Association, for the erection of a monument to the memory of the late General Custer at Monroe. I hope and expect to be able to send you much larger contributions as soon as the lecture season is fairly open. My horse is still in excellent condition, and I anticipate a delightful and successful ride across the Peninsular State. Promising to write you again from Ypsilanti, I am
Ever truly yours, Willard Glazier.
Detroit, Michigan, August 1st, 1876.
Received of Captain Willard Glazier, forty dollars, for the benefit of the Custer Monument Association, as the proceeds of his lecture at Detroit on the evening of July 31st, 1876, in aid of such association.
[Signed] L. S. Trowbridge, William A. Throop, Committee.
While in Detroit, Captain Glazier visited all the public buildings and places of note, enjoying the courtesies and hospitality of many of its leading citizens; and, encouraged by the success he had met with so far in contributing to the Custer Monument Fund, he determined to devote the net proceeds of all his lectures delivered between Detroit and Chicago to the same object.
Leaving Detroit and passing through Inkster, he reached Ypsilanti through torrents of rain, and the same evening—August fifth—received calls at the Hawkins House from a large number of patriotic gentlemen interested in the Custer monument. The lecture was duly delivered in Union Hall and the proceeds handed over to the fund.
Arrived at Jackson, "a most enterprising little city," as Captain Glazier notes, August ninth, and delivered his lecture in the evening at Bronson Hall, to a very full house. The Jackson Citizen said on the following morning:
"Captain Willard Glazier lectured last evening in the interest of the Custer Monument Fund. His lecture was a good historical review delivered with graceful rhetoric and at times real eloquence. The captain is still in the city giving his horse—a noble Kentucky Black Hawk, whom he has ridden all the way from Boston, and whom he expects to carry him to San Francisco—a rest. He starts to-morrow morning for Battle-Creek, where he lectures on Saturday evening."
Through Parma, Albion, and on to Battle-Creek, which was reached August twelfth. Lieutenant Eugene T. Freeman here took the role of host and welcomed Captain Glazier to the city, introducing him to many admirers and friends of the late General Custer. Arrangements were completed for the lecture, which took place at the usual hour in Stuart's Hall before a numerous and attentive audience—the introduction being made by Lieutenant Freeman, and the proceeds applied to the monument fund. The following day being Sunday the lieutenant's invitation was accepted to accompany him to church, where an introduction to the pastor, Rev. Mr. Palmer, and others, took place. In the afternoon Captain Glazier was agreeably surprised by an invitation from Lieutenant Freeman to ride with him in his carriage to the delightful summer resort of that region—Goguac Lake; and in many other ways Lieutenant Freeman manifested a very friendly and cordial feeling for him.
Contrary to Captain Glazier's intention on setting out from Boston he yielded to invitations to lecture at Albion and Marshall, and, in the interest of the Custer Monument, also determined to visit South Bend, Indiana; and Grand Rapids, Michigan; which cities were not included in the route he had originally marked out for himself.
At Kalamazoo he delivered his lecture to a crowded house, being introduced by Major Judson, late of General Custer's staff. Nearing Comstock, Captain Glazier met with a serious adventure. His horse "Paul" becoming frightened by the approach of a train on the Michigan Central Railway, dashed over the embankment into the Kalamazoo River—a fall of nearly forty feet, and the captain came very near losing his life. No bones were broken, however, the result being happily confined to a considerable ducking and a no less considerable scare; "Paul" having fared as ill as his master.
The following letters and press notices will show the nature of the reception our soldier-author met with in Kalamazoo, Grand Rapids and South Bend, respectively:
Kalamazoo, Michigan, August 18th, 1876.
J. M. Bulkley, Esq., Secretary C. N. M. Association, Monroe, Michigan.
Dear Sir:—I have the pleasure of transmitting to Judge Wing, through Major R. F. Judson, the net proceeds of my lecture delivered in this place on the evening of the sixteenth instant. I desire to accompany my gift with an acknowledgment of many courtesies extended by the press and band of this patriotic village. I resume my journey this afternoon and shall speak at Niles, South Bend, and Laporte before the close of the present week. Hoping that your brightest anticipations for the "Monument" may be most fully realized, I remain,
Always sincerely yours,
Kalamazoo, Michigan, August 19th, 1876.
Received of Captain Willard Glazier the net proceeds of his lecture at this place, which sum is to be applied to the fund for the erection of a monument to the memory of the late General Custer, at Monroe City, Michigan.
We take great pleasure in speaking of Captain Glazier in the highest terms, not only on account of the self-devotion he has manifested in a noble cause, but of his indomitable perseverance and energy. We trust he will, wherever he goes, receive the unanimous support of the citizens whom he addresses.
F. W. Curtenius, Late Colonel U. S. Volunteers.
I take great pleasure in fully endorsing the above and recommending to public confidence and support, Captain Willard Glazier, in his efforts in behalf of the Custer Monument Association.
R. F. Judson, Late aide to General Custer.
From the South Bend Herald:
"As heretofore announced in these columns, Captain Glazier delivered his lecture 'Echoes from the Revolution' at the Academy of Music last evening. Promptly at eight o'clock, the lecturer, with Mr. J. F. Creed, appeared on the platform. Mr. Creed, in introducing the lecturer, stated the object of the lecture to be in aid of the Custer Monument Association of Monroe, Michigan. He also read several letters introducing Captain Glazier to the public, from well-known citizens of Michigan, and acknowledging receipts of the proceeds of the lectures delivered in Detroit and Kalamazoo. The theme of the lecture afforded a fine field for the display of Captain Glazier's talents as a speaker. Possessing a fine imagination, good descriptive powers, and the real qualities of an orator, he could not fail to please the really intelligent audience which greeted him last evening. Probably one hour and a half were consumed in its delivery, but the interest and attention of the audience did not flag nor tire, and when the speaker took leave of his audience, he was greeted with several rounds of applause."
About this time his Boston friends were notified of his progress toward the setting sun in the following paragraph of the Boston Inquirer:
"Captain Willard Glazier, who undertook in May last to ride from this city to the Golden Gate on horseback, has reached Michigan, and has discoursed to large audiences at the various points along his route. The profits of his lecture at Cleveland, Ohio, were donated to the fund at Dayton, to assist in erecting a monument to the memory of the veterans who by the fortunes of war are destined to await the long roll-call at the National Military Home."
To return to his present point of departure, South Bend, Captain Glazier having found his horse "Paul" suffering from the accident previously recorded, and also from sore-back, had left him with a veterinary surgeon at Michigan City for treatment, and sped on his way by rail to Grand Rapids. Here he lectured with favorable results, having been introduced by General Innes.
Said the Grand Rapids Eagle:
"A very large audience gathered at Luce's Hall last night to hear Captain Willard Glazier. The speaker was earnest and impassioned, his lecture was delivered with a force and eloquence that pleased his hearers, and all who were in the hall went away glad that they had been there, and ready to add to the praises that have been bestowed on Captain Glazier as a soldier, author, and orator."
Decatur, Dowagiac, Paw-Paw, Niles, and Buchanan, were all reached by railway, for the purpose of giving "Paul" a rest and an opportunity of recovering from his sore back. At Decatur, Glazier met an old comrade of the "Harris Light," named George L. Darby, with whom a pleasant exchange of reminiscences took place, and a cordial intercourse was renewed. "Thirteen years," says Captain Glazier in his Journal, "have slipped away, since the day of our capture at New Baltimore, which led him to Belle Isle, and me to Libby Prison.... Darby called this afternoon with fishing tackle, and proposed that we should go out to 'Lake of the Woods,' a small lake not far from the village, and try our luck with hook and line. We went, and a delightful boat-ride followed, but in the matter of the fish which we tried to lure with tempting pieces of fresh meat, they are still enjoying their native freedom." We suspect the friends were too intent on fighting their battles o'er again to give due attention to their occupation.
The lecture here was delivered September fourth to a crowded house, over two hundred persons being compelled to stand for want of room to seat them. Captain Glazier was accompanied to the platform by several leading citizens, among whom were Hon. Ransom Nutting, Rev. Mr. Hoyt, Professor S. G. Burked and Albert W. Rogers, Esq., Mr. Nutting presenting him to the audience. The following will show the opinion entertained of the lecturer:
Decatur, Michigan, September 4th, 1876.
Captain Willard Glazier,
My Dear Sir:—We take this means of expressing to you our appreciation of the highly instructive and very entertaining lecture delivered by you at Union Hall this evening.
Truly we admire your plan, and your generosity in giving the entire proceeds to the Custer Monument Fund. Our endorsement is the expression of our village people generally. You have made many friends here.
May success attend you throughout your journey.
Very respectfully, S. Gordon Burked, Ransom Nutting, Albert W. Rogers.
Having lectured successfully at the several intermediate towns before mentioned, Captain Glazier with "Paul" now directed his course to Rolling Prairie, Indiana (a place romantic only in name), and thence to Michigan City. From the latter point he journeyed by railway to Chicago, arrangements having been made for the delivery of his lecture in that city for the benefit of the monument fund. A very full house greeted him at Farwell Hall. Major E. S. Weedon in introducing the lecturer alluded in an eloquent and touching manner to the record of the gallant Custer. The lecture throughout its delivery was much applauded by the audience, who appeared greatly interested; and the proceeds reached a handsome sum.
The following entry occurs in the Journal under date, Chicago, September 12th, 1876:
"I shall now push on to Omaha and Cheyenne as rapidly as possible, in the hope of passing Sherman at the summit of the mountains before the snow is too deep to interrupt my progress. There are nine steps in my journey from Boston to San Francisco, namely, Albany, Buffalo, Toledo, Chicago, Omaha, Cheyenne, Salt Lake City, Sacramento, and San Francisco. I have now taken four of these nine steps, and shall undertake to pass the five remaining points by the first of December."
FROM CHICAGO TO OMAHA.
Returns to Michigan City.—Joliet.—Thomas Babcock.—Herbert Glazier.—Ottawa.—La Salle.—Colonel Stevens.—Press Notice.—Taken for a highwayman.—Milan.—Davenport.—Press Notice.—Iowa City.—Des Moines.—Press Notice.—Attacked by prairie wolves.—Council Bluffs.—Omaha.
Captain Glazier having succeeded so far in his novel and adventurous undertaking, felt little concern as to his ability to accomplish the entire journey from ocean to ocean. He had ridden but one horse—his faithful "Paul," thus far, and having returned to Michigan City, found him quite recovered and ready to pursue the journey. On the sixteenth of September he took his departure from the latter city, and after riding a distance of twenty-eight miles, rested for the night at Hobart, Indiana.
On the seventeenth he crossed the boundary between Indiana and Illinois. On Grand Prairie, after dark, his ears were made familiar with the peculiar howl of the prairie wolf, numbers of which followed in his track for a distance of two or three miles. Not having seen any of these animals before, he supposed them at first to be dogs, until advised by "Paul's" manner and movements that they were animals less friendly to his equine companion.
At four o'clock in the afternoon, Glazier rode into Joliet, and met Mr. Thomas Babcock, his advance agent, on Jefferson Street. Preparations had been made here for the delivery of the lecture, and several prominent citizens called upon him, having heard of his projected visit to the place. His brother Herbert, who was also acting in the capacity of advance agent, had departed to Ottawa to prepare for a lecture there on the twentieth. While at Joliet, Captain Glazier stopped at the Robertson House, the proprietor of which, Mr. Conklin, sent word through the agent, that the captain was to consider himself his guest.
At the suggestion of Mr. Conklin, Captain Glazier on leaving Joliet, rode his horse along the tow-path of the Michigan Canal, and borrowing a hook and line from a gentleman who was fishing, caught twenty-three perch in less than half an hour, the canal seeming literally alive with this fish.
Leaving Morris, in Grundy County, Illinois, his journey lay along the north bank of the Illinois River, and after encountering a very severe rain storm, he reached Ottawa, September twentieth, stopping at the Clifton House. From the proprietors of this hotel he received many courtesies. The lecture, as arranged, was delivered in the evening with the usual satisfactory results.
On leaving Ottawa, the captain followed the telegraph poles along the Illinois River, passing a large number of very fine corn-fields, and overtaking an emigrant train on its journey from Ohio to Western Nebraska. La Salle was reached at six o'clock on the evening of the twenty-first. Here he enjoyed the society and hospitality of Colonel R. C. Stevens, and was introduced to a number of other prominent gentlemen, who were attracted to him by their interest in the projected monument to General Custer. The lecture was delivered at Opera Hall, Colonel Stevens making the introduction. The following letter may be presented here to show the estimation in which Captain Glazier continued to be held as he progressed in his journey westward:
La Salle, Illinois, September 25th, 1876.
To Captain Willard Glazier: I take pleasure in expressing to you on behalf of many of our citizens, the gratification afforded our people who listened to your instructive and entertaining lecture given at Opera Hall on Saturday evening. While in conversation with several of our prominent citizens—among them, W. A. Work, superintendent of our public schools; A. J. O'Connor, clerk of the City Court; W. T. Mason, Esq., and others; all of whom were present and heard your lecture—I was requested to write you and tender their hearty thanks for the entertainment, and their good wishes for your success in your ride across the continent. Should you ever again visit our city, you can rest assured you will be most cordially received.
Very truly yours, R. C. Stevens, Late Colonel U. S. Volunteers.
The La Salle County Press noticed the lecturer in the following terms:
"We have not often met with a more agreeable and pleasant gentleman than Captain Willard Glazier, who entertained a very respectable number of our citizens at Opera Hall on Saturday evening by delivering a lecture on 'Echoes from the Revolution.' The captain has a fine voice and his manner of delivery is decidedly interesting, while his language is eloquent and fascinating. His description of the battles of the Revolution, and the heroes who took part in them, from the engagement on the little green at Lexington down to the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown, was grand indeed, and was received with frequent and enthusiastic applause. In conclusion he referred in an eloquent and touching manner to the 'Boys in Blue' who took part in the late war for the Union, and all retired from the hall feeling that the evening had been spent in an agreeable and profitable manner.
"Captain Glazier served under Generals Kilpatrick and Custer during the late war, since which time he has devoted much labor to writing, and is now making the attempt to cross the continent from Boston to San Francisco on horseback, for the purpose of collecting material for another work. He left Boston in the early part of May, and will endeavor to reach the Sacramento Valley before the fall of the deep snow. His horse, 'Paul Revere,' is a magnificent animal, black as a raven, with the exception of four white feet. He was bred in Kentucky, of Black Hawk stock, has turned a mile in 2.33, but owing to his inclination to run away on certain occasions, was not considered a safe horse for the track. The captain, however, has broke him to the saddle, and also convinced him that running away is foolish business; consequently he and the captain have become fast friends, and with 'Paul' for his only companion, the gallant cavalryman proposes to cross the continent. Success attend him!"
Having heard at La Salle that he would find no difficulty in securing a night's lodging at a village named Hollowayville, Captain Glazier pushed on for that point, but on applying at the only place of accommodation for travellers, was looked upon suspiciously by the German host and his frau, who politely intimated their belief that he was either a highwayman or a horse-thief! These latter gentry had for some time infested that section of Illinois, and Glazier inferred from the manner of the people that they more than half suspected him to be one of the James or Younger brothers, whose exploits they had probably read of.
Turning his back on the "Grand Pacific Hotel," he at length succeeded by dint of much perseverance, in lodging himself and "Paul" at a farm-house for the night, but not before he had fully satisfied the worthy farmer and his wife that he had no evil designs in desiring to spend the night with them.
On the following day, September twenty-fifth, the captain rode through a rich farming country, replete with "corn-fields, fine stock and oceans of fruit."
Passed through Wyanet, Annawan, and across the prairie—smiling corn-fields and ripe orchards occasionally relieving the seemingly interminable ocean of grass—and arrived at Milan, Illinois, on the evening of the twenty-seventh, remaining for the night.
Here he met a Mr. Pullman, an old and intelligent miner who had recently arrived from the Pacific coast, from whom he obtained valuable information concerning the country between Omaha and Sacramento. He also found a number of congenial spirits at Milan, chiefly New Yorkers, who had spent some years in the Far West, and their conversation partook of a practical nature bearing on his journey.
Leaving Milan on the following day, he crossed the Government Bridge, which unites Rock Island with the fine city of Davenport, Iowa, and registered at the Burtis House—the rider and his horse continuing in the best of health.
The lecture at Davenport was delivered at the usual hour at Moore's Hall to a very large and applauding audience, General Sanders presenting him. The brass band of the place volunteered their services, and appeared in full uniform. The Davenport Gazette of October fourth said:
"The lecture of Captain Willard Glazier at Moore's Hall last evening was attended by a large and appreciative audience. The captain was introduced by our worthy fellow-citizen, General Sanders, who spoke of the lecturer's career as a soldier and an author, and said he was en route for the Pacific coast on horseback, and lecturing for the benefit of the Custer Monument Fund...."
The following notice is taken from the Democrat of the same city:
"We had the pleasure of meeting Captain Glazier this morning, who arrived here on horseback from La Salle on Saturday evening. He is making the journey from Boston to San Francisco on horseback, and alone, for the purpose of seeing the country, studying the people, and gathering materials for a new work he is engaged upon. Captain Glazier is well known to fame as a writer, having published several valuable works, among them a war-record entitled, 'Capture, Prison-Pen and Escape.'
"At the breaking out of the war, Willard Glazier, then a mere youth, entered the Harris Light Cavalry, under Colonel Judson Kilpatrick, and remained in the service until the close of the rebellion, his career being marked by many adventures and hair-breadth escapes. His feat of riding on horseback across the continent, unattended, to gather materials for a book, is certainly without a precedent, and shows a brave and intrepid spirit. His horse 'Paul' was an object of great curiosity and interest."
Leaving Davenport, our traveller passed through Moscow and reached Iowa City October fifth. The weather was now becoming very cold, and he found it necessary to dismount occasionally and walk some warmth into his limbs.
Registering at the St. James Hotel, Iowa City, Captain Glazier lectured in the evening to a very full house, a profusion of cheers greeting him on his arrival upon the platform, whither he was escorted by George B. Edmunds, Esq.
Continuing his journey through Tiffin and Brooklyn to Kellogg, all in the State of Iowa, he witnessed, he says, some of the finest landscapes and grandest farms he had yet encountered during his journey. He rode into Colfax, October twelfth, and Des Moines on the following day.
"I have not seen a brighter or more stirring city in my line of march than Des Moines," writes Captain Glazier in his Journal. He wandered over the city in company with two or three of the leading citizens, admiring its numerous fine buildings and the evidences of its rapid progress; and the next day the Des Moines Leader came out with the following notice of his visit:
"Captain Willard Glazier, the horseback traveler across the continent, took in the Exposition on Saturday evening with intense gratification. He says he has seen no place, on his route from Boston, more promising than Des Moines. Among the calls he received at the Jones House was one from Captain Conrad, a prominent attorney from Missouri, and now settled in his profession in this city, who was a fellow-captive with Captain Glazier in Libby Prison during the rebellion. He continued his journey westward yesterday, with the best wishes of the friends he has made during his short stay here."
Captain Glazier speaks very highly of the extremely courteous treatment he received while at Des Moines.
Adel, and Dale City, and Minden were passed, and arriving at Neola, we find the following entry in the journal: "Weather most disagreeable. A drizzling rain made my ride to this place decidedly gloomy. My journey to-day, as usual, since entering Iowa, has been over the boundless, never-ending prairie. I have never in my life beheld a grander sight than this afternoon, when I reached the summit of an immense tableland between Avoca and Minden."
Wishing to reach Anita before halting for the night, he ventured to continue on the road after dark, although for some time before sunset he had been unable to see a farm-house or even a tree as far as the eye could reach. Giving "Paul" the rein, he followed a blind road, after crossing a sluice-way, which ultimately led them to a haystack on the prairie, where the captain decided to spend the night. A pack of prairie wolves, or coyotes, soon came upon the scene, several of which he shot, but he was shortly after reinforced by a friendly dog, who came to his rescue and kept the coyotes at bay for the remainder of the night. In the morning at daybreak he was glad enough to say adieu to the haystack where he had passed one of the most unpleasant nights of his journey.
It may here be mentioned that the coyote partakes of the natures of the dog and the wolf, and is less dangerous to encounter in the summer than in the winter, which is a characteristic of its wolfish nature. In the winter, when food is scarce, these animals will attack man, but if a bold resistance is offered, they speedily decamp.
Hastening forward on his journey through various small and more or less enterprising cities of the prairie, our traveler reached Council Bluffs at eight o'clock in the evening of October twentieth. This promising city is located three miles east from the Missouri River, and contains an enterprising population of some 20,000; its history dating from 1804. The locality is surrounded by high bluffs, and hence the name given to the city.
Striking the Missouri opposite Omaha, our horseman found he would be compelled to ride up the bank of the river and cross by ferry to the northern section of the city. On reaching the boat, "Paul" declined to embark, but with some encouragement and assistance he was at length made to understand that when rivers cannot be bridged or forded, they can sometimes be ferried, and so yielded to necessity.
Omaha is almost equidistant between the Atlantic and Pacific, and has sprung up, flourished and waxed great in the twinkling of an eye. It is now the grand gateway through which the western tide of travel and emigration is passing. The first house was erected here in 1853, and the population now numbers in the neighborhood of 30,000. Omaha can boast of as fine business blocks, hotels, school-buildings and churches as can be found in many older and more pretentious cities in the East. There are also numerous elegant private residences, with grounds beautifully ornamented with trees and shrubbery, which sufficiently attest the solid prosperity of Omaha's business men.
A story is told of the postmaster of Omaha which illustrates the changes made during the past few years. Mr. Jones, one of the first pioneers, was appointed to the office of postmaster in the autumn of 1854. At that time there was no office, while letters were rarities. The few letters that did come were kept by the postmaster in the crown of his hat till he met their owners. Only a few years have elapsed since this primitive state of things, and the post-office of Omaha has expanded from a hat into a handsome stone building, worth $350,000, in which some twenty clerks find full employment.
Hearing of the impossibility of riding his valuable horse across the Alkali Plains, he resolved to leave him at Omaha until his return from San Francisco, and to continue his journey on a mustang. In these plains the soil for two or three feet seems saturated with soda, and so poisons the water that if drunk by man or beast, after a fall of rain, is sure to be fatal. "Paul" was therefore turned over by his master to the care of G. W. Homan, proprietor of the Omaha Livery Stable; and a good serviceable mustang purchased of a Pawnee Indian, to replace him.
CAPTURED BY INDIANS.
Captain Glazier as a horseman.—Cheyenne.—Two herders.—Captured by Indians.—Torture and death of a herder.—Escape.—Ogden.— Letter to Major Hessler.—Kelton.—Terrace.—Wells.—Halleck.— Elko.—Palisade.—Argenta.—Battle Mountain.—Golconda.— Humboldt.—"The majesty of the law."—Lovelock's.—White Plains.—Desert.—Wadsworth.—Truckee.—Summit.—Sacramento.— Brighton.—Stockton.—SAN FRANCISCO.
Having made several friends in Omaha, and obtained all the information within his reach concerning the remaining half of the journey, Captain Glazier mounted his mustang and proceeded on his route across the State of Nebraska. Over the great plains that lie between the Missouri River and the mountains, his nerve as a horseman was most thoroughly tested, and not less so, the mettle of his mustang, which carried him a distance of five hundred and twenty-two miles in six days. The approach of winter suggested the importance of reaching his destination at the earliest possible date; therefore on riding into Cheyenne October twenty-eighth, he lost no time in arranging to continue his journey.
The weather now became intensely cold, as he neared the highest point in his line of march. Since leaving Omaha, the ascent had been gradual but continuous, and the point now reached was eight thousand feet above the sea-level.
Cheyenne, the "Magic City of the Plains," about five hundred and twenty miles west of Omaha, stands at an elevation of six thousand feet above the level of the sea, and is perhaps the most progressive city west of Chicago. It is the capital of Wyoming Territory, the county-seat of Laramie County, and is the largest town between Omaha and Salt Lake City. The gold discoveries in the Black Hills of Dakota added greatly to its prosperity. In proportion to its population, Cheyenne has more elegant and substantial business houses than most any other western city. This is a wonderful change from a place known the world over by its fearful sobriquet of "Hell on Wheels." Churches have risen where gamblers once reigned, and many other edifices for religious and educational purposes have been erected. Cheyenne is the trading-post for the thousands of ranchemen and stock-raisers of the plains at the base of the Black Hills, and like all other frontier cities, has a history. It was once a very fast town, and it is not very slow now.
On leaving Cheyenne he was accompanied by two herders, who were on their way to Salt Lake City with a few mustangs and ponies. It was the custom of Captain Glazier to have company in his rides through this wild region whenever he could do so, and having made the acquaintance of these men in the city, it was arranged that they should journey together as far as their respective routes led them. The men were of the usual stamp of herders, rough in exterior and plain of speech, but apparently worthy of trust. The captain was not wanting in discernment, and his cordial manner won their confidence.
Sherman having afforded them a night's shelter and refreshment, their course lay in the direction of the Skull Rocks, a huge mass of granite on the Great Laramie Plains, and so called from the resemblance of the rocks to human skulls.
The Skull Rocks being in front of them at no great distance, the conversation of the party turned upon their peculiar configuration, and opinions were advanced by each of a more or less intelligent character; the herders insisting on the probability of their having plenty of gold in them. Suddenly, over a slight elevation in the land, appeared a body of Indians, in number about thirteen or fourteen. Glazier and his companions were not at first surprised, as Indians are often found on these plains—some friendly and some hostile—but mostly those of the friendly tribes. The Indians now advancing upon them were clearly not on a friendly errand, and were pronounced by the herders to be a detachment of the Arrapahoes. They were decked in their war-paint, and on seeing the white men immediately raised their war-shout, which, as travellers on the plains are aware, always indicates an intention to attack.
The herders, knowing that they were in the presence of an enemy who would speedily relieve them of their merchandise, made conciliatory signs, by raising their hands, a signal which is equivalent to a flag of truce, and is so understood on the plains. The signal of truce was, however, ignored by the red-skins, who continued to advance at a rapid pace, gradually forming a circle around Glazier and his companions. This is the usual Indian form of attack. The circle is kept constantly in rapid motion, the Indians concentrating their fire upon a stationary object in the centre of the circle, while they render themselves a constantly shifting target, and are thus comparatively safe from the fire of the centre.
Riding around, and firing at intervals of a minute or two at Glazier and his companions, the latter did their best to defend themselves, and fired in return upon their cowardly assailants, who showed no desire for a parley. The firing from the centre was made over the backs of the ponies and mustangs, who in such emergencies are made to do duty as a breastwork. The circle of red-skins gradually lessened in diameter, as the firing on both sides continued, when a shot from the carbine of the Mexican herder killed one of the Indians.
The circle continued to grow less, until the Indians in a mass rushed on the three whites, disarmed them, secured them to each other with thongs at the wrists, and appropriated as their own the mustangs and ponies, which had been their primary object.
Before yielding, Captain Glazier and his little squad had nearly exhausted their ammunition, and felt that further resistance was not only useless, but would certainly cost them their lives. Without loss of time, the prisoners were compelled to mount, and the entire party—less one Indian killed—started off in a northerly direction.
Ignorant of their destination, the herders expressed their belief that they would in a few days find themselves in the presence of Sitting Bull, when their fate would be decided. They continued to ride at a full trot till about ten o'clock, when the whole party dismounted and camped for the night. A fire was speedily built, and some antelope beef partially roasted for their supper, of which the prisoners also partook.
The supper over, an animated conversation ensued among the Indians, while sundry furtive glances were cast in the direction of the Mexican who had killed one of their party during the attack in the morning. For a time they shouted and violently gesticulated, while one of them was observed driving a thick pole into the ground, at about fifty yards from the fire, around which the party and the prisoners squatted. Presently, at a sign from one of the Indians, supposed to be a chief named "Dull-Knife," four of the red-skins seized the Mexican and forced him towards the stake, where they stripped him to the skin, and then bound him to it with thick cords. The whole party then, without further ceremony, proceeded to torture the wretched man to death, as a punishment for his presumption in killing one of their party while defending himself from their murderous attack near the Skull Rocks. They heated their arrow-shafts in the fire, and held them in contact with his naked flesh, while others, at a distance of a few feet from their victim, cast at him their sharp-pointed knives, which, penetrating the body, remained embedded in the flesh, until he nearly died from the agony. One of the party now advanced with a revolver, and shot him in the head, thus ending his sufferings.
While the torture was proceeding, Captain Glazier and the remaining herder lay on the ground bound together by thick cords, and could offer no assistance to their tortured companion. The Mexican being dead, one of the party removed his scalp and fastened it to his waist, after which all sat down around the fire and seemed in high glee for the remainder of the evening, for the most part shouting and speech-making.
Willard Glazier had never before witnessed a case of torture by the Indians. It is true it was of a different character from that he and many of his old comrades had endured in Southern prisons; but in one respect was more merciful, as the sufferings of their victim were soon ended, while his own and his comrades extended over many months; in the one case the body was burnt and lacerated—in the other it was starved and emaciated.
The horses of the party having been tethered by long ropes to stakes, to enable them to graze during the night, a guard of two Indians was placed in charge of the prisoners, who, still bound together at the wrists, were made to lie down side by side, with an Indian on either hand. The remainder of the red-skins then disposed themselves around the fire for sleep.
Glazier and his companion slept but little, but pretended to do so. They were continually on the alert, and the guard, believing their prisoners to be asleep, dozed, and at length reclined their bodies in a restless sleep. About two o'clock in the morning, the two Indians were relieved by two others, and all remained quiet in the camp. At the first streak of dawn, the whole body leaped to their feet and were ready to resume their march northward. Glazier and the herder were assigned each a mustang, which they quietly mounted under the close scrutiny of their guards, and the entire party started off at a brisk trot.
No attempt at escape having yet been made by the captives, the surveillance became somewhat relaxed throughout the day, and the attention of the party was given to their own proper business of foraging. Wherever an opportunity offered, a momentary halt was called, and one of the party creeping cautiously up to a stray pony, would take possession by the simple process of mounting and riding him away. If more than one animal was to be appropriated, an equal number of Indians were detailed for the "duty," and each leaping on the mustang or pony he had selected, would ride off as only these freebooters of the plains can ride, with little prospect of being overtaken by the owners. Thus the day passed; as a rule, half the number of the Indians remaining as a guard to the prisoners, while the others foraged for food, and anything that could be conveniently carried off. They were now skirting the Black Hills, and Glazier had discovered by this time that they were making their way to their general rendezvous, about one hundred miles from Deadwood.
As the second night overtook the captives, the process of the previous night was repeated: they built their fire, cooked and ate their antelope steaks, and then prostrated themselves around the fire for the night. The captives were again bound together at the wrists, and lay between their two guards. Our friend was, however, on the alert and wide awake, though pretending to be asleep. Quietly he passed the fingers of one hand over the cords that bound his other to his companion, and concluded that with patience and vigilance the knot could be unfastened. While the guards dozed and slept as on the preceding night, the eyes of the prisoners stealthily sought the ponies and the arms.
The latter were always placed at the head of each sleeper, to be ready for immediate use in case of a surprise. Captain Glazier and his companion were fully convinced that any attempt to escape, if detected, would be followed by immediate torture and death; but were, nevertheless, resolved to make the effort. It was also known that if they quietly accompanied the Indians to their rendezvous or headquarters, they would be retained as hostages, probably for a long period, and be subject at any time to be tortured should a fit of vengeance seize their captors. They would not, however, make an attempt to escape unless there appeared a moral certainty of its successful accomplishment.
The third day arrived, and at dawn, after partaking of the usual breakfast of raw antelope or other game, they started again on their march. They rode all day, with the usual stoppages for forage, and about eight o'clock in the evening camped, supped, and lay down for the night, as before, after assigning the usual night-guards to the prisoners, who were again bound together.
Glazier, with the experience he had obtained in the South, and his companion, with his intimate knowledge of the plains, kept themselves constantly on the alert, prepared to take advantage of any opportunity that offered to escape from their captors. They had each fixed his eye on a pony in the herd. These animals were turned out to graze with their saddles on, in order that they might be ready for instant use, if required, in the night. The prisoners began snoring loudly under pretence of being asleep, and at the same time the guards dozed and slept at intervals, but were restless until about midnight, when they both succumbed and were fast asleep.
Glazier now worked at the cord on his wrist, and found he could unfasten it. While so doing, one of the Indians moved in his sleep, and immediately all was still as death with the captives. At length the time had arrived, the complicated knot was loosened, and the noose slipped over his hand, which at once gave him and his partner liberty of action. They knew where the arms lay, and each in the twinkling of an eye secured a large navy revolver without disturbing the Indians. They then simultaneously struck the two sleeping guards a powerful blow on the head with the butt of their revolvers. The Indian struck by the herder was nearly killed by the heavy blow, while Glazier's man was only stunned. They then made for the ponies, leaped into the saddles, and before any of the other Indians had shaken off their heavy slumber, had struck out with all their might in the direction from which they had come, and in the opposite one, therefore, to that in which the Indian party were proceeding.
In a moment, however, the pursuit commenced in earnest; vociferations implying vengeance of the direst character if they did not halt, were flung through the darkness, which only had the effect of spurring the fugitives to still greater speed. Glazier turned in his saddle and sent a bullet among his pursuers in reply to their peremptory invitation to him to halt. Another and another followed, and one Indian was dismounted, but the darkness prevented his seeing if his other shots had told. The Indians meanwhile, who had plenty of ammunition, were not slow in returning the fire, but luckily without any worse result than to increase the pace of the flying ponies.
Away they tore at the top of their speed, and soon entered a canyon in the mountain side. Only two or three of the Indians could now be seen in pursuit, and the herder, saying it would be better for both if they took different directions, at once struck off through a ravine to the right, and left Glazier alone. One Indian was observed to follow, but Glazier sent a bullet into the enemy's horse, and thus put a stop to further pursuit. The Indian now leveled his carbine at Glazier and dismounted him; and the latter's ammunition being exhausted, he ran off towards a gulch, and leaping in, remained hidden until daylight. Finding the coast clear in the morning, he emerged and at once set out walking in a southwesterly direction, which eventually brought him to a cattle-ranche, the owner of which supplied him with refreshment and a fresh mustang. Again turning his face to the west he pursued his way, covering the ground between himself and the Golden Gate at the rate of sixty miles per day.
Ogden, in the northern extremity of Utah, about forty miles from Salt Lake City, and five hundred and eleven from Cheyenne, was reached November thirteenth, after hard riding and sundry stoppages at ranches in quest of hospitality and information. No event occurred more exciting than the shooting of a buffalo that crossed his path—this being the third, beside sundry antelopes and several prairie wolves that had fallen to his revolver, in the course of his journey since leaving Omaha. On riding into Ogden, Captain Glazier was surprised to find it so important a city. It forms the western terminus of the Union Pacific, and the eastern terminus of the Central Pacific, railroads, and is the second city in size and population in the Territory of Utah. Besides the churches, a Mormon tabernacle was noticed, the population being largely of the polygamic persuasion and yielding their allegiance to the prophet of Salt Lake City.
One peculiarity of the towns in these western territories is the running streams of water on each side of nearly every street, which are fed by some mountain stream and from which water is taken to irrigate the gardens and orchards adjoining the dwellings. Ogden has a bright future before it. It is not only the terminus of the two great trans-continental lines before mentioned, but is also the starting-point of the Utah Central and Utah Northern railroads. Vast quantities of iron ore can be obtained within five miles of the city, and in Ogden canyon discoveries of silver have been made. Fruit-growing is very common in the vicinity, and a large quantity of the best varieties grown in the Territory are produced around Ogden. Utah apples, peaches and pears are finer in size, color and flavor than any grown in the Eastern or Middle States.
November eighteenth, Captain Glazier heard from his advance agent, Mr. Walter Montgomery, then in Sacramento, who was in ignorance of the captain's adventure among the Indians after leaving Cheyenne, except that certain startling rumors had reached him of the captain having been killed by the Sioux. Mr. Montgomery had accordingly written to various points for information of the missing horseman; and to allay the fears of his numerous well-wishers, who were in doubt as to his safety, Captain Glazier, after leaving Ogden, wrote the following summary of his adventure, addressed to his friend, Major E. M. Hessler, of Cleveland, Ohio:
Wild Cat Ranche, In Ogden Canyon, Utah, November 18th, 1876.
Major E. M. Hessler, Cleveland, Ohio.
Dear Sir and Comrade: I learn through my advance agent Mr. Montgomery, that a letter, manifesting some anxiety for my welfare, was recently addressed to you. I hasten to say that I am again in the saddle, and although for three days the guest of the Arrapahoes, I am still in the best of spirits, and with even more hair than when I left Cleveland. I should be pleased to give you a detailed account of my adventures among the red-skins, but have only time to tell you that I started from Cheyenne, October twenty-eighth, accompanying two herders who were on their way to Salt Lake City with a small drove of mustangs and Indian ponies. We were attacked on the thirty-first of the same month by a straggling band of Arrapahoes, near Skull Rocks, on the Laramie Plains. One Indian was killed, and my companions and myself were made prisoners after using up nearly all our ammunition in the effort to repulse our assailants. The herder whose fire killed the Indian was afterwards tied to a stake and most cruelly tortured to death. Bound to my remaining companion with thongs, we were on the following morning placed upon ponies and marched rapidly to the northward.
Breaking away from our captors on the night of November second by disabling two of our guards, we were followed some miles, firing and receiving the fire of the Indians as we galloped off on two of their ponies which we had appropriated. After being dismounted by a shot, and dismounting the Indian who had killed my horse, I finally eluded my pursuers by leaping into a gulch in the mountains, where I remained until daylight, when, finding no Indians in sight, I pursued my way on foot in a southwesterly direction, which brought me to a cattle-ranche late in the afternoon. Here I secured a fresh mustang, and once more turned my face toward the setting sun.
My money and personal effects were of course promptly taken possession of by the Arrapahoes. I am now moving westward at an average of over sixty miles per day, confidently expecting to reach San Francisco by the twenty-fourth instant. In our encounter on the Laramie Plains, five members of the "Lo!" family were sent to their Happy Hunting Ground, and in the matter of scalps you may score at least two for your humble servant.
With kind regards to friends in Cleveland, I close this letter to mount my horse,
And remain, ever truly yours, Willard Glazier.
Captain Glazier's main object now was to push on to Sacramento as fast as his mustang would carry him. Kelton (Utah), at the northwest corner of Salt Lake, was accordingly reached soon after leaving Ogden, where he halted a few hours. This station is seven hundred and ninety miles from San Francisco. Stock is extensively grazed in its vicinity, feeding on sage brush in the winter and such grass as they can get; but excellent grazing is found in the summer. The cattle are shipped to markets on the Pacific coast in large numbers. Terrace (Utah) was the next resting-place, seven hundred and fifty-seven miles from San Francisco, in the midst of a desert with all its dreary loneliness. Continuing his pace at an average of eight miles per hour—the temperature being very low at an elevation of nearly five thousand feet—Captain Glazier observed a few only of the salient features of the wild country he now passed through, his position on horseback being less favorable for topographical study than that of the tourist comfortably seated in a palace-car.
Wells (Nevada) was duly reached by the lonely rider, who found on inquiry that he was now only six hundred and sixty-one miles from his destination. This place stands at an elevation of five thousand six hundred and twenty-nine feet. Humboldt Wells, as they are designated, give celebrity to the place, which was a great watering-station in the days of the old emigrant travel. The emigrants always rejoiced when they had passed the perils of the Great American Desert and arrived at these springs, where there was always plenty of pure water and an abundance of grass for the weary animals. Hence it was a favorite camping-ground before the existence of the Pacific Railroad. The wells are very deep. A Government exploring party, under command of Lieutenant Cuppinger, visited the spot in 1870, and took soundings to a depth of seventeen hundred feet without finding bottom.
Halleck (Nevada) was the next resting station, at an elevation of five thousand two hundred and thirty feet. It is named from Camp Halleck, about thirteen miles from the station, where two or three companies of United States troops are usually kept. The land around is mostly occupied as stock-ranges.
Elko (Nevada), twenty-four miles nearer his destination, supplied his wants in the way of rest and food for the night. This is the county-seat of Elko County, the northeastern county of the State. The town has a population of 1500, and is destined to become an important city. The money paid for freights consigned to this place and the mining districts which are tributary to it, averages $1,000,000 per year. There are numerous retail stores, and a few wholesale establishments, with a bank, brewery, hotels, and three large freight depots for the accommodation of the railroad business. Indians, mostly the Shoshones, of both sexes, are frequently noticed about the town.
The valley of the Humboldt continued to widen after leaving Elko—the pastures and meadow lands, with occasional houses, were soon passed, and the rider pushed on to Palisade (Nevada), his next halting-place, thirty miles from Elko, and five hundred and seventy-six from San Francisco. For the last two hundred miles the road had been a gradual descent, and the change of temperature was very sensible. Palisade is a growing little place, with a population of about four hundred souls. The town is located about half way down a canyon, and the rocky, perpendicular walls give it a picturesque appearance.
Forty-one miles farther west Captain Glazier stopped again for refreshment and rest at Argenta (Nevada), in the midst of alkali flats. The road continued for a few miles along the base of the Reese River Mountain, when suddenly a broad valley opened out—the valley of the Reese River. Turning to the right he found himself at Battle Mountain (Nevada), at the junction of the Reese River and Humboldt Valleys. The town of Battle Mountain has several extensive stores, a public hall, an excellent school-house and a first-class hotel, with a large and rapidly increasing trade. Battle Mountain, about three miles south of the town, is reputed to have been the scene of a sanguinary conflict between a party of emigrants and a band of red-skins, who were defeated.
Golconda (Nevada) was reached, and is four hundred and seventy-eight miles from San Francisco. It is a small place, with three or four stores, a hotel, and several houses. Gold Run mining district, a little distance to the south, is tributary to the place. Having rested for the night, Glazier mounted at sunrise and directed his course to Winnemucca (Nevada), the county-seat of Humboldt county, with a population of fifteen hundred, among whom are some Indians and not a few Chinamen. The town has an elegant brick court-house, together with several stores, hotels, shops, and a school-house. Winnemucca was the name of a chief of the Piute Indians, who was favorable to the whites at the time of the laying out of the city.
Humboldt (Nevada) was reached in due time—an oasis in the desert. Here he was reminded that he was still in a land of cultivation and civilization. The first growing trees since leaving Ogden were seen here, with plenty of green grass and flowing fountains of pure water. Humboldt House offered its hospitality to our traveler, and the place and its surroundings reminded him of his home in the east. It was a great relief from the wearisome, dreary views which had everywhere met his gaze over the largest part of his journey since leaving Omaha. Humboldt is the business centre of several valuable mining districts, and has a bright prospect in the future.
The following incident is said to have occurred in one of the Nevada mining towns not many miles from Humboldt:
About the year 1852 or '53, on a still, hot summer afternoon, a certain man who shall be nameless, having tracked his two donkeys and one horse a half mile and discovering that a man's track with spur marks followed them, came back to town and told "the boys," who loitered about a popular saloon, that in his opinion some Mexican had stolen the animals. Such news as this demanded, naturally, drinks all around.
"Do you know, gentlemen," said one who assumed leadership, "that just naturally to shoot these greasers ain't the best way? Give 'em a fair jury trial, and rope 'em up with all the majesty of the law. That's the cure."
Such words of moderation were well received, and they drank again to "Here's hoping we may ketch that greaser!"
As they loafed back to the veranda, a Mexican walked over the hill-brow, jingling his spurs pleasantly in accord with a whistled waltz.
The advocate for the law said, in an undertone, "That's the cuss!"
A rush, a struggle, and the Mexican, bound hand and foot, lay on his back in the bar-room. The miners turned out to a man.
Happily, such cries as "String him up!" "Burn the dog-goned lubricator!" and other equally pleasant phrases fell unheeded upon his Spanish ear. A jury was quickly gathered in the street, and despite refusals to serve, the crowd hurried them in behind the bar.
A brief statement of the case was made by the advocate pro tem., and they showed the jury into a commodious poker-room, where were seats grouped about neat green tables. The noise outside in the bar-room by-and-by died away into complete silence, but from afar down the canyon came confused sounds as of disorderly cheering. They came nearer, and again the light-hearted noise of human laughter mingled with clinking glasses around the bar.
A low knock at the jury door, the lock burst in, and a dozen smiling fellows asked the verdict. The foreman promptly answered, "Not guilty."
With volleys of oaths, and ominous laying of hands on pistol hilts, the "boys" slammed the door with—"You'll have to do better than that!"
In half an hour the advocate gently opened the door again.
"Your opinion, gentlemen?"
"Correct! you can come out. We hung him an hour ago!"
The jury took their drinks, and when, after a few minutes, the pleasant village returned to its former tranquility, it was "allowed" at more than one saloon that "Mexicans'll know enough to let white men's stock alone after this." One and another exchanged the belief that this sort of thing was more sensible than "nipping 'em on sight."
When, before sunset, the bar-keeper concluded to sweep some dust out of his poker-room back-door, he felt a momentary surprise at finding the missing horse dozing under the shadow of an oak, and the two lost donkeys serenely masticating playing-cards, of which many bushels lay in a dirty pile. He was then reminded that the animals had been there all day!
Lovelocks (Nevada) is three hundred and eighty-nine miles from San Francisco, and its elevation above the sea-level three thousand nine hundred and seventy-seven feet. It is simply a station, with a few buildings connected with the Central Pacific Railroad; but is a fine grazing region, and large herds of cattle are fattened here upon the rich native grasses. There is quite a settlement of farmers near Lovelocks. Before the railroad came the pasture lands were renowned among the emigrants, who recruited their stock after the wearisome journey across the plains.
Leaving Lovelocks, Captain Glazier soon found himself again on the barren desert. A side track of the railroad, named White Plains, gave him rest for the night. The spot is surrounded by a white alkali desert, covered in places with salt and alkali deposits. Hot Springs is another station in the midst of the desert, and is so named from the hot springs whose rising steam can be seen about half a mile from the station.
Hastening forward he reached Desert (Nevada), which he found to be three hundred and thirty-five miles from San Francisco, and that the place is rightly named. The winds that sweep the barren plains here, heap the sand around the scattered sage brush till they resemble huge potato hills—a most dreary place.
The captain found it quite a relief on reaching Wadsworth (Nevada), a town of about five hundred souls, and three hundred and twenty-eight miles from the end of his journey. It has several large stores, Chinamen's houses, and hotels, in one of the latter of which he found refreshment and a bed. His route had been for several days across dreary, monotonous plains, with nothing but black desolation around him. Another world now opened to his view—a world of beauty, grandeur and sublimity. Reluctantly leaving this agreeable place, he crossed the Truckee River, and gazed with delightful sensations upon the trees, the green meadows, comfortable farm-houses and well-tilled fields of the ranches, as he rode forward.
He had now crossed the boundary line that divides Nevada from California, and Truckee was the first place he halted at. This is a flourishing little city of fifteen hundred inhabitants, one-third of whom are Chinese, and is two hundred and fifty-nine miles from San Francisco. A large number of good stores were seen here, and a considerable trade is carried on.
He next reached Summit (California). From this point the road descends rapidly to the Valley of the Sacramento.
Several intermediate places having been stopped at, in which our traveler obtained accommodation for a night, we hasten on with him to Sacramento, where, on November twenty-first, he found himself again surrounded with all the appliances of civilization. Sacramento has a population of twenty-five thousand. The broad streets are shaded by heavy foliage. It is a city of beautiful homes. Lovely cottages are surrounded by flowers, fruits and vines; while some of the most elegant mansions in the State are in the midst of grassy lawns, or gardens filled with the rarest flowers. Here is the State capitol, a building that cost nearly $2,500,000 for its erection. Sacramento is an important railroad centre, second only to San Francisco.
Brighton was one hundred and thirty-four miles from the termination of his ride. At the farm-houses along the road numerous wind-mills were seen. These are used to fill reservoirs for household wants, and are common in all the valleys and plains of California.
A halt was made at Stockton, twenty-one miles from destination. This city has a population of about fifteen thousand, and is only twenty-three feet above the level of the sea. It was named to commemorate Commodore Stockton's part in the conquest of California.
Using all despatch, Captain Glazier pushed on to San Francisco, and entered the city November twenty-fourth, registering at the Palace Hotel. He immediately after rode, in company with Mr. Walter Montgomery, and a friend, to the Cliff House, reaching it by the toll-road. This beautiful seaside resort is built on a prominence overlooking the ocean. Captain Glazier walked his horse into the waters of the Pacific, and then felt that he had accomplished his task. He had ridden in the saddle from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean—from Boston to San Francisco—a distance of four thousand one hundred and thirty-three miles, in just two hundred days.
He was now no longer the slave of duty, and would rest for a few days and see the beautiful city before he returned to the east. He wandered about, mostly on foot, visited and inspected the numerous public buildings, the City Park, Woodward's Gardens, etc., and became convinced from personal observation of the greatness and magnificence of this city on the Pacific, with its three hundred thousand inhabitants, covering a territory of forty-two square miles, and the growth of less than thirty years. On its eastern front San Francisco extends along the bay, whose name it bears, bounded on the north by the Golden Gate, and on the west washed by the Pacific Ocean along a beach five or six miles in extent. It is not, however, a part of our plan to describe this wonderful city, which has been done most effectively by others.
RETURN FROM CALIFORNIA.
Returns to the East by the "Iron Horse."—Boston Transcript on the journey on horseback.—Resumes literary work.—"Peculiarities of American Cities."—Preface to book.—A domestic incident.—A worthy son.—Claims of parents.—Purchases the old Homestead, and presents it to his father and mother.—Letter to his parents.
We now accompany our subject on his return journey to the east. His family and friends had naturally felt great concern for him during his long and perilous ride, and he was anxious therefore to allay their fears for his safety by presenting himself before them. He accordingly purchased a ticket and left San Francisco by rail on the twenty-eighth of November, and after a journey more rapid and comfortable than the one he had made on horseback, arrived in New York city on December sixth.
Several of the eastern papers, on hearing of the captain's safe return, furnished their readers with interesting, and, more or less, correct accounts of the journey. We can find room only for that of the Boston Transcript:
"It will be remembered that on the ninth of May, 1876, Captain Willard Glazier, the author of 'Battles for the Union,' and other works of a military character, rode out of Boston with the intention of crossing the continent on horseback. His object in undertaking this long and tedious journey was to study at comparative leisure the line of country which he traversed, and the habits and condition of the people he came in contact with, the industrious and peaceful white, and the 'noble' and belligerent red. According to the captain's note-book, he had a closer opportunity of studying the characteristics of the terror than the toiler of the plains.
"Accompanied by certain members of the 'Grand Army of the Republic,' on the morning of May ninth, as far as Brighton, he there took leave of them, and with one companion, rode as far as Albany, the captain lecturing by the way wherever inducement offered, and handing over the profits to the benefit of the Widows' and Orphans' Fund of the G. A. R. Many of these lectures were well attended, and the receipts large, as letters of thanks from the various 'Posts' testify.
"From Albany Captain Glazier pursued his journey alone, and rode the same horse through the States of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, and Nebraska, as far as Omaha. Thence he proceeded on whatever quadruped of the equine species he could obtain, which was capable of shaking the dust from its feet nimbly. That he was fortunate in this respect is proven by the fact that he rode from Omaha to San Francisco, a distance of nineteen hundred and eighty-eight miles in thirty days, making an average of about sixty-seven miles per diem. The distance from Omaha to Cheyenne, five hundred and twenty-two miles, he accomplished in six days; the greatest distance accomplished in one day of fourteen hours was one hundred and sixty-six miles, three mustangs being called into requisition for the purpose. The entire time occupied by the journey was two hundred days, the captain reaching the Golden Gate on the twenty-fourth day of November. The actual number of days in the saddle was one hundred and forty-four, which gives an average of twenty-eight miles and seven-tenths per day.
"During this strange journey of more than four thousand miles, Captain Glazier delivered one hundred and four lectures for the object before mentioned, and also for the benefit of the Custer Monument Fund, and visited six hundred and forty-eight cities, villages and stations. He tested the merits of three hundred and thirty-three hotels, farm-houses and ranches, and made special visits to over one hundred public institutions and places of resort. He killed three buffaloes, eight antelopes, and twenty-two prairie wolves, thus enjoying to the full all the pleasurable excitement of hunting on the plains.
"But on the thirty-first of October, while in the company of two herders, the tables were turned, and a band of hostile Arrapahoes suddenly disturbed the harmony of the occasion. After a lively encounter, in which one of the Indians was despatched to the Happy Hunting Grounds, Glazier and his companions were taken prisoners, and one of the herders was gradually tortured to death. All that now seemed to be required of the two survivors was patience—if they desired to share a similar fate. But in the early morning of the second of November, while their captors were asleep, they contrived not only to escape, but to secure the arms which had been taken from them; and, mounted on two mustangs belonging to the Indians, soon placed a considerable distance between themselves and their too confident guards. In the chase which ensued, Captain Glazier was separated from his fellow-fugitive, and made good his own escape by dismounting two of his pursuers, and eventually, after a long, hard gallop, dismounting himself and hiding in a gulch. What the fate of the herder was he had no means of discovering.
"Though a man of usually robust constitution, Captain Glazier felt the transitions of climate acutely, but he experiences no ill effects from the long journey now that it is over. The 'iron horse' brought him back to the East of this continent in a few days, and there are probably few men in the States who have formed a higher opinion of the blessings of steam, than Captain Willard Glazier."
Returned to Washington our soldier-author applied himself again to literature, his ever active brain having been sufficiently recruited by the comparative relaxation it had enjoyed during the long ride. One of the fruits of his pen at this time was a volume entitled "Peculiarities of American Cities," a subject upon which his flowing pen expatiates with great freedom and a nice discrimination. That the reader may perceive the bent of Glazier's mind at this period of his history, we here present the brief and succinct preface to that work:
"It has occurred to the author very often," he writes, "that a volume presenting the peculiar features, favorite resorts, and distinguishing characteristics of the leading cities of America, would prove of interest to thousands who could, at best, see them only in imagination; and to others who, having visited them, would like to compare notes with one who has made their peculiarities a study for many years.
"A residence in more than a hundred cities, including nearly all that are introduced in this work, leads me to feel that I shall succeed in my purpose of giving to the public a book, without the necessity of marching in slow, and solemn procession before my readers, a monumental array of time-honored statistics; on the contrary it will be my aim in the following pages to talk of cities as I have seen and found them in my walks from day to day, with but slight reference to their origin and history."
* * * * *
We will bring this chapter to a close by recording one incident in the life of its hero, which, humble and common-place as it may be deemed by some, is one which, in the judgment of a majority of our readers we venture to think, reflects glory upon Willard Glazier as a son, and the nation may well feel proud that can rear many such sons.
A subject of great domestic interest which had occupied his thoughts for a considerable period, but to which he had, in his busy life, been unable hitherto to give the necessary time and attention, at this time again forcibly presented itself to his mind. Glazier's sense of a son's duty to his parents was not of the ordinary type. He was profoundly conscious of the moral obligation that devolved upon him, to render the declining years of his parents as free from discomfort and anxiety as it was within his power to do. They had nursed and trained him in infancy and boyhood; had set before him daily the example of an upright life, and had instilled in him a love of truth, honesty and every manly virtue. Their claim upon him, now that he had met with a measure of success in life, was not to be ignored, and to a good father and a good mother he would, so far as he was able, endeavor to prove himself a good son.
The Old Homestead near the banks of the Oswegatchie, in St. Lawrence County, New York, where his parents still resided; where all their children had been born, and where many happy years had been passed, was not the property of the Glazier family, and there was a possibility that the "dear old folks" might in time have to remove from it. The thought of such a contingency was painful to Willard Glazier. It was the spot of all others around which his affections clung, and he resolved to make a strenuous endeavor to possess himself of it, so that his father and mother might pass their remaining days under its shelter.
He accordingly opened negotiations with the owners of the property for the purchase of the Homestead, and was soon rejoiced to find himself the sole proprietor of a place endeared to him by so many associations.
The following letter to his parents will form a fitting conclusion to this chapter:
102 Waverley Place, New York, May 1st, 1878.
My Dear Father and Mother:
I am just in receipt of the papers which place me in possession of the Old Homestead. This, I am sure, will be very pleasing news to you, since it is my intention to make it the home of your declining years: poor old grandmother, too, shall find it a welcome refuge while she lives. I have never felt that I could see the home of my birth pass to other hands; my heart still clings to it, and its hallowed associations, with all the tenacity of former days. The first of May will, in future, have special charms for me, for from this day, 1878, dates my claim to that spot of earth which to me is dearer than all others.
Imagination often takes me back to the Old House on the Hill, where your children spent many of the happiest hours of their childhood and youth. In fancy I again visit the scenes of my boyhood—again chase the butterfly, and pick the dandelion with Elvira and Marjorie in the shade of the wide-spreading elms.
* * * * *
I have been working for you, dear parents, in the face of great obstacles since the close of the war. If you think I have neglected you—have not been home in ten long years, then I reply, I did not wish to see you again until I could place you beyond the reach of want. One of the objects of my life is to-day accomplished: and now, with love to all, and the fervent hope that prosperity and happiness may wait upon you for many, many years to come,
I remain, always, Your most affectionate son, Willard.
THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER.
An interval of literary work.—Conception of another expedition.—Reflections upon the Old Explorers.—Indian rumors.—Determined to find the true source of the Great River.—Starting on the eventful journey.—Joined by his brother George and Barrett Channing Paine.—Collecting materials for the expedition.—Brainerd the first point of departure.—Through the Chippewa Country.—Seventy miles of government road.—Curiosity its own reward.—Arrival at Leech Lake.
An interval of three years, from 1878 to 1881, now elapsed in the career of Captain Glazier; years of retirement from public attention, but by no means of inactivity on his part. During this period he was engaged mainly in literary work, and in preparation for a forthcoming expedition which his ever restless brain had evolved, and which, if successful, would furnish a valuable contribution to the geography of North America.
The design of the expedition was no less than the discovery of the true source of the "Father of Waters," the mighty Mississippi; and a voyage thence, in a canoe, to its mouth in the Gulf of Mexico. It was a novel and daring project.
The idea of such an undertaking had occurred to him while on his horseback journey across the continent; of which a brief outline has been given the reader in previous chapters. He had come to a point in his onward progress which is noted for its beauty, being one of the most picturesque spots on the Mississippi, the bridge spanning the river between Iowa and Illinois, where the rock-divided stream flows grandly by under the shadow of towering bluffs. His own words best describe the impression which the scene made upon him, and the consequent birth in his brain of the most notable achievement of his life:—
"While crossing the continent on horseback from ocean to ocean, in 1876, I came to a bridge which spans the Mississippi between Rock Island, Illinois, and Davenport, Iowa. As I saw the flood of this mighty stream rolling beneath me, I turned in imagination to its discovery in 1541. I saw the renowned De Soto upon its banks and buried in its depths: I accompanied Marquette from the mouth of the Wisconsin to the mouth of the Arkansas: I followed Father Hennepin northward to St. Anthony's Falls: and I saw the daring La Salle plant the banner of France on the shores of the Gulf of Mexico.
"Musing thus upon the exploits of the heroic old explorers who led the way to this grand and peerless river of North America, I felt that it was a subject of much regret that although its mouth was discovered by the Chevalier La Salle nearly two hundred years ago, there was still much uncertainty as to its true source. Within the last century several distinguished explorers have attempted to find the primal reservoir of the Great River. Beltrami, Nicollett, and Schoolcraft have each in turn claimed the goal of their explorations. Numerous lakes, ponds, and rivers have from time to time enjoyed the honor of standing at the head of the 'Father of Waters.' Schoolcraft, finally, in 1832, decided upon a lake, which he named Itasca, as the fountain-head, and succeeded in securing for it the recognition of geographers and map-makers.
"Notwithstanding the fact, however, that the claim for geographical honors was very generally accorded to Schoolcraft's lake, as being the source of the Mississippi, I had frequently been told that many Indians denied that their ideal river began its course in Lake Itasca, and asserted that there were other lakes and rivers above and beyond that lake, unknown to the white man, and that in them was to be found the original starting forth of the mysterious stream. These reflections led me to conclude that there was yet a rich field for exploration in the wilds of Minnesota."
Thus it was that Captain Glazier determined upon a search for this great unknown of waters. The time, however, was not yet ripe for the fulfilment of his purpose. There was promised work to be done, duties to the public waiting to be fulfilled, various literary responsibilities accumulated from the past which must be met, the projected undertaking itself to be specially prepared for;—all this to be done before he could finally turn his face towards his new purpose.
The intervening period was therefore occupied in carefully revising his literary productions. Several of his books, written hastily at the close of the war, had been published in rapid succession in a somewhat incomplete form, and the constantly increasing demand for their subsequent editions brought a public pressure to bear upon him for their needed revision which could not well be resisted.
He had also other forthcoming works on his hands, which he was anxious should be put into form before he again launched himself upon the sea of uncertain ventures. In order to collect additional material for his book upon the "Peculiarities of American Cities" it was necessary that he should make an extensive traveling tour; consequently, a considerable portion of this time was spent in visiting the leading cities of the United States and Canada. Adding to all this the necessary preparatory labor attending his contemplated voyage in search of the true source of the Mississippi, and it will be seen that the years elapsing between his journey from ocean to ocean and his latest expedition were actively and well employed.
At length, however, all his tasks were accomplished, and the month of May, 1881, found him stopping for a few days at Cleveland, Ohio, in his journey westward from New York. Leaving Cleveland on the first day of June, he proceeded to Chicago, and without further tarrying went from that city directly to St. Paul, Minnesota, intending to make this the first point for gathering his forces and collecting the material needed for his coming exploration. Here he was joined by his brother George and Barrett Channing Paine, of Indianapolis, Indiana. The month of June was spent at St. Paul in collecting tents, blankets, guns, ammunition, fishing tackle and all the various paraphernalia necessary for a six weeks' sojourn in the northern wilderness.
Finally, all arrangements being completed, the party left St. Paul on the morning of July the fourth, to go to Brainerd, about a hundred miles above St. Paul, which was to be the point of immediate departure for Leech Lake and thence to Lake Itasca. Brief stoppages were made at Minneapolis, Monticello, St. Cloud and Little Falls on their way up the river, until Brainerd was reached July the seventh.
Brainerd is an enterprising little village at the point where the Northern Pacific Railroad crosses the Mississippi, near the boundary of the Chippewa Indian Reservation, and is the nearest point, of any consequence, to Lake Itasca. Here Captain Glazier stopped for some days that he might further inform himself upon the topography of the country, in order to decide on the most feasible route to his destination, and also to provide such supplies of food as were necessary. After consulting maps it was concluded that although Schoolcraft and others had found Itasca by going up the river through Lakes Winnibegoshish, Cass and Bemidji, the most direct course would be by way of Leech Lake and the Kabekanka River. It was therefore decided to take wagon conveyance to Leech Lake over what is known in Northern Minnesota as the Government Road. This road stretches for seventy miles through trackless pine forests and almost impenetrable underbrush, the only habitations to be seen along its line being the half-way houses erected for the accommodation of teamsters, who are engaged in hauling government supplies, and the occasional wigwams of wandering Indians. It was opened in 1856, by James Macaboy, for the convenience of Indian agents and the fur trade.
At length, at eight o'clock on the bright, summer morning of Tuesday, July the twelfth, Captain Glazier and his companions, fully equipped, and with a driver celebrated for his knowledge of frontier life, began their long and toilsome wagon journey. A ride of between three and four hours brought them to Gull Lake, where a halt was proposed and made for rest and refreshment.
This lake was for many years the home and headquarters of the noted Chippewa chief, Hole-in-the-day, and has been the scene of many sanguinary struggles between his braves and those of the equally noted Sioux chief, Little Crow. The ruins of a block-house, remains of wigwams, and a few scattered graves are all that is now left to tell the story of its aboriginal conflicts. A family of four persons living in a log-house form the white population of the place. Reuben Gray, the genial patriarch who presides over this solitary household in the wilderness, delights in the title of landlord, and his hotel (by courtesy) has become somewhat famous as one of the pioneer half-way houses between Brainerd and Leech Lake.
After resting for a while and doing ample justice to the appetizing dinner which was set before them, our travelers resumed their journey. Pine River was their evening destination, and at five o'clock they reached the ranche of George Barclay, the only white habitation to be found between their last resting-place and Leech Lake. Here they were most agreeably surprised to find very good accommodation for both man and beast.
An excellent breakfast the next morning, with the fair prospect of reaching by evening the first terminal point of their journey, put the travelers in exuberant spirits for the day, and nothing but jolting over one of the roughest roads ever encountered by them could have lessened their enjoyment of the occasion. A short stop was made for luncheon at Fourteen Mile Lake, and this being their first meal in the open air they were enabled, together with the experience thus far gained in their journeying, to gauge more accurately their supply of rations. It was readily discovered that they would need at least a third more provisions for their expedition than would be required for the ordinary occupations of in-door life; and it was at once decided to provide an additional supply of bacon and dried meats before leaving Leech Lake.
After luncheon the Captain's brother and Mr. Paine took a bath in the lake, while he himself found amusement in duck-shooting and in chatting with some straggling Chippewas, who were about launching their canoes for a six weeks' hunting and fishing excursion. It happened that Captain Glazier had never before seen birch bark canoes, and they were therefore regarded by him with considerable interest, their use in the future being indispensable to the success of his undertaking. Now the Captain possesses, in common with most men of adventurous spirit, a characteristic desire to get at the bottom facts of everything, and this curiosity here caused him a laughable mishap; for, the better to examine it, he stepped into one of the canoes, when, from want of experience in balancing himself in so light a vessel, he was precipitated into the lake, much to his own discomfort but greatly to the amusement of the spectators.
Firmly resolved upon more caution in the future, the Captain and his companions pursued their journey towards Leech Lake, which was reached at four o'clock in the afternoon.
HOME OF THE CHIPPEWAS.
An embryonic red man.—A primitive hotel.—An unkempt inhabitant of the forest.—Leech Lake.—Major Ruffe's arrival.—White Cloud.—Paul Beaulieu and his theory about the source of the Mississippi.—Che-no-wa-ge-sic.—Studying Indian manners and customs.—Dining with Indian royalty.—Chippewa hospitality.—How the wife of an Indian Chief entertains.—Souvenir of Flat Mouth.—Return of Che-no-wa-ge-sic.—A council held.—An Indian speech.—"No White Man has yet seen the head of the Father of Waters."—Voyage of exploration.—Launching the canoes.
Upon the arrival of the travelers at Leech Lake their first glimpse of the embryonic red man was a little fellow of about six years, who ran out of a wigwam, brandishing a bow in one hand, and carrying arrows in the other. He was very far from being warlike, however, for with the first glance at his white brothers he suddenly disappeared in the bushes. A little further on they came to a log-cabin, over the door of which was nailed a primitive pine board, bearing the inscription—"Hotel."
Here they were received by a rough-looking man with long hair and unkempt beard, wearing, besides one other garment, a pair of pants made from a red blanket. The surroundings were certainly not inviting, and a closer inspection of the squalid accommodation did not lead them to form any more favorable opinion. However, travelers cannot always be choosers, and they really fared much better than they had expected, dining very agreeably on fresh fish and vegetables; breakfast the next morning being selected from the same simple bill of fare, varied only by the addition of "flap-jacks." In default of habitable beds their hammocks were swung from the rafters of the loft.
Leech Lake is one of the most irregularly shaped bodies of water that can be imagined. It has no well-defined form, being neither oval nor circular, but rather a combination of curves and varied outlines made by peninsulas and bays, of which only a map could convey any accurate idea. Ten islands are found upon its surface, and seven rivers and creeks enter it from various directions. It extends not less than twenty miles from North to South, and a still greater distance from East to West, with a coast line of over four hundred miles. It was for many years the seat of the Chippewa Indian Agency, but is now consolidated with the White Earth and Red Lake agencies. Major C. A. Ruffe is at present agent of the three departments, with headquarters at White Earth. The village consists of some half dozen government buildings, as many log-cabins, and about twenty or thirty wigwams scattered here and there along the shore of one of the arms of the lake.
The day after the arrival of Captain Glazier's party, the agency was thrown into a state of excitement by the announcement that Major Ruffe was on his way to Lake Winnibegoshish by way of Leech Lake. The Major came the next day, accompanied by Captain Taylor of St. Cloud, one of the pioneer surveyors of Minnesota; Paul Beaulieu, the veteran government interpreter, and White Cloud, the present chief of the Mississippi Indians, who succeeded Hole-in-the-day, the latter having been killed some time before by one of the Leech Lake band.
Paul Beaulieu, the half-breed interpreter to Major Ruffe, possesses a fund of information concerning the Upper Mississippi which cannot be ignored by those who are in pursuit of its mysterious source, and Captain Glazier considered himself most fortunate in meeting him before his departure for Lake Itasca. Beaulieu deserves more than a passing mention, as he is a man of wide experience, and is well known throughout Minnesota, and, in some circles, throughout the country. He was born at Mackinaw, while General Sibley was stationed there in the interest of the American Fur Company, of which John Jacob Astor was then the head. His father was a Frenchman and his mother an Indian. He received an English education, partly in the government school of Mackinaw, and partly at Montreal. On leaving school he was employed by the Fur Company, and sent all over the United States from the St. Lawrence to Lower California. He crossed the continent with the Stevens party on the first Northern Pacific survey, and rendered such valuable services that he was presented with a testimonial in recognition of his efficiency.
Beaulieu had a theory of his own regarding the source of the Mississippi, based upon the stories of the Chippewas and other Indians of his acquaintance. In conversation with Captain Glazier upon the subject he said that to the west of Lake Itasca there was another lake, the outlet of which united with the stream from the former, and which contributed a much larger volume of water at its junction with the Mississippi than the outlet of Lake Itasca. He therefore assumed that this nameless and almost unknown lake was the true source of the Mississippi.
In corroboration of the Beaulieu theory Major Ruffe said that he had heard the same opinion expressed by a number of old and reliable Indian voyagers. It will thus be seen that there was a great diversity of sentiment among the most trustworthy authorities as to the actual source of the Great River.
Captain Glazier was greatly exercised on finding that his arrival at Leech Lake was at a season when the local band of Indians, the Pillagers, as they are called, were away upon their annual hunting and fishing excursion. Their absence from the agency was a serious obstacle in the way of immediate further progress, for the reason that, being compelled to take the final step in their expedition to the source of the Mississippi from this point, it was important that they should complete their equipment by securing an interpreter, reliable guides and birch bark canoes.
"Find Rev. Edwin Benedict as soon as you reach Leech Lake" was the last injunction Captain Glazier received on leaving Brainerd. Mr. Benedict is Post Missionary, and one of the five representatives of the Episcopal Church on the Chippewa Reservation, holding his commission from Bishop Whipple of Minnesota. With this genial gentleman, Captain Glazier spent the greater part of his time while waiting at the Agency, when not engaged in preparations for the voyage. The courtesy of a semi-civilized bed, and the convenience of a table, with pens, ink and paper, were luxuries to be appreciated and not readily forgotten.