But I may instance in some few, for which it is good and profitable, and therein observe some order and methode; It dryeth the over moist braine, and helpeth the evils proceeding therefrom, as rhumes, catarrhs, palsies, cramps, &c.
It is also good and availeable against inveterate headaches, migrims, turnings, and swimmings of the head and braine, dizzinesse, epilepsie, or falling sicknesse, and the like cold and moist diseases of the head.
It cheereth and reviveth the spirits, strengtheneth the stomacke, causeth a good and quicke appetite, and furthereth digestion.
It helpeth the blacke and yellow Jaundisse, and the evill, which is accompanied with strange feare and excessive sadnesse without any evident occasion, or necessary cause, called Melancholia Hypochondriaca. Likewise the cachexy, or evill habit of the body, and the dropsie in the beginning thereof, before it be too farre gone. For besides that it openeth obstructions, it expelleth the redundant water contained in the belly, and contemperateth the unnaturall heat of the liver.
It cooleth the kidneyes or reynes, and driveth forth sand, gravell, and stones out of them, and also hindreth the encrease or breeding of any new, by the concretion, and saudering of gravell, bred of a viscous and clammy humour, or substance. The same it performeth to the bladder, for which it is also very beneficiall, if it chance to have any evill disposition either in the cavity thereof, or in the necke of it, and shutting muscle called Sphincter, whereby the whole part or member is let and hindred in his office and function.
Moreover, if there chance to be any ulcer in the parts last specified, or any sore, or fistula in perinaeo through an impostume ill cured, this water is a good remedy for it, in regard of its clensing, cicatrizing and constringing power, and vertue; and for that cause it is very proper and commodious for the acrimony and sharpnesse of urine, and against the stopping and suppression of urine, difficulty of making water, and the strangury.
Although it is very availeable against the stone in the kidneyes, and against the breeding, and increase of any new there; yea, and against little ones, that are loose in the bladder; yet notwithstanding it will afford little or small benefit to those, in whom it is growne to bee very great and big in the bladder: Because nothing will then serve to breake it, as Brassavolus saith, but a Smiths anvile and hammar. Neverthelesse, if in this case incision be used, it will be very commodious both for mundifying and consolidating the wound, made for the extraction of it.
It shall not bee needfull to speake much of the profit, which will ensue by the fit administration of it in the inveterat venereous Gonorrhaea, causing it to cease and stay totally, and correcting the distemper, and the evill ulcerous disposition of the seed vessels, & the vicine parts.
There are very few infirmities properly incident to women, which this water may not seeme to respect much. The use whereof, after the advice and councell had of the learned Physitian, for the well and orderly preparing their bodies, is singular good against the greene sicknesse, and also very commodious and behoovefull to procure their monthly evacuations, as also to stay their over much flowing; as well to correct, as to stay their white floods; as well to dry the wombe being too moist, as to heat it being too cold, through which causes and distempers conception (for the most part) is let and hindered in cold Northerne Countries, as England, and the like. For by the helpe of it these distempers are changed and altered, the superfluous humidities and mucosities are taken away, the part is corroborated, and the retentive vertue is strengthned.
This hath beene so much, and so often observed at the ancient Spaw, that it cannot otherwise, but bee also verified at this in aftertimes, when it shall bee frequented (as those have beene) with the company of Ladyes, and Gentlewomen: Divers whereof, having beene formerly barren for the space of ten, twelve yeares, or moe, and drinking of those waters for curing and helping some other infirmities, then for want of fruitfulnesse, have shortly conceived after their returne home to their husbands, beyond their hopes and expectations.
Besides all this, it is good for these women, who, though otherwise apt enough to conceive, yet by reason of the too much lubricity of their wombes, are prone to miscarry and abort, if before conception they shall use it with those cautions and directions requisite.
Also it respecteth very much the hard scirrhous and cancarous tumours, and the grievous soares, and dangerous ulcers of the matrix. All these excellent helpes and many moe it performeth to women with more speedy successe, if it be also received by injection. But here by the way, all such women, who are with child, are to be admonished, that they forbeare to use it during that time.
In children it killeth and expelleth the wormes of the guts and belly, and letteth and hindreth the breeding and new encrease of any moe.
I will here forbeare to write any thing of the benefits which it affordeth against old and inveterate itches, morphewes, leprosies, &c. in regard the other three sulphurous fountaines, before mentioned, doe more properly respect such like grievances. Neither will I now spend any more time in shewing what vertues it hath in the cure of the Indian, commonly called the French, or rather Spanish disease: because experience hath found out a more certaine and sure remedy against it.
Of the necessity of preparing the body before the use of this water.
It is not in most things the bare and naked knowledge or contemplation of them, that makes them profitable to us; but rather their right use, and oppertune and fit administration. Medicines are not said to be Deorum manus, that is, the hands of the Gods, (as Herophilus calleth them) or Deorum dona; that is, the gifts of the Gods (as Hippocrates beleeved) till they be fitly applyed and seasonably administered by the counsell and advice of the learned and skilfull Physitian, according to the true rules, and method of Art.
Temporibus medicina valet, data tempore prosunt, Et data non apto tempore vina nocent.
Medicines availe in their due times, And profit is got by drinking wines In timely sort; but in all reason They doe offend, drunke out of season.
Therefore to know th' originall mineralls, faculties, and vertues of this worthy acide fountaine, will bee to no end, or to small purpose for them, who understand not the right and true use, nor the fit and orderly administration of it. For not only Physicke or medicines, but also meats, and drinks taken disorderly, out of due time and without measure, bringeth oftentimes detriment to the partie; who otherwise might receive comfort and strength thereby: So likewise this water, if it be not drunke at a convenient time and season, in due fashion and proportion, yea, and that after preparatives and requisite purging and evacuation of the body, may easily hurt those, whose infirmities otherwise it doth principally respect. For medicines ought not to be taken rashly, and unadvisably, as most doe hand over head without any consideration of time, place, and other circumstances; as that ignorant man did, who getting the recipt of that medicine, wherewith formerly he had been cured, made triall of it againe long after for the same infirmity without any helpe or good at all, whereat greatly marvailing, received this answer fro his Physitian: I confesse (said hee) it was the selfe same medicine, but because I did not give it, therefore it did you no good.
To the end therefore, that no occasion may hereafter be either given, or taken by the misgovernment, or overrashnesse of any in using it to calumniate and traduce the worth, and goodnesse of this fountaine, I will briefly here shew, what course is chiefly to be followed and observed by those who shall stand in need of it.
First then, because very few men are thoroughly and sufficiently informed concerning the natures, and causes of their grievances, it will be necessary that every one shold apply himselfe to some one, or other, who either out of his judgement, or experience, or both, may truely be able to give him counsell and good advice concerning the conveniency of this fountaine. And if he shall be avised to use it, then let the party (in the feare of God) addresse himselfe for his way to it, against the fit season of it, without making any long and tedious daies journeys, which cause lassitude, and wearinesse.
Then, being come to the place, he ought after a dayes rest, or two, to have his body wel prepared, & gently clensed with easie lenitives, or purgatives, both fit, and appropriate, as well to the habite and constitution thereof, as also for the disease it selfe, and as occasion shall require, according to the rule of method, which teacheth that universal or generall remedies ought ever to precede and goe before particulars. Now what these are in speciall, to fit every ones case in particular, it is impossible for me here, or any else to define precisely. Ars non versatur circa individua. We may see it true in mechanicall trades. No one shoemaker can fit all by one Last; nor any one taylor can suite all by one, and the selfe same measure.
Yet in regard it may perhaps bee expected that something should be said herein, I say, that in the beginning (if occasion serve) some easie Clyster may very fitly bee given, as well for emptying the lower intestines from their usuall excrements, as for carying away and clensing the mucose slimes contained therein. After that, it will be convenient to prepare the body by some Julep or Apozeme, or to give some lenitive medicine to free the first region of the body from excrements. For otherwise the water might peradventure convey some part of them, or other pecca̅t matter, which it findeth in his passage either into the bladder, or to some other weake, and infirme member of the body, to the increase of that evill disposition which is to be removed, or else to the breeding of some other new infirmity.
Object. Some perhaps will here object and say, that the time of the yeere, in which this fountaine will be found to bee most usefull, will be the hottest season thereof; or (if you like to call it) the dog-daies, when it will be no fit time to purge at all.
Answ. 1. To this I answer and say: First, the purging medicines here required are not strong, and generous but gentle, mild and weake, such as are styled Benedicta medicamenta: which may with great safetie and profit bee given either then or at any other time of the yeere without any danger, or respect of any such like circumstance at all.
2. Secondly I answer; Although this observation of the dog-dayes might perhaps be of some moment in hotter countries, as Greece, where Hippocrates lived, who first made mention of those dales: Yet in colder climates, as England, and such like Countries, they are of little or small force at all, and almost not to be regarded any whit, either in using mild & temperate purgatives, or almost in any other; or in blood-letting: though very many, or most doe erroniously say and thinke the contrary. So that (if there be cause) they may as well and safely then purge, as at any other time: Or, if occasion shall urge, as in plethoricall bodies, and many other cases, a veine may safely (or rather most commodiously) be then opened and so much blood taken away, as the skilfull Physitian shall thinke in his discretion and wisdome to be needfull and requisite.
Let no man here think, that this is any strange position, or a new paradoxe (for the learned know the contrary) or that I am studious of innovation, but rather desirous to roote out an old and inveterate errour, which in all probabilitie hath cost moe Englishmens lives, then would furnish a royall army, in neglecting those two greater helpes or remedies, to wit, Purging, and Blood-letting in hot seasons of the yeare: which in all likelihood might have saved many of their lives, while expecting more temperate weather, they have beene summoned in the meane time, or interim by the messenger of pale death to appeare in an other world.
Wherefore let all those who are yet living, bee admonished hereafter by their examples, not obstinately and wilfully to eschue and shunne these two remedies in hot seasons, and in the time of the Dog-dayes, (much lesse all other manner of physicall helpes) not once knowing so much as why, or wherefore, and without any reason at all, following blind and superstitious tradition, and error, haply first broched by some unworthy and ignorant Physitian, not rightly understanding Hippocrates his saving in all likelyhood, or at least wise misapplying it. Which hath so prevailed in these times, that it hath not onely worne out the use of purging, but also of all other physicke for that season, because most people by the name of physicke understanding purging onely, and nothing else. As though the art and science of Physicke was nothing else, but to give a potion or purge. Then we rightly and truly might say, Filia devor avit matrem.
But for as much as most people are altogether ignorant of the true ground or reason, from whence this so dangerous an error concerning the Dog-dayes did first spring and arise, give me leave a little to goe on with this my digression, for their better instruction, and satisfaction: and I will briefly, and in a few lines shew the case, and the mistake somewhat more plainly.
Hippocrates in his fourth booke of Aphorismes, the fift, hath these words: Sub canicula, & ante caniculam difficiles sunt purgationes. That is, under the canicular, or dog-star, and before the dog-star, purgations are painfull and difficill. This is all that is there said of them, or brought against them for that season, or time of the yeare. A great stumbling-blocke against which many have dashed their feet, and knockt their shinnes, and a fearfull scar-crow, whereat too many have nicely boggled. Here you doe not find or see purging medicines to bee then prohibited, or forbidden to be given at all (much lesse all other physicke) but onely said to be difficill in their working: partly because (as all expositors agree) nature is then somewhat enfeebled by the great heat of the weather; partly because the humours being then, as it were, accended are more chaffed by the heat of the purging medicines; partly, and lastly, because two contrary motions seeme then to be at one and the same time, which may offend nature; as the great heat of the weather leading the humours of the body outwardly to the circumference thereof, and the medicine drawing them inwardly to the center. All which circumstances in our cold region are little, or nothing at all (as formerly hath beene mentioned) to be regarded. For as Jacobus Hollerius, a French Physitian, much honoured for his great learning and judgement, hath very well observed in his Comment upon this Aphorisme; Hippocrates speaketh here onely of those purging medicines, which are strong, and vehement, or hot and fiery; and that this precept is to take place in most hot Regions, but not in these cold Countries, as France, England, and the like.
Over and beside all this, those churlish hot purging medicines, which were then in frequent use in Hippocrates his time, and some hundred of yeares after, are now for most part obsolete, and quite growne out of use, seldom brought in practice by Physitians in these dayes; because we have within these last six hundred yeares great choice and variety of more mild, benigne, and gentle purgatives found out by the Arabian Physitians, which were altogether unknowne unto the ancients, to wit, Hippocrates, Dioscorides, Galen, &c. which have little heat, and acrimony, many whereof are temperate, and divers cooling, which may most safely be given either in the hottest times and seasons of the yeare, or in the hottest diseases. Let us adde to these the like familiar and gentle purging medicines more lately, yea, almost daily newly found out since the better discoveries of the East and West Indies. So that henceforth let no man feare to take either easie purgatives, or other inward Physicke, in the time of the canicular, or dog-dayes.
The same Hollerius goeth on in the exposition and interpretation of the said Aphorisme, and confidently saith: Over & besides that we have benigne medicines which we may then use, as Cassia, &c. Wee know and finde by experience no time here with us more wholsome and more temperat (especially when the Etesian, or Easterly, winds do blow) then the Canicular dayes: so that, wee finde by observation, that those diseases which are bred in the moneths of June and July, doe end in August, and in the Canicular dayes. Wherefore, if a disease happen in those dayes, we feare not to open a veyne divers times, and often, as also to prescribe more strong purging medicines.
Wherefore away henceforth with the scrupulous conceit, and too nice feare of the Dogge-dayes, and let their supposed danger be had no more in remembrance among us. And if any will yet remaine obstinate, and still refuse to have their beames pulled out of their eyes, let them still be blinde in the middest of the cleare Sun-shine, and groape on after darkness; and let all learned Physitians rather pitty their follies, then envy their wits.
At what time of the yeare, and at what houre of the day it is most fit and meet to drinke this water.
To speake in generall tearmes, it is a fit time to drinke it, when the ayre is pure, cleare, hot and dry: for then the water is more tart, and more easily digested, then at other times. On the contrary, it is best to forbeare, when the ayre is cold, moist, darke, dull and misty: for then it is more feeble, and harder to be concocted.
But more specially, the most proper season to undertake this our English Spaw dyet, will be from the middest or latter end of June to the middle of September, or longer, according as the season of the yeare shall fall out to be hot and dry, or otherwise.
Not that in the Spring-time, and in Winter it is not also good, but for that the ayre being more pure in Sommer, the water also must needs be of greater force and power. Notwithstanding it may sometime so happen in Sommer, that by reason of some extraordinary falling of raine, there may be a cessation from it for a day or two. Or if it chance to have rained over night, it will then be fit and necessary to refraine from drinking of it, untill the raine bee passed away againe: or else (which I like better) the fountaine laded dry, and filled againe, which may well be done in an hower, or two at most.
Touching the time of the day, when it is best to drinke this water, questionlesse the most convenient hower will be in the morning, when the party is empty, and fasting, about seaven aclocke: Nature having first discharged her selfe of daily excrements both by stoole and urine, and the concoctions perfected. This time is likewise fittest for exercise, which is a great good help, and furtherance for the better distribution of the water, whereby it doth produce its effects more speedily.
Of the manner of drinking this water, and the quantitie thereof.
Those who desire the benefit of this Fountaine, ought to goe to it somewhat early in the morning, &, if they be able and strong of body, they may doe very well to walke to it on foot, or at least wise some part of the way. Such, as have weake and feeble leggs may ride on horsebacke, or be caryed in coaches, or borne in chaires. As for those, whose infirmities cause them to keepe their beds, or chambers, they may drinke the water in their lodgings, it being speedily brought to them in a vessell or glasse well stopt.
It is not my meaning or purpose to describe here particularly, what quantitie of it is fit and meet for every one to drinke; for this is part of the taske and office, which belongeth to the Physitian, who shall be of counsell with the Patient in preparing and well ordering of him; who is to consider all the severall circumstances, as well of the maladie or disease it selfe, as of his habite and constitution, &c. Neverthelesse I may advise, that at the first it be moderately taken, increasing the quantitie daily by degrees, untill they shall come at last to the full height of the proportion appointed, and thought to be meet and necessary. There they are then to stay, and so to continue at that quantitie, so long as it shall be needfull. For example, the first morning may happely be 16 or 18 ounces, and so on by degrees to 20. 30. 40. 50. 60. or moe, in people, who are of good and strong constitutions. Towards the ending, the abatement ought likewise to be made by degrees, as the increment was formerly made by little and little.
Here by the way every one must be admonished to take notice, that it is not alwayes best to drinke most, lest they chance to oppresse and overcharge Nature, that would rather be content with lesse. It will therefore be more safe, to take it rather somewhat sparingly, though for a longer time, then liberally and for a short time. But, indeed the truest and justest proportion of it, is ever to be made and esteemed, by the good and laudable concoction of it, and by the due and orderly voiding of it againe.
It will not be here amisse to adde this one observation further; That it is better to drinke this water once a day, then twice, and that in the mornings, after that the Sunne hath dryed up & consumed the vapors retained through the coldnesse of the night, &c. as is formerly declared. After drinking it, it will be needfull to abstaine from meat & other drinke for the space of three or foure dayes. [hours?]
But if any one, who hath a good stomacke, shall be desirous to take it twice a day; or if any shall bee necessarily compelled so to doe for some urgent cause, by the approbation of his Physitian, let him dine somewhat sparingly, and drinke it not againe, untill five houres after dinner be past, or not untill the concoction of meat and drinke in the stomacke be perfected: Observing likewise, that hee content himselfe in the afternoones with almost halfe the quantity he useth to take in the mornings.
Of the manner of dyet to be observed by those who shall use this water.
The regiment of life in meats and drinks, ought chiefly to consist in the right and moderate use of those, which are of light and easie digestion, and of good and wholesome nourishment, breeding laudable juice. Therefore all those are to be avoyded, which beget crude and ill humours. There ought furthermore speciall notice to be taken, that great diversity of meats and dishes at one meale is very hurtfull, as also much condiments, sauces, spice, fat, &c. in their dressing and cookery.
I commend hens, capons, pullets, chickens, partridge, phesants, turkies, and generally all such small birds, as live in woods, hedges, and mountaines. Likewise I doe approve of veale, mutton, kid, lambe, rabbets, young hare or leverits, &c. All which (for the most part) are rather to be roasted then boyled. Neverthelesse those, who are affected with any dry distemper, or those, who otherwise are so accustomed to feed, may have their meats sodden; but the plainer dressing, the better.
I discommend all salt meats, beefe, bacon, porke, larde, and larded meats, hare, venison, tripes, and the entrailes of beasts, puddings made with blood, pig, goose, swan, teale, mallard, and such like; and in generall all water-fowle, as being of hard digestion and ill nutriment.
Amongst the severall kinds of fishes, trouts, pearches, loaches, and for most part, all scaly fish of brookes, and fresh rivers may well bee permitted. Moreover smelts, soales, dabs, whitings, sturbuts, gurnets, and all such other, as are well knowne not to be ill, or unwholesome to feed on. All which may be altered with mint, hyssope, anise, &c. Also cre-fishes, crab-fish, lobsters, and the like, may bee permitted.
Cunger, salmon, eeles, lampries, herrings, salt-ling, all salt-fish, sturgion, anchovies, oysters, cockles, muscles, and the like shell-fish are to be disallowed.
White-meats, as milke, cruds, creame, old cheese, custards, white-pots, pudding-pyes, and other like milke-meats, (except sweet butter and new creame cheese) are to be forbidden. Soft and reer egges we doe not prohibit.
Raisons with almonds, bisket-bread, marchpane-stuffe, suckets, and the like, are not here forbidden to be eaten.
Let their bread be made of wheat, very well wrought, fermented or leavened; and let their drinke be beere well boyled and brewed: and let it bee stale, or old enough, but in no wise tart, sharp, or sower: And above all let them forbeare to mixe the water of the fountaine with their drinke at meales: for that may cause many inconveniences to follow, and ensue.
Let me advise them to eschew apples, peares, plumbs, codlings, gooseberries, and all such like sommer fruits, either raw, in tarts, or other wise: Also pease, and all other pulse; all cold sallets, and raw hearbs; onions, leekes, chives, cabbage or coleworts, pompons, cucumbers, and the like.
In stead of cheese at the end of meales, it will not bee amisse to eate citron, or lemon pils condited, or else fenell, anise, coriander comfits, or biskets and carawayes, as well for to discusse and expell wind, as to shut and close the stomacke, for the better furthering the digestion of meats and drinkes. And for that purpose, it would bee much better, if the Physitian, who is of counsell, should appoint and ordaine some fit and proper Tragea in grosse powder mixed with sugar, or else made into little cakes or morsels. Likewise marmalade of quinces, either simple or compound, (such as the Physitians do often prescribe to their patients) may be used very commodiously.
After dinner they ought to use no violent exercise, neither ought they to sit still, sadly, heavy, and musing, nor to slumber, and sleepe; but rather to stirre a little, and to raise up the spirits for an houre or two, by some fit recreation. After supper they may take a walke into the fields, or Castle yard.
Of the Symtomes or accidents, which may now and then chance to happen to some one or other in the use of this water.
Although those who are of good and strong constitutions, observing the aforenamed direction, doe seldome or never receive any harme, or detriment by drinking this water: notwithstanding it may sometime so fall forth, that some of the weaker sort may perhaps observe some little, or small inconvenience thereby, as retention of it in the body: inflation of the bellie: costivenesse, and the like. Wherefore to gratifie those, a word [or] two of every one shall suffice.
First then, for to cause a more ready and speedy passage of it by urine, it will not be amisse to counsell the partie after his returne to his lodging to goe to his naked bed for an houre or two, that thereby warmnesse, and naturall heat may be brought into each part of the body, the passages more opened, and nature by that meanes made more fit and apt for the expulsion of it. During which time it will be very requisite to apply hot cloathes to the stomack: but not so as to provoke sweat. Or else, to cause it to voyd and evacuate either by urine, stoole, or sweat, exercise will be a good helpe and furtherance: if the party be fit for it. But if neither of these will prevaile, then a sharp glyster ought to be administered.
The inflation or swelling of the belly hapneth principally to those, who have feeble and weake stomacks; who may do very wel to eate anise, fenell, or coriander comfits at the fountaine betweene every draught, and to walke a little after; or else some carminative Lozenges, made with grosse powders, spices and seeds for breaking of wind: or what other thing the learned Physitian shall deeme to be most fit and proper in his wisdome, and judgment. But if the inflation chance to be very great, then a carminative glyster must be ordained.
Such as shall be very costive may doe well to eat moistning meats, and to use mollifying hearbes, raisons stoned, corants, damascene prunes, butter, or the yolkes of egges, and the like in their broths, or pottage. If these will not be sufficient, then let a day be spared from drinking the water, and let the party take some lenitive medicine, as laxative corants, or some such like thing: whereof the Physitian hath ever great choice and variety, wherewith he can fit directly every one his case; to whom present recourse ever ought to be had, when any of these, or the like accidents doe happen, as likewise in all other cases of waight and moment.