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Sword and Pen - Ventures and Adventures of Willard Glazier
by John Algernon Owens
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"'Resolved, That this Academy not only gratefully accepts this handsome gift, but promises to preserve and cherish it as a souvenir of Captain Glazier's high qualities as an explorer and contributor to the increase of American geographical knowledge.'

"Mr. H. Dudley Coleman then moved that a copy of the resolutions be appropriately written and framed, and presented to Captain Glazier; and that a committee of three be appointed to prepare the same.

"The resolutions were unanimously adopted, when Dr. Copes appointed as the committee Messrs. Coleman, Walker, and Blanchard.

"At the conclusion of the meeting, Mr. Coleman escorted Captain Glazier to the Washington Artillery Arsenal, and introduced him to Colonel J. B. Richardson, commanding the battalion, who extended to Captain Glazier the hospitalities of the battalion during his stay in the city."

* * * * *

BEFORE THE MISSOURI HISTORICAL SOCIETY.

Captain Glazier returned to Saint Louis from New Orleans, having engaged to deliver a lecture in that city on the "Pioneers of the Mississippi." On his voyage down the river and visit to the city, he was unable to remain long enough to fulfil the engagement, as winter was rapidly approaching, and it was expedient to reach the Gulf as soon as possible. Moreover, he wished to present one of his canoes—the Itasca—to the Missouri Historical Society, in return for the hospitality he had received during his previous brief visit; and it was arranged that the presentation should take place on the night of the lecture. Accordingly, on the evening of January fourteenth, 1882, an audience consisting of members of the Historical Society, the Academy of Sciences, clergy, officers and teachers of the public schools, and the several boat clubs of the city, assembled at Mercantile Library Hall, to listen to his lecture on the pioneer explorers of the Great River, and to witness the presentation of the Itasca.

At eight o'clock, Captain Glazier, accompanied by Judge Albert Todd, Vice-President of the Historical Society, appeared on the platform, and the Judge introduced the lecturer in the following terms, as reported in the local press:

"Mark Twain wrote that in his Oriental travels he visited the grave of our common ancestor, Adam, and, as a filial mourner, he copiously wept over it. To me the grave of our common ancestress, Eve, would be more worthy of my filial affection, but, instead of weeping over it, I should proudly rejoice by reason of her irrepressible desire for knowledge. She boldly gratified this desire, and thereby lifted Adam up from the indolent, browsing life that he seemed disposed and content to pass in the 'Garden,' and gave birth to that spirit of inquiry and investigation which is developing and elevating their posterity to 'man's pride of place'—'a little lower than the angels'—by keeping them ever discontented with the status quo, and constantly pressing on to the 'mark of their high calling' beneath the blazing legend 'Excelsior.' It is this ceaseless unrest of the spirit, one of the greatest evidences of the soul's immortality, that is continually contracting the boundaries of the unknown in geography and astronomy, in physics and metaphysics, in all their varied departments. Of those pre-eminently illustrating it in geography were Jason and his Argonauts; Columbus, De Gama, and Magellan; De Soto, Marquette, and La Salle; Cabot and Cook; Speke, Baker, Livingstone, and Franklin; and our own Ledyard, Lewis, Clarke, Kane, Hall, and Stanley. And this evening will appear before you another of these irrepressible discontents who would know what is still hidden, at any risk or privation.

"Impelled by this spirit of enterprise, in search of truth, Captain Willard Glazier has discovered, at last, the true source of our grand and peerless river, the 'Father of Waters,' down which he has floated and paddled in frail canoes, a distance of more than three thousand miles, to its mouth in the Gulf of Mexico. One of these canoes is now placed here in your view, and will be presented to-night by its navigator to our Historical Society. Nearly two hundred years ago La Salle discovered the mouth of the Mississippi, yet only now in this year of grace, 1881, was ascertained its true fountain source.

"This, the latest achievement of Captain Glazier, is only in the natural course of his antecedents. Born as late as 1841, he has already gone through the experiences of the Adamic labors of a tiller of the soil, the hard toils of the student and of the successful teacher; of the dashing and brilliant cavalry officer in the Union army through the whole period of our late war, from its disastrous beginning to its successful ending; of the sufferings of capture and imprisonment in the notorious 'Libby,' and other prisons, and of a daring and perilous escape from their cruel walls; of an adventurous tourist on horseback through the most civilized and savage portions of our continent, beginning with the feet of his horse in the waters of the Atlantic, and ending with their splash in the waters of the Pacific. He delivered lectures along his route wherever a civilized audience could be collected, and suffered capture by the Indians, with all its sensational romance and hideous prospects.

"From the material of these antecedents he has written and published several books of singular interest and national value.

"From this brief sketch we would naturally expect to see a stalwart man, massive and powerful in form and muscle. Our conceptions of men of big deeds is that they are also big. But David was a stripling when he slew Goliath of Gath. Napoleon was characterized by the society ladies of the period of his early career as 'Puss in Boots,' Our own Fremont and Eads would seem at sight capable of only the ordinarily exposed duties of life. Of like physique is the subject of this introduction.

"Ladies and gentlemen, it is now my pleasant privilege to introduce to your acquaintance Captain Willard Glazier as the lecturer for the evening."

Captain Glazier then delivered his interesting historical lecture on the "Pioneers of the Mississippi." The adventures and discoveries of De Soto, Marquette, La Salle, Hennepin, Joliet, and others, including the more recent explorers, Pike, Beltrami, Schoolcraft, and Nicollet, were intelligently discussed, and the attention of all present absorbed by the interest of the subject. He spoke of the ambition of De Soto to found an empire like that of Cortez in Mexico; of his arrival on the banks of the Great River, and finally of his death and burial in its depths. Concerning Father Marquette, the lecturer dwelt upon the zeal with which he preached the Gospel to the benighted Indians, and his premature death and burial in the wilderness. La Salle was then presented as an intrepid pioneer, pushing down the mighty river to plant his banner on the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, and taking possession of the country through which he had passed in the name of the King of France. The exploits of Hennepin, Joliet, and others were then recounted, and the lecturer gave evidence of great familiarity with the lives of these heroic pioneer explorers of the Mississippi. The following letter was then read:

"1310 Olive Street,

"Saint Louis, Missouri,

"January 14, 1882.

"Edwin Harrison, Esq.,

"President Missouri Historical Society:

"Dear Sir:—In my recent canoe voyage down the Mississippi it was my good fortune to receive many courtesies at the hands of the press, boat clubs, and citizens of Saint Louis. This, coupled with the fact that you have expressed considerable interest in the result of my explorations, inclines me to present to you the Itasca, one of the canoes used in the expedition, for the museum of your Society, as a memento of my voyage and discovery.

"During this tour of observation, extending from the headwaters of the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico, I had the satisfaction of locating the true source of the mighty stream down which we paddled our canoes to the sea.

"I am not now able to give you a detailed account of my voyage, but shall avail myself of the earliest opportunity to transmit to your Secretary a complete history of it, which will be issued in book form as soon as the material can be put in proper shape for publication.

"Very truly yours,

Willard Glazier."

Captain Silas Bent, late of the U. S. N., accepted the canoe for the society, in the following words:

"Captain Glazier:

"It becomes my pleasant duty to accept, for the Missouri Historical Society, this beautiful canoe, which has itself become historic by reason of the service it has rendered you. It shall be deposited with other treasured relics in our museum.

"I have also to express to you the high appreciation in which the Society holds the valuable contribution to geographical knowledge resulting from your explorations among the headwaters of the Mississippi River, and your discovery of the remotest lake that contributes to the perennial birth of this hydra-headed 'Father of Waters,' whose genesis near the Arctic regions gives it a length of more than three thousand miles to the tropical gulf, to which it bears upon its ample bosom in safety the freightage of an empire.

"I desire, too, to thank you for the interesting lecture just given us upon the achievements of the heroic old explorers, who have, in centuries past, preceded you in investigations of the characteristics of this river. But whilst past investigations have made us familiar with the general character of the stream, and the peculiarities of its many mouths, yet we know very little of its source; and should be gratified, I am sure, if you could give us, this evening, a brief account of the circumstances attending your explorations in that direction, and of the difficulties you had to encounter in the accomplishment of your object."

In compliance with Captain Bent's request that he would give some account of the events connected with the expedition to the source of the Mississippi, Captain Glazier then briefly narrated the leading incidents of his voyage and explorations. At the conclusion, several gentlemen came forward to congratulate him upon the practical results of his undertaking and expressed their appreciation of the work he had accomplished. The Itasca, which occupied a prominent position on the platform, was duly inspected, and afterwards removed to the rooms of the Historical Society.



III. LETTERS PERTINENT TO THE SUBJECT.

A letter from Captain Glazier which appeared in the Saint Paul Pioneer Press in December, 1886, and was copied into several Eastern papers, is here introduced as an epitomized narrative of the discovery. The journey to the headwaters of the Mississippi, the launch of the canoes on Lake Itasca, the search for its feeders and the finding of one larger than the others which the Indian guides said flowed from another lake to the south of it; the passage of the canoes up this feeder and the entrance of the explorers upon a beautiful lake which they ascertained by sounding and measurement to be wider and deeper than Itasca, and the veritable source of the Great River; all this is succinctly told in the following letter of the leader of the expedition, and we respectfully commend its perusal to the reader:

"To the Editor—Pioneer Press, Saint Paul, Minnesota:

"I solicit the favor of replying through your columns to articles in one or two New York dailies calling in question my claim to have definitely located, in 1881, the true source of the Mississippi River.

"When my attention was first drawn to the articles of those who seem so much exercised by my expedition to the headwaters of the Mississippi, I had no intention of replying, but have finally yielded to the reasoning of friends who feel that longer silence might possibly be construed to my disadvantage.

"I am well aware that I assume grave responsibility in locating the source of the greatest river of North America and correcting a geographical error of half a century's standing, especially since I follow in the footsteps of such eminent explorers as Pike, Beltrami, Schoolcraft and Nicollet; and in view of the fact that I have presumed to pass the limit of their explorations.

"For many years prior to 1881, I had been of the opinion that Lake Itasca occupied an erroneous position in our geography. In fact I had become satisfied through conversations with straggling Chippewas in the Northwest, that the red man's ideal river did not rise in the lake described by his white brother, but that there were other lakes and streams beyond that lake and that some day the truth of their statements would be verified.

"Thoroughly convinced that there was yet a field for exploration in the wilds of Northern Minnesota I resolved, in 1876, to attempt a settlement of the vexed question concerning the source of the Mississippi at an early day. Finding the opportunity I sought in 1881 I proceeded to Saint Paul in June of that year accompanied by Pearce Giles, of Camden, New Jersey. Here I was joined by my brother George, of Chicago, and Barrett Channing Paine, then an attache of the Pioneer Press.

"Having completed arrangements we moved from Saint Paul on the morning of July Fourth with Brainerd as our immediate objective. Short stops were made at Minneapolis, Monticello, Saint Cloud and Little Falls on our way up the river. Brainerd was reached July seventh. This enterprising town is situated near the boundary of the Chippewa Indian Reservation and is the nearest place of consequence to Lake Itasca. Here I again halted to further inform myself concerning the topography of the country; to decide upon the most practicable route to our destination, and to provide such extra supplies of rations and clothing as might be considered adequate to the requirements of our undertaking.

"After consulting our maps I concluded that while Schoolcraft and Nicollet had found Itasca by going up the river through Lakes Winnibegoshish, Cass and Bemidji, a more direct course would be by way of Leech Lake and the Kabekanka River.

"A careful study of the route to Leech Lake, with a few valuable suggestions from Warren Leland, of Brainerd, one of its oldest pioneers, led us to seek conveyance to the former place over what is known in Northern Minnesota as the Government Road. This road stretches for seventy-five miles, through immense pine forests, and the only habitations to be seen from it are the 'half-way houses' erected for the accommodation of teamsters who are engaged in hauling government supplies; and the occasional wigwams of wandering Indians.

"While at the Leech Lake Agency it was our good fortune to meet the post-missionary, Rev. Edwin Benedict; Major A. C. Ruffe, the Indian Agent; Paul Beaulieu, the veteran Government Interpreter; White-Cloud, chief of the Mississippi Indians; Flat-Mouth, head chief of the Chippewas, and others well known at the Agency. Through conversations with these parties I learned that pioneers of that region were of the opinion that the lake located by Schoolcraft was the source of the Mississippi, but that the Indians invariably claimed that the Great River had its origin above and beyond Itasca, in a beautiful lake known to them as Pokegama, signifying the 'place where the waters gather.'

"Beaulieu, who is perhaps the best authority in Minnesota, having lived for more than sixty years within its borders, said that Chenowagesic, who afterwards became my chief guide, was the most intelligent Chippewa of his acquaintance, had made his home for many years in the vicinity of the headwaters of the Mississippi, and that he had always asserted, when maps were shown him, that a lake above Itasca would in time change a feature of those maps and confirm his statement that Lake Itasca could not longer maintain its claim to being the fountain-head of the Great River.

"Three days were spent at Leech Lake, during which time we secured an interpreter, Indian guides and birch bark canoes. Everything being in order we launched our canoes on the morning of July seventeenth. Wishing, as previously explained, to approach Itasca by a different route from that adopted by Schoolcraft and Nicollet who went up the Mississippi from Lake Winnibegoshish, I crossed Leech Lake and ascended the Kabekanka River, thence proceeding in a direct westerly course through twenty-one lakes, alternated by as many portages, reaching Itasca between two and three o'clock on the afternoon of the twenty-first. The region traversed, we were told by the guides, had never before been trodden by white men; and considering the nature of the country it is not to be wondered at, as swamps, floating bogs, and dense undergrowth were encountered throughout the entire journey.

"The work of coasting Itasca for its feeders was begun at an early hour on the morning of the twenty-second. We found the outlets of six small streams, two having well-defined mouths, and four filtering into the lake through bogs. The upper or southern end of the south-western arm of Lake Itasca is heavily margined with reeds and rushes, and it was not without considerable difficulty that we forced our way through this barrier into the larger of the two open streams which enter at this point. This stream, at its mouth, is seven feet wide and about three feet deep.

"Slow and sinuous progress of between two and three hundred yards brought us to a blockade of logs and shallow water. Determined to float in my canoe upon the surface of the lake towards which we were paddling, I directed the guides to remove the obstructions, and continued to urge the canoes rapidly forward, although opposed by a strong and constantly increasing current. On pulling and pushing our way through a network of rushes, similar to that encountered on leaving Lake Itasca, the cheering sight of a tranquil and limpid sheet of water burst upon our view.

"This lake, the Chippewa name of which is Pokegama, is about a mile and a half in its greatest diameter, covers an area of two hundred and fifty acres, and would be nearly an oval in form but for a single promontory, which extends its shores into the lake, so as to give it in outline the appearance of a heart. Its feeders are three small creeks, two of which enter on the right and left of the headland, and have their origin in springs at the foot of sand hills from two to three miles distant. The third stream is but little more than a rivulet of a mile in length, has no clearly defined course, and is the outlet of a small pond or lakelet to the south-westward.

"The latitude of the lake in question is about 47 deg.; its height above the Atlantic Ocean 1,582 feet, and its distance from the Gulf of Mexico 3,184 miles.

"The statement that the lake now very generally accepted by geographers, and educational publishers as the True Source of the Mississippi was so regarded prior to the organization of my expedition cannot be substantiated; for, on the contrary, both press and people throughout Minnesota were ignorant of its existence, so far as we were able to ascertain by diligent inquiry from Saint Paul to Brainerd; and, in fact, I may add that the missionary, Indian agent, and post-trader at Leech Lake knew no other source of the Mississippi than Lake Itasca, except what they had been told by my chief guide, Chenowagesic, and a few other Chippewas in that vicinity. Barrett Channing Paine, fully confirms this statement in his letters to the Brainerd, Minneapolis, and Saint Paul papers of that period. These letters prove most conclusively that the people of Northern Minnesota had no knowledge whatever of the lake beyond Itasca until its existence was announced by me through the medium of the press in 1881.

"If the assumption by some writers that the lake to the south of Itasca had been seen before my visit to that region in 1881 is well grounded, I need only say in reply that it had not been assigned any geographical importance prior to my visit; in other words, it had not been recognized by any one as the true source of the Mississippi.

"When William Morrison, the fur-trader, pitched his tent on Schoolcraft Island in 1804, he evidently did not know that the outlet of the lake on which he looked was a part of the mighty river. Schoolcraft followed, at the head of an expedition twenty-eight years later, and claimed the lake as the source of the Mississippi. It is very generally admitted that Morrison had seen Itasca before Schoolcraft, but no one questioned that the latter was entitled to the credit of discovery, since he was the first to establish the fact that the Mississippi was its outlet. My claim to have definitely located the true source in the lake beyond Itasca stands on precisely the same ground.

"I do not desire to pass a reasonable limit in an effort to insure justice, but having consumed considerable time and money in locating lakes and streams in Northern Minnesota, and having established that the lake to the south of Itasca is the primal reservoir of the Mississippi, I do not feel disposed to allow myself to be thrust aside by those who know comparatively little or nothing of that region.

"Assuming that the statements of my party are incontrovertible concerning the lake which we claim as the True Source of the Great River, it follows naturally:

"I. That Lake Itasca cannot longer be recognized as the fountain-head of the Mississippi, for the reason that it is the custom, agreeably to the definition of geographers, to fix upon the remotest water, and a lake if possible, as the source of a river.

"II. That the lake to the south of Itasca, and connected therewith by a perennial stream, is the primal reservoir or True Source of the Mississippi; that it was not so considered prior to the visit of my expedition in 1881; and that my party was the first to locate its feeders correctly, and discover its true relation to the Great River.

"III. That Schoolcraft could not have seen the lake located by me, else he would have assigned it its true character in the narrative of his expedition.

"IV. That Nicollet, who followed Schoolcraft, could not have been aware of its existence, as he gives it no place upon his maps, or description in the accounts of his explorations.

"V. That the lake known as Pokegama by the Chippewas was not christened 'Glazier' by me, or through my instrumentality, but was so named by my companions, in opposition to my wish that it should retain its Indian appellation.

"Finally, whatever the verdict may be upon the merits of my claim to have been the first to locate the source of the Mississippi River and publish it to the world, if any person had seen this lake prior to 1881 it was certainly not known to the white residents of Northern Minnesota, or to the Indian tribes in the vicinity of its headwaters. Lake Itasca was still recognized as the fountain-head, was so placed upon maps, and taught as such in all the schools of the country.

"I simply claim to have established the fact that there is a beautiful lake above and beyond Itasca—wider and deeper than that lake—with woodland shores—with three constantly flowing streams for its feeders—and in every way worthy of the position it occupies as the primal reservoir or TRUE SOURCE of the Father of Waters.

"Willard Glazier. Syracuse, New York, December, 1886."

* * * * *

A letter from Pearce Giles, of Camden, New Jersey, who was identified with the GLAZIER expedition from its inception to its close:

"To the Editor—Boston Herald:

"In 1832 Henry Rowe Schoolcraft led an expedition through the wilds of Northern Minnesota and discovered what he believed to be the source of the Mississippi. Being at a loss for an appropriate name to bestow upon the lake which constituted this supposed source, so the story goes, he asked a companion what were the Latin words signifying 'true head,' and received in reply 'veritas caput.' This was rather a ponderous name to give a comparatively small body of water, even though the Father of Waters here took his first start in the world. The explorer, therefore, conceived the idea of uniting the last two syllables of the first word with the first syllable of the second, thus, by a novel mode of orthography, forming a name which might easily pass for one of Indian origin—Itasca. A person versed in orthographical science would probably perceive at once that the name did not belong to the same family of harsh Indian appellations which have affixed themselves permanently to many towns and rivers in Wisconsin and Minnesota, but was more allied to the softer language of southern Indian nations. But it has now been discovered that Lake Itasca is not veritas caput; and LAKE GLAZIER, discovered in July, 1881, by Captain Willard Glazier, must be regarded by all future generations as the true head of the Mississippi.

"The Mississippi, on its first stages, flows in a northerly direction, the whole system of small lakes which contribute to it being surrounded on the north and west by an amphitheatre of hills. LAKE GLAZIER lies above and beyond Lake Itasca, and its waters have an elevation of probably seven feet above that lake, being connected therewith by a small, swift stream. Lake Itasca is composed of three arms, extending in the form of a trefoil, having a length of five miles and an average width of about one mile. The upper, or southern end of its middle arm apparently terminates in a swamp, which might easily have deceived any one not familiar with the country. But Chenowagesic, Captain Glazier's Indian guide, who had for years used the region of these lakes for his hunting-ground, readily made his way through the reeds and rushes at the mouth of the connecting stream. LAKE GLAZIER at its outlet presents another barricade of reeds, through which the party made their way in their canoes.

"LAKE GLAZIER is about two miles in length by a mile and a half in breadth. Its shores, instead of being low and marshy, as are those of many of the neighboring lakes, present finely wooded slopes and surround the lake in what would have been the shape of a perfect oval, had not a bold, rocky promontory indented its southern end, and given to it the outline of a heart. On the point of this promontory is a spring from which flows ice-cold water. The waters of the lake are exceedingly clear and pure, proceeding from springs, some of them in the bottom of the lake itself, and the others at a greater or less distance from its shores.

"LAKE GLAZIER has three small feeders, one of them named Eagle Creek, entering it near its outlet, and taking its rise a mile or so farther south, in a small pond or lakelet, upon which Captain Glazier bestowed the name of 'Alice,' after his daughter. Eagle Creek runs nearly parallel with the western shore of the lake, a little distance from it. Two streams, two or three miles in length, flow northward into LAKE GLAZIER at its southern extremity on either side of the indenting promontory. Excelsior Creek, so named because it represents the very highest water of the Mississippi, is the longer of these. Deer Creek, to the eastward, and rising a little nearer the lake, has been so named for the reason that numbers of deer were seen in its vicinity.

"LAKE GLAZIER is thus supplied by three feeders, Eagle, Excelsior and Deer Creeks, now named in the order of their importance, and as uniting these waters in one common reservoir, this lake is undoubtedly entitled to be regarded as the veritas caput—the true head of the Mississippi.

"Pearce Giles.

"Boston, August 6, 1886."

* * * * *

We insert here an interesting letter from Paul Beaulieu, Interpreter to the United States Indian Agency, White Earth, Minnesota. Mr. Beaulieu is a very intelligent half-breed, about sixty years of age, and has lived nearly all his life in the neighborhood of the headwaters of the Mississippi. His testimony, therefore, upon a subject with which he must necessarily be familiar, will have due weight with the inquiring reader:

"U. S. Indian Service,

"White Earth Agency, Minnesota,

"May 25, 1884.

"Dear Sir:—I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the sixteenth instant. In reply, I would respectfully state that according to the ideas of the people of this section of country, for a score of years past, in alluding to Lake Itasca, which is known only as Elk Lake by the original inhabitants of this country, was never by them considered as the head or source of the Father of Running Waters, or May-see-see-be, as it is by them named. I have received a map showing the route of exploration of Captain Willard Glazier in 1881, and being well acquainted with his chief guide, Chenowagesic, who has made the section of country explored by Captain Glazier his home for many years in the past, and who has proved the truth of his often repeated assertion, when maps were shown him, that a smaller lake above Lake Itasca would in time change a feature of those maps, and proclaim to the world that Lake Itasca cannot longer maintain its claim as being the fountain head of Ke-chee-see-be, or Great River, which is called May-see-see-be, by the Chippewas. The map as delineated by Captain Glazier's guide, Chenowagesic, and published by the Glazier party, is correct; and it is plain to us who know the lay of this whole country (I mean by us, the Chippewa tribe in particular, also the recent explorers for pine) that LAKE GLAZIER is located at the right place, and is the last lake on the longest stream of the several rivers at the head of the great Mississippi.

"With respect, yours truly,

"Paul Beaulieu,

"U. S. Indian Interpreter."

* * * * *

An eastern correspondent addressed the following communication to the Saint Paul Dispatch, in which he claims that the discovery of the true source of the Mississippi should be credited to Captain Glazier:

"To the Editor—Saint Paul Dispatch:

"Having been a resident of Minnesota in 1855, I wish to say a word about Captain Glazier and his discovery. Minnesota, at the time of my residence there, was thinly settled. Minneapolis and Saint Anthony were both straggling villages. Saint Paul could boast of something like 10,000 population. The nearest railroad point to the latter city was one hundred and thirty miles distant. In winter Burbank's Northwestern Express carried the mails and the very few passengers that could muster courage to make the toilsome journey; and well do I remember my trip over this route. I know that, at that time, there was a question with the Sioux, Chippewas and many pioneers as to Lake Itasca being the source of the Great River. There was a settled opinion that something would be found beyond that would eventually prove to be the source of that stream. I believe Captain Glazier to have been actuated by a desire to establish the truth of this problem. Interested parties may seek to withhold from him his rightful due as a discoverer, but notwithstanding these attempts, in some schools in this region, LAKE GLAZIER is taught as the true source of the Mississippi. To attempt to discredit one who took front rank for the preservation of the Union, and who suffered in many rebel prisons, is altogether unworthy of the parties who are making themselves conspicuous in the matter.

"J. C. Crane.

"West Millbury, Massachusetts, January, 1887."

* * * * *

Letter from Mr. John Lovell, geographer and historian, and one of the leading educational publishers of the Dominion of Canada:

"Captain Willard Glazier:

"Dear Sir:—I owe you an apology for not having earlier acknowledged your courtesy in sending me a copy of your remarkably interesting work 'Down the Great River.' Owing to illness and a variety of calls on my time, I had not an opportunity ere this of finishing the reading of it. I have no hesitation in saying that it is most interesting and instructive, especially where you so ably summarize the results of former expeditions, and where you describe in animated language the aim, course, and outcome of your own explorations. You have had an experience which has fallen to the lot of few travellers, and, in certifying the source of the Father of Waters, have rendered a great service to the cause of geographical discovery. The account of your voyage from the newly discovered Source to the Gulf of Mexico gave me much pleasure and information. The patience and endurance of the brave fellows who were with you, considering the distance, in canoes, is worthy of praise. Your own able management of the expedition is worthy of all commendation and of substantial and immediate thanks from the good men of your own wonderful country.

"Again I sincerely thank you for your handsome and most acceptable present.

"With sincere respect, I remain, dear sir,

"Yours faithfully,

"John Lovell.

"Montreal, October 17, 1887."

The following letter will speak for itself. Mr. Gus. H. Beaulieu, of White Earth, Minnesota, Deputy United States Marshal for the district, is an educated half-breed, and cousin of Paul Beaulieu. His home is on the Chippewa Indian Reservation, within sixty miles of the source of the Mississippi. In this letter he presents the Indian theory as to the comparative volume of water in the two lakes—GLAZIER and Itasca:

"Captain Willard Glazier:

"Dear Sir:—I have been somewhat interested in your discussion regarding the source of the Mississippi. Even had you never proclaimed to the world your discoveries, from information received by me from Indians and old mixed-blood Indian voyageurs, there would have always been a doubt existing with me as to whether Itasca was the head of the Mississippi.

"Henry Beaulieu, a brother of Paul Beaulieu, always maintained that LAKE GLAZIER was the true source of the Mississippi. I remember that, after his return from Itasca with Mr. Chambers of the New York Herald, I think in 1872, he said that Winnibegoshish or Cass Lake might as well be called the source of the Mississippi as Itasca. Other mixed-blood have repeatedly stated the same thing. I mention this to show you what the general opinion is among Indians and those of mixed blood.

"Chenowagesic's theory concerning the head of the Mississippi is this: That while Itasca presents a larger surface than LAKE GLAZIER, it does not contain as much water as the latter. He arrives at this conclusion from the fact that Itasca freezes over two or three weeks before LAKE GLAZIER. This, he says, is a sure sign that the latter lake is the deeper of the two, and contains more water. His arguments in favor of LAKE GLAZIER are rather novel, and, as a matter of course, are taken from an Indian's standpoint.

"Yours truly,

"Gus. H. Beaulieu.

"White Earth, Minnesota, December 17, 1887."



IV. PUBLIC OPINION IN MINNESOTA.

The evidence here presented in support of LAKE GLAZIER, is, in our judgment, most conclusive; we may add, overwhelming. Many of the most prominent citizens of the State in which the Great River takes its rise volunteer their endorsement of a claim, of the merits of which, they must necessarily be better informed than persons living at a remote distance from the head of the river. State authorities, including the Governor and his staff; senators and representatives, many of whom have resided from twenty to forty years in Minnesota; pioneers, clergymen, and school-teachers, with many of the leading citizens; editors, school-superintendents, professional men, and others, strongly affirm that Lake Itasca is not the source of the Mississippi, but that the lake to the south of it, definitely located by Captain Glazier, is the primal reservoir or true source of the Father of Waters. These witnesses, moreover, unequivocally assert that the credit of the discovery should be awarded to the man who made it, notwithstanding the groundless opposition of a few cavillers who have never themselves visited within many hundred miles a region they affect to be so marvelously familiar with.

From His Excellency, A. R. McGill, Governor of Minnesota:

"Captain Glazier's claim to be the discoverer of the true source of the Mississippi seems reasonable, to say the least. I have been a resident of Minnesota twenty-six years, and never until Captain Glazier's expedition, heard the claim of Itasca being the source of the Great River seriously questioned."

* * * * *

From Hon. Horace Austin, Ex-Governor:

"I think that it would be a very proper thing to do under the circumstances that Captain Glazier's services should be recognized by the passage of a bill by the Legislature giving his name to the lake which is the real source of the Mississippi."

* * * * *

From Hon. W. H. Gale, Ex-Lieutenant-Governor, Winona:

"I have been a resident of Minnesota for more than twenty-eight years, and I believe it was the generally accepted opinion of the people of this State that Lake Itasca was the source of the Mississippi River, until after the expedition of Captain Willard Glazier, and his publication to the world that another lake south of Lake Itasca was the true source, to which lake has been given the name of LAKE GLAZIER. This is now generally recognized as the true source and head of the Mississippi, and Captain Glazier as the man who first made known that fact to the world."

* * * * *

From F. W. Seeley, Adjutant-General.

"I desire to say, in justice to Captain Glazier, that, having been a resident of Minnesota for twenty-five years, and quite familiar with the geography of the State, it is my belief that he was the first to discover the true source of the Mississippi River and publish it to the world."

* * * * *

From Moses E. Clapp, Attorney-General:

"From such information as I have on the subject, I am convinced that the actual source of the Mississippi had not been recognized prior to the published accounts of the explorations of Captain Willard Glazier."

* * * * *

From H. W. Childs, Assistant Attorney-General:

"There is, in my opinion, no reason or ground for disputing Captain Glazier's claim to have located the body of water now undoubtedly regarded as the source of the Mississippi River, and appropriately named LAKE GLAZIER."

* * * * *

From J. K. Moore, Private Secretary to Governor McGill:

"From the evidence, it seems clear to me that the actual source of the Mississippi River had never been recognized until Captain Glazier made its discovery in 1881."

* * * * *

From Gus. H. Beaulieu, Deputy U. S. Marshal, District of Minnesota:

"Having been born and raised in the State of Minnesota, and a resident of White Earth Indian Reservation, and being familiar with the Indian traditions, I certify that Itasca Lake had never been considered the source of the Mississippi by the best informed Chippewa Indians. Although I had never seen any published maps to the contrary, prior to the expedition of Captain Glazier in 1881, from the best information I have among the Indians, I now regard LAKE GLAZIER as the true source of the Mississippi River. I regard his chief guide, Chenowagesic, as the best authority among the Indians regarding the section of country about the headwaters of the Mississippi, and consider him thoroughly reliable."

* * * * *

From Ed. W. S. Tingle, St. Paul Globe:

"After a study of the literature of the subject, I am convinced that the lake to which the name of GLAZIER was given by the Glazier exploring expedition is undoubtedly the true source of the Mississippi, and that Captain Glazier was the first to call general public attention to the fact."

* * * * *

From Rev. W. T. Chase, Pastor First Baptist Church, Minneapolis:

"There seems no reasonable doubt that the actual source of the Mississippi had never been recognized until Captain Willard Glazier made its discovery in 1881. Captain Glazier merits the gratitude of every citizen of the United States who is interested in knowing all that is knowable about the great Father of Waters."

* * * * *

From Ex-Mayor Pillsbury, Minneapolis:

"From the best information I have been able to obtain, I am satisfied that Captain Willard Glazier was the first person that discovered the true source of the Mississippi."

* * * * *

From Rev. J. L. Pitner, Pastor Methodist Episcopal Church, Minneapolis:

"From the evidence I have examined, I am convinced that the real source of the Mississippi was not known prior to 1881. I am quite sure the claims of LAKE GLAZIER are not ill-founded, and that in its deep, cool bosom the Great River takes its rise."

* * * * *

From John E. Bradley, Superintendent Public Schools, Minneapolis:

"From such examination as I have been able to give to the problem of the true source of the Mississippi, it seems to be satisfactorily established that LAKE GLAZIER is to be so regarded."

* * * * *

From Hon. Samuel E. Adams, Member of the Minnesota Historical Society, Monticello:

"I have no doubt of the correctness of Captain Glazier's statement that he discovered the new source of the Mississippi now bearing his name."

* * * * *

From John H. Elliott, Secretary Y. M. C. A., Minneapolis:

"I have no hesitation in stating that I believe LAKE GLAZIER to be the real source of the Mississippi River, and that Captain Glazier's claims are entitled to respectful and grateful recognition."

* * * * *

From J. S. McLain, Evening Journal, Minneapolis:

"I have no reason to question the claim of Captain Glazier to have been the first to correctly map the section of country about the source of the Mississippi, or that the body of water which bears his name is the true source of the Great River."

From Albert Shaw, Minneapolis Tribune:

"Unquestionably Captain Glazier may claim the credit of having called public attention to the fact that there is a lake beyond Lake Itasca which is more strictly to be considered as the source of the Mississippi. That the lake will always be called LAKE GLAZIER, and that it will henceforth be spoken of everywhere as the source of the Great River, I have no doubt; nor do I doubt the propriety of the name."

* * * * *

From Judge John P. Rea, Commander-in-Chief G.A.R., Minneapolis:

"I have resided in Minnesota eleven years, and always supposed that Lake Itasca was the source of the Mississippi. I never heard the fact questioned until within the past four or five years. From all the evidence I have upon the subject, I am satisfied that LAKE GLAZIER is the true source."

* * * * *

From G. M. Wing, Secretary North-West Indian Commission, Minneapolis:

"Concerning the real source of the Mississippi, I would say that the lake which Captain Willard Glazier has located, and which he claims to be the source, is no doubt more properly the true source of this Great River than Lake Itasca. There is no doubt whatever in my mind but that Captain Glazier was the first person to discover that fact, and make the same known to the world; and that fact alone, though it might have been visited before, should entitle him to the honor of naming the same. I have been over the route traversed by Captain Glazier and party, and find that the map which he has published is a correct delineation of that section."

* * * * *

From Hon. J. G. Lawrence, Ex-Senator, Wabasha:

"I believe Captain Glazier is certainly entitled to the credit of having discovered the true source of the Mississippi in a lake above Lake Itasca, and now named LAKE GLAZIER."

* * * * *

From Judge L. A. Evans, Ex-Mayor, Saint Cloud

"First Mayor of Saint Cloud, and have served six terms as such. Have resided in Saint Cloud for thirty years. I believe that LAKE GLAZIER is the true source of the Mississippi River, and this is the opinion of the majority of the people residing in this part of the State."

* * * * *

From Will E. Haskell, President and Managing Editor, Minneapolis Tribune:

"There can be no longer any doubt, when the question is carefully considered, that the credit of discovering the true source of the Mississippi belongs to Captain Willard Glazier. Captain Glazier's discovery has now become an accepted geographical fact, and future generations of school-boys will speak knowingly of LAKE GLAZIER, as we did in our youth of Itasca."

* * * * *

From J. O. Simmons, Little Falls.

"Have been a resident of Little Falls for the past twenty-nine years; County Attorney and justice of the peace for several years; would state that I am personally acquainted with the half-breed Indian interpreter, Paul Beaulieu. Have known him since June, 1857, and know him to be a person of intelligence, great experience, and personal knowledge of the northern portion of Minnesota, which up to very recently has been a vast wilderness occupied only by the Chippewas. Have often conversed with him relative to the country north of us, and speaking of the Mississippi, have heard him say that Lake Itasca was not the fountain head; that there was a stream emptying its waters into Itasca from a lake a short distance above the latter, and which, in his opinion, was the true source. Since Captain Glazier's exploration, I accept the lake bearing his name as the true source of the Mississippi."

* * * * *

From Rev. Andrew D. Stowe, Rector, Trinity Church, Anoka:

"This is to certify that from the testimony of Indians and Half-breeds living at White Earth Agency, Minnesota, during my residence there of two years, I am persuaded that LAKE GLAZIER, instead of Itasca, is the real source of the Mississippi."

* * * * *

From D. Sinclair, Winona:

"In the autumn of 1862 I spent several weeks in that portion of Northern Minnesota, extending from Crow Wing to Leech Lake, and the country about Red Lake, in company with Paul Beaulieu, the well-known Indian guide and interpreter. During a conversation as to the source of the Mississippi, Beaulieu informed me that Lake Itasca was not the real source of that river, but that a smaller lake, located a short distance south of Itasca, was entitled to that distinction. After investigating the matter recently, I have no doubt of the genuineness of Captain Glazier's claim to be the person who first publicly established the fact that the lake which now bears his name is the true source of the Mississippi River."

* * * * *

From William A. Spencer, Clerk United States District Court, Saint Paul:

"I have resided in Minnesota upwards of thirty years, and until recently have always thought that Lake Itasca was the source of the Mississippi; but after an examination of the claim of Captain Glazier to be the discoverer of the true source, I am satisfied his claim is well founded."

* * * * *

From O. C. Chase, Chairman County Commissioners, Otter-Tail County:

"From information received, I am fully satisfied that Captain Glazier was the first person to publicly announce the true source of the Mississippi."

* * * * *

From John J. Ankeny, Postmaster, Minneapolis:

"From the best information I can obtain, I am persuaded that the source of the Mississippi had not been recognized prior to the published accounts of exploration by Captain Willard Glazier in 1881. I think, therefore, he is entitled to the credit of the discovery."

* * * * *

From P. P. Swenson, Sheriff, Hennepin County:

"After a residence of thirty-two years in the State of Minnesota, until recently I have always supposed that Lake Itasca was the source of the Mississippi River. I am now well informed of its true source being LAKE GLAZIER, having personally traversed that section of the State."

* * * * *

From Freeman E. Kreck, Postmaster, Aitkin:

"I have been a resident of Aitkin County since 1881; have been County Auditor for past two years, and for a time proprietor and editor of the Aitkin Age. Since Captain Glazier's explorations I do not hesitate to say that I believe LAKE GLAZIER to be the true primal reservoir of the Mississippi, and I think I voice the sentiment of the majority of the residents of this section."

* * * * *

From A. Y. Merrill, County Attorney, Aitkin:

"I believe that the lake claimed to have been located by Captain Glazier is the real source of the Mississippi River."

* * * * *

From J. W. Wakefield, Aitkin:

"Resident of Minnesota for thirty years. Personally acquainted with Chenowagesic. Indian trader more than fifteen years. Thoroughly familiar with the Chippewa language. I recognize LAKE GLAZIER as the true source of the Mississippi River."

* * * * *

From Lyman P. White, Ex-Mayor, Brainerd:

"I have been a resident of Brainerd since 1870. Built the first house in Brainerd. Have had charge of the town site for the Lake Superior and Puget Sound Company for sixteen years. I met Captain Glazier on his Mississippi trip, and fully endorse his claim to have discovered the true source of the Mississippi."

* * * * *

From W. W. Hartley, Brainerd:

"Have been a resident of Brainerd for the past fifteen years. Editor and publisher of the Tribune from 1875 to 1881, and postmaster from 1879 to 1886. Met Captain Glazier and his party here in 1881, both en route to the source of the Mississippi River, and on their return voyage by canoes to its mouth. Have no recollection of ever having heard any other than Lake Itasca claimed to be the source of the Mississippi prior to the Captain's expedition. LAKE GLAZIER has since been accepted and is believed to be its source."

* * * * *

From J. H. Koop, Postmaster, Brainerd:

"Have been a resident of this State for sixteen years. Met Captain Glazier at the time he made his expedition of discovery to the source of the Mississippi, and I recognize the lake bearing his name as its true source."

* * * * *

From N. H. Ingersoll, Editor, Brainerd Dispatch:

"I fully endorse the statement that Captain Glazier was the first to proclaim to the world the true source of the Mississippi."

* * * * *

From Rev. Fletcher J. Hawley, D. D., Rector of St. Paul's Episcopal Church, Brainerd:

"I have been a resident of Brainerd since 1880, and have not heard any one question the truth of Captain Glazier's claim to have discovered the true source of the Mississippi to be in LAKE GLAZIER."

* * * * *

From John F. Peterson, Register of Deeds, Minneapolis:

"I have resided in Minnesota for the past eighteen years, and fully believe that LAKE GLAZIER is the true source of the Mississippi."

* * * * *

From C. P. De Laithe, Superintendent of Schools, Aitkin County:

"I recognize LAKE GLAZIER as the source of the Mississippi River. Have resided in Aitkin for several years."

* * * * *

From J. H. Hallett, Brainerd:

"I recognize the lake discovered by Captain Glazier as the real source of the Mississippi. Have been an Indian trader for the past fifteen years."

* * * * *

From Hon. N. Richardson, Little Falls, Judge of Probate of Morrison County:

"I have resided on the banks of the Mississippi for thirty-one years. Met Captain Glazier at Little Falls with his exploring party, that visited the headwaters of this river in the summer of 1881. From information derived from sources that I consider reliable, I regard LAKE GLAZIER as the true source of the Great River. Have been a member of the Minnesota Legislature for three terms."

* * * * *

From O. L. Clyde, First Lieutenant, National Guard, Little Falls:

"I have been a resident of Northern Minnesota for twenty years, and always supposed that Lake Itasca was the source of the Mississippi. I never heard any thing to the contrary until the year 1881, when Captain Glazier explored the Upper Mississippi, and made his report of the same. I now recognize LAKE GLAZIER as the true source of the Great River."

* * * * *

From Moses La Fond, Little Falls:

"LAKE GLAZIER is now considered the true source of the Mississippi. I am one of the old pioneers of this State, having resided in the northern section for over thirty-two years, and was a member of the Legislature in 1874."

* * * * *

From R. Cronk, of the Government Survey, Sauk Rapids:

"This is to certify that I was compass-man on the survey of township 143 north, range 36 west of the 5th principal meridian, which embraces Itasca Lake, (the Indian name of which I understood to be Omushkos or Elk Lake,) and hereby affirm that LAKE GLAZIER is the only well-defined body of water emptying into Lake Itasca, and in my opinion is the true source of the Mississippi."

* * * * *

From Hon. T. G. Healey, Ex-State Senator, Monticello:

"Have resided in Monticello since 1856. I regard LAKE GLAZIER as the true source of the Mississippi River, and it is now so regarded by the people living in this section of Minnesota."

* * * * *

From William Tubbs, Postmaster and Ex-County Auditor, Monticello:

"Have resided in Minnesota twenty-nine years. LAKE GLAZIER is regarded by the people generally of this section as the true source of the Mississippi."

* * * * *

From W. J. Brown, Principal of the High School, Monticello:

"I consider LAKE GLAZIER to be the true source of the Mississippi, and know of no other. I teach the same in the public schools of this place, as also do my assistants."

* * * * *

From Commander A. H. Fitch, J. S. Cady Post, G. A. R., Department Minnesota; Anoka:

"I am fully convinced that the body of water, known as LAKE GLAZIER since 1881, is the true source of the Mississippi, and not Lake Itasca."

* * * * *

From J. M. Tucker, M. D., Hastings:

"I believe Captain Glazier's claim to being the discoverer of the real source of the Mississippi is just, and have never heard it questioned. It must stand as one of the facts of history."

* * * * *

From Daniel O'Brien, Police Justice, Hastings:

"I am satisfied that the lake to the south of Itasca, located by Glazier, in 1881, is the true source of the Mississippi, and that Captain Glazier is entitled to whatever credit there is in the discovery."

* * * * *

From J. R. Lambert, Ex-Mayor, Hastings:

"It has been a generally accepted fact that Lake Itasca was the source of the Mississippi River, and like many others who have preceded me in giving testimonials in favor of Captain Willard Glazier's claim as the discoverer of a body of water now known quite generally as LAKE GLAZIER, and so represented in many of our standard geographical works, I cheerfully admit that Captain Glazier is entitled to credit as the discoverer."

* * * * *

From S. Westerson, Chairman, Board of County Commissioners, Hastings:

"It seems to be clearly proven that there is a lake—now called LAKE GLAZIER—which is the true source of the Mississippi, discovered by Captain Willard Glazier in the year 1881, and that said Captain Glazier was the first man to make it public. The honor, therefore, in my estimation, is due to him."

* * * * *

From B. B. Herbert, Editor, The Republican, Red Wing:

"After a careful examination of the claim made for and against the reputed discovery of the head of the Mississippi, by Captain Willard Glazier, I am convinced that he was the first to question the received statement that Lake Itasca was its source; and first to connect the lake, which some respectable geographers have called by his name, with the Mississippi as its source. Having lived in Minnesota, on the banks of the Mississippi, for nearly thirty years, had any other person claimed to have discovered any other source than Lake Itasca, I should have been informed thereof."

* * * * *

From W. W. DeKay, Red Wing:

"From such information as I have upon the subject, I regard the lake located by Captain Glazier, to the south of Itasca, as the true source of the Mississippi. I have resided in Minnesota for thirty-three years."

* * * * *

From William Moore, Superintendent of Schools, Lake City:

"Knowing the facts in regard to Captain Glazier's discovery of the true source of the Mississippi, as brought out by public discussion, I am convinced that he is justly entitled to be considered the discoverer of the source of the Mississippi River."

* * * * *

From George C. Stout, Mayor, Lake City:

"I have no doubt that Captain Glazier is fully entitled to the honor of first discovery of the true source of the Mississippi River."

* * * * *

From D. O. Irwin, Postmaster, Lake City:

"I am convinced that the actual source of the Mississippi had not been recognized before the published account of explorations by Captain Glazier; and I regard LAKE GLAZIER as the true source of the Great River."

* * * * *

From H. L. Smith, Editor and Proprietor of the Graphic, Lake City:

"I am fully convinced that LAKE GLAZIER is the real source of the Father of Waters. Have resided in Minnesota seventeen years."

* * * * *

From F. J. Collins, Mayor of Wabasha:

"I have no doubt that Captain Glazier is fully entitled to the credit of having discovered the true source of the Mississippi River. I have resided in Minnesota thirty-one years."

* * * * *

From Hon. James G. Lawrence, Ex-State Senator, Wabasha:

"I believe Captain Glazier is certainly entitled to the credit of discovering the true source of the Mississippi, in a lake above Lake Itasca, now named after him, LAKE GLAZIER."

* * * * *

From D. L. Dawley, Principal of Schools, Wabasha:

"I believe Captain Glazier to be the real discoverer of the true source of the Mississippi River."

* * * * *

From S. B. Sheardown, M. D., Winona:

"I believe that Captain Glazier is entitled to the credit of discovering the real source of the Mississippi River. I have been a resident of Minnesota over thirty-one years."

* * * * *

From Judge A. F. Storey, St. Vincent:

"I have no hesitancy in saying that there can be no question, but, that LAKE GLAZIER is the true and primal source of the Mississippi River."

* * * * *

From James A. Thompson, Postmaster, Leech Lake (the nearest post-office to the source of the Mississippi):

"I am of opinion that LAKE GLAZIER is the source of the Mississippi. I have talked on this subject with some of the Indians who accompanied Captain Glazier on his exploring expedition in 1881, and they all say it is the last lake; that they went all the way in their canoes, and could go no further. It is the general belief here that LAKE GLAZIER is the true source."

* * * * *

From Paul Beaulieu, United States Interpreter, White Earth Indian Agency:

"I would respectfully state that according to the ideas of the people of this section of country, for scores of years past, in alluding to Lake Itasca, which is known only as Elk Lake by the original inhabitants of this part of the country, was never by them considered as the head or source of the Father of Running Waters, or May-see-see-be, as it is by them named. I received a map showing the route of exploration of Captain Willard Glazier, 1881, and being well acquainted with his chief guide, Chenowagesic, who has made the section of country explored by Captain Glazier his home for many years in the past, and who has proved the truth of his often repeated assertion, when maps were shown him, that a smaller lake above Lake Itasca would in time change the feature of those maps, and proclaim to the world that Lake Itasca cannot any longer maintain its claim as being the fountain head of Ke-chee-see-be, or Great River, which is called May-see-see-be, by the Chippewas. The map as delineated by Captain Glazier's guide, Chenowagesic, and published by the Glazier party, is correct; and it is plain to us who know the lay of this whole country (I mean, by us, the Chippewa tribe in particular, also the recent explorers for pine) that LAKE GLAZIER is located at the right place, and is the last lake on the longest stream of the several rivers at the head of the great Mississippi."

* * * * *



V. RECOGNITION.

The discovery and final location of the source of the Great River of the North American Continent by Captain Glazier has received general recognition in this country and in Europe, and our aim to place before the reader of this volume, material to assist him in forming his judgment on the validity of the author's claim, would not be attained if we omitted to include in these addenda the following evidence, the nature and weight of which we think should carry conviction to the mind of every impartial critic.

A report of the discovery was duly sent to Hon. Charles P. Daly, President of the American Geographical Society, New York, and by him forwarded to the Editor of the New York Herald, and published by that paper, accompanied by a map of the region explored, showing the true source of the Mississippi.

A report was also sent to the Royal Geographical Society, London, England, and the following courteous reply received:

"Royal Geographical Society,

"London, January 12, 1885.

"Captain Willard Glazier, New York, U. S. A.

"Dear Sir:—We owe you an apology for delaying so long communicating with you on the subject of your interesting letter and its accompanying map; a delay caused by the long summer vacation of our council, which commenced a little before the arrival of your letter.

"I am happy to be able to send you a copy of the January number of the Proceedings of our Society, containing your letter and map, and trust you will find no error has crept in.

"Your discovery was considered a distinct addition to our knowledge of the geography of the Mississippi basin, and well worthy of publication by the Society, and I am directed to thank you for having communicated this brief account of it to us.

"Your obedient servant,

"H. W. Bates,

"Assistant Secretary and Editor."

* * * * *

George W. Melville, the famed Arctic Explorer, writes:

"Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

"February 5, 1885.

"Captain Willard Glazier:

"Dear Sir:—Your very interesting paper and map of the discovery of the source of the Mississippi came to hand this morning. Having but a single number of your paper I can form but an inadequate idea of your labor and patience, except by a look at your map, which is a very good one, and shows an immense amount of labor; in fact I am astonished at the amount of work done in so short a space of time as is shown on your track chart.

"I am gratified at being made the recipient of your favor; and with sentiments of the highest esteem and regard for a worthy brother in the world of science,

"I am, dear sir, very respectfully,

"George W. Melville,

"Chief Engineer, U. S. Navy."

* * * * *

Geographers and Educational Publishers.

Many of the geographers and educational publishers of the country have not only made the necessary changes in their maps of Minnesota, but have expressed their recognition and acceptance of the GLAZIER discovery in letters addressed to friends of the Captain and others interested in arriving at the truth of this important question. Among these may be mentioned:

Rand, McNally & Company, George F. Cram, and George H. Benedict & Company, Chicago; Matthews, Northrup & Company, Buffalo; A. S. Barnes & Company, New York and Chicago; University Publishing Company, New York; Charles Lubrecht, New York; M. Dripps, New York; W. & A. K. Johnston, Geographers to the Queen, Edinburgh, Scotland; MacMillan & Company, London and New York; Nelson & Sons, New York and Edinburgh, Scotland; Gaylord Watson, P. O'Shea and George H. Adams & Company, New York; W. M. Bradley & Brother, Philadelphia; School Supply Company, John A. Boyle, Boston; J. K. Gill & Company, Portland, Oregon; John Lovell & Son, Montreal, Canada; Map and School Supply Company, Toronto, Canada; F. A. Brockhaus, Leipsic; A. Hartleben, Wein, Austria; and many others.

The following extracts are from BARNES' COMPLETE GEOGRAPHY by the eminent geographer, Professor James Monteith:

Page 4. "Record of Recent Discoveries and Events.

"The source of the Mississippi River is LAKE GLAZIER, a small lake from which water flows into Lake Itasca, which until recently was thought to be its source."

* * * * *

Page 73. "North Central States (Western Section).

"Recent surveys have shown that LAKE GLAZIER is about seven feet higher than Lake Itasca, into which the former discharges its water; and it is now recognized as the source of the Mississippi River."

"Maury's Manual of Geography, University Publishing Company, New York:

"Page 56. Minnesota is crossed by the ridge or 'Height of Land' which separates the Valley of the Mississippi from the northern slope of the Great Central Plain. On this elevation, 1,600 feet above the sea, both the Mississippi and the Red River of the North take their rise, the one flowing south and the other north. The crest of the 'Height of Land' is crowned with lakes of clear water. LAKE GLAZIER, one of these, is the source of the Mississippi...."

* * * * *

From Herr F. A. Brockhaus, Geographer and Publisher of Leipsic, Germany:

"I shall not fail to recognize and call public attention to your important discovery of the True Head of your Great River."

* * * * *

From Professor J. W. Redway, of Philadelphia, a well-known geographer and scientist:

"Philadelphia, September 9, 1887.

"Captain Willard Glazier:

"My Dear Sir:— ... You will have the satisfaction of knowing that by your exertions and enterprise an error of more than fifty years standing has been made apparent. The world owes you a debt for determining an important question in geography.

"Sincerely yours,

"J. W. Redway."

* * * * *

From the Messrs. Harper & Brothers, New York:

"Recent exploration and survey establish the fact that Lake Glazier has the best claim to the distinction of standing at the head of the Father of Waters. School Geographies generally are being corrected to show it."

* * * * *

From Rand, McNally & Company, Map-makers and Publishers, Chicago:

"As to the source of the Mississippi, we gave it considerable attention in preparing our new map of Minnesota, and finally fixed it as LAKE GLAZIER. This, we consider, has the best claim."

* * * * *

From George F. Cram, Map and Atlas Publisher, Chicago:

"I mail you to-day a copy of the corrected map of Minnesota, showing LAKE GLAZIER as the source of the Mississippi."

* * * * *

From Matthews, Northrup & Company, Art Printers, Buffalo, New York:

"We regard LAKE GLAZIER as the true source of the Mississippi, and are so showing it on all maps, etc., issued by us."

* * * * *

From Messrs. Cowperthwait & Company, Philadelphia.

"We have added LAKE GLAZIER to our School Maps as the source of the Mississippi."

* * * * *

From E. A. Lawrence, University Publishing Company, New York:

"We think LAKE GLAZIER is important enough to outrank Itasca as the source of the Mississippi."

* * * * *

From W. M. Bradley & Brother, Philadelphia:

"LAKE GLAZIER appears on our large Atlas of the World, and on Mitchell's Atlas, as the true source of the Mississippi."

* * * * *

From John Lovell & Son, Educational Publishers, Montreal:

"The collection of testimonials from leading citizens of Minnesota, and others, tells convincingly in Captain Glazier's favor."

* * * * *

From MacMillan & Company, London and New York:

"Pray accept our very cordial thanks for your courtesy in sending us the map of the true source of the Mississippi. We are forwarding it on to our London house, who will gladly avail themselves of the information it conveys."

* * * * *

From Gaylord Watson, Map and Chart Publisher, New York:

"I shall show LAKE GLAZIER as the source of the Mississippi on my maps."

* * * * *

From P. O'Shea, Catholic Publisher, New York:

"I have come to the conclusion that LAKE GLAZIER is the true source of the Mississippi, and intend to give it as the source in the new editions of my geographies."

* * * * *

From Geo. H. Adams & Son, Map Publishers, New York:

"We recognize LAKE GLAZIER as the True Source of the Mississippi River, and believe that Captain Glazier's claim to its discovery is now admitted by all the leading Map Publishers of the country."

* * * * *

From the Map and School Supply Company, Toronto:

"We consider LAKE GLAZIER the source of the Mississippi River, and are having it appear on all our latest maps as such."

* * * * *

From Captain A. N. Husted, Professor of Mathematics, State Normal School, Albany, New York:

"Captain Willard Glazier:

"My Dear Sir:—I have been much interested in your trip to the beginning of the Father of Waters, and feel that you have contributed a valuable item to the great volume of geographical knowledge."

* * * * *

From Colonel George Soule, President of Soule, College, New Orleans:

"I recognize the correctness of Captain Glazier's claim, and shall teach that the source of the Mississippi is LAKE GLAZIER."

* * * * *

From Rev. L. Abernethy, A. M., D. D., President of Rutherford College, North Carolina:

"I am satisfied that LAKE GLAZIER is the true source of the Mississippi and that Captain Glazier is entitled to the honor of its discovery."

* * * * *

From J. L. Smith, Map Publisher, Philadelphia:

"Having given considerable attention to the merits of the claim presented by Captain Willard Glazier to have definitely located the source of the Mississippi, I am of the opinion that the lake to the south of Itasca should be recognized as the primal reservoir or true fountain-head of that river, and that Captain Glazier is entitled to the credit of having been the first to discover this fact and call public attention to it."

* * * * *

From G. H. Laughlin, A. M., Ph. D., President of Hiram College, Ohio:

"Captain Glazier has rendered an invaluable service to the science of geography. I am glad that the school geographies are being corrected so as to indicate LAKE GLAZIER as the source of the Father of Waters."

* * * * *

From the firm of W. & A. K. Johnston, of Edinburgh, Scotland, Geographers and Engravers to the Queen:

"You have the satisfaction of having done a great work in settling the vexed question of the source of your mighty river. For this, all interested in geography are indebted to you."

* * * * *

From Charles Lubrecht, Map Publisher, New York:

"I shall show LAKE GLAZIER as the source of the Mississippi River in all future editions of my Maps."

* * * * *

From M. Dripps, Map Publisher, New York:

"I will avail myself of Captain Glazier's discovery by showing the True Source of the Mississippi on future editions of my maps of the United States."

* * * * *

From George H. Benedict & Co., Map, Wood and Photo-Engravers, Chicago:

"LAKE GLAZIER is now acknowledged to be the True Source of the Mississippi, and in the course of time will appear as such on all maps."

* * * * *

From John S. Kendall, President of the National School Furnishing Company of Chicago:

"Chicago, October 6, 1887.

"Captain Willard Glazier:

"Dear Sir:—Your book 'Down the Great River' has been received and read with interest. I am glad to see the entire narrative in book form. There is no doubt about your expedition having added largely to our rather limited stock of information regarding the country around the headwaters of the Great River. I deem it a graceful and fitting compliment to give your name to the lake south of Itasca.

"Thanking you for the book, which I have placed in my library.

"Yours very respectfully,

"John S. Kendall."

* * * * *

From Frederick Warne & Company, Publishers, London:

"Pray accept our very cordial thanks. The alteration in the source of your great river has been noted, and we shall gladly avail ourselves of the information to make the correction in our atlases."

* * * * *

From Thos. Nelson & Sons, Edinburgh and New York:

"The correction as to the True Source of the Mississippi will be made as opportunity occurs, when issuing new editions of our publications."

* * * * *

From Herr A. Hartleben, one of the leading Publishers of Germany:

"I congratulate Captain Glazier on his important discovery of the source of the Mississippi River, and shall have great pleasure in bringing the subject to the notice of our Geographical Society."

* * * * *

From Appleton's Annual Encyclopedia—1885:

"Lake Itasca, which has been distinguished as the head of the Mississippi for fifty years, must, it seems, yield that distinction to a smaller lake about a mile and a half in length by a mile in width, lying further south, discovered by Captain Willard Glazier in, 1881, and named for him 'Lake Glazier.'"

* * * * *

From American Supplement to the Encyclopedia Britannica:

"The Mississippi has its source in LAKE GLAZIER, south of Lake Itasca, Minnesota, 47 deg. 34' N. lat, 95 deg. 2' W. long. The greatest width of this lake is a mile and a half, and it is deeper than Itasca, with which it is connected by a shallow stream about six feet wide."

* * * * *



VI. NOTICES OF THE PRESS.

The Press, as the most important indication and expression of public opinion, has been almost unanimous, since 1881, in sustaining Captain Glazier's claim, more especially the Press of Minnesota; while the majority of the leading papers of the East have pronounced strongly in his favor. We can insert here only a few notices, taken chiefly from the journals of the Northwest.

* * * * *

Saint Paul Dispatch.

"Captain Glazier has just published the record of his experiences in his undertaking to establish that the true source of the Mississippi is not that which geographers have heretofore accepted as such, to wit: Lake Itasca. It is indisputable that Captain Glazier did proceed to a higher point than any reached by previous explorers, and that the body of water located by him and now known as LAKE GLAZIER, is a direct feeder of the generally accredited head of the Mississippi. The Dispatch has always claimed for the writer of this book the honor of being the discoverer of the true source of our Great River. There certainly is a great deal in his work to substantiate his claim, and to sustain the attitude taken by the Dispatch.

"...Captain Glazier set out to test the correctness of the generally accepted theories of scholars as to the place of the rise of this Great River; he made the test and found, as we believe, that those theories were not correct. He has given to the world the record of that work, and has done much to perpetuate his own name thereby."

* * * * *

Minneapolis Spectator.

"'Down the Great River,' by Captain Willard Glazier, gives an account of the discovery of the lake now generally asserted to be the source of the Mississippi; also a description of a canoe voyage during the summer of 1881, from the source to the mouth of the Father of Waters. A journey of over three thousand miles by canoe, and on a single stream, is in itself an arduous and remarkable undertaking, and one seldom, if ever, paralleled. Captain Glazier presents not only reasonable evidence to support his claim as the discoverer of the true source of the Great River, but gives an entertaining and instructive narrative of his researches and adventures, thus affording a graphic history and description of the Mississippi."

* * * * *

Brainerd Dispatch.

"'Down the Great River,' by Captain Willard Glazier, is an account of the author's voyage in 1881, from the source to the mouth of the Mississippi River in a canoe. It is a very interesting and instructive narrative from beginning to end; the descriptions of the scenery through which the river passes being unusually fine. In this volume the Captain presents his claim of having discovered beyond Lake Itasca another lake which is connected with Itasca by a well-defined stream, and consequently is the true source of the Mississippi."

* * * * *

Northwestern Presbyterian, Minneapolis.

"All who live in the valley of America's greatest river will be especially interested in knowing something of its source, its course, and the cities that line its banks. Since De Soto first discovered the Father of Waters in 1541, many eminent explorers have been associated with its history. Marquette, Joliet, La Salle, Hennepin, La Hontan, Charlevoix, Carver, Pike, Cass, and Beltrami preceded Schoolcraft. The last named discovered a lake which he supposed to be the source, but the Indians and the missionaries said there was a lake beyond. A learned few believed them. It remained for some explorer to make further investigation and publish the truth more widely to the world. This was done by Captain Glazier in 1881, who visited the lake, explored its shores and found it to be wider and deeper than Itasca."

* * * * *

Winona Republican.

"Captain Glazier, who has won fame as the discoverer of the true source of the Mississippi, has recently published a good-sized volume entitled 'Down the Great River.' ... Very few persons realize that a man who passes from the source of the Mississippi to its mouth experiences a greater variety in scene, in populations, and in climate, than would an explorer going from the source to the mouth of any other river in the world.... The narrative of Captain Glazier is interesting, because it gives a panoramic view of the Mississippi from its source to its mouth, describing the appearance of the river wherever tributaries enter, and noting the character of the Indians, fur-traders, pioneers, frontiersmen, and the agricultural and commercial communities along its course. There is, too, a spice of personal adventure in such a journey, because for the greater part of the trip the Captain was accompanied by only one other person, and the novelty of riding in a canoe over every mile of one of the greatest rivers in the world, in itself gives a peculiar character to the record of the journey. The story is simply the narrative of life in a canoe floating down the Mississippi, supplemented by such historical recollections and reminiscences as have seemed appropriate to one who is an enthusiast in the history of exploration...."

* * * * *

Minneapolis Star-News.

"On the 22d day of July, 1881, the traveler and author, Captain Willard Glazier, discovered a silvery lake nestled among the pineries of Northern Minnesota and situate about a mile and a half to the south of Lake Itasca. He also discovered that a swift current flowed continuously from his new-found wonder to what was supposed to be the source of the Father of Waters. The lake is known to the Indians as Pokegama, and when it was reached by the Glazier party they were much surprised by Chenowagesic, an Indian chief, who had accompanied them as guide, addressing Captain Glazier as follows:

"'My brother, I have come with you through many lakes and rivers to the head of the Father of Waters. The shores of this lake are my hunting ground. Here I have had my wigwam and planted corn for many years. When I again roam through these forests, and look on this lake, source of the Great River, I will look on you.'

"Captain Glazier was induced to explore the true source of the Mississippi by Indian traditions which he had picked up while traveling across the continent and which denied Schoolcraft's theory of Itasca.... Fortified with the idea that Schoolcraft was in error he set out to discover the true source of the Father of Waters, and how he succeeded forms the subject of the first five chapters of his very interesting book. The remainder of the book, an interesting and instructive volume of nearly five hundred pages, is devoted to a trip 'down the Great River' to the Gulf of Mexico. To Captain Glazier is due all the honor and glory of discovering to modern geographers the true source of our great river."

* * * * *

Detroit Commercial Advertiser.

"'Down the Great River' is Captain Willard Glazier's interesting record of his expedition in 1881 in search of the source of the Mississippi River. It is a very exciting narrative from beginning to end, is profusely illustrated and will be especially interesting to students of geography, as well as to all interested in matters of exploration and discovery. Captain Glazier undoubtedly accomplished a great work. The source of the Mississippi had ever been an unsettled question, unsatisfactory attempts at discovery having been made and various ill-founded claims put forward; but the subject for the last half century has been constantly agitated. It remained for Captain Glazier to finish the work begun by De Soto in 1541, and positively locate the true fountain-head.... That the lake from which the Great River starts, known by the Indians as Lake Pokegama, should be re-named LAKE GLAZIER, seems an appropriate honor for the resolute explorer...."

* * * * *

La Crosse Republican and Leader.

"'Down the Great River' is the title of a book just issued which possesses many claims to popular favor. No one on the North American continent will be at a loss to identify the river by its title; the Amazon undoubtedly discharges a larger volume of water into the sea, and the Volga is claimed to be longer. No river in the Old or New World is surrounded by so many associations, or is so identified with the memories of discoverers and adventurers, warrior-priests and saintly soldiers, peaceful pioneers and devastating armies, as the Mississippi.... For half a century Lake Itasca has been accepted as the fountain-head of the Great River, but Captain Glazier having had reasons for doubting the correctness of that theory, undertook, in 1881, to verify or disprove it, and the book treats of his adventures on that mission and his subsequent voyage by canoe down its entire length from its source to its mouth, a distance of three thousand one hundred and eighty-four miles.... The voyage, embracing as it does over seventeen degrees of latitude, furnishes material for the description of strongly contrasted scenery and greatly diversified industries, and in depicting these the Captain has the pen of a ready writer, simple and concise...."

* * * * *

Michigan Christian Advocate.

"'Down the Great River' is a book of great current interest. It is packed full of things people ought to know. Not only is there a full and well-written account of the finding of the true source of the Mississippi, but a wonderful amount of fact and incident picked up along its shores from its headwaters clear down to New Orleans and the Gulf of Mexico."

* * * * *

Detroit Tribune.

"This interesting work gives an account of the discovery of the true source of the Mississippi River, by the author. From the first page to the last the book teems with information and topographical and geographical data to be found nowhere else. Captain Glazier carries his readers along with him from the source of the mighty river down through a stretch of over three thousand miles clear into the salt waters of the Gulf of Mexico. The author made the trip in an open canoe, and as he proceeds downwards discourses pleasantly upon the features of the landscape, the characteristics of the people and the important towns upon the banks of the Great River."

* * * * *

Grand Rapids (Michigan) Leader.

"Lake Itasca has been the accredited head of the Mississippi for fifty years, and the author's desire to pursue further investigations into the great north country was due to conflicting reports published by other navigators and explorers of discoveries made in that region. He decided to investigate the matter personally. The author describes in an entertaining manner the incidents of each day as the journey proceeded towards Lake Itasca. Here a careful survey of the lake was made for feeders, several of which were found, and up the largest of which the party forced their way through a strong barrier of rushes. After a short passage a body of water was found Which the Indians called Lake Pokegama, but which the Captain's companions named GLAZIER in honor of the head of the expedition. They then floated down the river in their canoes to the Gulf, and the events of each day form very interesting and often thrilling chapters as they are described by the author."

* * * * *

New Bedford Standard.

"In 1881 Captain Glazier made a canoe voyage of over three thousand miles from the headwaters of the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico, and this book gives an interesting account of the voyage, together with a description of the cities and villages along the river banks, not omitting important historical events or quaint bits of legendary lore. While the book is of special value to the young student of geography and history, it is none the less valuable to all who are interested in geographical science, particularly in the question of the source of the Mississippi River...."

* * * * *

Madisonensis, Madison University, New York.

"Captain Glazier has commanded the attention of educated men generally by asserting and satisfactorily proving that he has at last discovered what De Soto, Marquette, La Salle, Schoolcraft, and other explorers, were unable to find—the true source of the Mississippi. The journey of exploration is here minutely described, and the account is enlivened with bright narratives of personal experiences. The author is an able writer, and a keen critical observer, and the information collected, pertaining to the people and country along the course of the Great River, from its headwaters to the Gulf of Mexico, is of value to every student of our country's history. The book is more than a mere description of an expedition—it is an epitomized collection of historical, geographical and commercial matters interesting to all."

* * * * *

Hamilton, New York, Republican.

... "The important fact brought out is, that Lake Itasca, discovered by Schoolcraft in 1832, and by him located as the fountain-head of the river, has no just claim to that title. Glazier's expedition has brought public notice to another lake at a remoter distance from the mouth than Itasca, which is united to the latter by a constantly flowing stream.... It now seems that the prominence Itasca has had so long must hereafter be given to LAKE GLAZIER."

* * * * *

Davenport Tribune.

"This work embraces an account of the discovery by the author of the true source of the Mississippi. It is an interesting tale of how Captain Glazier and his party pursued a voyage in canoes up the stream which flowed into Itasca, and finally located the real source of the river in a new lake, which was named by his companions LAKE GLAZIER. The work is a valuable one and highly instructive, and should be read by all residents of the Mississippi Valley."

* * * * *

Daily Eagle, Grand Rapids, Michigan.

... "It seems most surprising that it should have been reserved for so recent a date as 1881 to discover the true source of the greatest river of our continent, especially within the borders of a territory that has been a State for nearly forty years. But such is the fact, and to Captain Glazier belongs the honor of the discovery among white men."

* * * * *

Telegram-Herald, Grand Rapids, Michigan.

... "Captain Glazier, in his search for the true source of the Mississippi, has corrected a geographical error of half a century, and located the fountain-head in a lake above and beyond Lake Itasca. He discovered this lake on the twenty-second day of July, 1881, Chenowagesic, a Chippewa brave, being his guide. The lake, out of which flows the infant Mississippi, is about two miles in its greatest diameter. Its Indian name is Pokegama, but Glazier's companions insisted on naming it after their leader."...

* * * * *

Akron Daily Beacon.

... "Until Captain Glazier traced back from Lake Itasca the perennial stream that supplied it from a more distant lake, called by the Indians Pokegama, and beyond which there is no further supply to the Father of Waters, Itasca was considered its source.... July twelfth, 1881, Glazier left Brainerd, Minnesota, on his mission, reaching Leech Lake July seventeenth. Thence the expedition proceeded westward by little lakes and streams and portages, until on the twenty-first they camped on Schoolcraft Island, in Lake Itasca, and then paddling through this lake away, as supposed, from the Mississippi, and by Eagle Creek, the next day they found what is now, and will hereafter be known as, LAKE GLAZIER, the ultimate source of the mighty Mississippi."...

* * * * *

Youngstown (Ohio) Telegram.

"A pamphlet, entitled the 'True Source of the Mississippi,' by Pearce Giles, has reached us. It proves very clearly that not Lake Itasca but LAKE GLAZIER, a lake just to the south of it, is the true source of the mighty central river. The best part of the discovery seems to be that Captain Glazier so explored the country about this lake that there is no possibility of another discovery of a connecting lake beyond it. One likes to have such matters settled definitely."

* * * * *

National Republican, Washington, D. C.

... "The birthplace of the Father of Waters is not Lake Itasca, as generally received, but LAKE GLAZIER, in its vicinity, which, by a small stream, flows into Itasca. LAKE GLAZIER, so named from its discoverer, Captain Willard Glazier, has three feeders, Eagle, Excelsior, and Deer creeks. This latest geographical claim is supported by ample testimony from highest and widespread authorities. The story of adventures during the exploration which had so important a result, is extremely interesting."

* * * * *

Dubuque Trade Journal.

"On July twenty-second, 1881, Captain Willard Glazier dispelled the geographical error of half a century which has placed Lake Itasca on the maps as the source of the Mississippi. Strange as it may seem, there is scarcely a wilder region on this continent than exists in Northern Minnesota, and it has so remained in spite of the explorations of Beltrami, Schoolcraft, and Nicollet, who, perhaps, ought to have been a little more exhaustive in their efforts when on the same depended the designation of the actual source of a great river. Nevertheless, at the date above mentioned, Captain Glazier, at the head of a small but indomitable band, emerged from Lake Itasca, and the birch-bark canoes of the party were urged against a strong current and a bulwark of rushes, through a stream seven feet wide and three deep, until the clear waters of another lake came in view. The greatest diameter of this new body of water is about two miles, its feeders are traceable to springs only, and hence it is unquestionably the primal source whence the Father of Waters starts on his long journey of 3,184 miles to the Gulf of Mexico."...

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