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Somerset
by G.W. Wade and J.H. Wade
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Cricket Malherbie, a parish 3 m. N.E. of Chard. The church is a handsome modern building with a spire.

Cricket St Thomas, 3-1/2 m. E. of Chard, is a parish with a small church charmingly situated above a valley through which flows the Dorset Axe. It has a monument to Alexander Hood, Viscount Bridport, and another to the Rev. William, Earl Nelson, brother of the famous admiral. Cricket House once belonged to Viscount Bridport, but is now the property of F.J. Fry.

Croscombe, a quaint-looking village midway between Shepton and Wells, situated in the pretty valley which connects the two towns. The name perhaps comes from the Celtic cors, a marsh or marshy ground. The church is late Perp., with aisles, clerestory, and a battlemented W. tower with a good spire. The tower parapet has niches, some of which still retain their figures. There is an E.E. doorway to the S. porch. Within note (1) the unusual feature of a two storeyed vestry (cp. Shepton), (2) curious little chamber at N.E. with ribbed stone roof. The building, however, is chiefly remarkable for its elaborate display of Jacobean woodwork. The screen is a fearful and wonderful piece of carving, reaching almost to the roof, and the pulpit (the gift of Bishop Lake, 1616) is of quite barbaric impressiveness. The dark oak roof of the chancel is of the same date. Some fine candelabra hang from the roof beams. The remains of a village cross stand at the bottom of the pathway leading to the church. An old house at the Shepton end of the village was an ancient hostelry, and is worth inspection. Behind the church is the old manor house with a Perp. window. Overhanging the road to Shepton is Ham Wood.

Crowcombe, a village 2 m. N. of Crowcombe Heathfield Station, and 1-1/2 m. E. of Stogumber, has a church ded. to the Holy Ghost. The roof of the S. porch is covered with fine tracery and has a large room above it, reached from within the church by a staircase in a recess topped by a turret. Note (1) the large late Perp. windows; (2) the fine bench-ends (one showing a man slaying a dragon, and another bearing the date 1534); (3) the splendid octagonal font with carved figures on each face; (4) the piscinas in chancel and S. aisle. There is a small ancient screen and a modern reredos. The N. chapel belongs to the Carew family. In the churchyard there is a good cross (13th cent.) with niches on the shaft filled with figures now much worn. There is another cross in the centre of the village. Opposite the church is an old pre-Reformation building, the basement of which served as an alms-house, and the upper floor as a school. It is now unfortunately quite ruinous.

Cucklington is a parish 3 m. E. of Wincanton, standing on a high ridge. The church (St Lawrence) has the tower on the S. side, having been reconstructed, after damage received in a storm, in 1703. The arcade is severely plain, and is perhaps 13th-cent. work. The font is Norm. The E. window of the chancel consists of three lancets. There is a little ancient glass in the E. window of the S. chapel. The figure in this window represents St Barbara, who is reputed to have suffered martyrdom in the 3rd or 4th cent.; notice in her left hand the tower, which is one of her emblems. St Barbara is said to be the patron saint of hills; hence perhaps her connection with Cucklington.

Cudworth, a small isolated hamlet 3 m. S.E. of Ilminster. The church is a very plain building without a tower, chiefly Perp., but retaining some Dec. work, and examples of the still earlier Norm. period. Note (1) Norm. doorway of the 12th cent.; (2) blocked doorway on the S., with gabled weather moulding; (3) very curious round-headed recess beneath E. window of N. aisle, lighted by a tiny round-headed slit; (4) piscina with stone shelf above; (5) Norm. bases to arcade columns; (6) Norm. font.

Culbone, a small parish 9-1/2 m. W. of Minehead. It is reached from Porlock Weir by a woodland walk of a mile along the coast, through the Ashley Combe estate. Its little Perp. church is remarkable more for its unusual and picturesque situation (by the side of a delightful combe) and its diminutive size (35 ft. x 12 ft.) than for any great architectural interest, though it contains some Norm. work in its font and a chancel window of two lights, cut in a single stone. The churchyard contains the base of a cross. The pathway from the Weir is unfortunately very much broken by a landslip at one point, and difficult for ladies to traverse.

Curland is a scattered parish 6 m. S.E. from Taunton, on the road to Chard (nearest stat. Hatch Beauchamp, 3 m.). Its church (restored) is noteworthy for its small size but for nothing else.

Curry Mallet, a parish 2-1/2 m. E. of Hatch Beauchamp Station, gets its distinguishing name from the same Norman lords who once owned Shepton Mallet and who had a castle here. Its church, which has a good deal of panel-work, contains a large altar-tomb, and some quaint 17th-cent. mural monuments. Note piscina in N. aisle.

Curry, North, is a considerable and attractive village, 2 m. S.E. of Durston, lying off the main roads. It has a fine church resembling in plan its neighbour of Stoke St Gregory, being cruciform, with a central octagonal tower. In the main it is Perp., but preserves earlier work in the N. door (Norm.), the base of the tower (E.E.), and the S. transept (which has a Dec. window). Note (1) the fine S. porch; (2) the effigies N. of the chancel and in the N. aisle; (3) piscina in N. aisle. Read, too, the account (preserved in the vestry) of the Reeves' Feast, dating from the time of King John, but discontinued in 1868. The churchyard cross has a modern shaft on an old base.

Curry Rivel, 2 m. W.S.W. of Langport, is a large village with an interesting church. It has a lofty tower, with the belfry window intersecting the string course; the arch is panelled and the vault groined. There is also a fine groined vault to the S. porch (which has a good stoup outside). The oldest portion of the church is the N. chapel, which has a good deal of Dec. work (note the ball-flower ornament). This chapel contains three foliated recesses in the N. wall, each with an effigy (said to belong to the L'Orti family), and also a tomb of Robert Jennings (d. 1593). Between the chapel and chancel is another tomb of later date with effigies of Marmaduke and Robert Jennings, surrounded by figures of their families. Both the N. and S. chapels retain their piscinas and have screens. There is some fine ancient glass in the N. aisle; and both this and the S. aisle have good roofs. Note, too, the bench-ends.

The tall column, visible from the Taunton road, is the Parkfield Monument, erected in 1768 by the Earl of Chatham to the memory of Sir William Pynsent, who bequeathed to him the neighbouring estate of Burton.

Cutcombe, a large parish 7 m. S.W. from Dunster. It includes Wheddon Cross, the highest point of the road between Dunster and Minehead (nearly 1000 ft. above sea-level). The scenery is very beautiful, Dunkery being a conspicuous feature in the prospect. The church, which is 1/2 m. from the main road, has undergone extensive restoration, and has for the archaeologist little interest. In the graveyard is the base of an ancient cross, with modern shaft and head.

Dinder, a village 2 m. E. of Wells, picturesquely situated in the valley which runs up from the city to Shepton. The church (Perp.) forms a graceful addition to the landscape. Within is a Jacobean stone pulpit (1621), and there is some old glass in a window above it. In the churchyard is the base of a cross with modern shaft. Dinder House stands directly in front of the house, and another mansion, Sharcombe, crowns the hill behind. The serrated ridge on the other side of the Wells road is Dulcot Hill.

Ditcheat, a village 1-1/4 m. S.W. of Evercreech Junction. Both the church and the former rectory are interesting. The church is cruciform, with an embattled central tower, crowned by a small pyramidal cap, and is remarkable for possessing a clerestory to the chancel as well as the nave. The building seems to have been originally Norm.; but the present chancel is Dec. (note the lower windows, with their rear foliations), and both it and the rest of the fabric were altered in the 15th cent., when the Perp. clerestory was added. Features to be observed are (1) effigies on W. face of the tower, (2) groined tower-vault, (3) wooden roof, with traces of paint and gilding, (4) fine wooden pulpit and reading-desk of Charles I.'s time, (5) initials of John Selwood, Abbot of Glastonbury (1456-93), on the chancel parapet. The house which was once the rectory, was built by John Gunthorpe, Dean of Wells, in the 15th cent. (his monogram appears on one of the windows), though it has undergone subsequent enlargement. The thickness of the walls is noteworthy.

Dodington, a small parish 7 m. E. of Williton. It has a small church, retaining a fine stoup and some fragments of ancient glass in the E. window. Not far from it is a fine and well-preserved Elizabethan manor house, dating from 1581. It contains a noble hall, with fine oak roof and screen, minstrel gallery, and a large fireplace (1581), and two smaller rooms, one of which opens from the hall by a 15th-cent. stone doorway, which must have been transferred from elsewhere. Of these two rooms the one has a good oak roof, and the other a curious plaster cornice.

Dolbury Camp. See Churchill.

Donyatt, a village on the Ile, 2 m. S.W. of Ilminster, from which it is most directly approached by a footpath. The church is Perp., and has been well restored. There is a stoup at the W. entrance, and another in the N. chapel. Note the foliage round the capitals of the chancel arch. In the parish are the remains of an old manor house.

Doulting, a small village 2 m. E. from Shepton Mallet, on the road to Frome. Its chief interest lies in its remarkable freestone quarries from which the mediaeval builders hewed their blocks for the walls of Wells and Glastonbury. The quarries are still of considerable commercial importance, as the stone is easily wrought and of great durability. Here, too, St Aldhelm was seized with a fatal illness and carried into the church to die. His funeral procession to Malmesbury was an imposing ecclesiastical function, the "stations" en route being subsequently marked by crosses. A spring in the vicarage garden is still called St Aldhelm's Well. The church is a small cruciform building with a central octagonal tower and spire. It has some E.E. features, but has been largely rebuilt (note the E.E. columns covered with ivy in churchyard near W. end of church). The N. porch encloses a Norm. door (note stoup). The S. porch is an elaborate Perp. structure, beautifully finished and vaulted (cp. Mells). Within the church is a piscina in S. transept, and a 17th-cent. brass near the vestry door. In the churchyard opposite the N. porch is a notable sanctuary cross, bearing the instruments of the Passion (cp. W. Pennard). A few paces down the Evercreech road is one of the large tithe barns once belonging to the Abbey of Glastonbury (cp. Pilton).

Dowlish Wake, a village at the bottom of a slight declivity 2 m. S.E. of Ilminster. It owes the second part of its name to the family of Wake, the last male representative of which died in 1348. The church is a modern antique, with a central tower partly original (15th cent.). The N. chapel is also original, and contains some interesting monuments. These are (1) serpentine tomb with bust of Captain Speke the African traveller, (2) effigy of a lady (temp. Edward I.), under a recessed cinquefoiled canopy, the cusps of which are worked up into faces, (3) altar-tomb, with effigies of a knight (in plate armour) and a lady—believed to be John Speke (d. 1442) and his wife, (4) small brass on floor to George and Elizabeth Speke (1528). Close by is a rude font, probably early Norm. It was brought here from West Dowlish as the only remains of a church which existed there prior to 1700.

Downhead, a straggling village 2-1/2 m. N.E. of Cranmore Station. The church is small and devoid of interest. It has been "restored" regardless of style.

Downside, a scattered parish without a village 1/2 m. S.W. of Chilcompton station (S. & D.). The church is an ugly little structure, pseudo-E.E., built in 1837. A quarter of a mile beyond the church in a field on the right are the "fairy slats." Here is a crescent-shaped British camp overlooking a picturesque ravine. The precipitous nature of the ground on the S. side forms a natural defence and accounts for the incompleteness of the rampart The "slats" are merely slight slits in the ground caused by the slipping of the unsupported strata. Within the parish, but contiguous to the village of Stratton, is Downside Abbey, a modern settlement of Benedictine monks, who, after their expulsion from Douai during the French Revolution, finally found a home here in 1814. The Abbey Church is a building of noble dimensions but somewhat lacking in symmetry. It is still incomplete. The present block consists of choir, transepts, a multitude of chapels, and an unfinished tower. The choir is rather severe in style, but the chapels are very elaborate. Attached to the abbey is a large and well-equipped college for boys.

Draycott, a hamlet 4 m. E.S.E. of Axbridge, with a modern church (note font) and a station that serves Rodney Stoke. The locality possesses some quarries of a hard kind of conglomerate, capable of a high polish.

Drayton, a village 2 m. S. of Langport. The church has been restored, and the chief feature of interest connected with it is the fine cross in the churchyard, with a figure on the shaft of St Michael slaying the Dragon.

DULVERTON, a market town on the Barle, 21 m. W. from Taunton, pop. (in 1901) 1369. The station on the G.W.R. branch line to Barnstaple is 2 m. distant. Dulverton is a primitive and not very prepossessing little place. Its quaintness is quite unpicturesque, and it is generally unworthy of its situation. It is, however, deservedly beloved of the angler and the huntsman. It possesses one of the best trout streams in the W. of England, and its proximity to Exmoor, the haunt of the red deer, makes it an excellent centre for the chase. But the rod and the hounds are merely adventitious attractions to Dulverton. Its real merit lies in its scenery. It not only enjoys undisputed possession of the lovely valley of the Barle in which it lies, but a short connecting road enables it to appropriate the beauties of the neighbouring vale of the Exe. Both torrents descend from the highlands of Exmoor, and it is difficult to say which is the more beautiful. The valleys are similar, but have characteristic differences. The Barle has all the piquant charm of the mountain torrent, whilst the beauties of the Exe are of a sedater though not less pleasing character. Everywhere about Dulverton delightful landscapes may be caught, but the "show sight" is Mount Sydenham, just above the church (ascend lane at E. end of church and turn in at gate on L. when the first hollow is reached). Dulverton will find less favour with the antiquarian than with the artist. Such antiquities as it does possess are more picturesque than important. The church has been entirely rebuilt (1855) with the exception of the tower, which is of the plain Exmoor type and is now almost hidden by a huge sycamore. The other antiquities in the neighbourhood are (1) Mouncey Castle (a corruption of Monceaux), a rough encampment on the summit of a wooded hill almost encircled by the Barle, a couple of miles above Dulverton; (2) the ivy-covered ruins of Barlynch Priory, a branch "cell" from Cleve Abbey, standing in a charming situation on the banks of the Exe, a mile above Hele Bridge; (3) Tarr Steps, a rude but highly picturesque footbridge over the Barle, 5 m. above Dulverton. It crosses the river at a ford, and is constructed of large flag-stones, uncemented, and resting on similar stones placed edgewise. It is generally regarded as Celtic in origin, and is certainly a great artistic addition to a charming bit of river. A most delightful walk is to take the Winsford road through Higher Combe, cross the Barle at Tarr Steps, and return by the opposite bank through Hawkridge. It is a round of about 12 m., but well repays the fatigue involved. Another pleasant excursion is to explore the valley of the Haddeo, a stream which flows into the Exe from the opposite direction to the Barle, and which fully maintains the reputation of the neighbourhood for river scenery. Near Dulverton station is an interesting trout nursery. Pixton Park (in which there is a heronry) is the seat of the Countess of Carnarvon.



Dundry, a small village 5 m. S.W. from Bristol, standing on the top of a lofty hill, 790 ft. high. The church tower, which is a conspicuous landmark for miles round, was built by the Merchant Venturers, temp. Edward. VI. It is a four-storeyed structure of plain design, crowned by a very elaborate parapet. Its situation is remarkable. The view from the summit is one of the most famous and extensive in Somerset. Bristol lies spread out below on the N.E., and beyond are the Severn and the Monmouthshire hills. On the R. are the highlands of Gloucestershire, with Beckford's Tower indicating the position of Bath on the verge of the picture. The S. side commands a different but scarcely less fascinating landscape. The unbroken line of the Mendips bounds the prospect in front. Peeping over them on the R. are the Quantocks, and to the L. lie the Wiltshire Downs. At the foot is a wooded vale dotted with villages. The church itself (rebuilt in 1861) is without interest. In the churchyard are the lower portions of a cross, and a huge dole table (cp. Norton Malreward).

Dunkerton, a small colliery village 2-1/2 m. N. from Wellow (S. & D.), lying in a deep valley. The church has been rebuilt. The chancel contains a Dec. piscina, and a fragment of diaper-work is inserted in the porch.



Dunster, a village 24 m. N.W. from Taunton. It has a station 1/2 m. distant on the G.W. branch line to Minehead. For many people picturesque Somerset begins with Dunster, and its attractions are hardly overrated. Here both the artist and the antiquary find themselves in clover. The quaint wide street, with its gabled houses commanded at one end by the frowning heights of the castle, and overlooked at the other by a watch-tower, wears an air impressively mediaeval. The village was once a noted emporium for cloth, and "Dunsters" were quoted at reputable prices by every chapman. The venerable yarn market still stands; the date 1647 is the date of its repair by the grandson of the builder, George Luttrell. The Castle claims first attention, as the history of Dunster is largely the story of the Castle. It was, as might be expected, a legacy of the Conquest. It was built by Wm. de Mohun, and by his successor was made a sad thorn in the side of King Stephen. It passed into the hands of the Luttrells (its present possessors) by purchase. In the Civil War it was alternately held for the Parliament and the king, and in 1546 it was regarded as Charles's last hope in Somerset. Its resistance was stout; for 160 days Colonel Wyndham baffled the assaults of no less an adversary than Blake, and only surrendered on the total collapse of the Royal cause (p. 17). The grounds are entered under a gateway (Perp.), built by Sir H. Luttrell. The oldest part of the castle lies to the R. of this, flanked by two round towers (13th cent.), built by Reginald Mohun. (Note door and huge knocker, replacing original portcullis: another similar tower of the same date will be seen from the terrace). Of the mansion the portion to the R. of the elaborate doorway is the oldest (Elizabethan); the part to the L. dates from the 18th cent. In the grounds should be noticed (1) a lemon tree 200 years old, (2) cypresses, (3) magnificent yew hedge. The view obtainable from the terrace is varied and comprehensive, embracing mountain, sea, and park.

The Mohuns had ecclesiastical sympathies as well as military ambitions, for in addition to building the castle, they established a priory here in connection with Bath Abbey. This explains the peculiarity of Dunster Church, which possesses a separate monastic choir. The prior's lodging, and the conventual barn and dovecot, may still be seen in a yard on the N. side of the church. The church has a central tower of rather weak design. Internally this forms the division between the secular and monastic portion of the building. The chief feature of the church is a magnificent rood-screen which spans the whole width of the structure. It has been the model for many neighbouring imitations. The western half of the church is Perp., with occasional traces of an earlier Norm. building. The W. doorway is Norm., and on the W. side of the tower are the piers of a Norm. chancel arch. At the base of the tower there is a bit of masonry locally claimed as pre-Norman. The monastic choir and its sanctuary have been restored from indications of its original E.E. character. Besides transepts, the church has three chapels—that of the Holy Trinity on the S., St Mary's on the N., and beyond this the interesting chantry of St Lawrence, which contains a fine altar slab and a tiled floor. The monuments which call for notice are (1) in the monastic choir the effigy of a lady (said to be one of the Everard family), under a canopy; (2) on the N. of the sanctuary the recumbent figures of Sir Hugh Luttrell and wife (1428-33); (3) at E. end of the Chapel of Holy Trinity an incised slab with figure of Lady Eliz. Luttrell (1493); and (4) on S. of same chapel an altar with two pairs of recumbent figures, also Luttrells. A small brass with the figures of a man and woman will be found at the W. end of the S. aisle, bearing date 1470. In addition to features already mentioned, note (1) the unique E.E. arch at entrance of S. chapel, widened by Perp. builders for ritual purposes; (2) old alms and muniment chests in N. chapel; (3) old bench-end near W. doorway, from which the other woodwork has been copied. Externally should be observed (1) priest's house at S. entrance of churchyard; (2) recess for stocks in the wall close by; (3) churchyard cross with round base at W. end of church; (4) conventual barn and dovecot in yard on N.

The "Luttrell Arms," at the entrance of the village, has a mediaeval porch with openings for cross bows, a fine timbered wing at the back of the buildings, and some plaster work in one of the rooms. The Watch Tower on Conygar Hill (i.e. Coney Garth—"rabbit enclosure") is, as will easily be seen, a mere shell, built (probably for ornament's sake) in 1775. Amongst the old houses in which Dunster is peculiarly rich, the curious three-storeyed building at the entrance of the street leading to the church claims particular attention. It is locally known as the Nunnery, a curious designation, which points to a possible connection with the priory, perhaps in the capacity of guest house. The three storeys overhang one another, and are faced with shingles. At the bottom of the street which leads into the Dulverton road will be found a lane to the L. This descends to a stream which is crossed by a picturesque pack-horse bridge of two spans. There is an old market cross (locally known as the butter cross) hidden by the hedge on the right-hand side of the upper Minehead road.

Durleigh, a parish 1-1/2 m. W.S.W. of Bridgwater. It has a church which retains its old tower (with a gabled roof); but all other traces of antiquity have been obliterated, save for the remains of a stoup in the porch. In this parish is an old manor house called Bower Farm, with a picturesque front, showing a small window flanked by two towers. The porch roof is, of course, modern. Belonging to the farm is a curious columbarium, constructed of mud, in which the nesting niches are said to number 900.

Durston, a village 5 m. N.E. of Taunton, has a church (rebuilt in 1853) which possesses a good tower. The Communion-table bears date 1635, and there are some carved bench-ends. Near here, at Mynchin Buckland, there used to be a Preceptory of the Knights of St John of Jerusalem, to which was attached a priory of women belonging to the same order. It is said to have been very rare in this country for communities of men and women under vows to exist side by side in this way.

Easton, a village at the foot of the Mendips, 2-1/2 m. N.W. of Wells. The church is modern (1843).

Easton-in-Gordano, a village 1 m. W. from Pill (G.W.R.). The church is a large and dignified modern clerestoried structure (rebuilt in 1872), with a good Perp. W. tower (original).

Edington, a village on the Poldens, with a station 2 m. away. The church has been rebuilt (1877-79), and contains no ancient features except a very good Norm. font. On the locality, see p. 13.

Elm, or Great Elm, a village 3 m. S.W. from Frome, perched on the edge of a vale of quite romantic picturesqueness (see Vallis). The church is an unpretentious little building with a saddleback tower. It bears one or two indications of high antiquity. Note (1) on S. external wall, herring-bone masonry (cp. Marston Magna), (2) Norm, doorway to tower, and E.E. arch within. The interior has been remodelled in accordance with early Victorian ideas of ecclesiastical propriety.

Elworthy, a village 4 m. S.W. of Stogumber Station. The small church (Perp.) contains a carved illuminated Caroline screen (1632). The pulpit, approached by the rood staircase, is of the same date. In a small window in the N. wall is some ancient glass. Above the village is a British camp, called Elworthy Barrows, which can be reached from near the church. Towards Wiveliscombe, on the L. of the road, rises Willett Hill (950 ft.), crowned by a tower.

Emborrow (the first syllable perhaps a corruption of Elm), a small hamlet on the Mendips, 1-1/2 m. N. of Binegar Station. The church is a forlorn-looking building with a central tower containing a 14th-cent. sanctus-bell. Emborrow Pool is a dismal sheet of water bordering the main road and surrounded by trees. It has the appearance of being rapidly silted up.

Englishcombe, a small and rather uncouth-looking village 3 m. S.W. from Bath, and 1-1/2 m. S.W. from Twerton Station (G.W.R.). It still retains something of the aloofness which once characterised it as an English outpost on the Welsh border, and is worth a visit. The church is of considerable antiquarian interest. It consists of a Perp. nave, a central Norm. tower, and a Norm. chancel. A Perp. chapel, now occupied by the organ, adjoins the porch. Externally, note the fantastic corbel table round chancel. Within, it has two good pointed Norm. arches, and on the N. wall of tower a well-preserved Norm., arcade. Observe (1) detached Norm. capitals on N. wall, (2) panelling round splay of W. window of nave and S. window of chapel. Almost opposite to the S. entrance to the churchyard is a tithe barn once belonging to Bath Abbey, which still shows some indication of its ecclesiastical origin. At the W. end of graveyard is a farm-house with orchard, and beyond this is a field where may be seen a good specimen of the Wansdyke. Near the village once stood a castle of the De Gourneys. The site is marked by a mound on a neighbouring estate.

Enmore, a village 5 m. S.W. of Bridgwater, on the road leading to the S.E. extremity of the Quantocks. Its church has a good tower, noticeable for the pinnacles that crown the staircase turret. The tower-vault is groined, the chancel arch panelled, and there is a Norm. S. door (belonging to a former fabric) with carved capitals and good mouldings. Note (1) the carved wooden pulpit, (2) the niche, supported by an angel, on the S. face of the tower. In the churchyard there is the broken shaft of a cross. Enmore Park (W.B. Broadmead) is hard by. It was formerly called Enmore Castle, and once belonged to the Malets.

Evercreech is a large village 3-1/2 m. S.S.E. from Shepton Mallet, with a station on the S. & D. J.R. The first syllable of the name probably means "boar" (cognate with the Latin aper), and recurs in Eversley. It is famed for its church, which has perhaps the most graceful tower in all Somerset; its double, long-panelled windows, buttresses, and clustered pinnacles are particularly fine. The earliest part of the building is the chancel (14th cent.), with Dec. windows at the E. and N.; the rest of the church is Perp., the S. aisle being modern. Note (1) wooden roof of nave, the colours of which are believed to reproduce the original; (2) carving of gallery in the tower; (3) brackets (perhaps for lights) on piers of N. arcade; (4) quaint inscription behind the organ, of the date 1596. Outside the churchyard is a much defaced cross. S.S.E. of the village is the commanding eminence of Creech Hill, where there seem to be traces of earthworks, and whence a fine view is obtainable, with the town of Bruton in the valley to the S., and Stourton Tower conspicuous on the hills to the E.

Exford, a village on the fringe of Exmoor "Forest," near the source of the Exe, 12 m. N.W. from Dulverton Station. It is one of the many rendezvous of the huntsman, as there are kennels here for staghounds and harriers. The houses are dropped into a hollow of the moors through which trickles the stream. The church braves the gale on the hill top above. It is remarkable for nothing but its exposed situation, a thousand feet above sea-level—a fact which has no doubt necessitated its frequent renewal. The tower is original, but the nave and chancel are modern. The S. aisle appears to have been built chiefly out of a legacy left by a local blacksmith about 1532. Note the Devonshire foliage on capitals. The churchyard contains the base of a cross locally known as the "Crying Stone," from its appropriation by the parish beadle as a pedestal for proclamations. At the churchyard gate is a "lipping" or mounting stone.

Exmoor. Though generally associated in the popular mind with Devonshire, Exmoor is really, in the main, a part of Somerset. It is the highest, wildest, and most fascinating portion of the county—a truly delightsome land, a veritable paradise for the sportsman and the painter. The red deer run wild at will over the moors, or find a congenial covert in the oak scrub which clothes the combes. Brawling brooks abound on all sides to entice the angler and interest the artist, and a charming strip of sea-coast must also be numbered amongst its attractions. Though mainly given over to the sportsman and the tourist, efforts have from time to time been made to civilise these wilds. In general they have proved futile. Mines have been sunk only to be abandoned, and the agriculturist has fared little better than the miner. Early in the last century, a Mr Knight made an heroic effort to enclose a large portion of the moor for the purposes of cultivation. The heather, however, is still triumphant. The only memorial of his ambition is a ruined mansion at Simonsbath. The hills are all of considerable altitude—well over 1200 ft.—but with the exception of Dunkery few can pretend to any marked individuality. The landscape is a mere "tumultuous waste of huge hill-tops," which no one takes the trouble to specify. Perhaps the least praiseworthy feature of Exmoor is its weather. To adapt a Cornish description of something quite different, "when it's bad, it's execrable; and when it's good, it's only middlin'." It has a disagreeable partiality for haze and drizzle. In such an untamed region "routes" are only an embarrassment. The regulation drive is from Minehead to Dulverton, and from Dulverton through Simonsbath to Lynton, which virtually circumscribes the moor. The best way, however, is to turn oneself loose in the district, and ramble over the moors at will. The sturdy tourist will find many an exhilarating excursion. Winsford, Exford, Withypool, and Simonsbath are all worth seeing. Dunkery Beacon (1707 ft.) may be conveniently ascended on the Porlock side from Luccombe or Cloutsham, and on the Dulverton side from Wheddon Cross, near Cutcombe.



Exton, a village 8 m. N. of Dulverton Station, picturesquely perched on the hillside overlooking the valley of the Exe. The church is without interest.

Farleigh Hungerford, a small village 7 m. S.S.E. of Bath. It is a place of some interest to the antiquarian, and should be visited in conjunction with Hinton Charterhouse from Freshford Station (2 m.). Its attractions consist of a few crumbling fragments of a castle once belonging to the Hungerfords, and the contents of the castle chapel. The ruins stand on the shoulder of a deep defile descending into a wooded bottom called Danes' Ditch. The annals of the castle are long rather than stirring. An old manor house of the Montforts was transformed into a castle by Sir Walter Hungerford (d. 1449), who spent upon the alterations the ransom which he had obtained for the capture of the Duke of Orleans at the Battle of Agincourt. In the Great Rebellion it was, curiously enough, held for the king whilst its owner was commanding the Parliamentary forces in Wilts. To one of the existing towers a grim story is attached. In the unchivalrous days of Henry VIII. a Sir W. Hungerford, who, like his royal master, was a much married man, consigned his third wife to these uninviting quarters, and kept her under lock and key, with a chaplain for her only attendant. The lady, however, not only survived this knightly Bluebeard, but had the courage to contract a second marriage. The general arrangements of the castle are not very obvious to the casual observer. It seems to have consisted of a gatehouse and an outer and inner court. The inner enclosure was flanked by four cylindrical towers, and contained the dwelling-rooms, which overlooked the ravine. On its accessible side the castle was protected by a moat. Nothing now remains but the gatehouse, a few fragments of the enclosing walls, the remains of two towers, and the chapel. Passing under the gatehouse, the visitor will see the chapel and inner court on the R. The Chapel of St Leonard (keys to be obtained at inn above, fee 3d.) is now a museum, and contains a good collection of armour. Amongst other curiosities on show are a "He" Bible, a pair of Cromwell's boots, and one of his letters. A gigantic fresco of St George adorns the E. wall, and beneath the E. window is the original stone altar. The Chapel of St Anne, on the N., is shut off by an iron grille, and contains some fine monuments: (1) in centre, a costly marble cenotaph with effigies of Sir E. Hungerford, the Parliamentarian, and his wife Margaret (1648), (2) within the grille, Sir T. Hungerford and his wife Joan (1398-1412), (3) on N., Sir E. Hungerford and wife (1607), (4) against W. wall, tomb of Mrs Shaa (1613), with panel of kneeling figures. In the S.E. corner of main building is a plain altar-tomb of Sir W. Hungerford and son (1596). The font is said to have been brought from the church. At its foot is a slab with incised figure of a chantry priest of unknown identity. Beneath the side chapel is a vault (to which access can be obtained outside) containing the leaded corpses of several members of the family. The parish church of St Leonard stands on the other side of the road on rising ground overlooking the ruins. It is a small plain Perp. building with square W. tower surmounted by a short pyramidal spire. It is somewhat quaint, but contains nothing of interest except an altar made out of an ancient settle. Over the doorway is a semicircular stone bearing a curious Latin inscription, said to be not later than 1200 A.D. It is supposed to have belonged either to an earlier building or to some dismantled church in the neighbourhood. Below the church is Farleigh House, a picturesque modern mansion.

Farmborough, a biggish village 8 m. S.W. from Bath (nearest stat. Clutton, 2-1/2 miles). The church is modern, but has a Perp. W. tower. The chancel contains a piscina, and there is a ribbed stone squint. Near the village is Barrow Hill, a conical-shaped eminence.

Farrington Gurney, a pleasant village on the Bristol and Wells road, 8 m. N.E. from Wells (nearest stat. Hallatrow, 1 m.). On the Midsomer Norton road is an old manor house. The church, which lies beyond the house in a field, is modern (1843), but occupies an ancient ecclesiastical site. Over the W. doorway is a small Norm. effigy, called by the natives "Old Farrington." The churchyard contains the base of an ancient cross.

Fiddington, a parish 7 m. N.W. of Bridgwater. Its church retains a few carved seat ends, an oak pulpit, and a piscina, but presents no other feature of interest.

Fitzhead, a village 2 m. N. of Milverton. The church has been rebuilt, with the exception of the tower. In the churchyard is a good specimen of an effigied cross (cp. Wiveliscombe). Hard by is Fitzhead Court, an ancient manor house said to contain a good plaster ceiling.

Fivehead, a parish 5 m. S.W. of Langport. The church has two Dec. windows in the chancel, the rest are Perp. There is a 16th-cent. tomb of John Walshe, and an ancient Norm. font with double mouldings. Note in the S. aisle (1) piscina, (2) remains of canopy. The manor house, the home of the Walshes, now a farm, preserves the old hall.

Flax Bourton, a parish 5 m. S.W. of Bristol (with a station), is said to owe the first part of its name to the abbey of Flaxley in Gloucestershire, which possessed the principal estate in the parish. The small Perp. church is noteworthy for the 12th-cent. Norm. work preserved in it, which consists of (1) a S. door, exceptionally tall and narrow, with banded pillars and a quaint carving of St Michael and the Dragon; (2) a chancel arch, recessed, with curious carvings on the chamfer of the abacus and on the capitals. Note also (1) terminals of the label of the S. chancel windows, (2) font.

Foxcote (or Forscote) is a small hamlet 2 m. E.N.E. of Radstock. The church is modern, with the exception of the tower.

Freshford, a village near the confluence of the Frome and Avon (with a station), 5 m. S.E. of Bath. The church is Perp., with a W. tower. Freshford Manor House once belonged to the priory of Hinton Charterhouse.



FROME, a thriving market town of some 11,000 inhabitants, on the E. side of the county, with a station on the G.W.R. line to Weymouth. Though its surroundings are pretty, the town itself is an ill-arranged collection of steep and narrow streets, one of which—Cheap Street—deserves notice for its quaintness. The spaciousness of the market-place redeems the narrowness of the streets. With the exception of a little faint-hearted sympathy shown to Monmouth, Frome has never helped to make history. Nowadays it does a brisk trade in woollen cloth, and possesses some large printing-works, breweries, and art-metal works. The visitor would do well to make his way at once to the church, which is practically the only thing in Frome worth seeing. It is a building of much greater dignity within than the exterior suggests, and has been restored on a very elaborate scale by a former incumbent, the Rev. W.J. Bennett (1852-66), a figure of note in the early Ritualistic controversies. The tower, crowned with a spire, is somewhat eccentricly placed at the E. end of the S. aisle. The interior is remarkable for its heterogeneous mixture of styles and its multitude of side chapels, of which St Nicholas's, the Lady Chapel, and St John Baptist's are on the N., and St Andrew's on the S. A Saxon church was built on the site by St Aldhelm, and possibly a couple of carved stones built into the interior of the tower may have belonged to it. This was succeeded in the 12th cent. by a Norm. church, of which a doorway remains, leading from St Nicholas's Chapel to the Lady Chapel, and perhaps a piscina opposite the latter; in the 13th cent. the chancel arch, the lower part of the tower, and the eastern half of the arcade were erected The rest of the arcade was added in the 15th cent. The abrupt change in the mouldings is very noticeable. The Lady Chapel, originally Norm. (see above), was rebuilt at this time, as well as St John's Chapel (now the organ-chamber). The chapel of St Nicholas (the baptistery) dates from the 16th cent.; the old glass in it bears the rebus of Cable, the founder of it (K and a bell). St Andrew's Chapel is said to have been founded in 1412 (though it looks like Dec. work). Interesting features are (1) piscinas above the rood and in the S. aisle, (2) a memento mori in the Lady Chapel (said to be a Leversedge of Vallis), (3) brass (1506) on tower wall. The rood-screen, the statues at the W., the medallions above the arcade, and the Calvary Steps outside the building are all modern. In the churchyard, beneath the E. window, is the tomb of Bishop Ken, who, after his "uncanonical deposition," lived in retirement at Longleat, and, dying in 1711, was buried at his own request "just at sunrising in the nearest parish church within his own diocese."

GLASTONBURY, a small market-town of some 4000 people in the centre of the county, 6 m. S. from Wells. It has a station on the S. & D. line from Evercreech to Bridgwater. The site of Glastonbury is almost as conspicuous in a Somerset landscape as its name is in Somerset history. Its huge conical tor, crowned by a tower, rises like a gigantic sugar-loaf from the surrounding plain, and is visible to half the county. The neighbourhood is a happy hunting-ground for the antiquary, and one of the "regulation" sights for the casual tourist. No one can be said to have "done" Somerset who has not seen Glastonbury. Its associations are romantic as well as historical. Though the modern town is commonplace enough, poetry and piety, fact and fiction, have conspired to make it famous. Here was the cradle of British Christianity. In this "deep meadowed island, fair with orchard lawns"—the fabled Avalon—blossomed the flower of British chivalry in the persons of Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table. It was when a Glastonbury monk that Dunstan made his vigorous onslaught on the powers of darkness. And it was this "parcel of ground," already consecrated by the bones of St Patrick, King Edgar, and St David, which became the favourite burying-place of mediaeval saints and heroes. The legend which accounted for its early pre-eminence is even in these sceptical days worth retelling, for from its popularity the future importance of the abbey sprang. Joseph of Arimathaea was despatched by St Philip along with eleven companions "to carry the tidings of the blessed Gospel" to the shores of remote Britain. Providential winds wafted them across the waters of the Severn Sea, and at length the wayworn travellers landed at Glastonbury, then an island. As their leader, like Jacob, leant in worship on the top of his staff on Wearyall Hill, the rod took root and became a thorn tree, which blossomed every year as surely as the Feast of the Nativity came round. The "Holy Grail" (the cup of blessing from the Last Supper), which Joseph brought with him, he buried at the foot of Glastonbury Tor, and from the place of its sepulchre gushed forth the Bloody Spring, which may be duly inspected to this day. The pilgrims made more friends than disciples, and the king, after a dilatory conversion, set apart for the maintenance of the newcomers "twelve hides of land." Here the evangelists possessed their souls in patience and built for worship a little shrine of wattle and daub, which was many generations afterwards found intact when fresh missionaries came to re-evangelise the islanders. Round this vetusta ecclesia gathered the subsequent glories of the monastery. This long-cherished tradition enshrines sufficient fact to justify Glastonbury's claim to be "the only tie still abiding between the vanished Church of the Briton and the Church of the Englishman." Its authentic history begins with its foundation as a monastery by that ecclesiastically-minded layman, King Ina (688-726), who built a church here and dedicated it to St Peter and St Paul. Dunstan, himself a Glastonbury man, by the austerity of his conduct and the vigour of his administration, made the fame of this early religious house. With the coming of the Normans grander ideas prevailed. Abbots Thurstan (A.D. 1082) and Herlewinus (1101-20) both projected buildings of some pretensions, but Henry of Blois, brother of King Stephen, abbot in 1126, was the first great builder. Henry's church was a fabric of much magnificence, but it completely perished in a fire in 1184, and Henry II., in one of his occasional fits of piety, charged himself with its rebuilding, and entrusted the work to his chamberlain Ralph, who, upon the site of Joseph's legendary shrine, erected the present beautiful chapel of St Mary (c. 1186). With the death of the king the work languished, for no funds were forthcoming from the empty pockets of his "lion-hearted" successor; and it was not until 1303 that the great church whose ruins still survive was finally dedicated. Even then the fabric was not complete. It took two centuries to add the finishing touches. Abbot Sodbury (1322-35) vaulted the nave, and it was left for one of his successors, Walter Monington (1341-74), to fill in the vaulting of the choir. Not content with the already considerable dimensions of the church, Monington extended the chancel two bays eastwards; and Abbot Bere (1493-1524) added another chapel, and propped the tower by inverted arches. Characteristic traces of the respective periods may still be observed. Until the Reformation the abbey had a career of unrivalled influence and splendour. It yielded precedence only to St Albans, and the abbot was said never to travel abroad with a retinue of less than 100 retainers. Such wealth was not likely to elude the comprehensive grasp of Henry VIII. Glastonbury was involved in the general ruin of the monasteries. The fate of its last abbot, Richard Whiting, is one of the tragic stories of the time. Though a "weak man and ailing," he refused to surrender the property of his abbey. But Thomas Cromwell had a "short way" with passive resisters. In his private "remonstrances," amongst other jottings was found, "Item—The Abbot of Glaston to be tried at Glaston, and also executed there." In accordance with this pre-arranged programme Whiting was arraigned at Wells, November 14, 1538, on a quite unsupported charge of treason, and in the great hall of the palace sentenced to death. The next day he was drawn on a hurdle to the tor, and there hanged, and his head fixed on the abbey gateway. After this judicial murder the monastic property at once fell to the Crown.



The entrance to the ruins is through a gateway opposite the George Hotel. The abbey cannot be seen from the street, but this obscure entry conducts the visitor to the porter's lodge (entrance 6d.). The most perfectly preserved portion of the buildings is the chapel of St Mary, commonly known as St Joseph's Chapel. It stands on the site of St Joseph's legendary shrine, and formed a kind of Galilee to the W. entrance of the church. It is rectangular in plan, with a square turret crowned by a pyramidal cap rising from each corner, only two of which now remain. It is one of the most beautiful specimens of Trans. work in England. The decoration is rich and abundant—"no possible ornament has been omitted." Note (1) fine N. doorway (which should be compared with the S. porch of Malmesbury), (2) arcading round interior face of wall, (3) triplet at W. end, (4) remains of vaulting, (5) shallow external buttresses. Beneath the now demolished flooring is a small crypt of 15th-cent. work. It was probably excavated to provide extra burial accommodation. Observe on S. side a well within a round-headed recess. The chapel originally stood apart from the great church, but was eventually joined up to the larger building by a continuation of the chapel walls. The extension is at once detected by the late character of the work. Note change of arcading from Norm. to E.E., and the E.E. entrance to the church. Of the latter very little now remains. There still stand the piers of the chancel arch, portions of the walls of the choir and nave aisles, and a little chapel which opened out of the N. transept. But these remains, slight though they are, are sufficient to indicate the general design of the church and its huge dimensions. Though there is an evident attempt to keep up the character of the ornamentation displayed in St Mary's chapel, the workmanship is much later; and a still later development is noticeable in the two easternmost bays of the choir, thrown out by Abbot Monington (1371-74). Note (1) lancets of nave, pointed externally, rounded internally, (2) pointed lancets of choir, (3) square abaci to pilasters of lancets (cp. Wells), (4) traces of Dec. work in vaulting ribs of nave, (5) absence of bench-table in Monington's additions, (6) fragment of Perp. panelling on E. side of chancel arch. The general plan of the church followed the arrangements of the great Benedictine abbeys, which were all designed with a view to a stately ritual and imposing processions. There was a lofty nave of ten bays, with corresponding aisles, a choir of three bays, also with processional aisles (Monington's extension was evidently intended to form a further path behind the high altar), and N. and S. transepts, each with a pair of E. chapels. A large central tower surmounted the whole, which, like that of Wells, is said to have been braced internally with inverted arches. The cloisters abutted on to the S. aisle of the church (note the higher sills of the windows), and beyond these again were the cloister garth, the refectory, dormitory, and domestic offices. The only remains of this part of the monastery is the Abbot's Kitchen, with a contiguous fragment of the almonry, and a portion of the great gateway of the monastery, now incorporated in the "Red Lion" inn. The flowering thorn tree—a descendant of Joseph's budding staff—should be noticed near the porter's lodge. The Abbot's Kitchen may be inspected at an extra charge of 6d. (entrance in Magdalene Street, just below Museum). It is a handsome stone building, now standing by itself in the middle of a field, and not at all suggestive of culinary appointments. Externally it is square at the base, but is crowned with an octagonal superstructure carrying a pyramidal roof and lantern. Within, huge fireplaces, once surmounted externally by chimneys, are set across the four corners, making the interior altogether an octagon. On one face is the effigy of a mitred abbot. The vaulted roof is supported by stone ribs, and egress for the steam is cunningly contrived in the windows. Its date is 1435-40. Another surviving remnant of monastic property will be found in Bere Lane at the top of Chilk-wall Street. This is a very fine cruciform barn similar to those at Doulting and Pilton, but rather richer in detail. The windows are traceried, and have above them figures of the four Evangelists, and ecclesiastical effigies stand as finials on two of the gables.

The other objects of interest in Glastonbury are (1) the George Inn in High Street opposite the abbey entrance—a fine 15th-cent. structure (said to have been built by Abbot Selwood) which once served as the pilgrims' hostelry; (2) the Tribunal—a few doors higher up—probably the court-house where the abbey officials interviewed their clients (observe escutcheon above doorway); (3) the almhouses and chapel in Magdalene Street (entrance through Red Lion gateway, once part of the main entrance of the monastery), founded by Abbot Bere in 1512 (note founder's rebus above gateway of court); (4) Market Cross, a modern structure of good design standing on the site of an ancient hexagonal cross; (5) museum in Magdalene Street, containing several "finds" from the neighbouring lake village (see Godney); (6) the churches of St John and St Benignus. The latter, in St Benedict Street, has a well-designed tower, but is not otherwise noteworthy (observe stoups in porch and Abbot Bere's rebus on parapet above porch). A flood which in 1606 inundated the neighbourhood is said to have reached to the foot of the tower. St John's Church in High Street, built by Abbot Selwood in 1465, has, on the contrary, some pretensions to magnificence. The tower especially is worthy of observation, as it is considered by some to be amongst the finest in the county. This, however, is an extravagant opinion. The arrangement of the windows superficially resembles that at Chewton Mendip, those of the belfry being reproduced in the stage below; but the lower pair are not an exact repetition of the pair above. It will be noted that the string courses are carried round the buttresses. The elaborate cresting is rich but meretricious. The interior, Perp. throughout, is lofty and spacious, but the general effect is spoilt by the timber supports which are found necessary to shore up the chancel arch. Note externally (1) bell-cot above chancel (cp. Wrington), (2) groined S. porch with parvise above: internally (1) plain altar-tombs on either side of sanctuary, (2) groined vault to tower, (3) at S.W. end the tomb, with effigy, of one Camel, an abbey official (observe camels on panels below), (4) finely carved stone pulpit, (5) wooden roof of nave, (6) good E. window.



A climb should be taken to the top of the Tor—500 ft. above sea-level. The original chapel of St Michael was destroyed by a landslide in 1271. The Perp. tower subsequently erected still remains, though deprived of its upper storey. Note bas-reliefs over doorway, and tablet with figured eagle below parapet. A spring, called the "Blood Spring," near the Tor is said to mark the spot where St Joseph buried the Holy Grail. Wirrall, or Weary All Hill, near the station, may also be scaled with advantage, if only for its traditional associations. It was here that St Joseph landed, and his staff, taking root, developed into the miraculous thorn tree. The tree, however, no longer exists, for it was hewn in pieces by a Puritan soldier, who is said to have cut off his leg in the process as a penalty for his profanity. An offshoot of the parent thorn grows in the Abbey grounds.

Goathurst is a village lying at the foot of the S.E. spur of the Quantocks, 4-1/2 m. S.W. from Bridgwater. It has an old church, with a heavy battlemented tower. The N. chapel contains a large monument with the effigies of Sir Nicholas Halswell (d. 1633) and his wife, surrounded by the kneeling figures of their nine children. The S. chapel belongs to the Kemeys-Tyntes, and is decorated with numerous coats-of-arms round the cornice. Note the piscina in the chancel. Near the church is Halswell House (C.T.H. Kemeys-Tynte), originally built in the Tudor period, containing some fine carving by Grinling Gibbons, and pictures by Salvator Rosa, Van Dyck, Ostade, Ruysdael, Reynolds, and others.

Godney (1-1/2 m. N.E. of Meare, 2 m. N. of Glastonbury) is famous for the remains of a lake village which have been discovered here. The village consisted of a number of dwellings, each built on a substructure of timber and brushwood, resting upon the marsh which once occupied the site, and held in position by small piles. Upon this base was laid a floor of clay, in the centre of which was a circular stone hearth (about 4 ft. in diameter); whilst the walls of the huts were made of timber, wattles, and daub. As the floors and hearths gradually sank in the yielding marsh, they had to be renewed from time to time; so that several successive layers of them have been found, resting upon one another. Round the collective huts which formed the village ran a palisade of piles, the enclosure being irregular in shape. The articles found in the village (many of which are in the Glastonbury Museum) show that the inhabitants practised agriculture, spinning, and weaving, and were acquainted with iron weapons. They are supposed to have been Celts by race; and the period to which they are assigned falls between 300 B.C. and 100 A.D.

Greinton, a small parish on the S.W. flank of the Poldens (nearest stat. Shapwick, 4 m.). The church has an embattled tower with pyramidal top. The interesting features within are(1) carved bench-ends, dated 1621 (note lily on one); (2) two good wooden doors, N. and S.; (3) piscina on sill of S. window in chancel.

Hallatrow, a hamlet in the parish of High Littleton, 11 m. S. from Bristol, with a station on the Frome branch.

Halse, a pleasant village, 2 m. N.W. of Milverton. It has a small but very interesting church, standing in a beautifully kept churchyard, which commands a fine view of the Quantocks. Its choicest possession is a very fine rood-screen: note the old beam above, and window. Other features deserving attention are (1) glass in E. window, (2) curious font, probably early Norm., (3) medallions in spandrels of arcade, (4) piscina on window-sill of sanctuary, (5) painted mural device on S. wall of nave, (6) fragments of carving in porch, (7) squint. The large windows in the porch are somewhat unusual.

Ham, High, a village occupying a fine breezy situation on the top of High Ham Hill, 4 m. N. from Langport. The church in its centre is a handsome building, typically and consistently Perp. It contains a fair roof, some panelled bench-ends, and a curious lectern, but its principal ornament is a fine Perp. chancel-screen. Note (1) stoup in porch, (2) the vigorously executed gargoyles, especially the pair over the porch, a mediaeval presentation of Darby and Joan.

Ham, Low, a village 2 m. N. of Langport. The church, which stands in the middle of a field, is something of a curiosity (call for keys at farm opposite). It is an excellent example of 17th-cent. imitative Gothic. Its builder was Sir R. Hext, whose political sentiments may be inferred from the motto with which he has adorned the chancel-screen, "My son, fear the Lord, and meddle not with them that are given to change." At the end of the N. aisle are effigies of the founder and his wife, and at the corresponding end of the S. aisle is a marble tablet to the memory of Lord Stawell, who has, however, left his own memorial outside. The perplexing series of terraces overlooking the church are all that remains of a fantastic scheme of his to build a mansion which, like his wife and horse, should be the most beautiful thing of its kind in the world. But L'homme propose...; Lord Stawell never got any further than these embankments.

Hambridge, a village equidistant from Langport and Ilminster (5 m.). The church is modern.

Hamdon Hill. See Stoke, East.

Hardington, a hamlet 5 m. N.W. of Frome. The church is a small building with a W. tower. In the neighbourhood is Hardington Park.

Hardington-Mandeville, a village 4-1/2 m. S.W. of Yeovil. The church was rebuilt in 1864, but retains some ancient features, including a good Norm. arch and font, and a Jacobean pulpit.

Harptree, East, a village on a spur of the Mendips, 6 m. N. from Wells. It possesses the attractions of a castle, a cavern, and a combe. The last is a thickly wooded glen near the top end of the village. On an inaccessible tongue of land at the far end of the gorge are the remains of Richmont Castle, one of those lawless strongholds which in the days of Stephen were a terror to the country side. In 1138 it was strongly garrisoned by its owner, William de Harptree, on behalf of the Empress Matilda, but was taken by Stephen by the ruse of a feigned repulse. Now, only a fragment of the keep overlooks the glen. Half a mile beyond is a remarkable cavern, the Lamb's Lair, entered by a vertical shaft of some 70 fathoms. The chamber is of very considerable dimensions, and is said by those who have seen it to be quite the finest cave in the Mendips. The church is not particularly noteworthy except for the odd device of avoiding a squint by an extension of the arcading. The walls, font, and S. doorway are Norm. The S. porch is of unusual size and contains a monument which must be a standing reproach to a declining birthrate. Under a large Elizabethan canopy is an effigy of Sir J. Newton (1568), attended by twenty children. At the other end of the village are two mansions, Harptree Court and Eastwood.

Harptree, West, about 1 m. N. of East Harptree. The church has a Norman tower with an ugly slated spire. The rest of the building has been reconstructed, but contains a Norman chancel arch, a large Norman font, and a good piscina. In the churchyard are seven large conical yew trees. Opposite the church is Gournay Manor, a fine Jacobean house, and near it is Tilley Manor, a 17th-cent. building, deprived of its top storey. They are now farmhouses.

Haselbury Plucknett, a village 2-1/2 m. N.E. of Crewkerne. It has a Perp. church with an E.E. N. chapel, which is associated with the memory of St Wulfric, who, born at Compton Martin, resided here, and died in 1154. The body of the Church has an old font. A priory of Austin canons, dating from the 12th cent., once existed here.

Hatch Beauchamp, 6 m. S.E. from Taunton, is a village (with station) situated in very picturesque surroundings. The church (best reached through the deer park) has a good tower, crowned with numerous pinnacles. Note (1) the foliaged bands round the pillars of the arcade; (2) the excellent bench-ends; (3) the fragments of old glass in the windows of the N. aisle; (4) the large picture, a "Descent from the Cross," by Perriss; (5) the window in the chancel to the memory of Colonel J.R.M. Chard, of Rorke's Drift fame, with a wreath preserved beneath it sent by Queen Victoria. The obelisk near the S. door is said to have once been the churchyard cross.

Hatch, West, a village 1-1/2 m. W. of Hatch Beauchamp. The church has been entirely rebuilt (1861).

Hawkridge, a parish 5 m. N.W. of Dulverton Station, consisting merely of a cluster of cottages and a tiny church. It is perched on the top of a ridge of high ground separating the Barle from its tributary stream the Danes Brook. The valleys on either side are beautifully wooded, and exhibit some of the most romantic scenery in Somerset. The church has a plain Norm. doorway.

Heathfield, a parish 2-1/2 m. E. of Milverton. Its church is small, and the only objects of interest which it contains are (1) a mural monument on the N. of the chancel, with kneeling figures, of the 16th cent.; (2) a carved oak pulpit (said to be reconstructed from ancient materials). There is the shaft of an ancient cross in the graveyard, with a mutilated figure.

Hemington, a village lying at the end of a wide vale, 3 m. E.S.E. from Radstock. The church has a few features in common with the neighbouring church of Buckland Denham, viz., (1) peculiar arrangement of windows in tower, (2) clerestory to nave, though the building possesses only one aisle. The interior shows (a) some good Dec. work in windows, some of which have foliated rear arches, with detached shaft; (b) plain Norm. chancel arch. Observe also (1) piscina on the respond of the chancel arcade, (2) the central pier of the arcade (it is surrounded by four detached shafts). On the hill above the village, standing by the side of the Trowbridge road, is a square tower of as much beauty as utility, locally known as "Turner's Folly." The "green" of the neighbouring hamlet of Falkland retains its ancient stocks.

Henstridge, a large village 7 m. S. of Wincanton, with a station on the S. & D.J.R. The church has been rebuilt (except the tower and part of the N. and W. walls), but contains some ancient features. There is a 15th-cent. altar-tomb in the chancel under a carved and coloured canopy, with two effigies. These represent William Carent (who inherited the property of two wealthy families, the Carents and the Toomers), and his wife Margaret (nee Stourton). The arms that adorn the tomb are those of Carent and Stourton. The rhyming inscription round the arch of the canopy is, Sis testis Xte quod non tumulus iacet iste corpus ut ornetur, sed spiritus ut memoretur. There is also an elaborately carved niche or tabernacle in the N.E. angle of the N. (or Toomer) aisle. Note, too, (1) decorated piscina, (2) remains of figures over the entrance to the N. chapel. The "Virginia Inn" at the cross-road is said to be the spot where Sir Walter Raleigh's servant emptied a stoup of beer over his master, who was smoking, in the belief that he was on fire. At Yeaston, a hamlet between Henstridge and Templecombe, there once existed a Benedictine priory, attached to an abbey of that Order at Coutances (Normandy). A field is still said to bear the name of the Priory Plot.

HIGHBRIDGE, a growing little town on the Brue, 1-1/2 m. S.E. from Burnham. It has two stations, one on the G.W.R. main line to Taunton, the other on the S. & D. Burnham branch. It possesses a town-hall, a cattle market, and other evidences of prosperity. Brick and tile making are carried on in the locality, and a large bacon factory and a timber-yard are amongst its more important commercial undertakings. As the river is navigable up to this point for small craft it also encourages a coasting trade. Of antiquarian interest it has none. The church is as modern as the town.

Hill Farrance, 3-1/2 m. N.E. of Wellington, is a village on the Tone. Its church (ded. to the Holy Cross) has a massive-looking tower, with an open-work parapet, bearing the initials I.P. It contains sedilia and a piscina, and some carved bench ends. On the S. of the building is a mortuary chapel (14th cent.) of one of the De Vernais (once lords of the manor), which at the restoration of the church in 1857 was given to the parish.

Hinton Blewitt, a small and secluded village, 4 m. S.W. from Clutton. The church is Perp., with a fair W. tower. It possesses a stoup and a rather poor piscina. The village, which is on the slope of a hill, commands a pleasant view of the Mendips.

Hinton Charterhouse, a small village 6 m. S. of Bath, on the more easterly of the alternative roads from the city to Frome. Its sole attraction consists in a few fragments of a once considerable Carthusian priory. About 1/2 m. N. of the village, in the corner of a field near the main road, is what looks like a low gabled church tower, with a small E.E. chancel and some other out-buildings. These remnants are all that survive of a house founded here in 1232 by the widow of William Longsword, for the accommodation of a settlement of Carthusians; and it is worth noticing that of the Carthusian houses in England, which never numbered more than nine, Somerset had two. The ruins, which are very meagre, consist of two groups of buildings. (1) One is a three-storeyed structure, containing on basement a vaulted, chapel-like chamber, lighted by side lancets and a terminal triplet, and possessing a large piscina and an aumbry. This is generally but quite erroneously described as the "chapter-house." It may have been the fratry. On the first floor is another vaulted chamber, supposed to have been the library. It communicated at the end with a pigeon-cote, and is reached by a good stone staircase, which also gives access to a loft above. On the L. of the passage leading to the library will also be noticed a small room lighted by a square-headed window. (2) The second, in the stable-yard of the adjoining manor house, is the refectory, a good, vaulted apartment, with a row of octagonal columns down the centre. At the W. end it opens into the kitchen, in which will be discovered a fireplace. Of the priory church, which abutted on the N. wall of the so-called "chapter house," nothing is left but a single trefoiled piscina and one of the vaulting shafts. The buildings have evidently been freely used as a quarry for the erection of the neighbouring manor house. In a dingle in the adjoining field is a stone-faced, pointed archway, tunnelling the road. The parish church is an unattractive, ivy-clad building near the village. Hinton House (J.C. Foxcroft) is a modern mansion, with a fine open green in front of it.

Hinton St George, a clean and attractive village equidistant (4 m.) from Crewkerne and Ilminster. It possesses a very fine cross, having on one face a representation of St John Baptist, which was originally flanked by smaller figures. The shaft has been barbarously crowned with a sundial and large ball. The church has a dignified tower with numerous pinnacles, and a pierced, embattled parapet. The W. front has a single large window which breaks the string course (cp. Shepton Beauchamp and Norton-sub-Hamdon). The S. porch has a ribbed and panelled roof and numerous niches. The interior of the church is not very interesting, apart from the tombs and monuments of the Pouletts, dating from the 16th and 17th centuries. Most are in a large N. chapel, but there is one between the chapel and the chancel, and another in front of the family pew. The font is carved with shields bearing alternately a cross and the Poulett arms. There is a piscina in the chancel. Hinton House, the mansion of Countess Poulett, in the neighbouring park, has portions dating from the time of the first Sir Amyas Poulett (d. 1537), but the rest is later. It has a fine collection of pictures.

Holcombe, a colliery village 3-1/2 m. S. of Radstock. It has a small modern church; but an old church, now disused, lies in a dingle in some fields a mile away from the village. This possesses a good Norm. S. doorway, with a curious inverted inscription scratched on one of the capitals. The careless rebuilding of the columns shows that it is not in its original position.

Holford, a village 6 m. E. from Williton, at the foot of the Quantocks. Its church is picturesquely situated; in the graveyard is an old cross with a mutilated figure on the shaft. Past the church, two pleasant combes may be reached, Tannery Combe and Hodder's Combe (the latter is perhaps a corruption of the name of Odda, the Earl of Devon who aided Alfred, see p. 201). The hill between them bears the name of Hare Kanp, possibly preserving the memory of the Saxon armies that once marched along the trackway that crosses it (M.E. and A.S. here, an army). Near Holford is Alfoxden, the residence of Wordsworth in 1797, when Coleridge was at Nether Stowey.



Holton, a village 2-1/2 m. S.W. of Wincanton. Its church is small and contains a stone 15th-cent. pulpit and a Norm. font. On the S. porch is an old sundial, and in the churchyard the base of a cross.

Holms, The Flat and Steep, two islands in the Bristol Channel, forming familiar objects to all visitors to the Somerset sea-board. Geologically they belong to the county, for they are the last expiring protest of the Mendip chain against its final submergence in the sea. The Steep Holm, the nearer and more conspicuous of the two islets, 5 m. from the coast, is little better than a barren rock rearing its huge bulk precipitously, nearly 300 ft. above the waves. It is almost inaccessible, but has perhaps for this reason occasionally afforded an asylum to refugees from the mainland, although the statement that Gildas found security in this retreat appears to be an error. There still remain some fragments of a priory. The Flat Holm, 2 m. farther off, though of about the same circumference (1-1/2 m.), is a far less imposing object in the sea-scape, but is more amenable to the influences of civilisation. It is occupied by a lighthouse and a farm, and is sometimes made the excuse for a channel trip by visitors from the neighbouring watering-places, as it affords amongst other attractions some facilities for bathing.

Hornblotton, a parish 3 m. N.W. of Castle Cary Station. The church, which stands about a mile from the Fosse Way to Ilchester, is modern, but the tower of the old church is left standing, and a piscina has been removed from it to the new building.



Horner Valley, one of the many charming walks which abound in the neighbourhood of Porlock. Follow the Minehead road for about a mile and then strike up the banks of the Horner Water by a lane on the R. On the way will be noticed spanning the stream a quaint pack-horse bridge beloved of photographers (cp. Allerford). At Horner village the road winds round to Luccombe, but a broad path follows the course of the Horner and leads up through the woods. The scenery is comparable with that of the E. Lynn. It is a delightful combination of wood, mountain, and rill, and is everywhere full of charm. The Horner Water descends from the moors and babbles its way through the valley to the sea. It receives on the right a contributary rill which flows through a combe that rivals the main valley in romantic beauty. The second plank-bridge across the water will lead up a very steep footpath to Cloutsham.

Horrington, East and West, two contiguous villages on the S. slope of the Mendips, 2 m. E. from Wells, and overlooking the city. At E. Horrington there is a small modern church (1838).

Horsington, a largish village 1 m. N. of Templecombe. The church is spacious and has been rebuilt (1884-85), with the exception of the tower. It contains a 15th-cent. octagonal font with, rudely carved figures of angels at the angles. Near the church is a cross (said to be 13th cent.) with the canopied figure of an ecclesiastic on the shaft.

Huish Champflower, a village 3-1/2 m. N.W. from Wiveliscombe. The church is one of the few Dec. churches in the county, but not a pure example of the style, as the tower and window tracery are Perp. There is a good arcade of clustered columns with foliated capitals dividing the nave from the N. aisle. The window at the E. end of the aisle should also be observed, as the tracery is particularly good, and it retains some of its original glass. There is a barrow in the neighbourhood which has recently been excavated.

Huish Episcopi is a parish situated E. of Langport, the two churches being less than half a mile apart. It is famed for its beautiful tower, which, however, is perhaps a little over-praised, for the crown of pinnacles, graceful in itself, does not seem to spring naturally from the summit, but to be super-imposed upon it. The belfry storey has double windows, and each stage is divided from the one below by bands of quatrefoils which produce rather a formal effect. The S. door is late Norm., its red colour being due to fire; in the upper corner of the porch traces of stone stairs are visible. Some Dec. windows remain in the chancel, but the majority are Perp.: the glass at the E. end of the S. aisle is by Sir E. Burne-Jones. Note (1) the stoup near S. door; (2) the piscina in the chancel; (3) the squint in the S. pier of the chancel; (4) the Jacobean pulpit (dated 1625).

Huntspill, a parish 1-1/2 m. S.S.W. from Highbridge, supposed to derive its name from Hun, a Somerset ealdorman in the reign of Egbert. It has a very handsome church which has been rebuilt since it was destroyed by fire in 1878. The pillars of the arcade still show traces of the flames. The tower is good, with bold buttresses. The church contains the effigies of a knight in armour and his lady, within a recess in the S. wall. Note (1) stoup in S. porch; (2) piscina in S. chapel; (3) fine black oak pulpit.

Hutton, a small village 3-1/2 m. S.E. of Weston-super-Mare. It lies at the base of Bleadon Hill, and may be approached from Weston either through Uphill or by a path that leaves the Worle road. Its small but picturesque church has a good tower of three stages and preserves an excellent stone pulpit, reached by a recess in the wall (which once led to the rood loft), and two brasses to members of the Payne family (one will be found immediately in front of the altar, the other in a recess in the N. wall of the chancel). Hutton Court, which is close by, is a 15th-cent. building much altered.

ILCHESTER, a small, decayed town on the Ivel, 4-1/2 m. N.E. of Martock, which was formerly of considerable importance. Its name recalls the fact that it was a Roman station, and upon it several Roman roads converge. It was besieged in the strife between William Rufus and his brother Robert; and it was fortified in the Great Civil War. It once had a nunnery, and it was the birthplace of Roger Bacon, who was born here in 1214. But apart from its historic associations it has little now to attract attention, its only noteworthy building being its church (the last remaining of five). This has a short tower which is octagonal throughout and does not rest, like others elsewhere, upon a square base. Some Roman bricks seem to be among the materials of which it is constructed, and there are a few old pieces of carving built into the walls. The oldest parts of the building appear to date from E.E. times, but it has undergone a good deal of restoration. Note (1) the E. window (three lancets under a hood moulding); (2) niches; (3) squint. There is a market cross, consisting of a cylindrical pillar supporting a sundial (cp. Martock). Though Ilchester is not now a borough, it was so once, and a very curious macehead (13th cent.) is still preserved.

Ile (or Isle) Abbots, a village 3-1/2 m. E. of Hatch Station. It gets its name from its position on the little river Ile (or Isle) and its former connection with Muchelney Abbey. It possesses an interesting church with a fine tower, having double windows in the belfry and numerous niches, which for the most part retain their statuary. The S. porch has fair groining with a central pendant, and there are some beautiful pierced parapets. The windows are of various dates—E.E., Dec., and Perp. Note in the chancel (1) low side-window (cp. Bleadon, Othery), (2) piscina, surrounded by panelling, (3) triple sedilia. The font, rudely carved, is Norm. The arcade piers are encircled with the "Devonshire" foliage.

Ile (or Isle) Brewers (the latter half of the name a corruption of De Bruyere, the family that once owned the manor) is a parish 5 m. E. of Hatch Station. The church has been rebuilt (1861), and the tower (on the S.) is surmounted by a spire. Within is a Norm. font.

Ilminster, a small market town (with station) on the Ile, is a place of great antiquity but of little present importance, though it has some lace, shirt, and collar manufactories. It was attached to the Abbey of Muchelney until the dissolution of the monasteries. It possesses a noble church, the fine central tower having triple windows in double tier (cp. Mells and Leigh), and being surmounted by clustered pinnacles, whilst the vault is beautifully groined. The S. porch and the transepts are also excellently designed, these parts of the structure having been built by Sir William Wadham (15th cent.). The nave (rebuilt in 1824) is much inferior. Note (1) large ribbed squints; (2) font (probably once attached to a pillar); (3) vestry behind the E. window (cp. N. Petherton, Kingsbury, Langport, and Porlock); (4) piscinas in transepts; (5) grotesque corbels. In the N. transept are the tombs and brasses of (1) Sir William Wadham (d. 1425) and his wife; (2) Nicholas and Dorothy Wadham (1609 and 1618), the founders of Wadham College, Oxford. In the S. transept is a monument to Humfrey Walrond (d. 1580). The communion plate includes two Elizabethan chalices. The only other building in the town of any interest is the Grammar School, N. of the church. It bears a motto and the date 1586, and owes its origin to Humfrey Walrond. It is now a girls' school, the boys having been transferred to new buildings (reached from the street S. of the church).

Ilton, a village on the Ile, 2 m. N. of Ilminster. It has a church of some interest. The windows are partly Dec. and partly Perp., and the tower is on the S. Note (1) piscinas in chancel and chapel; (2) brass of Nicholas Wadham (d. 1508); (3) effigy of "Joan," wife of another Nicholas Wadham (d. 1557).

Keinton-Mandeville, a large village 4 m. E.N.E. of Somerton, lying for the most part along the Castle Cary road, with a station on the Castle Cary and Langport loop-line. The church is in a field at the S. extremity of the village. The nave was rebuilt in 1800, but the chancel retains some indication of its E.E. origin, and the old Norm. font is still preserved. The village was the birthplace of Sir Henry Irving, whose real name was Brodribb.

Kelston, a parish 4 m. N.W. of Bath. The church, which is reached by a lane to the left, has been rebuilt, with the exception of the tower and N. porch. The latter has on its left jamb a very small carving of the Crucifixion. Within note (1) in the chancel some interlaced work on the N. and a piscina on the S.; (2) in the E. corner of the S. aisle a musical epitaph; (3) in one of the N. windows of the nave some fragments of ancient glass (the figure is said to be that of St Barbara: cp. Cucklington).

Kenn, on the R. of the road between Yatton and Clevedon, was the original home of Bishop Ken's family. The church retains its ancient tower, which has a curious cap. The nave has been rebuilt, but contains a quaint monument on the interior wall of the tower to Christopher Ken (d. 1593), and a mural tablet to Sir Nicholas Staling, "Gentleman Usher" to Queen Elizabeth and King James I. (d. 1605).

Kewstoke, a village 2 m. N.E. of Weston-super-Mare. It is best reached by a delightful road through the woods on the seaward side of Worle Hill. Its picturesque church is interesting, and, like so many others, illustrates successive styles of architecture. The S. door is Norm.; there is an E.E. lancet in the chancel, and the font perhaps belongs to the same period; the E. window and some windows on the N. side of the church are Dec. (with foliated rear arches); whilst the tower and the clerestory (which is rarely found where there are no aisles) belong to the Perp. period. Note (1) the fine stone 15th cent. pulpit, a not uncommon feature in the neighbourhood (cp. Worle, Hutton, Locking, Loxton, Banwell); (2) arch with quaint finial at entrance to rood-loft stair; (3) old glass in S. chapel. In 1852 a small carved figure, built into the N. wall of the church, was found to conceal, in a recess at the back of it, a broken wooden cup, stained with human blood, supposed to be that of St Thomas a Becket, and to have been brought from Worspring Priory. It is now in Taunton Museum. Opposite the church door is a series of steps leading up the hill, called St Kew's Steps, the origin of which is unknown. On the top of the hill is the village of Milton, with a modern church.

KEYNSHAM, a small town on the Chew near its confluence with the Avon. It has a station on the G.W. main line to Bristol. Pop. nearly 3000. It is a long straggling sort of place of not very lively appearance, resembling an overgrown village. Its history is rather romantic than reliable. Its patron saint, S. Keyne, a Welsh lady of exceptional sanctity, dwelt in a neighbouring wood much infested with serpents. The reptiles, not usually susceptible to the voice of the charmer, were at her intercession turned into stone—a fact to which the ammonites in the local quarry bear witness. St Keyne's name occurs also at Kentisford, near Watchet. Later, the town acquired a borrowed lustre from its association with one of the greater religious houses. In 1170 William of Gloster founded here on a magnificent scale a monastery of Austin Canons. This glory has now departed. The Reformation and the Bridges family between them made a clean sweep of everything. The abbey was used as a quarry for building the family mansion, which has by the irony of fate likewise disappeared. Monastic odds and ends may be discovered here and there worked into houses and garden walls. A gateway on the R. of lane leading to station is made up of such fragments. A heap of debris to the E. of the church indicates the whereabouts of the original buildings. The church is a spacious rather than an inspiring edifice. A massive W. tower was built in 1634 to replace a tower which stood at the E. end of the N. aisle, and was destroyed by a thunderstorm. The chancel is the most interesting part of the building, and should be examined externally where the original E.E. lancets are visible. Within, it has been converted into a kind of mausoleum for the Bridges family, some of whom are represented in effigy. Note the round-headed double piscina in sanctuary. The S. aisle is Dec., and contains a fine Perp. screen. The Caroline screen dividing the S. chapel from chancel should also be observed. The window tracery throughout the church is crude. A row of alms-houses near the Wingrove Hotel were founded by Sir T. Bridges. A Roman tessellated pavement was discovered in making the railway cutting, and was removed to Bristol.

Kilmersdon, a village 2 m. S. from Radstock. It lies prettily in a hollow at the foot of Ammerdown Park. The church is a 15th cent. Perp. building with a lofty W. tower which forms a graceful object in the vale. The nave within and without bears traces of Norm. work. Note corbels and scale work on S. external wall, and in the interior the small Norm. window. In Perp. times the walls were raised, the old corbel-table being left in its original position. The triple panelling to the tower arch and the reduplication of the chancel arch is a little peculiar. A triangular lychgate of unusual design has lately been added to the churchyard. There is an Elizabethan communion cup dated 1566. Ammerdown House (Ld. Hylton) stands amongst the trees on the hill-side behind the village. It is an Italian mansion, designed by Wyatt. The summit of the hill above is crowned by a graceful memorial column with a glittering lantern. As the hill is 800 feet high, it is a conspicuous landmark.

Kilton is a parish 7 m. E.N.E. of Williton. Its church has been rebuilt, but retains a good Perp. font, and some small brasses on the S. wall of the chancel. Two communion chalices belonging to the church date from 1514 and 1572 respectively. Nearer the coast is Lilstock church, of which only the chancel remains, serving as a mortuary chapel.

Kilve, a village on the Channel, 5 m. E.N.E. of Williton, has had its name enshrined in the verse of both Southey and Wordsworth. From the shore some pretty coast views are obtainable. Its church retains its stoup, piscina, and ancient font, and there is some 15th cent. woodwork near the entrance to the tower. Close to the church are the remains of a chantry. Though many of the walls are still standing, it is rather difficult to trace the plan.

Kingsbury Episcopi, 2-1/2 m. N.W. of Martock, is a village wearing an air of antiquity, and possessing a fine church. The church tower, with double belfry windows, closely resembles that of its neighbour at Huish Episcopi. It is inferior in its buttresses and mouldings, but has a better W. window. The elaborate crown produces a more top-heavy effect than at Huish. The niches which adorn the tower are noticeable for retaining in many cases their figures, which are seated (cp. Ile Abbots). The tower arch is finely panelled with niches on the E. face, and there is a clerestory (note the angel corbels below the roof). The piers of the chancel and transeptal arches are ornamented with foliage, and the chancel windows are large, with traceried transoms. Note (1) the screen; (2) the fragments of ancient glass in the N. transept; (3) the piscina in the S. chapel; (4) the sacristy below the E. window (as at N. Petherton and Langport); (5) the small crucifix over the S. porch (which originally had a parvise).

Kingsdon, a village 2-1/2 m. S.S.E. of Somerton. Its church, in the main Perp., has a plain embattled tower and some Dec. windows. The S. porch has niches for images and a stoup; there are piscinas in the chancel and the N. transept, and in the same transept the effigy of a crusader, believed to be one Guy Bryan. On the road between Ilchester and Somerton, which passes over the hill below which the church is situated, a fine view may be obtained, embracing the Quantocks, the Blackdowns, and part of the Mendips.

Kingston St Mary, a village 3 m. N. of Taunton. Its church, prettily situated on rising ground, has a fine W. tower, crowned with numerous pinnacles and a turret spirelet. On three sides are canopied niches, the upper ones supported on cherubs or angels. The arcade of the nave is Trans. or E.E., that of the chancel Perp., the junction being rather clumsily effected. There is no chancel arch. The S. porch has a fine groined roof, with niches and holy-water stoup. Note (1) the carved seat-ends (one having the date 1522); (2) the large tomb (temp. Edward III.) in the S. aisle belonging to the Warres; (3) black-letter Bible (1617) and Bishop Jewel's works (chained). The neighbouring mansion of Hestercombe, once the possession of the Warres, but now belonging to the Portmans, is said to preserve a sword taken by one of the Warres from King John of France at Poitiers.

Kingston Seymour is a village about 2 m. W. of Yatton, with a halt on the Clevedon and Weston light railway. Its church has a tower surmounted by a spire: the parapet, which is of an unusual character, rises from the base of the latter. The S. aisle has an exceptionally large squint, and a piscina; and the churchyard contains the base and shaft of an old cross. The parish on more than one occasion has suffered from destructive inundations of the sea.

Kingstone, a small village 1 m. S.E. of Ilminster. The church is Perp., with a good central tower. The windows contain some fragments of ancient glass. The shape of the font is curious.

Kingweston (said to be a corruption of Kenwardston) is a parish 3 m. N.E. of Somerton. Its church has been rebuilt (1855), and its octagonal tower is crowned with a tall spire. The doorway and font of an earlier Norm. church are still preserved, and in the chancel is an E.E. piscina. The churchyard has the base and shaft of a cross.

Kittisford, a lonely parish 4 m. N.W. of Wellington, near the Tone. The church has been restored, but retains a piscina and a pulpit of 1610. In the parish is an old manor-house called Cothay, of Tudor date.

Knowle St Giles, a small hamlet on a hillside, 2-1/2 m. N.E. of Chard. The church has been rebuilt.

Lambrook, East, 2-1/2 m. S. by W. of Martock, is a hamlet belonging to Kingsbury Episcopi, with a small towerless church. It has a Dec. E. window with a foliated interior arch, a niche for a small piscina, and two heads inserted in the walls (perhaps originally for the Lenten veil). There are some remains of an old house at the post-office which are worth observing.

Lamyatt, a parish on the slope of Creech Hill, 2 m. N.W. from Bruton. The little church has a low tower, with a pyramidal top. Note the two ancient corbel heads built into its W. front. Within there is a Norm. font with cable moulding. The roof has tie beams with Perp. open-work above them.

Langford Budville (or Botteville), a parish 2-1/2 m. N.W. of Wellington. Its church has a battlemented tower, with a turret on the S. (cp. Wellington). The columns of the S. arcade, which have circlets of foliage in place of capitals, deserve notice. On one of them is carved a needle and thread, which has been conjectured to be connected with some benefaction to the church by a member of Queen's College, Oxford, where a ceremony is observed in which a needle and thread (aiguille et fil) figures in memory of Queen Philippa. In this aisle is a holy-water stoup. The N. aisle is modern.



LANGPORT, a very small town on the Parrett, with two stations on the G.W.R. It is built along a ridge rising above the level of the surrounding marsh lands, and is an unattractive little place, but has seen some history (it was the scene of a defeat of the Royalists in the Civil War), and possesses an interesting church. The tower (embattled and pinnacled) has three windows in the belfry storey, but is inferior to many of its class, and should be compared with Long Sutton. The chancel has unusually large Perp. windows, with traceried transoms; and the E. window is remarkable for its ancient glass (representing ten saints). The W. window has modern stained glass in memory of Bagehot, the historian, who was born here. Among other features deserving notice are (1) the squint in the N. pier of the chancel arch; (2) the niches on the corresponding S. pier; (3) the piscina on the centre pier of the S. chapel; (4) the sacristy behind and below the E. window (as at N. Petherton, Kingsbury and Porlock); (5) the very curious carving in the S. porch (now used as a vestry). A little way E. of the church there is a curious little chapel (Perp.), which is built above an archway that spans the road. It is known as the Hanging Chapel (from its position), and was once used as a grammar school.

Langridge, a small parish 4 m. N.W. of Bath, situated in a deep hollow. Its church is remarkably small (50 ft. by 18 ft.), and contains several features of interest. The doorway is Norm., and so is the chancel arch. The latter, which has been restored, is exceptionally narrow, and has above it a piece of sculpture representing the Virgin and child. Note besides, (1) the stoup; (2) effigy of a lady; (3) brasses of Robert Walsh (d. 1427) and his wife (the Walshes owned the manor in the 14th and 15th cents.); (4) font (E.E.); (5) Jacobean pulpit.

Laverton, a small village 4-1/2 m. N. from Frome. The church is a small 13th cent. building, with a saddleback tower.

Leigh on Mendip (pronounced Lye), a bleakly situated village on the E. Mendips, 6 m. W.S.W. from Frome. It possesses a small Perp. church with a mean chancel, but set off by the compensating attraction of a remarkably noble W. tower, which well merits attention. It is of the reduplicated triple window type (cp. Mells) with a finely pierced parapet and profusely ornamented with pinnacles, but out of all proportion to the church. The latter contains (1) a pillar stoup in the porch; (2) a Norm, font; (3) some old oak benches; (4) fine granite altar slab, found buried for safety's sake; (5) two small corbels in the chancel, presumably for supporting a Lenten veil (cp. Orchardleigh); (6) piscinas in chancel and S. aisle.

Leigh Woods, the hanging woods which cover the W. bank of the Avon, near Clifton. They form a fine foil to the open downs opposite. To enter them cross the Suspension Bridge into Somerset, take first turning to R., cross the intervening combe, which runs up from the river, by the first available footpath, and then wander at your will. Hidden away amongst the trees are the remains of a rampart, Stoke Leigh Camp, one of twin fortifications. The other, Burgh Walls, on the Bristol side of the combe, was destroyed to make room for the present villas. A British trackway, communicating with Cadbury Camp, is said to have here crossed the river by a ford. From the edge of the cliff delightful glimpses may be obtained of the bridge and gorge.

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