Renaissance in Italy, Volume 1 (of 7)
by John Addington Symonds
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[1] See Graziani, pp. 565-68.

[2] Graziani, pp, 597-601.

[3] See Jacobus Volaterranus. Muratori, xxiii. pp. 126, 156, 167.

[4] See Istoria Bresciana. Muratori, xxi. 865.

It did not always need the interposition of a friar to arouse a strong religious panic in Italian cities. After an unusually fierce bout of discord the burghers themselves would often attempt to give the sanction of solemn rites and vows before the altar to their temporary truces. Siena, which was always more disturbed by civil strife than any of her neighbors, offered a notable example of this custom in the year 1494. The factions of the Monti de' Nove and del Popolo had been raging; the city was full of feud and suspicion, and all Italy was agitated by the French invasion. It seemed good, therefore, to the heads of the chief parties that an oath of peace should be taken by the whole body of the burghers. Allegretti's account of the ceremony, which took place at dead of night in the beautiful Cathedral of Siena, is worthy to be translated. 'The conditions of the peace were then read, which took up eight pages, together with an oath of the most horrible sort, full of maledictions, imprecations, excommunications, invocations of evil, renunciation of benefits temporal and spiritual, confiscation of goods, vows, and so many other woes that to hear it was a terror; et etiam that in articulo mortis no sacrament should accrue to the salvation, but rather to the damnation of those who might break the said conditions; insomuch that I, Allegretto di Nanni Allegretti, being present, believe that never was made or heard a more awful and horrible oath. Then the notaries of the Nove and the Popolo, on either side of the altar, wrote down the names of all the citizens, who swore upon the crucifix, for on each side there was one, and every couple of the one and the other faction kissed; and the bells clashed, and Te Deum laudamus was sung with the organs and the choir while the oath was being taken. All this happened between one and two hours of the night, with many torches lighted. Now may God will that this be peace indeed, and tranquillity for all citizens, whereof I doubt.'[1] The doubt of Allegretti was but too reasonable. Siena profited little by these dreadful oaths and terrifying functions. Two years later on, the same chronicler tells how it was believed that blood had rained outside the Porta a Laterino, and that various visions of saints and specters had appeared to holy persons, proclaiming changes in the state, and commanding a public demonstration of repentance. Each parish organized a procession, and all in turn marched, some by day and some by night, singing Litanies, and beating and scourging themselves, to the Cathedral, where they dedicated candles; and 'one ransomed prisoners, for an offering, and another dowered a girl in marriage.'

In Bologna in 1457 a similar revival took place on the occasion of an outbreak of the plague. 'Flagellants went round the city, and when they came to a cross, they all cried with a loud voice: Misericordia! misericordia! For eight days there was a strict fast; the butchers shut their shops.' What follows in the Chronicle is comic: 'Meretrices ad concubita nullum admittebant. Ex eis quadam quae cupiditate lucri adolescentem admiserat, deprehensa, aliae meretrices ita illius nates nudas corrigiis percusserunt, ut sanguinem emitteret.'[2] Ferrara exhibited a like devotion in 1496, on even a larger scale. About this time the entire Italian nation was panic-stricken by the passage of Charles VIII., and by the changes in states and kingdoms which Savonarola had predicted. The Ferrarese, to quote the language of their chronicler, expected that 'in this year, throughout Italy, would be the greatest famine, war, and want that had ever been since the world began.' Therefore they fasted, and 'the Duke of Ferrara fasted together with the whole of his court. At the same time a proclamation was made against swearing, games of hazard, and unlawful trades: and it was enacted that the Jews should resume their obnoxious yellow gaberdine with the O upon their breasts. In 1500 these edicts were repeated. The condition of Italy had grown worse and worse: it was necessary to besiege the saints with still more energetic demonstrations. Therefore 'the Duke Ercole d' Este, for good reasons to him known, and because it is always well to be on good terms with God, ordained that processions should be made every third day in Ferrara, with the whole clergy, and about 4,000 children or more from twelve years of age upwards, dressed in white, and each holding a banner with a painted Jesus. His lordship, and his sons and brothers, followed this procession, namely the Duke on horseback, because he could not then walk, and all the rest on foot, behind the Bishop.'[3] A certain amount of irony transpires in this quotation, which would make one fancy that the chronicler suspected the Duke of ulterior, and perhaps political, motives.

[1] See Muratori, vol. xxiii. p. 839.

[2] Annales Bononienses. Mur. xxiii. 890.

[3] Diario Ferrarese. Mur. xxiv. pp. 17-386.

It sometimes happened that the contagion of such devotion spread from city to city; on one occasion, in 1399, it traveled from Piedmont through the whole of Italy. The epidemic of flagellants, of which Giovanni Villani speaks in 1310 (lib. viii. cap. 121), began also in Piedmont, and spread along the Genoese Riviera. The Florentine authorities refused entrance to these fanatics into their territory. In 1334, Villani mentions another outburst of the same devotion (lib xi. cap. 23), which was excited by the preaching of Fra Venturino da Bergamo. The penitents on this occasion wore for badge a dove with the olive-branch. They staid fifteen days in Florence, scourging themselves before the altars of the Dominican churches, and feasting, five hundred at a time, in the Piazzi di S. M. Novella. Corio, in the Storia di Milano (p. 281), gives an interesting account of these 'white penitents,' as they were called, in the year 1399: 'Multitudes of men, women, girls, boys, small and great, townspeople and countryfolk, nobles and burghers, laity and clergy, with bare feet and dressed in white sheets from head to foot,' visited the towns and villages of every district in succession. 'On their journey, when they came to a cross-road or to crosses, they threw themselves on the ground, crying Misericordia three times; then they recited the Lord's Prayer and the Ave Maria. On their entrance into a city, they walked singing Stabat Mater dolorosa and other litanies and prayers. The population of the places to which they came were divided: for some went forth and told those who staid that they should assume the same habit, so that at one time there were as many as 10,000, and at another as many as 15,000 of them.' After admitting that the fruit of this devotion was in many cases penitence, amity, and alms-giving, Corio goes on to observe: 'However, men returned to a worse life than ever after it was over.' It is noticeable that Italy was devastated in 1400 by a horrible plague; and it is impossible not to believe that the crowding of so many penitents together on the highways and in the cities led to this result.

During the anarchy of Italy between 1494—the date of the invasion of Charles VIII.—and 1527—the date of the sack of Rome—the voice of preaching friars and hermits was often raised, and the effect was always to drive the people to a frenzy of revivalistic piety. Milan was the center of the military operations of the French, the Swiss, the Spaniards, and the Germans. No city suffered more cruelly, and in none were fanatical prophets received with greater superstition. In 1516 there appeared in Milan 'a layman, large of stature, gaunt, and beyond measure wild, without shoes, without shirt, bareheaded, with bristly hair and beard, and so thin that he seemed another Julian the hermit.' He lived on water and millet-seed, slept on the bare earth, refused alms of all sorts, and preached with wonderful authority. In spite of the opposition of the Archbishop and the Chapter, he chose the Duomo for his theater; and there he denounced the vices of the priests and monks to vast congregations of eager listeners. In a word, he engaged in open warfare with the clergy on their own ground. But they of course proved too strong for him, and he was driven out of the city. He was a native of Siena, aged 30.[1] We may compare with this picturesque apparition of Jeronimo in Milan what Varchi says about the prophets who haunted Rome like birds of evil omen in the first years of the pontificate of Clement VII. 'Not only friars from the pulpit, but hermits on the piazza, went about preaching and predicting the ruin of Italy and the end of the world with wild cries and threats.'[2] In 1523 Milan beheld the spectacle of a parody of the old preachers. There appeared a certain Frate di S. Marco, whom the people held for a saint, and who 'encouraged the Milanese against the French, saying it was a merit with Jesus Christ to slay those Frenchmen, and that they were pigs.' He seems to have been a feeble and ignorant fellow, whose head had been turned by the examples of Bussolaro and Savonarola.[3] Again, in 1529, we find a certain monk, Tommaso, of the order of S. Dominic, stirring up a great commotion of piety in Milan. The city had been brought to the very lowest state of misery by the Spanish occupation; and, strange to say, this friar was himself a Spaniard. In order to propitiate offended deities, he organized a procession on a great scale. 700 women, 500 men, and 2,500 children assembled in the cathedral. The children were dressed in white, the men and women in sackcloth, and all were barefooted. They promenaded the streets of Milan, incessantly shouting Misericordia! and besieged the Duomo with the same dismal cry, the Bishop and the Municipal authorities of Milan taking part in the devotion.[4] These gusts of penitential piety were matters of real national importance. Writers imbued with the classic spirit of the Renaissance thought them worthy of a place in their philosophical histories. Thus we find Pitti, in the Storia Fiorentina (Arch. Stor. vol. i. p. 112), describing what happened at Florence in 1514: 'There appeared in Santa Croce a Frate Francesco da Montepulciano, very young, who rebuked vice with severity, and affirmed that God had willed to scourge Italy, especially Florence and Rome, in sermons so terrible that the audience kept crying with floods of tears, Misericordia! The whole people were struck dumb with horror, for those who could not hear the friar by reason of the crowd, listened with no less fear to the reports of others. At last he preached a sermon so awful that the congregation stood like men who had lost their senses; for he promised to reveal upon the third day how and from what source he had received this prophecy. However, when he left the pulpit, worn out and exhausted, he was seized with an illness of the lungs, which soon put an end to his life. Pitti goes on to relate the frenzy of revivalism excited by this monk's preaching, which had roused all the old memories of Savonarola in Florence. It became necessary for the Bishop to put down the devotion by special edicts, while the Medici endeavored to distract the minds of the people by tournaments and public shows.

[1] See Prato and Burigozzo, Arch. Stor. vol. iii. pp. 357, 431. It is here worth noticing that Siena, the city of civil discord, was also the city of frenetic piety. The names of S. Caterina, S. Bernardino, and Bernardo Tolomei occur to the mind.

[2] Storia Fiorintina, vol. i. p. 87.

[3] Arch. Stor. vol. iii. p. 443.

[4] Burigozzo, pp. 485-89.

Enough has now been quoted from various original sources to illustrate the feverish recurrences of superstitious panics in Italy during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. It will be observed, from what has been said about John of Vicenza, Jacopo del Bussolaro, S. Bernardino, Roberto da Lecce, Giovanni della Marca, and Fra Capistrano, that Savonarola was by no means an extraordinary phenomenon in Italian history. Combining the methods and the aims of all these men, and remaining within the sphere of their conceptions, he impressed a role, which had been often played in the chief Italian towns, with the stamp of his peculiar genius. It was a source of weakness to him in his combat with Alexander VI., that he could not rise above the monastic ideal of the prophet which prevailed in Italy, or grasp one of those regenerative conceptions which formed the motive force of the Reformation. The inherent defects of all Italian revivals, spasmodic in their paroxysms, vehement while they lasted, but transient in their effects, are exhibited upon a tragic scale by Savonarola. What strikes us, after studying the records of these movements in Italy, is chiefly their want of true mental energy. The momentary effect produced in great cities like Florence, Milan, Verona, Pavia, Bologna, and Perugia is quite out of proportion to the slight intellectual power exerted by the prophet in each case. He has nothing really new or life-giving to communicate. He preaches indeed the duty of repentance and charity, institutes a reform of glaring moral abuses, and works as forcibly as he can upon the imagination of his audience. But he sets no current of fresh thought in motion. Therefore, when his personal influence was once forgotten, he left no mark upon the nation he so deeply agitated. We can only wonder that, in many cases, he obtained so complete an ascendency in the political world. All this is as true of Savonarola as it is of S. Bernardino. It is this which removes him so immeasurably from Huss, from Wesley and from Luther.


The 'Sommario della Storia d'Italia dal 1511 al 1527,' by Francesco Vettori.[1]

I have reserved for special notice in this Appendix the short history written of the period between 1511 and 1527 by Francesco Vettori; not because I might not have made use of it in several of the previous chapters, but because it seemed to me that it was better to concentrate in one place the illustrations of Machiavelli and Guicciardini which it supplies. Francesco Vettori was born at Florence in 1474 of a family which had distinguished itself by giving many able public servants to the Commonwealth. He adopted the politics of the Medicean party, remaining loyal to his aristocratic creed all through the troublous times which followed the French invasion of 1494, the sack of Prato in 1512, the sack of Rome in 1527, and the murder of Duke Alessandro in 1536. Even when he seemed to favor a republican policy, he continued in secret stanch to the family by whom he hoped to obtain honors and privileges in the state. Like all the Ottimati, so furiously abused by Pitti, Francesco Vettori found himself at last deceived in his expectations. To the Medici they sold the freedom of their native city, and in return for this unpatriotic loyalty they were condemned to exile, death, imprisonment, or frosty toleration by the prudent Cosimo. Two years after Cosimo had been made Duke, Vettori died, aged upwards of sixty, without having shared in the prosperity of the princes to whose service he had consecrated his life and for whose sake he had helped to enslave Florence. To respect this species of fidelity, or to feel any pity for the men who were so cruelly disappointed of their selfish expectations, is impossible.

[1] Printed in Arch. Stor. It. Appendice No. 22, vol. vl.

Francesco Vettori held offices of importance on various occasions in the Commonwealth of Florence. In 1520, for example, he entered the Signory; and in 1521 he was Gonfalonier of Justice. Many years of his life were spent on foreign missions, as ambassador to the Emperor Maximilian, resident ambassador at the Courts of Julius and Leo, ambassador together with Filippo Strozzi to the Court of Francis I., and orator at Rome on the election of Clement. He had therefore, like Machiavelli and Guicciardini, the best opportunities of forming a correct judgment of the men whose characters he weighed in his Sommario, and of obtaining a faithful account of the events which he related. He deserves a place upon the muster-roll of literary statesmen mentioned by me in chapter V.; nor should I have omitted him from the company of Segni and Varchi, had not his history been exclusively devoted to an earlier period than theirs. At the same time he was an intimate friend both of Guicciardini and Machiavelli. Some of the most precious compositions of the latter are letters addressed from Florence or San Casciano to Francesco Vettori, at the time when the ex-war-secretary was attempting to gain the favor of the Medici. The clairvoyance and acuteness, the cynical philosophy of life, the definite judgment of men, the clear comprehension of events, which we trace in Machiavelli, are to be found in Vettori. Vettori, however, had none of Machiavelli's genius. What he writes is, therefore, valuable as proving that the Machiavellian philosophy was not peculiar to that great man, but was shared by many inferior thinkers. Florentine culture at the end of the fifteenth century culminated in these statists of hard brain and stony hearts, who only saw the bad in human nature, but who were not led by cynicism or skepticism to lose their interest in the game of politics.

In the dedication of the Sommario della Storia d' Italia to Francesco Scarfi, Vettori says that he composed it at his villa, whither he retired in 1527. I do not purpose to extract portions of the historical narrative contained in this sketch; to do so indeed would be to transcribe the whole, so closely and succinctly is it written; but rather to quote the passages which throw a light upon the opinions of Machiavelli and Guicciardini, or confirm the views of men and morals adopted in my previous chapters.

After touching on the sack of Prato and the consternation which ensued in Florence, Vettori describes the return of the Medici in 1512. Giuliano, the son of Lorenzo, was the first to appear: after him came the Cardinal Giovanni, and Giuliano's son Giulio.[1] The elder among their partisans persuaded them to call a Parlamento and assume the government in earnest. On September 16, accordingly, the Cardinal took possession of the palace, fece pigliare il Palazzo; the Signory summoned the people into the piazza—a mere matter of form; a Balia of forty men was appointed; the Gonfalonier Ridolfi resigned; and the city was reduced to the will and pleasure of the Cardinal de' Medici. Then reasons sons Vettori:[2] 'This was what is called an absolute tyranny; yet, speaking of the things of this world without prejudice and according to the truth, I say that if it were possible to institute republics like that imagined by Plato, or feigned to exist in Utopia by Thomas More, we might affirm they were not tyrannical governments: but all the commonwealths or kingdoms I have seen or read of, have, it seems to me, a savor of tyranny. Nor is it a matter for astonishment that parties and factions have often prevailed in Florence, and that one man has arisen to make himself the chief, when we reflect that the city is very populous, that many of the burghers desire to share in its advantages, and that there are few prizes to distribute: wherefore one party always must have the upper hand and enjoy the honors and benefits of the state, while the other stands by to watch the game.' He then proceeds to criticise France, where the nobles alone bear arms and pay no taxes, and where the administration of justice is slow and expensive; and Venice, where three thousand gentlemen keep more than 100,000 of the inhabitants below their feet, unhonored, powerless, unprivileged, oppressed. Having demonstrated the elements of tyranny and injustice both in a kingdom and a commonwealth reputed prosperous and free, he shows that, according to his own philosophy, no blame attaches to a burgher who succeeds in usurping the sole mastery of a free state, provided he rule wisely; for all kingdoms were originally founded either by force or by craft. 'We ought not therefore to call that private citizen a tyrant who has usurped the government of his state, if he be a good man; nor again to call a man the real lord of a city who, though he has the investiture of the Emperor, is bad and malevolent.' This critique of constitutions from the pen of a doctrinaire, who was also a man of experience, is interesting, partly for its positive frankness, and partly as showing what elementary notions still prevailed about the purposes of government. Vettori's ultimate criterion is the personal quality of the ambitious ruler.

[1] Giovanni and Giulio were afterwards Leo X. and Clement VII.

[2] P. 293.

Passing to what he says about Leo X.,[1] it is worth while to note that he attributes his election chiefly to the impression produced upon the Cardinals by Alexander and Julius. 'During the reign of two fierce and powerful Pontiffs, Cardinals had been put to death, imprisoned, deprived of their property, exiled, and kept in continual alarm; and so great was the dread among them now of electing another such Pope, that they unanimously chose Giovanni de' Medici. Up to that time he had always shown himself liberal and easy, or, rather, prodigal in squandering the little that he owned; he had moreover managed so to dissemble as to acquire a reputation for most excellent habits of life.' Vettori adds that his power in Florence helped him, and that he owed much to the ability displayed by Bernardo da Bibbiena in winning votes. The joy of the Florentines at his election is attributed to mean motives: 'being all of them given over to commerce and gain, they thought they ought to get some profit from this Papacy.'[2]

The government which Lorenzo, afterwards Duke of Urbino, now established in Florence is very favorably described by Vettori.[3] 'Lorenzo, though still a young man, applied himself with great attention to the business of the city, providing that equal justice should be administered to all, that the public moneys should be levied and spent with frugality, and that disputes should be settled to the satisfaction of all parties. His rule was tolerated, because, while the revenues were large and the expenses small, the citizens were not troubled with taxes; and this is the chief way to please a people, seeing their affection for a prince is measured by the good they get from him. Taking this opinion of Lorenzo, it is possible for Vettori in another place to say of him that 'he governed Florence like a citizen;'[4] and on the occasion of his death in 1520, he passes what amounts to a panegyric on his character. 'His death was a misfortune for Florence, which it would be difficult to describe. Though young, he had the qualities of virtuous maturity. He bore a real affection toward the citizens, was parsimonious of the moneys of the Commune, prodigal of his own; while a foe to vice, he was not too severe on those who erred. Though he began his military life at twenty-three, he always bore the cuirass of a man at arms upon his shoulders day and night on active service. He slept very little, was sober in his diet, temperate in love. The Florentines did not love him, because it is not possible for men used to freedom to love a ruler; but he, for his part, had not sought the office which was thrust upon him by the will of others. Madonna Alfonsina, his mother, brought unpopularity upon him; for she was avaricious, and the Florentines, who noticed every detail, thought her grasping: and though he wanted to restrain her, he found himself unable to do so through the high esteem in which he held her. Maddalena, his wife, died six days before him, after giving birth to a daughter Catherine.' This is the, no doubt, highly favorable portrait of the man to whom Machiavelli dedicated his Principe. The somewhat negative good qualities of Lorenzo, his prudence and parsimony, his freedom from despotic ambition, and dislike of dangerous service, combined with his deference to the powerful members of his own family, are very unlike Machiavelli's ideal of the founder of a state. Cesare Borgia was almost the exact opposite. The impression produced by Vettori's panegyric is further confirmed by what he says about Lorenzo's disinclination to undertake the Duchy of Urbino.[5]

[1] P. 297.

[2] P. 300.

[3] Ibid.

[4] P. 306.

[5] P. 321. See too p. 307.

But to return to the early days of Leo's pontificate. Vettori marks his interference in the affairs of Lucca as the first great mistake he made.[1] His advisers in Florence had not reflected 'what infamy it would bring upon the Pope in the opinion of all men, or what suspicion it would rouse among the princes, if in the first months of his power he were led to sanction an attack by the Florentines upon the Lucchese, their neighbors and allies. How too could the burghers of Florence, who had urged him to this step, remind the pontiff that he ought to moderate his desire of gaining dominion for the Church and for his kin, by the example of former Popes, all of whom, in the interest of their dependents, had acquired to their own dishonor with peril and expense what in a few days upon their death returned to the old and rightful owners?' The conduct of Leo with regard to Lucca, his policy in Florence, and the splendor maintained by his brother at Rome, did in fact rouse the jealousy of the Italian powers both great and small.[2] 'King Ferdinand remarked: If Giuliano has left Florence, he must be aiming at something better, which can be nothing but the realm of Naples. The Dukes of Milan, Ferrara, and Urbino said the same. The Sienese thought: If the pope allows the Florentines to attack Lucca, which is so strong, well furnished, and harmonious, far more will he consent to their encroaching upon us, who are weak, ill-provided, and at odds among ourselves. The Duke of Ferrara had further reasons for discontent in respect to Modena and Reggio.' Altogether, Leo began to lose credit. Secret alliances were formed against him by the della Rovere, the Baglioni, and the Petrucci; and though he took care to attend public services and to fast more than etiquette required, nobody believed in him. Vettori's comment reads like an echo of Machiavelli and Guicciardini.[3] 'Assuredly it is most difficult to combine temporal lordship with a reputation for religion: for they are two things which will not harmonize. He who well considers the law of the Gospel will observe that the pontiffs, though called Christ's Vicars, have originated a new religion unlike that of Christ except in name. His enjoins poverty; they desire riches. He preached humility; they follow after pride. He commanded obedience; they aim at universal sovereignty. I could enlarge upon their other vices; but it is enough to allude to these, without entering into inconvenient discourses.' While treating of the affairs of Urbino,[4] however, Vettori remarks that Leo could not have done otherwise than punish Francesco Maria della Rovere, if he wished to maintain the Papacy at the height of reputation to which it had been raised by his predecessors.

[1] P. 301.

[2] P. 303.

[3] P. 304.

[4] P. 319.

In his general estimate of Leo, Vettori confirms all that we know about this Pope from other sources. He insists more perhaps than other historians upon the able diplomacy by which Lodovico Canossa, Bishop of Tricarico, made terms with Francis after Marignano,[1] and traces Leo's fatal alliance with Charles V. in 1520 to the influence of Jeronimo Adorno.[2] The secret springs of Leo's conduct, when he was vainly endeavoring to steer to his own profit between the great rivals for power in Europe, are exposed with admirable precision at both of these points. Of the prodigality which helped to ruin this Pope, and which made his two successors impotent, he speaks with sneering sarcasm. 'It was as easy for him to keep 1,000 ducats together as for a stone to fly into the air by its own weight.'[3] When the news of the capture of Milan reached him on November 27, 1520, Leo was at the Villa Magliana in the neighborhood of Rome.[4] Whether he took cold at a window, or whether his anxiety and jealousy disturbed his constitution, Vettori remains uncertain. At any rate, he was attacked with fever, returned to Rome, and died. 'It was said that his death was caused by poison; but these stories are always circulated about men of high estate, especially when they succumb to acute disease. Those, however, who knew the constitution and physical conformation of Leo, and his habits of life, will rather wonder that he lived so long.' After summing up the vicissitudes of his career and passing a critique upon his vacillating policy, Vettori resumes:[5] 'while on the one hand he would fain have never had one care to trouble him; on the other he was desirous of fame and sought to aggrandize his kindred. Fortune, to rid him of this ambition, removed his brother and his nephew in his lifetime. Lastly, when he had engaged in a war against the King of France, in which, if he won, he lost, and was going to meet obvious ruin, fortune removed him from the world so that he might not see his own mischance. In his pontificate at Rome there was no plague, no poverty, no war. Letters and the arts flourished, and the vices were also at their height. Alexander and Julius had been wont to seize the inheritance not only of the prelates but of every little priest or clerk who died in Rome. Leo abstained entirely from such practices. Therefore people came in crowds; and it may be said for certain that in the eight years of his papacy, the population of Rome increased by one third.' Vettori prudently refuses to sum up the good and bad of Leo's character in one decisive sentence. He notes, however, that he was blamed for not keeping to his word: 'it was a favorite expression with him, that princes ought to give such answers as would send petitioners away satisfied; accordingly he made so many promises; and fed people with such great expectations, that it became impossible to please them.'

[1] P. 313.

[2] P. 334.

[3] P. 322.

[4] P. 338.

[5] P. 339.

The election of Adrian is attributed by Vettori to the mutual hatred and jealousy of the Cardinals.[1] He ascribes the loss of Rhodes to the Pope's want of interest in great affairs, adds his testimony to his private excellence and public incapacity, and dismisses him without further notice.[2]

[1] P. 341.

[2] Pp. 343, 347.

What he tells us about Clement is more interesting. In the dedication to the Sommario he apologized in express terms for the high opinion recorded of this Pope. Yet the impression which he leaves upon our mind by what he writes is so unfavorable as to make it clear what Clement's foes habitually said against him. He remarks, as one excuse for his ill-success in office, that he succeeded to a Papacy ruined by the prodigality in war and peace of Leo.[1] As knight of Rhodes, as governor of Florence, and as Cardinal, Clement had shown himself an able man. Fortune heaped her favors on him then. As soon as he was made Pope, she veered round. 'From a puissant and respected Cardinal, he became a feeble and discredited Pope.' His first care was to provide for the government of Florence. In order to arrive at a decision, he asked council of the Florentine orators and four other noble burghers then in Rome, as to whether he could advantageously intrust the city to the Cardinal of Cortona in guardianship over Ippolito and Alessandro, the young bastards of the Medici.[2] 'All men nearly,' says Vettori, 'are flatterers, and say what they believe will please great folk, although they think the contrary. Of the thirteen whom the Pope consulted, ten advised him to send Ippolito to Florence under the guardianship of the Cardinal of Cortona.' The remaining three, who were Ruberto Acciajuoli, Lorenzo Strozzi, and Francesco Vettori, pointed out the impropriety of administering a free city through a priest who held his title from a subject town. They recommended the appointment of a Gonfalonier for one year, and so on, till a member of the Medicean family could take the lead. Clement, however, decided on the other course; and to this cause may be traced half the troubles of his reign.

[1] P. 348.

[2] P. 349. They were 14 and 13 years of age respectively.

The greater part of what remains of the Sommario is occupied with the wars and intrigues of Francis, Charles, and Clement. Vettori, it may be said in passing, records a very unfavorable opinion of the Marquis of Pescara, who was, he hints, guilty of first turning a favorable ear to Moroni's plot and then of discovering the whole to his master.[1] A few days after his breach of faith with the Milanese, he fell ill and died. 'He was a man whose military excellence cannot be denied; but proud beyond all measure, envious, ungrateful, avaricious, venomous, cruel, without religion or humanity, he was born to be the ruin of Italy; and it may be truly said that of the evil she has suffered and still suffers, a large part was caused by him.'

[1] Pp. 358, 359.

Of the breach of faith of Francis, after he had left his Spanish prison, Vettori speaks in terms of the very highest commendation.[1] His refusal to cede Burgundy to Charles was just and patriotic. That he broke his faith was no crime; for, though a man ought rather to die than forswear himself, yet his first duty is to God, his second to his country, Francis was clearly acting for the benefit of his kingdom; and had he not left his two sons as hostages in Spain? The whole defense is a good piece of specious pleading, and might be used to illustrate the chapter on the Faith of Princes in the Principe.

[1] P. 362.

By far the most striking passage in Vettori's Sommario is the description of the march of Frundsberg's and De Bourbon's army upon Rome.[1] He makes it clear to what extent the calamity of the sack was due to the selfishness and cowardice of the Italian princes. First of all the Venetians refused to offer any obstacles before the passage of the Po, feeling that by doing so they might draw trouble on their own provinces. Then the Duke of Ferrara supplied the Lutherans with artillery, of which they hitherto had stood in need. The first use they made of their fire-arms was to shoot the best captain in Italy, Giovanni de' Medici of the Black Bands. The Duke of Urbino, the Marquis of Saluzzo, and Guido Rangoni watched them cross the river and proceed by easy stages through the district of Piacenza, 'following them like lacqueys waiting on their lords.' The same thing happened at Parma and Modena, while the Duke of Ferrara kept supplying the foreigners with food and money. Clement meanwhile was penniless in Rome. Rich as the city was, he had so utterly lost credit that he dared not ask for loans, and was so feeble that he could not rob. The Colonnesi, moreover, who had recently plundered the Vatican, kept him in a state of terror. As the invaders, now commanded by the Constable de Bourbon, approached Tuscany, the youth of Florence demanded to be armed in defense of their hearths and homes. The Cardinal of Cortona, fearing a popular rising, refused to grant their request. A riot broke out, and the Medici were threatened with expulsion: but by the aid of influential citizens a revolution was averted. The Constable, avoiding Florence and Siena, marched straight on Rome, still watched but unmolested by the armies of the League. He left his artillery on the road, and, as is well known, carried the walls of Rome by assault on the morning of May 3, dying himself at the moment of victory. From what has just been rapidly narrated, it will be seen how utterly abject was the whole of Italy at this moment, when a band of ruffians, headed by a rebel from his sovereign, in disobedience to the viceroy of the king he pretended to serve, was not only allowed but actually helped to traverse rivers, plains, and mountains, on their way to Rome. What happened after the capture of the Transteverine part of the city moves even deeper scorn. 'It still remained for the Imperial troops to enter the populous and wealthy quarters; and these they had to reach by one of three bridges. They numbered hardly more than 25,000 men, all told. In Rome were at least 30,000 men fit to bear arms between the ages of sixteen and fifty, and among them were many trained soldiers, besides crowds of Romans, swaggering braggarts used to daily quarrels, with beards upon their breasts. Nevertheless, it was found impossible to get 500 together in one band for the defense of one of the three bridges.' What immediately follows gives so striking a picture of the sack: that a translation of it will form a fit conclusion to this volume. 'The soldiers slew at pleasure; pillaged the houses of the middle classes and small folk, the palaces of the nobles, the convents of both sexes, and the churches. They made prisoners of men, women, and even of little children, without regard to age, or vows, or any other claim on pity. The slaughter was not great, for men rarely kill those who offer no resistance: but the booty was incalculable, in coin, jewels, gold and silver plate, clothes, tapestries, furniture, and goods of all descriptions. To this should be added the ransoms, which amounted to a sum that, if set down, would win no credence. Let any one consider through how many years the money of all Christendom had been flowing into Rome, and staying there in a great measure; let him remember the Cardinals, Bishops, Prelates, and public officers, the wealthy merchants, both Roman and foreign, selling at high prices, letting their houses at dear rents, and paying nothing in the way of taxes; let him call to mind the artisans, the poorer folk, the prostitutes; and he will judge that never was a city sacked of which the memory remains, whence greater store of treasure could be drawn. Though Rome has at other times been taken and pillaged, yet never before was it the Rome of our days. Moreover, the sack lasted so long that what might not perhaps have been discovered on the first day sooner or later came to light. This disaster was an example to the world that men proud, avaricious, envious, murderous, lustful, hypocritical, cannot long preserve their state. Nor can it be denied that the inhabitants of Rome, especially the Romans, were stained with all these vices, and with many greater.'

[1] Pp. 372-82.



Abelard, 9. Adrian VI., 441. Agrippa quoted, 459. Ahmed, 589. Albigenses, 9. Aldi, the, 23. Aleander, 27. Alexander VI., 406, 407 seq.., 603; death, 430 (see Papacy). Alfonso I. of Naples, 568. Alfonso II., 119, 572. Allegre, 418, Allegretti, works, 292; cited, 165; quoted, 616 America, effects of its discovery, 540. Ammanati, works, 489. Anjou, house of, transfers its claims to Sicily, 539. Appiani, 148. Ariosto, works, 119; cited, 413; quoted, 130 Aristotle, influence of his writings, 197; quoted, 234, 235. Art in Middle Age, 17; effect of religious conventionalism, 18; revolution made by Renaissance, 18, 19. Italian, inimical to ugliness, 490; flourishes under despots, 79. Ascham, R., quoted, 472.


Bacon, Francis, 26; Roger, 9, 10. Baglioni, 122, 148. Barbiano, 159. Bartoli, A., cited, 252. Beccadelli, 174. Bellini, works, 488. Bentivogli, 102, 115, 123. Bergamo, V. da, 618. Bernard, St., 13. Berni cited, 443. Bibbiena, 184; quoted, 190. Bible, discovery of the original, 20. Blood-madness, 109, 589 seq. Boccaccio, 11, 20. Boiado, 171. Bologna, 123, 617. Boniface VIII., 76. Borgia, Cesare, 117, 324, 345 seq., 426, 577; murders, 352. Borgia, Lucrezia, 419; character cleared of calumny, 420. Borgia, Roderigo (see Alexander VI). Boscoli, P. P., 466. Bracciolini, P., 274. Brantome quoted, 117. Brescia, 615; Arnold of, 64. Browning, R., quoted, 13. Bruni, L., 274. Buonarotti, 491; works, 19. Burchard cited, 430, 431. Burckhardt cited, 428; quoted, 434. Burton, Robert, cited, 475. Bussolaro, J. del, 610. Byzantine empire, effect of its fall, 14


Capistrano, G. da, 615. Capponi, P., 284, 563. Carducci, 284, 289; works, 293. Carmagnuola, F., 161. "Carmina Burana," 9. Carrara, 149. Carroccio, 58. Castiglione, works, 183, 457. Catholic Church (see Papacy). Support of Church required by good society, 455; philosophy and theology fused, 456; religion divorced from morality, 462, 493; influence of ancient literature, 464; aestheticism, 465; humanism antagonistic to Christianity, 493; its corruption, 448 seq.; not universal, 470; immorality of priests, 458, 459; superstition, 466; relics, 461; sanctity of pope, 462; power of forms, 471; counter-reformation, 25; power of ecclesiastical eloquence, 491; revivals, 490, 606 seq.; indestructable vigor of religious faith, 469. Cellini, B., 104, 462, 492; memoirs, 325. Charles VIII. (see Italy, history), 540 seq.; escape, 580. Charles of Anjou, 75. Charles the Great, 50. Chivalry, 483. Christianity (see Catholic Church, Morals), influence in forming modern society, 7; how affected by Renaissance, 25. Clement VII., 443, 633. Colonnesi, 375. Columbus, 15. Comines cited, 416; quoted, 214, 475, 541, 553, 572, 578. Condottieri, 86, 113, 131, 156 seq.; 245, 361; character of warfare, 102, 363. Compagni, Dino, chronicle of, 262; its authenticity, 266 seq. Copernicus, 15. Corio, works, 292; quoted, 135, 143, 145, 152. 160, 385, 391, 392, 619. Coryat, T., quoted, 475. Croce, della, 614. Cromwell, 454. Cruelty (see Blood-madness), instances of, 151, 478, 571; of French, 557, 583; its use, 354. Crusades, 7.


Dante, political views, 261; works, 10, 11, 73, 260; quoted, 73, 76, 77, 133. Democratic idea, its gradual growth, 8. Dennistoun cited, 160. Descartes, 26. Djem, 415, 566, 576. Duerer, works, 490; cited, 475.


Erasmus, 24, 27. Este, house of, 395, 420; Nicolo, 168.


Fanfoni, P., cited, 263, 268. Feltre, V. da, 171, 176. Ferdinand of Arragon, 296, 358; of Naples, 570. Ferrara, 499, 617; court, 423. Ficino, 175, 456. Fiesole, G. da, Works, 488. Filelfo, 171; quoted, 381. Flora, Joachim of, 9. Florence, its constitution, 195, 201, 592, 596, 598; number of citizens, 598; parties, 211; perpetual flux, 221; government by merchants, 225; the "parlamento," 230; cause of failure of popular government, 231; population, 256; the "arti," 597; militia, its value, 601; Machiavelli's reforms, 312; revenues, 255; topography, 595; history (see Italy), rule of the Medici, 277, 305, 629, years 1527-31, 282; recovers liberty through the French, 560; occupation, 562; commonwealth, 282; divisions of popular party, 283; siege, 285; effect of Savonarola's prophecies, 290; Pazzi conspiracy, 398; final subjugation, 446; character of its historians, 248 seq., 274.

Society, character of people, 600; their enlightenment and immorality, 504; absence of religious faith, 295; excess of intellectual mobility, 237; commercial character, 238; social life, 242. A city of intelligence, 232, 246. Fondulo, G., 463. Ford, J., cited, 477. Foscari, F., 215; quoted, 600. Francia, works, 489. Frattcelli, 9. Frederick I., 63. Frederick II., 10, 68, 105. Froben, J., 23.


Gambacorta, 147. Gemistos Plethon, 173. Genezzano, 506, 522. Genoa, 79; history, 201. Giacomini, 313. Giannotti cited, 217; quoted, 169, 196, 216, 238, 278, 280. Giotto, works, 488. Giovio, quoted, 249. God, medieval idea of, 16. Gonzaghi, 146. Government, Guicciardini's theories, 305. [See Machiavelli.] Graziani quoted, 614. Greek, knowledge of, in Renaissance, 182. Greene, R., quoted, 473. Gregorovius cited, 421, 430, 479,. Guarino, 171. Guarnieri, 158. Guelphs and Ghibeliines, 69, 206. Guicciardini, 278, 280, 285, 295, 482; works, 291, 294, 301 seq.; political theories analyzed, 304 seq.; quoted, 44, 91, 92, 119, 169, 223, 284, 404, 409, 412, 417, 431, 434, 451, 536. 541. 547, 549, 582, 583, 603.


Hawkwood, J., 113. Hegel quoted, 367. Hegel, C, cited, 252. Heribert, 58. Hildebrand, 59. Hirsch cited, 567. Hogarth, works, 490. Howell cited, 473. Hussites, 9. Hutten, 27.


Infessura, works, 292; cited, 405; quoted, 395, 404, 474, Innocent VIII., 403. Inquisition in Spain, 399. Inventions of Renaissance, 29. Italy, history (see Condottieri, Papacy), its character, 32; papacy and empire, 33, 41, 43, 94, 97, 99; variety of governments, 35, 43; their influence on national development, 44; politics, 36; invasions, 39; want of historical continuity, 41; the despotisms, 42; origin of modern history, 46; the Lombards, 48; Charles the Great, 51; Berengar, 52; Otho I., 52; growth of power of Church, 53; Frederick I., 63; Charles of Anjou, 75; convulsions of 14th century, 81; states of 15th century, 88; obstacles to unity, 89; to monarchy, 92; to federalism, 95; in time of Machiavelli, 365; policy of Lorenzo, 543; equilibrium destroyed, 545; French invasion, 549; character of their army, 565; league against them, 576; cause of their failure, 340; effect of their example, 583; on other nations, 585; Charles V., 98.

Italians incapable of helping themselves, 586; responsible for their despots, 115; development precocious and unsound, 495; fatal effects of want of union, 538, 552.

The Republics, character of their history, 33, 193; beginning of the power of the cities, 53; their origin, 54; count and bishop, 55; "people," 55; commune, 56; consuls, 56; effect of struggle of papacy and empire, 61; influence of latter, 198; Guelphs and Ghibeliines, 69, 80, 206; wars of cities, 62; Frederic I., 64; struggle with nobles, 66; the podesta, 67; "captain of the people," 71; the "arti," 72; distinction between parties, 74; not representative governments, 196; not democratic, 195; factions, 195, 210; small number of active citizens, 209; temporal character of alliances, 212.

The Despotisms, 42, 76; their justification, 83; idea of liberty, 78; republican freedom unknown, 91; policy commercial, 85; taxation, 86; diplomacy substituted for warfare, 87; illegitimacy, 102; good government, 103; bad effect of their example, 104; courts, 106, 186; varieties of despotisms, 109; claims of despots due to force, not rank, 116; their democratic character, 117; uncertainty of tenure of power, 117, 129; domestic crime, 119; murders, 120; tastes and pursuits, 126; degeneracy of their houses, 126, 151; bad effects of rule, 130; centralizing tendencies, 131; cruelty, 151; absence of all morality, 168.

Society. Why Italy took the lead in the Renaissance, 5; Italians gentle and humane, 478; not gluttons, 479; personal originality not discouraged, 488; Italy originates type of gentleman, 192; courtiers, idea of nobility, 186; community of interest with that of Roman Church, 470; immorality not great relatively, 487; superiority to their contemporaries, 489; purity of their art shows that heart of the people was not vitiated, 488; commercial integrity, 474; demoralization of society, 472; immorality came from above, 489; commonness of crime, 170, 480; exceptions to rule, 183; murders, 480; deficiency in sense of honor, 481; chastity in women, 486; unnatural passions, 477; charms of illicit love, 476; immoral literature, 475. Literature, early, 53.


Jews, expulsion from Spain, 400. Julia, daughter of Claudius, 22, 23. Julius II., 389, 406, 432 seq.


Lecce, Roberto da, 614. Leo X., 435, 630. Libraries of Renaissance, 21. Locke, J., 26. Lombards, 48 seq. London, mediaeval, 137. Louis XII., 339. Luini, works, 489. Lungo, del, cited, 273. Luther, 26, 442, 454, 530.


Macaulay on the despots, 127, 320. Machiavelli, 232, 278, 308 seq.; property, 309; education, 310; political career, 311; cringing character, 317; intercourse with Cesare Borgia, 347; compared with Savonarola, 368; last years, 328; death, 333. Works, 76, 169, 203, 249, 332, 369, 457, 494; military system, 312; Art of War, 328; History, 331; The Prince, 319; object in writing it, 321; appeal to the Medici, 366; apology for the author, 367; morality of the work, 324-6; author's sincerity, 333; not the inventor of Machiavellianism, 335; it assumes Reparation of statecraft and morality, 335; an abstract of political expediency, 336; how permanently to assimilate provinces, 338; colonies, 338; founders of monarchies, 343; distinction between monarch and despot, 341; use of cruelty, 354; value of distrust, 358; military precautions, 360; the work condemned by the Inquisition, 336; opinion of it in France, 326; quoted, 45, 82, 84, 96, 98, 115, 116, 146, 152, 187, 202, 214, 215, 245, 325, 447, 450, 453, 460. Madonna, conventional idea of, 18. Malatesta, 172. Malespini, chronicle, 251. Mantegna, works, 489. Mantuanus, B., quoted, 394. Marlowe quoted, 336. Marston, cited, 473, 475. Massa, B. da, 611. Masuccio quoted, 458, 486. Matarazzo, works, 292; quoted, 583. Medici, their policy, 87, 90, 128, 155, 228, 230; expulsion, 222; connection with papacy, 404; services to literature, 600. Alessandro, 298; Cosimo, 300, 492; Lorenzo, 504, 628; death, 523; Piero, 558. Michelet quoted, 15, 585. Middle Age: mental condition, 6, 13; inaccessibility to mental ideas, 7; political character, 8; art, 17; scholarship, 20. Milan, 58; Visconti and Sforza, 154. Milman quoted, 530. Milton, 454. Mirandola, 171, 456, 520; quoted, 401, 511. Monaldeschi, L. B., 252. Montferrat, 146. Montone, B. da, 123, 159. Morals (see Italy, society; Papacy, court; Virtu;) in Cellini's memoirs, 325; sexual immorality,474; tyrannicide defended, 468. Muentz, E., cited, 384. Muzio quoted, 174.


Naples (see Italy), attraction for foreigners, 566; claims of house of Anjou, 539; flight of king, 574. Nardi, 278, 280, 290; works, 291; quoted, 292, 511, 534, 592. Nerli, 278, 290; works, 293 seq.; quoted, 328. Nicholas V., 378. Normans In Italy, 58.


Olgiati, 166. Orsini, 375. Otho 1., 52.


Pamponazzo, 456. Pandolfini, 239; works, 241. Papacy (see Catholic Church), "the ghost of the Roman empire," 6; church and state, 8; Charles the Great, 51; imperial nominees, 59; change in mode of election, 60; effect of crushing the Hohenstauffen, 101; nepotism, 114; authority in 14th century, 371, 375; secularization, 371, 375; temporal power, 376; its consolidation, 378; its extent, 434; persecution, 402; of Platonists, 417; its effect, 418; plan to transform Papacy to kingdom, 392; sale of pardons, 404, 439; no horror felt at election of Alexander VI., 410; Turks invited to Italy, 415, 551; censure of press, 416: alliance with France, 427, 566; political crimes of Alexander VI., 428; tide turns with Julius II., 433; reforms of Adrian VI., 441; moral advantage of sack of Rome, 445. Court, 372; its scandalous history, 390, 403, 411, 414, 420, 424, 439, 457; extravagance, 390, 436, 437; extortion, 437; monopolies, 394; nepotism, 419, 438; simony, 394, 405, 414; art patronage, 384, 401, 433, 436. Paterini, 9. Paul II., 383. Pazzi conspiracy, 396. Perrotti quoted, 179. Perugia, 612. Pescara, marquis of, 634. Petrarch, 11, 20; quoted, 250. Piccolomini (see Pius II.). Pisa, 342, 560. Pitti, 275, 280; works, 291, Pius II., 380. Poggio quoted, 187. Poliziano, 171, Poontano cited, 481. Printers of Renaissance, 23, Provence, civilization of, 9. Puritanism, 25, 37.


Raffaella quoted, 483. Raphael, works, 488. Reformation, 433; how affected by Renaissance, 27. Rembrandt, works, 490. Renaissance (see Middle Age), not synonymous with "revival of learning," 1; not completed, 2; extent of signification, 2-3; origin, 4; idea not separable from "Reformation," "Revolution," 5; effect on old beliefs, 14, 16; all its tendencies worldly, 455; restores double past, Christian and pagan, 506; obstacles in the way, 5; preparation, 9; opposition of the Church, 10; character of the men, 12; discoveries, 15; scholarship, 20; assimilation of paganism, 25; reaction against enlightenment, 25; inventions, 29. Reuchlin, 27. Reumont, A. von, cited, 212, 524. Ripamonti quoted, 163, 167. Robbia, works, 489. Romagna, 349. Romano, Ezzelino da, 69, 75, 106, 119; Giulio, works, 490. Rome (see Italy, Papacy), effect of its ruins, 253; appearance at time of French occupation, 564; early mediaeval history, 47; opposition to Lombards, 49; government semi-independent of pope, 376; advantages derived from presence of papal court, 377; improvements under Nicholas V., 378; impunity of criminals, 405; factions destroyed, 413; rising of Colonnas, 443; sack, 444, 636; prostitutes, 474. Romeo and Juliet, 74, Rosellini, works, 489, Rosenbaum cited, 567. Royere, F. della (see Sixtus IV.); Francesco Maria, 393; Giuliano (see Julius II,); Pietro, 390. Rubens, works, 490.


Sadoleto, quoted, 446. Savelli, 375. Savonarola, 202, 221, 230, 277, 283, 290, 345, 368, 453, 454, 456, 491, 498 seq., 561, 622; poems, 502; settles in Florence, 504; portraits, 508; eloquence, 510; creed, 513; prophecies, 514; political career, 526; hatred of secular culture, 527; dares not break with Rome, 531; martyrdom, 533; works, 536; quoted, 128. Savoy, 146. Scala, della, family, 145, 258. Scheffer-Bolchorst cited, 252, 269. Segal, 278, 280, 289; works 292, seq. Sforza family, 131 seq.; their magnificience, 164; to be made kings of Lombardy, 392; Francesco, 153, 159 seq., 345; Galeazzo, 165; Ludovico, 543 seq. Shelley cited, 477. Siena, 207, 616. Sismondi quoted, 138, 144, 159, 226, 533. Sixtus IV., 388 seq., 502. Soderini, P., 289, 324. Spaniards, cruelty of, 478. Spinoza, 26. Stendhal cited, 482. Stephani, the, 23. Strozzi, Ercole, 423; F., 285. Swiss, 450. Syphilis, history of, 567.


Tasso, 486. Temporal Power (see Papacy). Tenda, Beatrice di, 152. Theodoric, 47. Theology, effect of Renaissance upon, 16. Tiraboschi, quoted, 173. Titian, works, 19 Torre, della, 132. Trinci, 122.


Urbino, dukes of, 174 seq., 393, 438.


Valois, Charles of, 76. Varani, 121. Varchi, 278, 290; works, 279, 303 seq.; quoted, 204, 244, 505. Venice, 79, 88, 91; an exception among the republics, 195, 214; constitution, 215; the Ten, 218; fascination exercised by government, 220; military system, 220; no initiative mining citizens, 233; compared with Sparta, 234; indifference to prosperity of Italy, 550. Vespusiano quoted, 174, 477, 612. Vettori, F., 624; works, 626. Vicenza, John of, 607. Villani, M., works, 251 seq., quoted, 128, 139. Villari, quoted, 195, 500. Vinci, da, 326, 548; works, 489. Virgil, 20. Virtu, 171, 337, 345, 484, 493. Visconti, family, 131 seq.; their realm falls to pieces, 150; Filippo, 152; Gisa, 141; Violante, 137.


Webster, J., quoted, 119, 557. Witchcraft persecutions, 402.


Yriarte, quoted, 210, 217.


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