Sword and Pen - Ventures and Adventures of Willard Glazier
by John Algernon Owens
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In compliance with Captain Bent's request that he would give some account of the events connected with his discovery of the source of the Mississippi, Captain Glazier, greatly to the satisfaction of his large and appreciative audience, now briefly narrated the leading incidents in his voyage of exploration.

When he had concluded his personal narrative many came forward to congratulate him upon his discovery, and to express their appreciation of the great work he had accomplished. All inspected the "Itasca," which occupied a prominent position on the platform, with the curiosity human nature invariably feels concerning any object closely connected with the fame of a distinguished man or daring exploit. The beautiful canoe was afterwards placed on exhibition at the rooms of the Historical Society.



An interesting souvenir.—Greeting at Lake Glazier.—Petition to Geographical Societies.—Voice from Aitkin, Gate City of the Upper Mississippi.—Tributes from Brainerd.—An old friend at La Crosse.—Welcome at Davenport.—Greetings at St. Louis.—Senator Lamar.—Royal welcome at Bayou Tunica.—Sentiment of Port Eads.— Congratulations of the officers of the "Margaret."—Greetings from New Orleans.—"Fame's triple wreath."—Closing remarks.

Such an expedition as Captain Glazier has recently concluded inevitably gives birth to many souvenirs and trophies of the undertaking which are always interesting, not only to their immediate recipient but also to the public generally; for a man of his calibre is in one sense public property, and as such everything associated with any important enterprise of his, is loudly demanded by men of all classes without regard to what would be considered its privacy under other circumstances. It was the author's good fortune to see such a souvenir of the voyage—an album in which are inscribed the autographs of eminent men from various points along the entire route traversed, the first being dated at the source of the Mississippi, and the last on the shores of the Gulf of Mexico; and the thought occurred to him that this memento of the latest exploit in Captain Glazier's exciting life could not fail to be an object of some interest to the reader who had thus far followed the soldier, author, and explorer in his eventful and successful career. He therefore obtained permission to make a few extracts from the large number before him, and these Greetings of the Voyage are now presented to the public as a fitting conclusion to the story of the Captain's journey from source to sea.

The first in order is naturally that of Barrett Channing Paine, his constant companion during the entire voyage. Standing by the discoverer's side at the fountain-head of the Great River, he wrote:

Lake Glazier, Minnesota, July 22, 1881.

My Dear Captain:—From this beautiful lake where the mighty Mississippi rises, my best wishes follow you down the course of the "Father of Waters" till it mingles its flood with the sea.

Very truly yours,

Barrett Channing Paine.

We next quote a petition of Captain Glazier's companions to the Geographical Societies of the country, although it is not found in the album. It was published in the Missouri "Republican" and various other newspapers, but being dated Schoolcraft Island, the first stopping place after leaving the source of the river, it seems quite naturally to follow the greeting of Mr. Paine:

Schoolcraft Island, Lake Itasca, July 22, 1881.

To Geographical and Historical Societies:—We the undersigned, companions of Captain Willard Glazier, in his voyage of exploration to the headwaters of the Mississippi, are fully convinced that the lake located by him is beyond question the source of the "Father of Waters."

The privilege of bestowing a name upon the new discovery having been delegated to us, we hereby name it LAKE GLAZIER in honor of the leader of the expedition, whose energy, perseverance and pluck carried us through many difficulties and brought us at last to the shores of this beautiful lake—the True Source of the Great River.

We respectfully petition all Geographical Societies to give it that recognition which has heretofore been accorded to Lake Itasca, and to which it is justly entitled as the primal reservoir of the grandest river on this continent.

Barrett Channing Paine, } Indianapolis, Indiana. } White George Herbert Glazier, } Companions. Chicago, Illinois. }

Moses Lagard, } Interpreter Chenowagesic, } and Sebatise Lagard, } Indian Leech Lake, Minnesota, } Guides.

The inhabitants of Aitkin, the first town of importance on the Upper Mississippi, took great interest in the expedition, and did all they could to show their appreciation of the intrepid explorers. The following is from the pen of Warren Potter, one of the pioneer citizens of the place:

Aitkin, Minnesota, August 15, 1881.

Captain Willard Glazier:—As you float in your birch canoe upon the bosom of the "Father of Waters" toward the sea, remember Aitkin, the Gate City of the Upper Mississippi.

Yours very truly,

Warren Potter.

Brainerd, situated at the point where the Northern Pacific Railroad crosses the Mississippi, is a thriving town, and has the honor of possessing the first newspaper encountered in the descent of the river. This paper, the Brainerd "Tribune," exhibited much cordial interest in Captain Glazier and his successful explorations, and from time to time published accounts of the voyage. The autographs of its editor, Arthur E. Chase, is found in the album, as is that of Hon. Chauncey B. Sleeper, district attorney for the county, who introduced him to the first audience before which he delivered his lecture on the "Pioneers of the Mississippi:"

Brainerd, Minnesota, August 19, 1881.

Dear Captain:—That your voyage down the Great "Father of Waters" may be fraught with experiences both pleasant to yourself and beneficial to the public; and that your undertaking may prove a worthy epoch in American history, is the wish of

Your sincere friend,

Arthur E. Chase.

Brainerd, August 19, 1881.

To Captain Willard Glazier:—My cordial good wishes go with you on your long and interesting journey. May it result in benefit to yourself and your fellow-man.

Chauncey B. Sleeper, District Attorney.

At St. Cloud, Judge L. A. Evans introduced Captain Glazier to his audience on the evening of his lecture in that city, and wrote as follows in the album:

St. Cloud, Minnesota, August 23, 1881.

To Captain Glazier:—May your life voyage and your contemplated voyage to the mouth of our Great River prove pleasant and profitable.

L. A. Evans.

Hon. Samuel E. Adams, whose patriotic greeting we quote next, is the editor of the Monticello "Times," and was one of the early pioneers of Wright County, Minnesota.

Monticello, August 24, 1881.

Love of one's country is always commendable, and may your labors in its defence in the past, and its development in the future, be crowned with imperishable renown.

Very truly yours,

Samuel E. Adams.

At Hastings, Captain Glazier was cordially and hospitably entertained by the proprietor and editor of the Hastings "Gazette," and other prominent citizens. On parting Mr. Todd writes the following in the album:

Hastings, Minnesota, September 5, 1881.

With the cordial good wishes of the "Gazette" for a prosperous voyage to the Gulf.


Irving Todd.

The friendly writer of the following is loyal to his State while greeting the man who evokes the sentiment:

Davenport, Iowa, September 25, 1881.

Dear Captain:—As you plough the "Father of Waters" in your frail bark, think of "Iowa the Beautiful."

Charles G. Plummer.

At Davenport, Iowa, Captain Glazier had the pleasure of again meeting Colonel P. A. J. Russell, city editor of the "Democrat." This gentleman had been the first to greet him on his arrival in that city during his journey across the continent in 1876, and it was with much cordiality that he now shook hands with the Captain and congratulated him upon the success of his latest expedition. But we will let him express his sentiments in his own language:

Davenport, on the Mississippi, September 25, 1881. To Captain Glazier:

Safety and success—thus far Adown this mighty stream; May Heaven guard your progress still And grant fulfilment of your dream.

Very truly yours, P. A. J. Russell.

The first man to welcome Captain Glazier at La Crosse was Pearce Giles, an old acquaintance whom he had known for many years in the East. Mr. Giles tenders his congratulations in these words:

La Crosse, Wisconsin, September 10, 1881.

My Dear Captain:—I congratulate you on your important discovery of the True Source of the Mississippi—a discovery which must associate your name forever with the "Father of Waters." The intelligence, earnestness, pluck and persistence you have displayed in this, as in numerous other ways, are such as to give you a place among the great Americans who have not lived in vain for their country.

Always sincerely yours,

Pearce Giles.

The visit to Trempealeau, on the left bank of the river, introduced the canoeists to some extremely agreeable people, whose hearty and disinterested welcome will be long remembered by Captain Glazier. The sentiment of one of them is thus kindly expressed:

Trempealeau, Wisconsin, September 11, 1881.

Captain Glazier:—My best wishes follow you down the "Father of Waters" and through Life's Voyage.

Very sincerely yours,

M. H. Melchior.

While at Bellevue, Captain Glazier was entertained most agreeably by Hon. W. O. Evans, editor of the Bellevue "Republican" who welcomed him on his arrival, and launched his canoe when he resumed his voyage. He seemed greatly interested in the Captain's explorations, and expressed his interest in this manner:

Bellevue, Iowa, September 18, 1881.

Dear Captain:—That health, wealth, success and perpetual youth may attend you in all your grand schemes and enterprises through the Voyage of Life is the wish of your new-made friend,

W. O. Evans.

At Hannibal, Captain Glazier landed and remained three days, during which interval he met one or two valued friends. Before launching his canoe this entry found a place in the album:

Hannibal, Missouri, October 3, 1881.

Dear Captain:—May the Mississippi—that Grand Old Patriarch of Rivers—carry you safely to the Gulf!

A. M. Paget.

The "Post-Dispatch" one of the leading newspapers of St. Louis, was foremost in publishing accounts of the explorer's voyage from the time he left the headwaters of the Mississippi until he reached the Gulf, and hence the autograph of its editor, Colonel John A. Cockerill, now editor of the New York "World," is of special interest:

St. Louis, Missouri, October 8, 1881.

The "Post-Dispatch," sailing on prosperous sea, sends greeting and good wishes to Captain Glazier and all daring navigators.

John A. Cockerill.

Thomas E. Garrett, of the staff of the "Republican," inscribed the following poetic tribute:

Missouri Republican Office, St. Louis, October 14, 1881.

On land and water—staunch and true, You steer and paddle your own canoe, Strong arm, brave heart, will pull you through.

Very truly yours,

Thomas E. Garrett.

The editor of the Helena "Yeoman" writes:

Helena, Arkansas, October 22, 1881.

Captain Glazier:—May your present voyage down the great Mississippi redound to your credit, and add to the honors you have already won.

W. L. Morris, "Yeoman" Office.

Prof. J. J. Flahift, Superintendent of Public Instruction at Helena, greets the navigator in these terms:

Helena, Arkansas, October 26, 1881.

"Nothing great is lightly won, Nothing won is lost; Every good deed nobly done, Will repay the cost; Leave to Heaven in humble trust All you will to do," But, to reach the Gulf, you must Paddle your own canoe.

J. J. Flahift.

At Natchez, Captain Glazier had the pleasure of hearing Senator Lamar deliver a political speech, and was afterwards introduced to him at the Foster House, where both were registered. The Senator seemed much interested in the Captain's explorations, and so signifies over his autograph:

Natchez, Mississippi, November 3, 1881.

Glad to have met you, Captain Glazier, and I leave with you my best wishes for the success of your undertaking.

L. Q. C. Lamar.

Bayou Tunica will always be held in pleasant remembrance by Captain Glazier, for he was there most hospitably received and entertained by John J. Winn, a prosperous merchant and planter. Mr. Winn insisted upon his remaining with him for two days during the progress of a violent storm which rendered the river unnavigable, and every effort was made to make the time pass agreeably. His greeting to the explorer is short but to the point:

Bayou Tunica, Louisiana, November 5, 1881.

Captain Glazier:—May your voyage to the Gulf be a pleasant one.

John J. Winn.

Captain Glazier's first acquaintance with a sugar plantation was made on reaching the estates of Messrs. V. U. Lefebre and son, who are extensively engaged in the production of this staple of commerce. This firm is counted among the wealthiest sugar planters of Plaquemine Parish, owning and controlling three large plantations. The Captain made the most of his opportunity to learn something of the art of sugar manufacture. The cane-field and sugar-mill and every detail were explained by his polite host, from the cutting of the canes to the refining process. The Captain and his companion were hospitably entertained an entire day, and on parting the senior Mr. Lefebre greeted him in French, the tongue of his mother country:

Eliza Plantation, Louisiana, November 9, 1881.

Cher Capitaine:—J'espere que votre voyage au Golfe sera agreable que vous garderes un bon souvenir de la Louisiane.

Votre sincere,

V. U. Lefebre.

The inhabitants of Port Eads, the terminal point of the voyage, displayed, if possible, a more lively interest in the expedition than those of any other town along the river, for here it was that the goal was reached and the Captain's long and hazardous undertaking placed beyond the risk of failure. Some description has already been given of the triumphant manner in which the arrival of the "Alice" at the Gulf was proclaimed by the people, and the following lines of F. C. Welschaus, one of the citizens, expresses, in all probability, the general sentiment of Port Eads:

Port Eads, Louisiana, November 15, 1881.

To THE DISCOVERER OF THE MISSISSIPPI'S SOURCE:—May all your undertakings prove as successful as this one.

F. C. Welschaus.

This kindly wish of Mr. Welschaus in reality concludes the greetings of the voyage proper, but when Captain Glazier returned to New Orleans from Port Eads, and afterwards to St. Louis, others were added to the number, some of which are of so much interest that the author takes pleasure in quoting them.

The first in point of time was written by the officers of the steamship Margaret, on board of which Captain Glazier steamed back to New Orleans. This vessel was engaged in the fruit trade between the Crescent City and ports in Central America. His reception and entertainment by the officers was characteristic of sailors in general, cordial and hospitable in the extreme. They expressed great wonder that a mere landsman could make such an extended voyage in so small a boat, and many questions were asked and answered upon this subject. Their farewell greeting is thus entered in the album:

On Board Steamship "Margaret," November 16, 1881.

To Captain Willard Glazier:—We congratulate you upon the successful completion of your great undertaking, and ask you to accept the following as our sincere wish and fervent prayer:

"May your bark of mortality Glide down the stream of Time, And land at last at that glorious haven Where nothing reigns supreme But joy, health, prosperity and happiness."

John Otteson, Commander. Richard Hunter, Chief Officer. Albert J. Schlesinger, Purser.

While in New Orleans, Captain Glazier had an opportunity to listen to a sermon by Rev. B. M. Palmer, a prominent clergyman of that city. The Captain afterwards had the pleasure of meeting Dr. Palmer, who inscribed this beautiful wish in the album:

New Orleans, Louisiana, November 22, 1881.

Captain Glazier:—May your exploration of the Mississippi from its source to its mouth be typical of your Voyage of Life, as it rolls with its swelling flood into the bosom of God.

Yours in the Faith of the Gospel,

B. M. Palmer, Pastor First Presbyterian Church.

The greetings from New Orleans would be incomplete without some reference to H. Dudley Coleman, a member of the New Orleans Academy of Sciences, and also of the Washington Artillery, of that city, who extended many courtesies to Captain Glazier. Mr. Coleman was a cavalry officer in the Confederate Army, and his command had been frequently opposed to that of the Union soldier on the battle-fields of Virginia. His Southern gallantry, however, prompted a cordial greeting, and the true gentleman appeared in the numerous attentions he showered on his former adversary in arms. Captain Glazier was greatly impressed by this display of good feeling, and the evident desire manifested on the part of many Southern gentlemen who received him to bury the animosities of the late war and promote a state of harmony and cordial friendship. The blue and the grey are no longer estranged, or such a hearty reception could not have been accorded to Captain Glazier, whose name and reputation were well known to many in the Crescent City as of a prolific writer on military subjects from a Union standpoint. Mr. Coleman's apparently sincere expressions of a deep friendly interest in the Captain's exploits on the Mississippi impressed him very sensibly. Want of space must be our excuse for not including his long and very cordial greeting in the album.

Albert G. Blanchard, also a member of the New Orleans Academy of Sciences, and formerly a brigadier-general, C. S. A., shows his appreciation of the explorations which Captain Glazier had successfully completed in these terms:

I congratulate you on your successful exploration of the headwaters of the Mississippi River. Your name will always be honored with that of Robert Cavalier de la Salle, the discoverer of the outlet of this river as you are of its source.

Very respectfully your obedient servant, Albert G. Blanchard, Deputy City Surveyor. New Orleans, November 22, 1881.

We next quote from the pen of Dr. J. S. Copes, the learned President of the New Orleans Academy of Sciences. Dr. Copes manifested an intense interest in the results of Captain Glazier's expedition, and endeavored by every method within his power to show the high estimation in which he held the intrepid explorer:

Captain Glazier:—I congratulate you upon the successful completion of your search for the primal reservoir of the Mississippi River. It would be well for the country to erect before the view of its youths and young men two monuments, three thousand miles asunder—the one at the source, the other at the mouth of the great river of North America—upon which should be chiseled "Enterprise, Courage, Faith, Fortitude, Patriotism, Philanthropy," leaving to posterity the selection of an illustrative name to be engraven on each one when events shall have pointed conclusively to the benefactors most worthy of this honor.

With great respect, Yours very truly, J. S. Copes, President New Orleans Academy of Sciences. New Orleans, November 19, 1881.

We will conclude this pleasing souvenir of the voyage by quoting the sentiment of Judge Albert Todd, who, it will be remembered, introduced Captain Glazier to his audience at St. Louis upon the occasion of his lecture on the "Pioneers of the Mississippi," and the presentation of the "Itasca" to the Missouri Historical Society. Judge Todd is one of the oldest and most reputed citizens of St. Louis, and showed an especial appreciation of the Captain's endeavors to increase the geographical lore of the Mississippi River:

To Captain Willard Glazier—Greeting:

With triple wreaths doth Fame thine head now crown; The patriot-Soldier's, in fierce battles won; The "Pen's," than the "Sword's," mankind's greater boon, The bold Explorer's finding where was born The rivers' King, till now, like Nile's, unknown. * * * * * May years of high emprise increase thy fame, And with thy death arise a deathless name.

Albert Todd, Vice-President Missouri Historical Society. St. Louis, January 14, 1882.

* * * * *

The career of Captain Glazier up to the present time affords much food for thought and speculation. His life is pre-eminently a life of success, and is a brilliant example of what can be accomplished by the aid of an indomitable will and untiring energy. Although his early advantages of education and position were of a most ordinary description, nothing he has ever attempted failed, and none of his successes have been mediocre. As a soldier he rose from a private to the rank of captain, and was known as one of the bravest officers on the field—one of the best disciplinarians in camp; as an author his works are found in nearly every home in the land, and are read with interest by people of all ages, classes, and conditions of life; as a lecturer, the press has ever spoken of him in the kindliest and most favorable terms; as an equestrian traveler he accomplished a feat never before attempted, and probably knows more about the wide stretch of country through which he passed than any other man living; as a navigator and explorer he not only discovered what had baffled the most determined of all previous explorers, the source of the Mississippi River, but also "paddled his own canoe" down the entire course from its fountain-head to the Gulf of Mexico. He has then unquestionably succeeded in all that he has undertaken; and, as all men aim at success, the query naturally arises, why is it that Willard Glazier occupies so high a position in each of his many fields of labor? The answer in all probability lies in the fact that while many men have ambition, few have the untiring industry, the calm perseverance, the determined will, and unfaltering faith in themselves to grasp and hold the objects of that ambition. Captain Glazier has never known what failure means, and recalling the events of his life as portrayed in this narrative, now drawing to a close, we can understand why this is true. Unceasing labor seems to have been his motto. As soon as he had pursued one path of industry or research until it could lead him no further, he sought out and traversed another with unexampled patience and unflagging zeal. What wonder in the light of such energy that unqualified success has crowned his well-directed efforts!

His career affords an example which all men would do well to reflect upon and imitate. May the Youth of America, by the contemplation of a life still comparatively young and yet so fraught with mighty deeds, be especially inspired with the ambition to follow in his footsteps, and a will to "carve with many a sharp incision," from the shapeless block which lies before each, the rounded outlines of a strong and noble character.



Syracuse Times.

"Sword and Pen; or, Ventures and Adventures of Willard Glazier," is written in a very entertaining style. It gives interesting sketches of Captain Glazier from boyhood down, and many amusing incidents are related, in which is embraced a period covering the lively war times. Near the end of the work is given a minute description of Captain Glazier's discovery of the source of the Mississippi River, in 1881; in which, of course, Lake Itasca loses its claim. The captain, after many adventures, reached the true head of the Great River, which lies many miles back and beyond Lake Itasca, and from thence he made a voyage down the "Father of Waters" in a birch canoe, to the Gulf of Mexico. The book is written by John Algernon Owens, contains 516 pages printed in attractive style, adorned with numerous fine wood cuts, and is generally attractive; in fact, people who have read "Battles for the Union" and "Heroes of Three Wars" with so much interest will be equally interested in the adventurous life of the soldier-author.

Chicago Tribune.

"Sword and Pen" comprises incidents and reminiscences in the life of Captain Willard Glazier, and in addition to his army experience gives details of a novel and adventurous feat accomplished in 1876. In that year he rode on horseback across the Continent from Boston to San Francisco. Over 200 days were occupied in making the trip, and the distance traveled was more than 4,000 miles. His object in undertaking this journey was to study at comparative leisure the section of country through which he would pass, and note the habits of the people he came in contact with. During this trip he was captured by the Indians after a severe fight, and one of the herders comprising the party was burned at the stake. In 1881, Captain Glazier started on an expedition to discover the source of the Mississippi River. In this he was successful, and immediately thereafter commenced the descent of the river, passing its entire length from the source to the Gulf of Mexico, in a small open canoe. The new book entitled "Sword and Pen" gives a minute and graphic description of the overland ride and the trip down the Mississippi, as well as the early army experience of the well-known soldier and author.

Hamilton (Ont.) Times.

"Sword and Pen" is a work replete with stirring pen-pictures of events in the history of the United States during a critical period of its history. Its description of the principal incidents in the late war, and the suffering of the author and others in that detestable "Black Hole of Calcutta"—the Libby Prison—are most graphic. Willard Glazier's life was not confined to warfare, though he saw service in nearly all the great battles between the North and South. A few years ago he rode on horseback from ocean to ocean, and his observations on that extraordinary trip are also included in this handsome and interesting volume. He discovered the true source of the Mississippi in northern Minnesota, and afterwards performed the journey of 3,000 miles to the sea board in an open canoe, and a very interesting account of these journeyings is given in the concluding chapters of the work which is throughout beautifully illustrated.

Troy Daily Times.

The Works of Captain Willard Glazier, the soldier-author, are so well known and popular that a life of the writer cannot fail to be interesting to a large portion of the public. A very complete and excellent account of Glazier and his achievements has been prepared by John Algernon Owens, and published by P. W. Ziegler & Co., Philadelphia. The book bears the title of "Sword and Pen," and recounts the ventures and adventures of the subject of it in war and literature, comprising incidents and reminiscences of his childhood, his checkered life as a student and teacher, and his remarkable career as a soldier and author; embracing also the story of his unprecedented journey from ocean to ocean on horseback, and an account of his discovery of the source of the Mississippi river, and his canoe voyage from thence to the Gulf of Mexico. The story is told in the simple, direct way that appeals at once to one's favorable attention. It is an exciting, in some portions a thrilling narrative, recounting some of the most dramatic and tragic scenes of the war, in which Glazier, as a youthful cavalry officer, bore a brave and manly part, being then but nineteen years old. The lad abandoned his studies and his school teaching and went from Troy to become a member of the Harris light cavalry, with which he served during many a bloody fray. He was captured by the rebels and shared the hard fate that fell to many a poor Union soldier in the prison pens of the South, and the recital of this part of his experience will recall the angry blood to the face of every old soldier who reads it, and arouse the sentient sympathies of every patriot who peruses the volume. The book contains an appreciative yet discriminating criticism of Glazier's literary achievements, and is in every sense worthy of the hero with whom it deals. It is profusely illustrated with battle and other scenes, and is accompanied by a map giving an accurate presentation of the route pursued by Captain Glazier in his trip to the source of the Mississippi. Altogether this is a book well worth reading.

Scranton Republican.

"Sword and Pen" by John Algernon Owens, a story of endurance, patient toil, danger and daring, very entertaining, as well as instructive. In Mr. Owens Captain Glazier has found a biographer who has done him justice, and who has made a book that will be widely read.

Oswego Times and Express.

We have before us a new book, entitled "Sword and Pen; or, Ventures and Adventures in War and Literature." It is a biography of the soldier-author, Willard Glazier, a type of the adventurous American of which we may justly be proud. It takes up the boyish life of Willard Glazier, takes him from the school-room as a pupil to the school-room as a teacher, until the war of the Rebellion called him to the army. It details his adventures as a member of the Ira Harris Cavalry until his capture by the rebels, and the life he led in the prisons of the South; and is detailed in a graphic manner. When the war was over the same spirit of adventure which sent him to the front in the army drove him into other adventures. The horseback ride from ocean to ocean is described in an interesting style, followed by the search for the true source of the Mississippi River and its successful termination, together with an account of his canoe voyage to the Gulf of Mexico. The book is full of action, and is interesting as giving a correct history of the life of this remarkable man. It is profusely illustrated, and is accompanied by a map of the section covered by the source of the Mississippi.

Boston Transcript.

The biography of Willard Glazier, under the title of "Sword and Pen," has achieved a large sale in the Eastern, Western and Middle States. The subject of the biography, who is still living, was a bright, wide-awake lad, whose childhood was not more eventful than that of hundreds of other boys of like condition. He was ambitious, energetic, and wholly free from any bad habit which would operate as a drawback upon his advancement in life. His parents were not able to do more for him in the way of an education than to send him to a common district school, but he thirsted for an education, and his mind was continually busy devising ways and means to secure it. The much-needed money to pay his expenses at the Albany Normal School was at last gained by trapping minks, whose skins were worth from two to four dollars. From the Normal he went to teach school, and was engaged in this profession when the civil war broke out. He was then nineteen years old. The first shot fired at Sumter changed his whole life plans, and the summer of 1861 found him in the field as sergeant in the Second New York Cavalry. He participated in a good many exciting contests, and was finally wounded and captured at Brandy Station, in October, 1863. The story of his life in prison is vividly told. He made his escape after fourteen months' imprisonment, and made his way through the enemy's lines into Sherman's army. After the war he wrote a volume made up of his war experiences, entitled "Capture, Prison Pen, and Escape," over 400,000 copies of which have been sold. In 1876, Captain Glazier started from the Revere House, in this city, to cross the Continent on horseback, a feat which he successfully performed, reaching San Francisco in two hundred days from the time of starting—a distance of 4,133 miles. In 1881, he made a canoe voyage down the Mississippi of 3,000 miles. Captain Glazier is the author of several books, and has won considerable reputation as a lecturer. The book before us will be read with deep interest, not only for what it is worth historically, but as showing what can be accomplished by pluck and brains without the backing of money.

Buffalo News.

The readers of Captain Willard Glazier's works will be pleased with the biography of this remarkable man, published by P. W. Ziegler & Co., of Philadelphia. Captain Glazier's life is full of exciting interest, and the well-written biography holds the reader's attention to the last. The account of the discovery of the true source of the Mississippi is especially interesting from the fact that it gives the best account of that memorable event that has ever been published.

Albany Sunday Press.

"Sword and Pen." This work is the biography of a man already well-known by the American public as a soldier and an author. The subject is an especially interesting one to the people of this section, as Captain Glazier was born in St. Lawrence county of this State, and spent some years of his life in this city. His works have been read with interest by thousands, and now those who have enjoyed them will have the opportunity to learn something of the author who has for so long delighted them. This biography gives a very full and interesting account of the principal events in Captain Glazier's life, among which we notice especially his remarkable journey from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean on horseback, his discovery of the true source of the Mississippi River, and his canoe voyage thence to the Gulf of Mexico. All these episodes are profusely and elegantly illustrated.

Newark Register.

"Sword and Pen" is the suggestive title of a very readable and interesting biography of Captain Willard Glazier, the soldier-author, by John Algernon Owens. "Biography," the author tells us in his preface, "to be interesting, must be a transcript of an eventful as well as a remarkable career; and to be instructive, its subject should be exemplary in his aims and in his mode of attaining them." The subject of this biography certainly fulfills these requirements, and a much bolder and less graceful narrative of his adventures and exploits would, without doubt, be interesting and instructive. Mr. Owens has, however, heightened the interest, and pointed the moral of his subject's remarkable career by his clear and correct style, and lively and picturesque narrative. Captain Glazier was born in northern New York, near the St. Lawrence, in 1841. His boyhood was passed in the country, and filled with all a rustic lad's delights and exploits as well as disadvantages and privations. Fighting hard for an education, he became a teacher, continuing in this peaceful vocation until the outbreak of the rebellion summoned him to his country's defence. Passing through a succession of the most remarkable adventures and escapes in the war, and rising from the ranks to a captain's post, Captain Glazier has, since the war, become widely known as the soldier-author, and the triumphs of his pen have been fully as great as, if not greater than, those of his sword. The work is well printed and handsomely bound, and will prove very popular.

Boston Globe.

The adventures of Willard Glazier admirably narrated by John Algernon Owens, under the title of "Sword and Pen," is a fascinating biography in which the author has woven many pleasing incidents, sometimes quite out of the line of his story, yet always to the point and always entertaining. The war adventures of Glazier, who is called the "Soldier-author," have already been largely read and appreciated, particularly by old soldiers. Willard Glazier has enjoyed quite a literary renown, the sale of his first book, "Capture, Prison-Pen, and Escape," having been over 400,000 volumes. Mr. Owens has now given us Captain Glazier's life in a neatly bound volume, from the press of P. W. Ziegler & Co. of Philadelphia. The hero of this story had an eventful career which made it interesting. Born of parents of small means, but of the old Puritan stock, and excellent character, and bred and nurtured in the midst of the wildest and grandest scenery in the rugged county of St. Lawrence, with no opportunities for culture, except such as he made for himself, he rose by his ambition, and was the builder of his own fortune. There is a strong lesson pointed out by the graphic history of his career. It teaches to the young uncompromising duty in every relation of life—self-denial and pluck.

Newark Daily Journal.

"Sword and Pen; or, the Ventures and Adventures of Willard Glazier." Willard Glazier is an author who has risen into popularity almost unprecedented in this country. It is said that his first book, "Capture, Prison-Pen, and Escape," written from facts noted in his diary after a wonderful career on the battle-field, and in prisons of the South, reached the enormous sale of 400,000 volumes. "Sword and Pen" is the story of Captain Glazier's life. Born in obscurity, and toiling for an education with great perseverance and against obstacles that seemed almost unsurmountable, he became a teacher of the first rank when only eighteen years of age. Enlisting in the Second New York Cavalry, at the very beginning of the war, he served gallantly under General Kilpatrick in all the battles of Virginia up to October 19, when he was taken prisoner at New Baltimore, after having two horses shot under him. He participated in digging the tunnel out of Libby Prison, through which one hundred and fifteen Union prisoners escaped. Glazier, however, was left behind. From Richmond he was sent to Danville and other prisons, frequently attempting to escape. He was sent to Charleston jail, where, with other prisoners, he was placed under fire of the Union guns on Morris Island. Next he was sent to Columbia, and then comes a thrilling recital of escapes and recaptures; wading through swamps and across rivers at night, and lying hidden in thickets or negro huts by day; tracked by blood-hounds, frequently shot at; enduring the pangs of starvation, thirst, cold and rain, the hero finally reached Sherman's lines after encountering a hundred deadly perils. The brave boy was a prisoner when the term of his enlistment expired, but he immediately applied for and obtained a new commission, and after a brief visit to his parents, he re-entered the army and served until the end of the war. The story is thrillingly told, yet between the many tragic events depicted, there occur frequent humorous episodes, especially those delineating negro character. Young Glazier's brilliant career as the writer of "Soldiers of the Saddle," "Capture, Prison-Pen, and Escape," "Battles for the Union," "Heroes of Three Wars," "Peculiarities of American Cities," etc., is fully given, with copious extracts from each work, together with highly favorable notices from the Boston Post, New York Tribune, Chicago Inter-Ocean and other leading newspapers. The last part of the book is devoted to a voluminous and somewhat roseate description of Captain Glazier's highly successful lecture tour on horseback from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean; his discovery of the source of the Mississippi River, and his canoe voyage from thence to the Gulf of Mexico. Captain Glazier is unquestionably a hero, possessing genius of a high order, and as he is now only forty-two years of age, it would seem that there are still brilliant achievements before him. Whatever may be said of the literary merits of his biography, the history is of absorbing interest. It is such that takes hold of the popular heart, and the hundreds of thousands of Grand Army men who read it will seem to "fight their battles o'er again."

New York Herald.

"Sword and Pen; or, Ventures and Adventures of Willard Glazier," by John Algernon Owens, is a well-written book and altogether readable. It describes the humble origin of one who afterwards became one of the most dashing officers in the Federal cavalry service during the war for the Union. It tells of the vicissitudes of a life restless but resolute, and which bears the stamp of heroism and success. There are stories of school-days full of the activity and frivolity of youth, of failure and fortune, and a graphic sketch of the turning point in Glazier's career, which came with the rebellion. From the day he entered the ranks of the Harris Light Cavalry his course was steadily onward and upward, rising from corporal to be the captain of brave men nerved to the utmost endurance and inured to the dangers and hardships of war. The ensuing pages ring with the enthusiasm of martial achievements, of peril by day and night, of capture, of the dungeon, and the thrilling escape. The book closes with a vivid account of his famous ride on horseback from ocean to ocean, from Boston to San Francisco. This unparalleled ride was accomplished by Captain Glazier in 1876, the Centennial year, and serves as a fitting conclusion to a career marked by indomitable industry, true courage and unquestioned success, showing that

"Honor and shame from no condition rise; Act well your part, there all the honor lies."

The book is profusely illustrated and will be an interesting addition to either a public or private library.

Hartford Courant.

"Sword and Pen; or, Ventures and Adventures of Willard Glazier," the soldier-author, by John Algernon Owens. Captain Glazier has had a very lively career both during the war and since, in explorations on the upper Mississippi. He is the author of a long list of war books himself, which have been much commended by the press, for their thrilling narrative style, patriotic enthusiasm, and dash. He is evidently of the stuff of which American heroes are made. The book claims for him high rank as an explorer and discoverer in being the first to definitely locate the True Source of the Mississippi. It is a readable story of an adventurous life, and being fully illustrated, commends itself to all classes of readers.

Cincinnati Commercial Gazette.

John Algernon Owens has compiled incidents and reminiscences in the life of Willard Glazier, the soldier-author, and the work should occupy a position on the shelf of every library. The writings of Captain Glazier are too well known to need any words of commendation from us, his "Capture, Prison-Pen, and Escape," issued soon after the close of the war, having been among the most extensively read annals of the war. The "Sword and Pen" gives a sketch of the early life and adventures of the soldier-author, his school-boy days, and the incidents of that halcyon period of youth, all of which reads like a romance. His academic life is then detailed, after which the stern realities of life are encountered. His military life follows, and his capture by the Confederate troops. Then follows a recital of the dreary and monotonous routine of prison life, together with a vivid account of the scenes enumerated, the escape, and the final entry into the Federal lines. His life after re-entering the cavalry is given, and finally his career as an author and travels across the Continent. The work is written in an attractive style with a recital of much that has never been told before, while the old is so garnished that it cannot fail to interest all classes of readers.

Wilmington Morning News.

"Sword and Pen" is the life of Willard Glazier, who was born in St. Lawrence county, New York, in 1841, of parents of narrow means, who was a bright, mischievous boy, who educated himself by his own efforts, and became a country school-teacher; who enlisted in the Harris Light Cavalry (a New York regiment), at the beginning of the war; who was promoted from the ranks on account of soldierly qualities and personal bravery, to the office of first lieutenant; who was captured by the rebels and imprisoned in Libby Prison and other rebel pens; who finally escaped and made his way on foot under great privations to General Sherman's lines during that commander's "march to the sea;" who had made full notes of his varied army experience, and from these had written several very popular books about military life at that time, and who, hence, is designated, "The Soldier-Author," and appears to be enjoying all the quiet rewards of a patient, industrious, and resolute effort to improve himself and his fortunes in every legitimate and proper way. As an account of a boy of the people it is clear and instructive; as a picture of patriotic and courageous military service at a time of public peril, it is graphic and often thrilling; as a picture of a determined and honorable effort by a young man of generous instincts, to make his own way in the world, it is wholesome and useful. Its style will probably make its obvious lessons the more impressive to the mass of readers; and its general circulation among the young men of this country, nine-tenths of whom must make their own fortunes if they are to have any, will be a public benefit. It teaches honesty, self-help and patriotism; and we cannot have too many teachers at work upon these things.

New York Tribune.

The history of a famous man can never fail to interest the reading public, especially when it records such adventures and dangers as those through which the hero of the "Sword and Pen" passed. Willard Glazier's connection with the great civil war is a fact rendering unusually fascinating his biography, as perhaps no other fact could have done. The battles in which he fought are those around which centre the deepest interest, and the vivid descriptions of his life in Libby Prison, his unsuccessful attempt at escape therefrom, and his later imprisonment at Camp Oglethorpe, are replete with interest to both old and young. The book is written in a bright, attractive style, and is well illustrated with many cuts of true war life and its thrilling incidents. For the old, and especially the young, it is a book calculated to work much good, teaching lessons of patriotism, self-reliance, and perseverance. His life was one of unusual events, and his indomitable ambition to advance was not the least of his many excellent qualities. Like many other well-known men, he began life in humble circumstances, and only to his own efforts was due the great success he achieved. The author, John Algernon Owens, brings out vividly the strong points of his hero's character, and throws around the whole narrative a halo of bright fancy, which renders the book as attractive as the most highly wrought romance.

Baltimore American.

"Sword and Pen." Willard Glazier has made himself prominent both in war and literature. He cast his lot with the Federal cause, and served for a time as a private soldier in the Second Regiment, New York Cavalry. A little later he won laurels at the battles of Cedar Mountain, Manassas, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, Brandy Station, and other historic spots, and rose rapidly in rank, until at the sharp skirmish near Buckland Mills he led his comrades as their captain, and was himself captured. All these features in the career of the soldier-author are portrayed in the most interesting style, and are followed by a graphic description of life in Libby Prison. Mr. Owens winds together the thread of detail in the ventures and adventures of his hero, so that the book reads more like a romance than a veritable history. The book is divided into three parts, which are so closely interwoven that the whole forms one continuous story of a very adventurous life. The hero escapes from Libby, but is recaptured and confined at Camp Oglethorpe, in Georgia. He also escapes from this prison, and with the assistance of negroes, finally reaches the Federal lines. In 1876, he crossed the Continent on horseback, and was captured by hostile Indians. He escapes and subsequently planned the way for an expedition to the source of the Mississippi River.

Philadelphia Ledger.

"Sword and Pen" by John Algernon Owens. Captain Glazier, the soldier-author, is the writer of several popular works about the war—"Soldiers of the Saddle," "Battles for the Union," etc. Though still a young man he has had a most eventful life, serving throughout the war, and passing through many adventures of which he has since made good use in his life as an author. He has also accomplished the remarkable feat of riding from Boston to San Francisco on horseback. This memoir tells the story of his life in attractive narrative form, and is full of interesting tales of the war.

Philadelphia Evening Star.

Captain Willard Glazier, who is well known as the author of several popular works about the late war, some of which have had an extraordinary sale, has himself been made the subject of a book by Mr. John Algernon Owens. Captain Glazier has had an eventful life; has been a teacher, a soldier, an author, explorer and a horseback tourist; and there is much in his career inculcating the value of self-reliance and other sterling qualities. He has found an appreciative biographer in Mr. Owens, whose work will more especially interest soldiers and those fond of reading of adventure.

Philadelphia Evening Bulletin.

"Sword and Pen" is a book describing the ventures and adventures of Captain Willard Glazier, who was one of the many gallant heroes of the civil war, and who wrote some clever books about it after he had laid aside the sword for the pen. The author of the present work is John Algernon Owens, and the account he gives of Glazier's youth and young manhood, his experiences in battle, in prison, after peace came, in domestic life and in literature, is full of interest, entertainment and instruction. We heartily commend it to our readers.

Philadelphia Inquirer.

Of course all Americans remember Captain Willard Glazier, the well-known soldier-author, who has made himself prominent in war and in literature. The present volume is a more than usually interesting one, and is most carefully and effectively gotten up. It relates graphically the ventures and adventures of Glazier from his youth to the present time; and many of the adventures through which he passed are so thrilling as to seem almost impossible, yet facts prove them true. Glazier's youth is minutely detailed; we are treated to a series of adventures by the youngster, which induce us to believe that his bump of reverence for his teachers and elders was represented by a cavity. But passing through the incidents that precede the age of manhood, he turned up in the Second Regiment, New York Cavalry. From that time until the close of the war, Glazier's career was a stirring one. From the early fight at Flipper's Orchard, he successively took part in the battles of Cedar Mountain, Manassas, Fredericksburg, Brandy Station, Gettysburg and other engagements. At the cavalry engagement of New Baltimore he was taken prisoner, and soon thereafter made the acquaintance of the inside of Libby Prison. We get many glimpses of life in that well-known Prison-Pen, and are treated to numerous pathetic and humorous incidents that fell under Glazier's notice. All have read of what was endured by such of the Union soldiers who passed that ordeal, and the reader can, therefore, imagine what fell to the lot of this dashing cavalryman. The great tunnel attempt at escape is graphically told. Glazier also got a taste of prison fare at Camp Oglethorpe in Georgia. But he made his escape, and fed and sheltered by negroes, at last, after a second capture, reached the Federal lines. Soon after the war he wrote a book, called "Capture, Prison-Pen and Escape;" later he wrote another volume, called "Three Years in the Federal Cavalry." After this came "Battles for the Union," speedily to be followed by "Heroes of Three Wars." After this he rode across the Continent on horseback, and then took the lecture field, and indeed he has proved himself a thorough American in being able to do anything and everything equally well. Being possessed of an energy and audacity that were perfectly marvelous, he rushed in, as Shakespeare observes, "where angels feared to tread." It is a miracle that he ever lived to relate them, for Libby Prison experience alone was sufficient to destroy the constitution of the majority of the prisoners. "Sword and Pen" will have a large sale.






The following Appendix to "Down the Great River," by Captain Willard Glazier, is here reproduced in verification of his claim to the discovery of the TRUE SOURCE of the Mississippi.

P. W. Ziegler & Co., Publishers. 720 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, May 10, 1889.

* * * * *

The publishers of Captain Willard Glazier's Works, having recently had their attention drawn to sundry articles in the public prints calling in question his claim to have located the source of the Mississippi, conclude to invite the consideration of the reader to a few of the many press notices, letters of endorsement and other papers placed at their disposal by friends of the explorer, bearing directly upon the subject of the primal reservoir or true source of the Great River. In view of the apparent incredulity of some critics, it is thought expedient to lay this matter before the public in connection with Captain Glazier's latest work, "Down the Great River," which gives a detailed account of his discovery, in order that a sound and enlightened conclusion may be arrived at upon the merits of the claim presented.


We commence with the press correspondence of Mr. Barrett Channing Paine, who, at the period of the Glazier expedition, was a reporter on the staff of the Saint Paul Pioneer Press, and subsequently Managing Editor of the Saint Paul Globe. This gentleman accompanied Captain Glazier to the source of the Mississippi, and thence down the river in a canoe to the Gulf of Mexico. During the entire voyage Mr. Paine was in constant correspondence with the Pioneer Press and leading papers of various cities on the banks of the Mississippi, to which he furnished detailed accounts of the discovery and incidents of the journey. We present only a few of these letters, selected from a large number, for the perusal of the reader. The writer was certainly in a position to know the truth of the matters upon which he so intelligently reports.

Letter to the Brainerd (Minnesota) Tribune from Channing Paine:

"Schoolcraft Island, "Lake Itasca, Minnesota, "July 22, 1881.

"To the Editor of the Tribune:

"Captain Glazier's party arrived at this much-talked-of lake last evening, reaching the south-eastern arm by a three mile portage, and then paddling down to the Island, where we encamped. We left Leech Lake on the sixteenth, after cordial farewells with the gentlemen then at the Agency, especially Mr. Nichols and Rev. Edwin Benedict, to whose kindness we were greatly indebted. Launching our little fleet of canoes, three in number, on the billowy surface of the lake, we started for our first objective, Lake Itasca. After leaving Leech Lake our way lay up a river called by the Indians Gabakauazeba. The river broadens out a short distance from the lake, but narrows again and becomes tortuous and full of snags. Passing safely through all these, we reached, late in the afternoon, a fine lake nearly ten miles long, upon the shore of which we encamped. Next morning we paddled to the upper end of the lake, and were there introduced to our first real portage. Two miles and a half over a very rough country—the hardest work we ever undertook—brought us to another but smaller lake, and then, for five days, lakes and portages followed each other in rapid succession, until at length the waters of Itasca burst upon our view. The talk of our guides, coupled with what we had heard at Leech Lake, had led Captain Glazier to the conclusion that, whatever the source of the Mississippi might be, there was reasonable ground for the belief that Lake Itasca was not. Chief among the theories advanced by the Indian guides, one of whom, Chenowagesic, had hunted and trapped for years at the headwaters of this river, was that there existed a lake of good dimensions and wooded shores above Itasca, which poured its waters into the so-called source, and which was itself really the source of the Great River. They also stated (correctly, as we afterwards learned) that the stream which flowed from the lake spoken of by Paul Beaulieu as perhaps the source, contributed much less water to the main stream at its confluence with it than did the stream from Itasca. Resolved to explore the lake above Itasca, the captain started with two canoes, next morning, from Schoolcraft Island, and pushed up to the head of the lake. Chenowagesic piloted us through the rushes with which this end of Itasca is filled, and presently we found ourselves in a small but rapid stream, up which we went, and after following its windings, paddled again through some rushes, and then shot out upon the smooth surface of a beautiful lake. This lake is about two miles long by a mile and a half broad, and its shape is that of a heart. The shores are beautifully wooded, and its waters are deep and clear. On its one promontory our party landed. After exploring its shores, and first slaking our thirst at a spring of ice-cold water which bubbled up near by, we were marshalled in line, and Captain Glazier made a few remarks pertinent to the discovery of the true source of the Father of Waters. After this six volleys were fired in honor of the occasion, and then the question of a name for the new lake arose. This being left for the party to decide, I addressed my companions, and after alluding to the time, money and energy expended by the leader of the expedition, proposed that it be named LAKE GLAZIER in his honor. This proposition was received with applause and carried by acclamation, and it was further decided that the name and date should be blazed on a pine tree which stood conspicuously on the point. After this we re-embarked in our canoes and returned to the Island."

* * * * *

In the following letter Channing Paine gives a further account of the discovery of the head of the Great River:

"Douglas House, "Aitkin, Minnesota, "August 11, 1881.

"To the Editor—Saint Louis Globe-Democrat:

"Lake Itasca, for many years, has been regarded, both by geographical societies and map-makers, as well as by the public generally, as the source of the grandest of rivers—the mighty Mississippi. But geographical knowledge, like all other knowledge, is of little consequence if it is not progressive, and in its history we have seen the firmly-rooted beliefs of centuries torn up and tossed aside by the explorations and reasoning of intrepid travellers, who, respecting truth and facts more than mere theory, have accepted nothing without proof, merely because others have so accepted it. This is the ground occupied by Captain Willard Glazier in his explorations in search of the source of the Mississippi.

"Starting for the headwaters of this great river in July last, he learned that the dense forests which surround the source of the Father of Waters were rarely penetrated by white men, or even by Indians, at any time except in winter, when lakes and rivers were frozen up, and the whole surface of the country covered with a mantle of snow.

"He also heard through the interpreter and Indian guides who accompanied him that the aboriginal inhabitants of these primeval forests did not regard Itasca as the source; but, while rejecting it, differed among themselves as to what lake really was the fountain-head. Some claimed that the stream from Itasca was not itself the main stream, but flowed into the river proper some three miles below the lake. The stream to which it was tributary, though narrower, was, they claimed, deeper and swifter, bringing to the united streams more water than the one from Lake Itasca.

"Others considered the Itascan stream as the main one, but spoke of another lake, broad and beautiful, which lay above Itasca and poured its clear waters into the accepted source through a small stream which entered the southern arm of Lake Itasca. Captain Glazier determined to thoroughly examine all this region, and to settle definitely and forever the true source of the Mississippi.

"Acting in accordance with this resolution, he pushed on toward Itasca, intending to make it a starting-point for further exploration. Reaching this objective point after innumerable hardships, he camped on Schoolcraft Island, and after a day of rest directed operations toward the lakes and streams of the surrounding country.

"Thoroughly surveying the stream that the Indians claimed to be the main one, he found it much inferior in volume to that from Itasca. This point settled, he closely examined the shores of Lake Itasca for tributary streams, finding but three of any importance. Of these three the one by far the largest came in at the extreme head of the lake, at a point where it is nearly filled with bulrushes.

"Taking two canoes, Captain Glazier ascended this stream, which, though shallow, is rapid, yet so narrow in places that to jump across it would be an easy task. Following its windings, he entered what appeared to be a lake filled with rushes. Pushing through this barrier, however, the canoes soon glided out upon the still surface of a beautiful lake, clear as crystal, with pebbly bottom, and its shores covered with a thick growth of pine. This lake is formed in the shape of a heart, having but one marked promontory. Its greatest length is about two miles and its width a mile and a half.

"Captain Glazier found that this fine lake was fed by three rivulets, which rose in swamps a few miles from the lake, and thoroughly convinced that this body of water was the true source of the Mississippi, he proclaimed it as such. Without waiting for discussion, the members of the party decided unanimously to call it Lake Glazier in his honor. Modestly expressing his thanks for this mark of their appreciation, Captain Glazier said that, though he firmly believed this lake to be the source of the river, he should relax none of his vigilance on the trip through the unknown part of the stream, but would carefully examine all water flowing into the Mississippi, in order to be positive as to the main stream."

* * * * *

On reaching Hastings, Captain Glazier and his fellow-voyagers were hospitably entertained by some of the leading citizens and Mr. Paine addressed the following letter to the Editor of the Hastings Gazette:

"Foster House, "Hastings, Minnesota, "September 5, 1881.

"To the Editor of the Gazette:

"For many years the source of the Mississippi was as much a mystery as is at present that of the Nile. But when in 1832 Schoolcraft made his official exploration of the headwaters of this great water-course, and after a long and arduous journey up the stream reached a lake which he named Itasca, and pronounced it the head of the river, the matter was considered settled, and speculation was no longer rife in regard to this point. Now, however, it has been proved by Captain Willard Glazier beyond doubt that the lake which has so long enjoyed the honor of being the source of our greatest river had an honor it did not merit.

"Going thither with the object of visiting the head of the river, Captain Glazier was led to suspect by the talk of his guides, one of whom, Chenowagesic, had hunted and trapped for years in the region around the source, that Lake Itasca had really no greater claim to be considered the head of the river than Cass Lake, or Bemidji or Winnibegoshish, all larger and finer lakes than Itasca. Above and beyond Itasca lay another lake. This, with its feeding springs, was the source of the mighty river, and this lake, if it existed, Captain Glazier resolved to visit and explore. After a long and severe journey he reached it, being the first white traveller to float upon its surface; and after thoroughly examining its feeders and the narrow stream through which it flowed into Itasca, he felt that he had found the true source of the Mississippi. Nevertheless, he continued his explorations along the river below Itasca after passing through that lake, and satisfied himself thoroughly that the new lake was at the head of the main stream. In speaking of the source of the Mississippi, therefore, we should henceforth call it LAKE GLAZIER instead of Lake Itasca."

The following description of Lake Glazier from the pen of Channing Paine appeared in the Dubuque Herald of September sixth, 1881:


"The new-found source of the Mississippi is a sparkling little gem of a lake, situated above and beyond Lake Itasca. It nestles among the pines of an unfrequented and wild region of Northern Minnesota, many miles from the nearest white settlement, and just on the dividing ridge which forms the great watershed of North America. Within a few miles of it can be found lakes and streams, whose waters are tributary to the Red River of the North and the Yellowstone, thus reaching the sea thousands of miles from the mouth of the mighty Mississippi, which flows in a limpid brook from LAKE GLAZIER. This lake, discovered to be the source of one of the greatest rivers of the world, by Captain Willard Glazier, on the Twenty-second of July, 1881, is about two miles in greatest diameter, and would be nearly round in shape but for a single promontory, whose rocky shores give it in outline the form of a heart. The waters of the lake are exceedingly clear and pure, coming from springs, some being at the bottom, but the three most prominent rise a few miles back, in low, wet land enclosed by sand-hills, and flow into the lake in little rills. On the very point of the promontory is a spring whose waters are as cold as ice, and at which the Glazier party slaked their thirst while exploring the shores of the new lake. So lonely is the region around the lake that for fourteen days not even a red-skin was seen, and wearied by the hardships of this rough country, yet with a feeling of having added something to geographical knowledge, the Captain and his party were glad to return to civilization."

* * * * *

The Saint Louis Post-Dispatch published the following, with several other communications, from Mr. Paine:

"1310 Olive Street,

"Saint Louis, Missouri,

"October 10, 1881.

"To the Editor—Post-Dispatch:

"Lake Itasca has been considered to be the source of the Mississippi for so many years that any man who disputes its title to that honor is looked upon as a radical and one bent upon upsetting all our preconceived geographical ideas. Still it is a fact that Lake Itasca is not the source, and has no greater claim to being called so than has Cass Lake or Lake Bemidji or Lake Pepin. This fact was discovered beyond all doubt by Captain Willard Glazier, who equipped an expedition last July and started for the headwaters of the Mississippi. Reaching Lake Itasca after a journey of great hardship, he camped on Schoolcraft Island, and, using this as a base of operations, he thoroughly explored the lakes and rivers which contribute their waters to the infant Mississippi. The various theories and stories heard from his Indian guides were considered as clues and faithfully followed up until their truth or falsity was ascertained. Success at length crowned his efforts, for a beautiful lake was found above Itasca, and in the direct line of the course of the river below Itasca, which lake proved to be the farthest water—the extreme head of the Mississippi. The lake, which the members of the expedition voted to call LAKE GLAZIER, in honor of their leader, is about two miles in diameter, with clear and beautiful water, fed by springs, and altogether one of the prettiest lakes of its size in Minnesota. The stream which flows from it into Itasca is quite rapid, though so narrow that in some places one can easily jump across it."

The following account of an interview with Mr. Paine is extracted from the New Orleans Democrat of November twentieth, 1881:

"There arrived at the Jetties on the fifteenth a tiny cedar canoe, bearing aloft at the bows a pennant with the inscription Alice, and at the stern a United States flag. Its officers and crew consisted of Captain Willard Glazier, a distinguished writer, and a reportorial companion, Mr. Barrett Channing Paine, of the Saint Paul Pioneer Press, who had come all the way down the Mississippi, from its source, in this frail bark. Great, indeed, was the joy of the voyagers as they glided down to the mouth of the river, and saw the salt spray of the Gulf dash high over the seaward wall of the Jetties. After clambering up by the beacon, and standing gazing at the broad expanse of water, toward which they had been paddling for the last four months, until they were drenched by an unusually heavy wave, the two men again descended slowly, scarcely conscious that their long voyage was finished. Hailing a passing boat, they boarded her, and the light canoe was made fast behind and towed back to Port Eads, where the travellers were most hospitably entertained until the arrival of an inward bound steamship to bring them to New Orleans.

"As this is by far the longest canoe voyage ever made, and extended the whole length of the Great River, some account of the expedition, its aims and incidents, cannot fail to be of interest.

"A representative of the Democrat had the pleasure of meeting Barrett Channing Paine, who accompanied Captain Glazier, and from him learned the following particulars of the voyage:

"Captain Willard Glazier is a serious, soldierly-looking man, and a military author of repute. Among his best known works are 'Soldiers of the Saddle,' 'Capture, Prison-Pen and Escape,' 'Battles for the Union,' 'Heroes of Three Wars,' and 'Peculiarities of American Cities.' The Captain does not look like a man of thoughtless, adventurous disposition, and it seems strange at first that he should have made the voyage in the manner he did; but it looks sensible enough when his reasons are taken into consideration. The Captain made the trip avowedly for the purpose of study and observation, as he did his horseback ride across the continent, from Boston to San Francisco, in 1876. He wished to thoroughly understand the people of the great valley, their social conditions, industries and modes of life. He also expected to obtain much enjoyment from the changing scenery and climate. Had he travelled by steamboat or railway, he would have been whisked through the country in a week or so, and would have had absolutely no opportunity for obtaining an inside view of the condition of affairs. In addition to seeing the country, the Captain designed delivering a lecture prepared specially for the purpose on the 'Pioneers of the Mississippi,' in all the important towns on his route. The lecture treated chiefly of the early explorers—De Soto, Marquette, La Salle, and Hennepin.

"Actuated by these motives, he procured a fine cedar canoe of the Rushton model, which he shipped to Aitkin, the most northerly point on the river reached by rail. He then went forward, himself, to Saint Paul, accompanied by his brother, where he was joined by his present companion, and there made final preparations for the long voyage.

"At Brainerd the party left the line of the Northern Pacific Railroad, and proceeded by wagon over a road, which was hardly more than a trail, to Leech Lake, where the Government has an Indian Agency. The country traversed was exceedingly wild, being almost without inhabitants, and covered with a growth of jack-pines. It being the blueberry season, quite a number of Indians were seen picking that fruit, which grows there in abundance. As a rule the braves lay in the shade, smoking or sleeping, while the squaws and children did the picking. At night they found a stopping-place at Pine River, and the following afternoon arrived at the Agency, where there are two trading-posts and a number of white men.

"Here three birch-bark canoes were purchased, and the services of an equal number of Indian guides procured, one of whom also acted in the capacity of interpreter. All of these were required to reach the source of the river, which was a matter of great difficulty and some danger. Lake Itasca, which was then supposed by most people to be the source of the Mississippi, lay five days' journey away, through an almost impassable wilderness. Indeed, it was well-nigh impossible to find even an Indian who had visited it. But at last one was found in the person of Chenowagesic, a Chippewa brave, who consented to pilot the party to that lake.

"On July seventeenth everything was in readiness, the three birch canoes were launched on Leech Lake, and the voyage had fairly commenced. After crossing Leech Lake the voyagers pushed up the Gabecanazeba River, which was filled with rushes and wild rice. Laboriously paddling through these, they reached another lake, and encamped for the night. Next morning this lake was crossed, and the first real hardship of the expedition confronted them in the shape of a portage. The provisions and luggage were taken out of the canoes and transported on the backs of the Indians across the country, a distance of three miles, through underbrush so thick that they could not see ten feet in advance. Five days were spent in this manner—first paddling across a little lake, and then making a long portage, until at last Lake Itasca was reached, and the party encamped on Schoolcraft Island. By this time the Captain felt convinced from the talk of the guides, particularly of Chenowagesic, the chief guide, whose words were translated to him, that Itasca was not the source of the Great River.

"Determined to ascertain the truth, he proceeded at once to make a thorough exploration of the headwaters of the river, guided in a great measure by Chenowagesic, who had hunted and trapped for years in this region. Various streams joining the infant Mississippi were examined, and found to contain less water than that stream, thus establishing the fact that Itasca is on the main stream. Then a thorough exploration of the shores of the lake itself was made. Several creeks were found to enter it, the chief of which came in at the southern end of the south-western arm of the lake. Itasca, at this point, is filled with bulrushes, through which, with great difficulty, the explorers forced their way, but were rewarded by finding themselves in a clear, swift-running stream, having an average depth of about ten or twelve inches, and a width of about five feet. Up this tortuous stream the canoes were pushed and dragged, and finally the voyagers shot out upon the surface of a beautiful heart-shaped lake, which proved, upon careful exploration, to be the true source of the Father of Waters. After examining the shores, the party landed on a rocky point, and Captain Glazier made a short speech, expressing his confident belief that they had found the true source of the Great River, and added something to the geographical knowledge of the country. He was followed by Mr. Paine, who, after a few introductory remarks, moved that the new lake be called LAKE GLAZIER, in honor of the man by whom it had been discovered. This motion was adopted by the Captain's companions, and after drinking from a spring of ice-cold water which bubbled up at their feet, the party re-embarked. LAKE GLAZIER is about two miles in greatest diameter, with clear, deep waters and wooded shores, being altogether a prettier lake than Itasca and both wider and deeper, to whose honors, as source of the mighty Mississippi, it succeeds.

"Reporter.—Then which way did you proceed?"

"Mr. Paine.—From LAKE GLAZIER the descent of the river began. Below Itasca it runs in a northerly direction for a hundred miles or more, and then swings round to the eastward, finally bending toward the south, which general direction it afterwards maintains. For the first few miles it runs between rich meadows, and the canoeists expected from this that the voyage would be easy and agreeable. Such was not our fortune, however, for we soon found the river to be obstructed by snags, drift-wood and boulders of all sizes. Huge trees had in many places fallen completely across the river. These obstacles were surmounted in different ways. Sometimes the canoes could be pressed down and made to go under the logs; again, they would have to be carried around; sometimes the drift would be removed, and sometimes the canoes would be lifted over. At last they had to be carried across a portage for half a mile, then launched again, until at length the obstructions were passed. Meanwhile, and all through the journey, the mosquitoes hovered around us in clouds, making life a burden, and causing all the members of the expedition to forget their early Christian training.

"Leaving the obstructions behind, we sped smoothly between the waving meadows once more lining the river. But a new hardship now threatened us—our rations gave out entirely, and most of the ammunition having become wet, starvation stared us in the face. To buy anything in that wild country was, of course, impossible. This danger was barely averted by the marksmanship of our leader, and the dexterity of the Indian guides, who would occasionally kill a duck with their paddles. We got down at last to 'hard pan,' and had gone without any breakfast or supper the day we reached Lake Bemidji. Here we were lucky enough to meet an Indian, who had a little flour and pork, and having replenished our larder, we crossed the lake and continued our course down the river.

"A new danger now beset us in the shape of rapids which would occur every few miles, rendering canoe navigation extremely hazardous. Several times holes were stove in the thin birchen canoes, and a number of times we were precipitated into the water, but no one was dangerously hurt, and the guides were very deft in repairing the canoes.

"A half-day's journey from Lake Bemidji is Cass Lake, a fine sheet of water, twenty miles in length by ten wide. The next day, Winnibegoshish, the largest lake of the Mississippi, was reached. It is twenty miles in diameter, and greeted us with a heavy sea, which nearly swamped us as we paddled across the corner to a few scattered wigwams which form the little Indian village on its banks. Two days we were wind-bound, getting away on the morning of the third. That night our camp was invaded by a number of hostile Indians, but, owing to our vigilance, bloodshed was avoided.

"In three days more Pokegama Falls were reached, and we saw the first white man since leaving Leech Lake. Making a portage around the falls, we shot Grand Rapids a few miles below, and slept that night beneath the shelter of a roof. Nothing worthy of mention occurred between this point and Aitkin, which we reached in four days, and at last found ourselves within the bounds of civilization, and bade farewell to our Indian guides. Captain Glazier tried to induce these dusky sons of the forest to accompany him to the Gulf, but the stories they had heard of the alligators and snakes of the Sunny South terrified them, and they refused. A short rest was taken at Aitkin, and then we re-embarked in the pretty modern canoes which awaited us there. The descent of the river in these canoes was easy and pleasant. At all the principal towns the Captain delivered his lecture, 'Pioneers of the Mississippi,' which was listened to with great interest.

"Between Aitkin and Saint Paul numerous and dangerous rapids were met, all of which were shot in safety; and the Falls of Saint Anthony reached without accident. Below Saint Anthony Falls the scenery is very beautiful, high bluffs arising with more or less abruptness from the water's edge.

"Among other points of especial interest along the Upper Mississippi, Lake Pepin occupies the most prominent position after Saint Anthony Falls. Environed by majestic bluffs and with a length of thirty miles it forms a very beautiful sheet of water. But though beautiful it is treacherous, and the winds sweeping down between the high bluffs frequently make navigation on its waters perilous. In the morning when we reached its upper end we found to our dismay that the elements had possession, and the waves ran so high that a number of river steamers had been compelled to tie up and wait for the storm to subside. Captain Glazier, however, having a lecture appointment at Lake City, half way down the lake, determined to keep his appointment despite the weather, and ventured forth regardless of the warning of the river men. It took us all day to paddle a distance of sixteen miles, and many times it seemed that our frail boats would be engulfed by the waves which dashed over them; but the danger was passed in safety.

"From this point things went smoothly until the canoe fleet was just below Winona, when a sudden and violent squall struck the boats and came near sending us to the bottom. Fortunately, this too was weathered, and then the only drawbacks encountered were the continuous and strong headwinds and the seas consequent upon them, which tried our nerves so frequently that they came at length to be naturally expected. While on the Keokuk Rapids the wind blew so strongly that it actually carried the boats up stream, and it was only by the hardest paddling that any downward progress could be made.

"At La Crosse the expedition was reduced in number to the Captain and myself, who proceeded to the Gulf in the Alice. Some days were spent in all the principal towns. On October eighth Saint Louis was reached, and we were welcomed by the various boat-clubs of the city and congratulated on having completed the first great section of the navigable river. On October tenth we re-embarked and pushed on towards the mouth of the river. Everywhere we were received with the greatest cordiality. Cairo, Memphis, Vicksburg, Natchez and Baton Rouge were the chief halting places, but frequently night overtook us near some plantation house, and then we were the guests of the planters, and were entertained with true Southern hospitality.

"Special occasion was taken by Captain Glazier to investigate the cotton and sugar crops, the relations of the white and colored races, and the future possibilities of the South; and with very gratifying results. At last New Orleans was reached.

"As it was so near his journey's end, and as it was his intention to return as soon as he had passed through the Jetties, the Captain determined to pass the city on his downward trip without halting. This was accordingly done, and three days' paddling brought us to Captain Eads' great work. Remaining there a day we returned to the city.

"Thus far Mr. Paine; and thus ended the longest canoe voyage ever made, and one which perhaps entailed more hardships on those who made it than any other on record. Starting from the cold springs at its source Captain Glazier followed the windings of the greatest river on our continent from the pine forests and the wheat lands of the extreme Northern States, through all the varying phases of climate and industries, to the cotton and sugar-cane section of the South; past the orange and banana groves, and on to the broad Gulf. Such a journey is full of interesting and strange experiences, pleasures and hardships intermingled, and has, Captain Glazier thinks, fully repaid the cost in time, money and labor of the undertaking.

"The canoe in which this long voyage was made has been presented by the Captain to the New Orleans Academy of Sciences.

"It may be well to mention that no one else has ever traversed either in canoe, steamboat or otherwise more than two-thirds of the course of the Mississippi; and when it is taken into consideration that the distance is considerably over three thousand miles, and that the upper portion is filled with rapids, logs and other obstructions, it is not to be wondered at."


On his return to New Orleans from the Gulf, with the purpose of viewing the great maritime city of the South, Captain Glazier was met by Dr. J. S. Copes, President of the New Orleans Academy of Sciences. This gentleman introduced him to Mayor Shakespear, and arrangements were at once made for a public reception by the Academy. The following interesting account of the ceremony is taken from the New Orleans Picayune of November twenty-first, 1881, and shows the estimate placed on the Captain's exploratory labors by many of the most prominent residents of the Crescent City:

"The termination of the exploring expedition and canoe trip of Captain Willard Glazier, extending from his new-found source of the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico, culminated, after a voyage of one hundred and seventeen days, in a very general and complimentary recognition and ovation on the part of the officials and citizens of New Orleans. In company with Dr. J. S. Copes, President of the Academy of Sciences, Captain Glazier was presented to His Honor, Mayor Shakespear was warmly welcomed, and the freedom of the city tendered him.

"In appreciation of the generous hospitality extended to him, the Captain expressed a wish to present his beautiful canoe, which had safely carried him through his long voyage, to the Academy of Sciences, and the following letter accompanied the presentation:

"'Saint Charles Hotel, "'New Orleans, Louisiana, "'November 21, 1881.

"'Joseph S. Copes, M. D., "'President—New Orleans Academy of Sciences:

"'Dear Sir:—I have just concluded upon the border of the State of Louisiana a voyage of observation, exploration, and discovery; and, as you have expressed considerable interest in the results, and manifested a desire to possess the canoe in which the voyage was made, I find pleasure in presenting it to your honorable society as a souvenir of my expedition.

"'During this canoe journey of over three thousand miles, beginning at the headwaters of the Mississippi and extending to the Gulf of Mexico, I had the satisfaction of locating the source of the Great River which we have traversed, and feel a pride in having corrected a geographical error of half a century's standing.

"'I will not now enter into a detailed account of my explorations on the upper Mississippi, but shall take the earliest opportunity of transmitting to your Secretary a complete narrative of the voyage, which will be issued in book form as soon as the matter can be prepared for publication.

"'Very respectfully yours, "'Willard Glazier.'

"A special meeting of the Academy of Sciences was held—Dr. J. S. Copes, President, in the chair—for the purpose of receiving from Captain Glazier the handsome cedar canoe Alice, with which he had navigated the Mississippi from Aitkin to the Gulf.

"By invitation, Captain Glazier gave an account of his explorations on the Upper Mississippi, and especially of that section of country beyond Lake Itasca, a body of water which has hitherto been considered the fountain-head of the Great River.

"Dr. Copes, in the name of the Academy, thanked Captain Glazier for his valuable gift, which would be highly prized, and then congratulated him upon his contribution to American geographical knowledge. In the course of his remarks, the learned doctor said that De Soto penetrated the continent of North America in pursuit of gold, and accidentally discovered the Mississippi. Marquette, the zealous missionary, traversed the river from the mouth of the Wisconsin to the mouth of the Arkansas. La Salle pursued his explorations from the mouth of the Illinois to the Gulf, his sole aim seeming to be the conquest of North America in the name of the King of France. Hennepin explored but a small section of the stream, extending from the mouth of the Wisconsin to Saint Anthony Falls; while Willard Glazier had made the discovery of its primal reservoir, and traversed its entire length from source to sea.

"The members of the Academy listened with great interest to Captain Glazier's account of his explorations and discovery, and also to the historical address of the President.

"Dr. J. R. Walker then offered the following resolutions:

"'Resolved, That the thanks of this Academy are due, and are hereby tendered, to Captain Willard Glazier for the donation of his beautiful canoe, Alice, and for the brief narrative of his explorations at the source of the Mississippi River, and of his voyage thence to the Gulf of Mexico.

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