By gradually heating amber in an oil-bath it becomes soft and flexible. Two pieces of amber may be united by smearing the surfaces with linseed oil, heating them, and then pressing them together while hot. Cloudy amber may be clarified in an oil-bath, as the oil fills the numerous pores to which the turbidity is due. Small fragments, formerly thrown away or used only for varnish, are now utilized on a large scale in the formation of "ambroid'' or "pressed amber.'' The pieces are carefully heated with exclusion of air and then compressed into a uniform mass by intense hydraulic pressure; the softened amber being forced through holes in a metal plate. The product is extensively used for the production of cheap jewellery and articles for smoking. This pressed amber yields brilliant interference colours in polarized light. Amber has often been imitated by other resins
like copal and kauri, as well as by celluloid and even glass. True amber is sometimes coloured artificially.
Amber was much valued as an ornamental material in very early times. It has been found in Mycenaean tombs; it is known from lake-dwellings in Switzerland, and it occurs with neolithic remains in Denmark, whilst in England it is found with interments of the bronze age. A remarkably fine cup turned in amber from a bronze-age barrow at Hove is now in the Brighton Museum. Beads of amber occur with Anglo-Saxon relics in the south of England; and up to a comparatively recent period the material was valued as an amulet. It is still believed to possess certain medicinal virtue.
Rolled pieces of amber, usually small but occasionally of very large size, may be picked up on the east coast of England, having probably been washed up from deposits under the North Sea. Cromer is the best-known locality, but it occurs also on other parts of the Norfolk coast, as well as at Yarmouth, Southwold, Aldeburgh and Felixstowe in Suffolk, and as far south as Walton-on-the-Naze in Essex, whilst northwards it is not unknown in Yorkshire. On the other side of the North Sea, amber is found at various localities on the coast of Holland and Denmark. On the shores of the Baltic it occurs not only on the Prussian and Pomeranian coast but in the south of Sweden, in Bornholm and other islands, and in S. Finland. Amber has indeed a very wide distribution, extending over a large part of northern Europe and occurring as far east as the Urals. Some of the amber districts of the Baltic and North Sea were known in prehistoric times, and led to early trade with the south of Europe. Amber was carried to Olbia on the Black Sea, Massilia on the Mediterranean, and Hatria at the head of the Adriatic; and from these centres it was distributed over the Hellenic world.
Whilst succinite is the common variety of European amber, the following varieties also occur: —
Gedanite, or "brittle amber,'' closely resembling succinite, but much more brittle, not quite so hard, with a lower melting- point and containing no succinic acid. It is often covered with a white powder easily removed by wiping. The name comes from Gedanum, the Latin name of Danzig.
Stantienite, a brittle, deep brownish-black resin, destitute of succinic acid.
Beckerite, a rare amber in earthy-brown nodules, almost opaque, said to be related in properties to gutta-percha.
Glessite, a nearly opaque brown resin, with numerous microscopic cavities and dusty enclosures, named from glesum, an old name for amber.
Krantzite, a soft amber-like resin, found in the lignites of Saxony.
Allingite, a fossil resin allied to succinite, from Switzerland.
Roumanite, or Rumanian amber, a dark reddish resin, occurring with lignite in Tertiary deposits. The nodules are penetrated by cracks, but the material can be worked on the lathe. Sulphur is present to the extent of more than 1%, whence the smell of sulphuretted hydrogen when the resin is heated. According to G. Murgoci the Rumanian amber is true succinite.
Simetite, or Sicilian amber, takes its name from the river Simeto or Giaretta. It occurs in Miocene deposits and is also found washed up by the sea near Catania. This beautiful material presents a great diversity of tints, but a rich hyacinth red is common. It is remarkable for its fluorescence, which in the opinion of some authorities adds to its beauty. Amber is also found in many localities in Emilia, especially near the sulphur-mines of Cesena. It has been conjectured that the ancient Etruscan ornaments in amber were wrought in the Italian material, but it seems that amber from the Baltic reached the Etruscans at Hatria. It has even been supposed that amber passed from Sicily to northern Europe in early times — a supposition said to receive some support from the fact that much of the amber dug up in Denmark is red; but it must not be forgotten that reddish amber is found also on the Baltic, though not being fashionable it is used rather for varnish-making than for ornaments. Moreover, yellow amber after long burial is apt to acquire a reddish colour. The amber of Sicily seems not to have been recognized in ancient times, for it is not mentioned by local authorities like Diodorus Siculus.
Burmite is the name under which the Burmese amber is now described. Until the British occupation of Burma but little was known as to its occurrence, though it had been worked for centuries and was highly valued by the natives and by the Chinese. It is found in fiat rolled pieces, irregularly distributed through a blue clay probably of Miocene age. It occurs in the Hukawng valley, in the Nangotaimaw hills, where it is irregularly worked in shallow pits. The mines were visited some years ago by Dr Fritz Noetling, and the mineral has been described by Dr Otto Helm. The Burmese amber is yellow or reddish, some being of ruby tint, and like the Sicilian amber it is fluorescent. Burmite and simetite agree also in being destitute of succinic acid. Most of the Burmese amber is worked at Mandalay into rosary-beads and ear-cylinders.
Many other fossil resins more or less allied to amber have been described. Schraufite is a reddish resin from the Carpathian sandstone, and it occurs with jet in the cretaceous rocks of the Lebanon; ambrite is a resin found in many of the coals of New Zealand; retinite occurs in the lignite of Bovey Tracey in Devonshire and elsewhere; whilst copaline has been found in the London clay of Highgate in North London. Chemawinite or cedarite is an amber-like resin from the Saskatchewan river in Canada.
Amber and certain similar substances are found to a limited extent at several localities in the United States, as in the green- sand of New Jersey, but they have little or no economic value. A fluorescent amber is said, however, to occur in some abundance in Southern Mexico. Amber is recorded also from the Dominican Republic.
REPERENCES. — See, for Baltic amber, P. Dahms, "Ueber die Vorkommen und die Verwendung des Bernsteins,'' Zeitsch. fur praktische Geologic, 1901, p. 201; H. Conwentz, Monographic der baltischen Bernsteinbaume (Danzig, 1890); R. Klebs, Guide to Exhibit of the German Amber Industry at World's Fair (St Louis, 1904); and abstract by G. F. Kunz in Mineral Resources of the U. S. (1904). U. or Sicilian amber, W. Arnold Bullum, The Tears of the Helialdes, or Amber as a Gem (London, 1896). For Burmese amber, papers by Fritz Noetling and Otto Helm in Records of Geol. Surv. of India, vol. xxvi. (1893), pp. 31, 61. For British amber, Clement Reid in Trans. Norfolk Nat. Soc., vol. iii. (1884) p. 601; vol. iv. (1886) p. 247; and H. Conwentz in Natural Science, vol. ix. (1896) pp. 99, 161. (F. W. R.*)
AMBERG, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, formerly the capital of the Upper Palatinate, situated on both sides of the Vils, 42 m. E. of Nuremberg by rail. Pop. 22,089. It has a town hall with handsome rooms, a library, a gymnasium, a lyceum, elementary schools, an arsenal, and eleven churches, the finest of which is St Martin's, of the 15th century, with many excellent paintings and a tower 300 ft. high. A former Jesuit monastery is now used for a grammar school and seminary. There are also a pilgrimage church on a hill 1621 ft. high, a large convict prison for men, an industrial, commercial and other schools. The principal manufactures are firearms, ironmongery, earthenware, woollen cloth, beer, stoneware, zinc goods, colours and salt; in the neighbourhood are iron and coal mines. The French under Jourdan were defeated by the Austrians under the Archduke Charles near Amberg in 1796.
AMBERGRIS (Ambra grisea, Ambre gris, or grey amber), a solid, fatty, inflammable substance of a dull grey or blackish colour, the shades being variegated like marble, possessing a peculiar sweet, earthy odour. It occurs as a biliary concretion in the intestines of the spermaceti whale (Physeter macrocephalus), and is found floating upon the sea, on the sea-coast, or in the sand near the sea-coast. It is met with in the Atlantic Ocean; on the coasts of Brazil and Madagascar; also on the coast of Africa, of the East Indies, China, Japan and the Molucca islands; but most of the ambergris which is brought to England comes from the Bahama Islands, Providence, &c. It is also sometimes found in the abdomen of whales, always in lumps of various shapes and sizes, weighing from 1/2 oz. to 100 or more pounds. Ambergris, when taken from the intestinal canal of
the sperm whale, is of a deep grey colour, soft consistence and a disagreeable smell. On exposure to the air it gradually hardens, becomes pale and develops its peculiar sweet, earthy odour. In that condition its specific gravity ranges from 0.780 to 0.926. It melts at about 62 deg. C. to a fatty, yellow resinous-like liquid; and at 100 deg. C. it is volatilized into a white vapour. It is soluble in ether, and in volatile and fixed oils; it is only feebly acted on by acids. By digesting in hot alcohol, a substance termed ambrein, closely resembling cholesterin, is obtained, which separates in brilliant white crystals as the solution cools. The use of ambergris in Europe is now entirely confined to perfumery, though it formerly occupied no inconsiderable place in medicine. In minute quantities its alcoholic solution is much used for giving a "floral'' fragrance to bouquets, washes and other preparations of the perfumer. It occupies a very important place in the perfumery of the East, and there it is also used in pharmacy and as a flavouring material in cookery. The high price it commands makes it peculiarly liable to adulteration, but its genuineness is easily tested by its solubility in hot alcohol, its fragrant odour, and its uniform fatty consistence on being penetrated by a hot wire.
AMBERT, a town of central France, capital of an arrondissement of the department of Puy-de-Dome, on the Dore, 52 m. E.S.E. of Clermont-Ferrand by rail. Pop. (1906), town, 3889; commune, 7581. The town has a church of the 15th and 16th centuries and carries on the manufacture of paper, lace, ribbon, rosaries, &c., and trade in cheese. It is the seat of a sub-prefect, and the public institutions include tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of arts and manufactures, and a communal college.
AMBIENT (from Lat. ambi, on both sides, and ire, to go), surrounding; a word implying a moving rather than a stationary encircling. It is used mostly in the phrase the "ambient air,'' though Bacon applied it as an adjective to the clergy, suggesting "ambition.'' In astrology it means the sky.
AMBIGU, a French game of cards, composed of the characteristic elements of whist, bouillotte and piquet. A whist pack with the court cards deleted is used, and from two to six persons may play. Each player is given an equal number of counters, and a limit of betting is agreed upon. Two cards are dealt, one at a time, to each player, after each has placed two counters in a pool. Each player then either keeps his hand, saying "Enough,'' or takes one or two new cards from the top of the stock, after which the stock is reshuffled and cut, and each player receives two more cards, one at a time. The players then either "play'' or "pass.'' If a person "plays,'' he bets a number of counters and the others may equal this bet or raise it. Should no player meet the first bet, the bettor takes back his bet, leaving the pool intact, and receives two counters from the last player who refuses to play. When two or more bet the same number, they again draw cards and "pass'' or "play'' as before. If all "pass,'' each pays a counter to the pool and a new deal ensues. The player betting more than the others call wins the pool. He then exposes his hand and is paid by each adversary according to its value. The hands rank as follows: — "Point,'' the number Of pips on two or more cards of a suit (one counter). "Prime,'' four cards of different suits (two counters). "Grand Prime,'' the same with the number of pips over 30 (three counters). "Sequence,'' a hand containing three cards of the same suit in sequence (three counters). "Tricon,'' three of a kind (four counters). "Flush,'' four cards of the same suit (five counters). "Doublet,'' a hand containing two counting combinations at once, as 2, 3, 4 and 7 of spades, amounting to both a "sequence'' and a "flush'' (eight counters). "Fredon,'' four of a kind (the highest possible hand), ten or eleven counters, according to the number of pips. Ties are decided by the number of pips.
AMBIGUITY (Fr. ambiguite, med. Lat. ambiguitas, from Lat. ambiguus, doubtful; ambi, both ways, agere, to drive), doubtful ness or uncertainty. In law an ambiguity as to the meaning of the words of a written instrument may be of considerable importance. Ambiguity, in law, is of two kinds, patent and latent. (1) Patent ambiguity is that ambiguity which is apparent on the face of an instrument to any one perusing it, even if he be unacquainted with the circumstances of the parties. In the case of a patent ambiguity parol evidence is admissible to explain only what has been written, not what it was intended to write. For example, in Saunderson v. Piper, 1839, 5, B.N.C. 425, where a bill was drawn in figures for L. 245 and in words for two hundred pounds, evidence that "and forty-five'' had been omitted by mistake was rejected. But where it appears from the general context of the instrument what the parties really meant, the instrument will be construed as if there was no ambiguity, as in Saye and Sate's case, 10 Mod. 46, where the name of the grantor had been omitted in the operative part of a grant, but, as it was clear from another part of the grant who he was, the deed was held to be valid. (2) Latent ambiguity is where the wording of an instrument is on the face of it clear and intelligible, but may, at the same time, apply equally to two different things or subject matters, as where a legacy is given "to my nephew, John,'' and the testor is shown to have two nephews of that name. A latent ambiguity may be explained by parol evidence, for, as the ambiguity has been brought about by circumstances extraneous to the instrument, the explanation must necessarily be sought for from such circumstances. (See also Evidence.)
AMBIORIX, prince of Eburones, a tribe of Belgian Gaul. Although Caesar (q.v.) had freed him from paying tribute to the Aduztuci, he joined Catuvolcus (winter, 54 B.C.) in rising against the Roman forces under Q. Titurius Sabinus and I. Aurunculeius Cotta, and almost annihilated them. An attack on Quintus Cicero (brother of the orator), then quartered with a legion in the territory of the Nervii, failed owing to the timely appearance of Caesar. Ambiroix is said to have found safety across the Rhine.
Caesar, Bell. Gall. v. 26-51, vi. 29-43, viii. 24; Dio Cassius xl. 7-11; Florus iii. 10.
AMBLESIDE, a market-town in the Appleby parliamentary division of Westmorland, England, a mile from the head of Windermere. Pop. of urban district (1901) 2536. It is most beautifully situated, for though the lake is hardly visible from the town, the bare sharply rising hills surrounding the richly wooded valley of the Rothay afford a series of exquisite views. The hills immediately above this part of the valley are Wansfell on the east, Loughrigg Fell on the west, and Rydal Fell and the ridge below Snarker Pike (2096 ft.) to the north. At the head of Windermere is Waterhead, the landing-stage of Ambleside, which is served by the lake steamers of the Furness Railway Company. The chief roads which centre upon Ambleside are — one from the town of Windemere, following the eastern shore of the lake; one from Ullswater, by Patterdale and Kirkstone Pass; one from Keswick, by Dunmail Raise and Grasmere, and the two lovely lakes of Grasmere and Rydal Water; and one from the Brathay valley and the Langdales to the west. Ambleside is thus much frequented by tourists. In its vicinity is Rydal Mount, for many years the residence of the poet Wordsworth. The town has some industry in bobbin-making, and there are slate quarries in the neighbourhood.
Close by the lake side the outlines are still visible of a Roman fort, the name of which is not known. It appears to have guarded a route over the hills by Hardknott and Wrynose Pass to Ravenglass on the Coast of Cumberland.
AMBLYGONITE, a mineral usually found as cleavable or columnar, and compact masses; it is translucent and has a vitreous lustre, and the colour varies from white to pale shades of violet, grey, green or yellow. There are good cleavages in two directions. The hardness is 6 and the specific gravity 3.0. The mineral is thus not unlike felspar in general appearance, but
it is readily distinguished from this by its chemical characters, being an aluminium and lithium fluophosphate, Li(AlF)PO4, with part of the lithium replaced by sodium and part of the fluoine by hydroxyl. Crystals, which are rarely distinctly developed, belong to the anorthic system, and frequently show twin lamellae.
The mineral was first discovered in Saxony by A. Breithaupt in 1817, and named by him from the Greek amblus, blunt, and gouia, angle, because of the obtuse angle between the cleavages. Later it was found at Montebras, dep. Creuse, France, and at Hebron in Maine; and on account of slight differences in optical character and chemical composition the names montebrasite and hebronite have been applied to the mineral from these localities. Recently it has been discovered in considerable quantity at Pala in San Diego county, California, and at Caceres in Spain. Amblygonite occurs with lepidolite, tourmaline and other lithia-bearing minerals in pegmatite-veins. It contains about 10% of lithia, and, since 1886, has been utilized as a source of lithium salts, the chief commercial sources being the Montebras deposits, and later the Californian. (L.J.S.)
AMBLYPODA, a suborder of primitive ungulate mammals, taking its name from the short and stumpy feet, which were furnished with five toes each, and supported massive pillar-like limbs. The brain-cavity was extremely small, and insignificant in comparison to the bodily bulk, which was equal to that of the largest rhinoceroses. These animals are, in fact, descendants of the small ancestral ungulates which have retained all the primitive characters of the latter accompanied by a huge increase in bodily size. They are confined to the Eocene period, and occur both in North America and Europe. The cheek teeth are short crowned (brachyodont), with the tubercles more or less completely fused into transverse ridges, or cross-crests (lophodont type); and the total number of teeth is in one case the typical 44, but in another is reduced below this. The vertebrae of the neck unite by nearly flat surfaces, the humerus has lost the foramen, or perforation, at the lower end, and the third trochanter to the femur may also be wanting. In the fore-limb the upper and lower series of carpal bones scarcely alternate, but in the hind- foot the astragalus overlaps the cuboid, while the fibula, which is quite distinct from the tibia (as is the radius from the ulna in the fore-limb), articulates with both astragalus and calcaneum. The most generalized type is Coryphodon, representing the family
Coryphodontidae, from the lower Eocene of Europe and North America, in which there were 44 teeth, and no horn-like excrescences on the long skull, while the femur had a third trochanter. The canines are somewhat elongated, and were followed by a short gap in each jaw, and the cheek-teeth were adapted for succulent food. The length of the body reached about 6 ft. in some cases.
In the middle Eocene formations of North America occurs the more specialized Hintatherium (or Dinoceras), typifying the family Uintatheriidae, which also contains species sometimes separated as Tinoceras. Uintatheres were huge creatures, with long narrow skulls, of which the elongated facial portion caraed three pairs of bony horn-cores, probably covered with short horns in life, the hind-pair being much the largest. The dental formula is i. 0/3, c. 1/1, p. $3over 3cdot4$, m. 3/3; the upper canines being long sabre-like weapons, protected by a descending flange on each side of the front of the lower iaw.
In the basal Eocene of North America the Amblypoda were represented by extremely primitive, five-toed, small ungulates such as Periptychus and Pantolambda, each of these typifying a family. The full typical series of 44 teeth was developed in each, but whereas in the Periptychidae the upper molars were bunodont and tritubercular, in the Pantolambdidae they have assumed a selenodont structure. Creodont characters (see CREODONTA) are displayed in the skeleton.
See also H. F. Osborn, "Evolution of the Amblypoda,'' Bull. Amer. Mus. vol x. p. 169. (R. L.*)
AMBO, or AMBON (Gr. ambon, from anabainein, to walk up, the reading-desk of early Basilican churches, also called purgos. Originally small and movable, it was afterwards made of large proportions and fixed in one place. In the Byzantine and early Romanesque periods it was an essential part of church furniture; but during the middle ages it was gradually superseded in the Western Church by the pulpit and lectern. The gospel and epistle are still read from the ambo in the Ambrosian rite at Milan. The position of the ambo was not absolutely uniform; sometimes in the central point between the sanctuary and the nave, sometimes in the middle of the church, and sometimes at one or both of the sides of the chancel. The normal ambo, when the church contained only one, had three stages or degrees, one above the other, and it was usually mounted by a flight of steps at each end. The uppermost stage was reserved for the deacon who sang the gospel (facing the congregation); for promulgating episcopal edicts; reciting the names inscribed on the diptychs (see DIPTYCH); announcing fasts, vigils and feasts; reading ecclesiastical letters or acts of the martyrs celebrated on that day; announcing new miracles for popular edification, professions by new converts or recantations by heretics; and (for priests and deacons) preaching sermons, — bishops as a general rule preaching from their own throne. The second stage was for the sub-deacon who read the epistle (facing the altar); and the third for the subordinate clergy who read other parts of scripture. The inconvenience of having a single ambo led to the substitution of two separate ambones, between which these various functions were divided, one on the south side of the chancel being for the reading of the gospel, and one on the north for reading the epistle. In the Russian Orthodox Church the term "ambo'' is used of the semicircular steps leading to the platform in front of the iconostasis (q.v.), but in Cathedrals the bishop has an ambo in the centre of the church. In the Greek Church the older form remains, usually placed at the side. In the Uniate Greek Catholic Church the "ambo'' has become a table, on which are placed a crucifix and lights, before the doors of the iconostasis; here baptisms, marriages and confirmations take place.
Ambones were made of wood or else of costly marbles, and were decorated with mosaics, reliefs, gilding, &c.; sometimes also covered with canopies supported on columns. They were often of enormous size; that at St Sophia in Constantinople was large enough for the ceremonial of coronation.
The churches in Rome possess many fine examples of ambones in marble, of which the oldest is probably that in S. Clemente, reconstructed in the beginning of the 12th century. Those of slightly later date are enriched with marble mosaic known as Cosmati work, of which the examples in S. Maria-in-Ara-Coeli, S. Maria-in-Cosmedin and S. Lorenzo are those which are best known. Some early ambones are found in Ravenna, and in the south of Italy are many fine examples; the epistle ambo in the cathedral at Ravello (1130), which is perhaps the earliest, shows a Scandinavian influence in the design of its mosaic inlay, an influence which is found in Sicilian work and may be a Norman importation. The two ambones in the Cathedral of Salerno,
which are different in design, are magnificent in effect and are enriched with sculpture as well as with mosaic. In the gospel ambo in the cathedral of Ravello (1272), and also in that of the convent of the Trinita della Cava near Salerno, the spiral columns inlaid with mosaic stand on the backs of lions. In the epistle ambo at Salerno and the gospel ambones at Cava and San Giovanni del Toro in Ravello, the columns support segmental arches carrying the ambones; the epistle ambo at Ravello and all those in Rome are raised on solid marble bases.
See the litumical and ecclesiastical dictionaries of Martigny, Migne, and Smith and Cheetham, sub voce, where all the scattered references are collected together and summarized. In Ciampinus, Vetera Monumenta (Rome, 1747), plates xii., xiii., are several illustrations of actual examples.
AMBOISE, GEORGES D', (1460-1510), French cardinal and minister of state, belonged to a noble family possessed of considerable influence. His father, Pierre d'Amboise, seigneur de Chaumont, was chamberlain to Charles VII. and Louis XI. and ambassador at Rome. His eldest brother, Charles d'Amboise, was governor of the Isle of France, Champagne and Burgundy, and councillor of Louis XI. Georges d'Amboise was only fourteen when his father procured for him the bishopric of Montauban, and Louis XI. appointed him one of his almoners. On arriving at manhood d'Amboise attached himself to the party of the duke of Orleans, in whose cause he suffered imprisonment, and on whose return to the royal favour he was elevated to the archbishopric of Narbonne, which after some time he changed for that of Rouen (1493). On the appointment of the duke of Orleans as governor of Normandy, d'Amboise became his lieutenant-general. In 1498 the duke of Orleans mounted the throne as Louis XII., and d'Amboise was suddenly raised to the high position of cardinal and prime minister. His administration was, in many respects, well-intentioned and useful. Having the good fortune to serve a king who was both economical and just, he was able to diminish the imposts, to introduce order among the soldiery, and above all, by the ordinances of 1499, to improve the organization of justice. He was also zealous for the reform of the church, and particularly for the reform of the monasteries; and it is greatly to his credit that he did not avail himself of the extremely favourable opportunities he possessed of becoming a pluralist. He regularly spent a large income in charity, and he laboured strenuously to stay the progress of the plague and famine which broke out in 1504. His foreign policy, less happy and less wise, was animated by two aims — to increase the French power in Italy and to seat himself on the papal throne; and these aims be sought to achieve by diplomacy, not by force. He, however, sympathized with, and took part in, the campaign which was begun in 1499 for the Conquest of Milan. In 1500 he was named lieutenant- general in Italy and charged with the organization of the conquest. On the death of Alexander VI. he aspired to the papacy. He had French troops at the gates of Rome, by means of which he could easily have frightened the conclave and induced them to elect him; but he was persuaded to trust to his influence; the troops were dismissed, and an Italian was appointed as Pius III.; and again, on the death of Pius within the month, another Italian, Julius II., was chosen (1503). D'Amboise received in compensation the title of legate for life in France and in the Comtat Venaissin. He was one of the negotiators of the disastrous treaties of Blois (1504), and in 1508 of the League of Cambrai against Venice. In 1509 he again accompanied Louis XII. into Italy, but on his return he was seized at the city of Lyons with a fatal attack of gout in the stomach. He died there on the 25th of May 1510. His body was removed to Rouen, and a magnificent tomb, on which he is represented kneeling in the attitude of prayer, was erected to his memory in the cathedral of that town. Throughout his life he was an enlightened patron of letters and art, and it was at his orders that the chateau of Gaillon near Rouen was built.
See Lettres du roi Louis XII. et du cardinal d'Amboise (Brussels, 1712); L. Legendre, Vie du cardinal d'Amboise (Rouen, 1726); E. Lavisse, Histoire de France (vol. v. by H. Lemonnier, Paris, 19O3); J. A. Deville, Tombeaux de la cathedrale de Rouen (3rd ed., 1881). For a bibliography of the printed sources see, H. Hauser, Les Sources de l'histoire de France, KM'siecle, vol. i. (1906). (J. I.)
AMBOISE, a town of central France in the department of Indre-et-Loire, on the left bank of the Loire, 12 m. E. of Tours by the Orleans railway. Pop. (1906) 4632. Amboise owes its celebrity to the imposing chateau which overlooks the Loire from the rocky eminence above the town. The Logis du Roi, the most important portion, was the work of Charles VIII.; the other wing was built under Louis XII. and Francis I. The ramparts are strengthened by two massive towers containing an inclined plane on which horses and carriages may ascend. The chapel of St Hubert, said to contain the remains of Leonardo da Vinci, who was summoned to Amboise by Francis I., king of France, and died there in 1519, is in the late Gothic style; a delicately carved relief over the doorway represents the conversion of St Hubert. The hotel de ville is established in a mansion of Renaissance architecture; a town gateway of the 15th century, surmounted by a belfry, is also of architectural interest. Iron-founding, wool-weaving, and the manufacture of boots and farm implements are among the industries.
Amboise at the end of the 11th century was a lordship under the counts of Anjou, one of whom, Hugues I., rebuilt the ancient castle. Its territory was united to the domain of the crown of France by Charles VII. about the middle of the 15th century, and thenceforth the chateau became a favourite residence of the French kings. The discovery in 1560 of the "conspiracy of Amboise,'' a plot of the Huguenots to remove Francis II. from the influence of the house of Guise, was avenged by the death of 1200 members of that party. In 1563 Amboise gave its name to a royal edict allowing freedom of worship to the Huguenot nobility and gentry. After that period the chateau was frequently used as a state prison, and Abd-el-Kader was a captive there from 1848 to 1852. In 1872 it was restored by the National Assembly to the house of Orleans, to which it had come by inheritance from the duke of Penthievre in the latter half of the 18th century.
AMBOYNA (Dutch Ambon), the name of a residency, its chief town, and the island on which the town is situated, in the Dutch East Indies.
The residency shares with that of Ternate the administration of the Moluccas, the previous government of which was abolished in 1867. It includes a mass of islands in the Banda Sea (2 deg. 30' - 8 deg. 20' S. and 125 deg. 45' - 135 deg. E.), including the island-belt which surrounds the sea on the north, east and south; and is divided for administrative purposes into nine districts (afdeelingen): 1) Amboyna, the island of that name; (2) Saparua, with Oma and Nusa Laut; (3) Kajeli (Eastern Burn); (4) Masareti (Western Burn); (5) Kairatu (Western Ceram); (6) Wahai (the northern part of Mid-Ceram); (7) Amahai (the southern part of Mid-Ceram); (8) the Banda Isles, with East Ceram, Ceram Laut and Gorom; (9) the islands of Aru, Kei, Timor Laut or Tenimber, and the south-western islands. The total area of the residency is about 19,861 sq. m., and its population 296,000, including 2400 Europeans.
Amboyna Island lies off the south-west of Ceram, on the north side of the Banda Sea, being one of a series of volcanic isles in the inner circle round the sea. It is 32 m. in length, with an area of about 386 sq. m., and is of very irregular figure, being almost divided into two. The south-eastern and smaller portion (called Leitimor) is united to the northern (Hitoe) by a neck of land a few yards in breadth. The highest mountains, Wawani (3609 ft.) and Salhutu (4020 ft.), have hot springs and solfataras. They are considered to be volcanoes, and the mountains of the neighbouring Uliasser islands the remains of volcanoes. Granite and serpentine rocks predominate, but the shores of Amboyna Bay are of chalk, and contain stalactite caves. The surface is fertile, the rivers are small and not navigable, and the roads are mere footpaths. Cocoa is one of the products. The climate is comparatively pleasant and healthy; the average temperature is 80 deg. F., rarely sinking below 72 deg. . The rainfall, however, after the eastern monsoons, is very heavy, and the island is liable to
violent hurricanes. It is remarkable that the dry season (October to April) is coincident with the period of the west monsoon. Indigenous mammals are poor in species as well as few in number; birds are more abundant, but of no greater variety. The entomology of the island, however, is very rich, particularly in respect of Lepidoptera. Shells are obtained in great numbers and variety. Turtle-shell is also largely exported. The vegetation is also rich, and Amboyna produces most of the common tropical fruits and vegetables, including the sago-palm, bread-fruit, cocoa-nut, sugar-cane, maize, coffee, pepper and cotton. Cloves, however, form its chief product, though the trade in them is less important than formerly, when the Dutch prohibited the rearing of the clove-tree in all the other islands subject to their rule, in order to secure the monopoly to Amboyna. Amboyna wood, of great value for ornamental work, is obtained from the hard knots which occur on certain trees in the forests of Ceram. The population (about 39,000) is divided into two classes— orang burger or citizens, and orang negri or villagers, the former being a class of native origin enjoying certain privileges conferred on their ancestors by the old Dutch East India Company. The natives are of mixed Malay-Papuan blood. They are mostly Christians or Mahommedans. There are also, besides the Dutch, some Arabs, Chinese and a few Portuguese settlers.
Amboyna, the chief town, and seat of the resident and military commander of the Moluccas, is protected by Fort Victoria, and is a clean little town with wide streets, well planted. Agriculture, fisheries and import and export trade furnish the chief means of subsistence. It lies on the north-west of the peninsula of Leitimor, and has a safe and commodious anchorage. Its population is about 8000.
The Portuguese were the first European nation to visit Amboyna (1511). They established a factory there in 1521, but did not obtain peaceable possession of it till 1580, and were dispossessed by the Dutch in 1609. About 1615 the British formed a settlement in the island, at Cambello, which they retained until 1623, when it was destroyed by the Dutch, and frightful tortures inflicted on the unfortunate persons connected with it. In 1654, after many fruitless negotiations, Cromwell compelled the United Provinces to give the sum of L. 300,000, together with a small island, as compensation to the descendants of those who suffered in the "Amboyna massacre.'' In 1673 the poet Dryden produced his tragedy of Amboyna, or the Cruelties of the Dutch to the English Merchants. In 1796 the British, under Admiral Rainier, captured Amboyna, but restored it to the Dutch at the peace of Amiens in 1802. It was retaken by the British in 1810, but once more restored to the Dutch in 1814.
AMBRACIA (more correctly AMPRACIA), an ancient Corinthian colony, situated about 7 m. from the Ambracian Gulf, on a bend of the navigable river Aracthus (or Aratthus), in the midst of a fertile wooded plain. It was founded between 650 and 625 B.C. by Gorgus, son of the Corinthian tyrant Cypselus. After the expulsion of Gorgus's son Periander its government developed into a strong democracy. The early policy of Ambracia was determined by its loyalty to Corinth (for which it probably served as an entrepot in the Epirus trade), its consequent aversion to Corcyra, and its frontier disputes with the Amphilochians and Acarnanians. Hence it took a prominent part in the Peloponnesian War until the crushing defeat at Idomene (426) crippled its resources. In the 4th century it continued its traditional policy, but in 338 surrendered to Philip II. of Macedon. After forty-three years of autonomy under Macedonian suzerainty it became the capital of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, who adorned it with palace, temples and theatres. In the wars of Philip V. of Macedon and the Epirotes against the Aetolian league (220-205) Ambracia passed from one alliance to the other, but ultimately joined the latter confederacy. During the struggle of the Aetolians against Rome it stood a stubborn siege. After its capture and plunder by M. Fulvius Nobilior in 189, it fell into insignificance. The foundation by Augustus of Nicopolis (q.v.), into which the remaining inhabitants were drafted, left the site desolate. In Byzantine times a new settlement took its place under the name of Arta (q.v.). Some fragmentary walls of large, well-dressed blocks near this latter town indicate the early prosperity of Ambracia.
AUTHORITIES. — Thucydides ii. 68 - iii. 114; Aristotle, Politics, 1303a sqq.; Strabo p. 325; Polybius xxii. 9-13; Livy xxxviii. 3-9; G. Wolfe, Journal of Geographical Society (London), iii. (1833) pp. 77-94; E. Oberhummer, Akarnanien, Ambrakien, &c. im Altertum (Munich, 1887). (M. O. B. C.)
AMBRIZ, a West African seaport belonging to Portugal, at the mouth of the Loje River, in 7 deg. 50' S., 13 deg. E., some 70 m. N. of Loanda. It forms a part of the province of Angola (q.v.). The town is within the free-trade area of the conventional basin of the Congo river. Its chief exports are rubber, gum, coffee and copper. Pop. about 2500. Ambriz was, previously to 1884, the northernmost point of Africa south of the equator acknowledged as Portuguese territory.
AMBROS, AUGUST WILHELM (1816-1876), Austrian composer and historian of music, was born at Mauth near Prague. His father was a cultured man, and his mother was the sister of R. G. Kiesewetter (1773-1850), the musical archaeologist and collector. Ambros was well educated in music and the arts, which were his abiding passion: but he was destined for the law and an official career in the Austrian civil service, and he occupied various important posts under the ministry of justice, music being the employment of his leisure. From 1850 onwards he became well known as a critic and essay-writer, and in 1860 he began working on his magnum opus, his History of Music, which was published at intervals from 1864 in five volumes, the last two (1878, 1882) being edited and completed by Otto Kade and Langhaus. Ambros became professor of the history of music at Prague in 1869. He was an excellent pianist, and the author of numerous compositions somewhat reminiscent of Mendelssohn. He died at Vienna on the 28th of June 1876.
AMBROSE (fl. 1190), Norman poet, and chronicler of the Third Crusade, author of a work called L'Estoire de la guerre sainte, which describes in rhyming French verse the adventures of Richard Coeur de Lion as a crusader. The poem is known to us only through one Vatican MS., and long escaped the notice of historians. The credit for detecting its value belongs to the late Gaston Paris, although his edition (1897) was partially anticipated by the editors of the Monumenta Germaniae Historica, who published some selections in the twenty-seventh volume of their Scriptores (1885). Ambrose followed Richard I. as a noncombatant, and not improbably as a court-minstrel. He speaks as an eye-witness of the king's doings at Messina, in Cyprus, at the siege of Acre, and in the abortive campaign which followed the capture of that city. Ambrose is surprisingly accurate in his chronology; though he did not complete his work before 1195, it is evidently founded upon notes which he had taken in the course of his pilgrimage. He shows no greater political insight than we should expect from his position; but relates what he had seen and heard with a naive vivacity which compels attention. He is prejudiced against the Saracens, against the French, and against all the rivals or enemies of his master; but he is never guilty of deliberate misrepresentation. He is rather to be treated as a biographer than as a historian of the Crusade in its broader aspects. None the less he is the chief authority for the events of the years 1190-1192, so far as these are connected with the Holy Land. The Itinerarium Regis Ricardi (formerly attributed to Geoffrey Vinsauf, but in reality the work of Richard, a canon of Holy Trinity, London) is little more than a free paraphrase of Ambrose. The first book of the Itinerarium contains some additional facts; and the whole of the Latin version is adorned with dowers of rhetoric which are foreign to the style of Ambrose. But it is no longer possible to regard the Itinerarium as a first-hand narrative. Stubbs's edition of the Itinerarium (Rolls Series, 1864), in which the contrary hypothesis is maintained, appeared before Gaston Paris published his discovery.
See the edition of L'Estoire de la guerre sainte by Gaston Paris in the Collection des documents inedits sur l'histoire de France (1897); the editor discusses in his introduction the biography of Ambrose, the value of the poem as a historical source, and its relation to the Itinerarium. R. Pauli's remarks (in Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Scriptores, xxvii.) also deserve attention. (H. W. C. D.)
AMBROSE, SAINT (c. 340-307), bishop of Milan, one of the most eminent fathers of the church in the 4th century, was a citizen of Rome, born about 337-340 in Treves, where his father was prefect of Gallia Narbonensis. His mother was a woman of intellect and piety. Ambrose was early destined to follow his father's career, and was accordingly educated in Rome. He made such progress in literature, law and rhetoric, that the praetor Anicius Probus first gave him a place in the council and then made him consular prefect of Liguria and Emilia, with headquarters at Milan, where he made an excellent administrator. In 374 Auxentius, bishop of Milan, died, and the orthodox and Arian parties contended for the succession. An address delivered to them at this crisis by Ambrose led to his being acclaimed as the only competent occupant of the see; though hitherto only a catechumen, he was baptized, and a few days saw him duly installed as bishop of Milan. He immediately betook himself to the necessary studies, and acquitted himself in his new office with ability, boldness and integrity. Having apportioned his money among the poor, and settled his lands upon the church, with the exception of making his sister Marcellina tenant during life, and having committed the care of his family to his brother, he entered upon a regular course of theological study, under the care of Simplician, a presbyter of Rome, and devoted himself to the labours of the church, labours which were temporarily interrupted by an invasion of Goths, which compelled Ambrose and other churchmen to retire to Illyricum.
The eloquence of Ambrose soon found ample scope in the dispute between the Arians and the orthodox or Catholic party, whose cause the new bishop espoused. Gratian, the son of the elder Valentinian, took the same side; but the younger Valentinian, who had now become his colleague in the empire, adopted the opinions of the Arians, and all the arguments and eloquence of Ambrose could not reclaim the young prince to the orthodox faith. Theodosius, the emperor of the East, also professed the orthodox belief; but there were many adherents of Arius scattered throughout his dominions. In this distracted state of religious opinion, two leaders of the Arians, Palladius and Secundianus, confident of numbers, prevailed upon Gratian to call a general council from all parts of the empire. This request appeared so equitable that he complied without hesitation; but Ambrose, foreseeing the consequence, prevailed upon the emperor to have the matter determined by a council of the Western bishops. A synod, composed of thirty-two bishops, was accordingly held at Aquileia in the year 381. Ambrose was elected president; and Palladius, being called upon to defend his opinions, declined, insisting that the meeting was a partial one, and that, all the bishops of the empire not being present, the sense of the Christian church concerning the question in dispute could not be obtained. A vote was then taken, when Palladius and his associate Secundianus were deposed from the episcopal office.
Ambrose was equally zealous in combating the attempt made by the upholders of the old state religion to resist the enactments of Christian emperors. The pagan party was led by Quintus Aurelius Symmachus (q.v.), consul in 391, who presented to Valentinian II. a forcible but unsuccessful petition praying for the restoration of the altar of Victory to its ancient station in the hall of the senate, the proper support of seven vestal virgins, and the regular observance of the other pagan ceremonies. To this petition Ambrose replied in a letter to Valentinian, arguing that the devoted worshippers of idols had often been forsaken by their deities; that the native valour of the Roman soldiers had gained their victories, and not the pretended influence of pagan priests; that these idolatrous worshippers requested for themselves what they refused to Christians; that voluntary was more honourable than constrained virginity; that as the Christian ministers declined to receive temporal emoluments, they should also be denied to pagan priests; that it was absurd to suppose that God would inflict a famine upon the empire for neglecting to support a religious system contrary to His will as revealed in the Scriptures; that the whole process of nature encouraged innovations, and that all nations had permitted them even in religion; that heathen sacrifices were offensive to Christians; and that it was the duty of a Christian prince to suppress pagan ceremonies. In the epistles of Symmachus and of Ambrose both the petition and the reply are preserved. They are a strange blend of sophistry, superstition, sound sense and solid argument.
The increasing strength of the Arians proved a formidable task for ambrose. In 384 the young emperor and his mother Justina, along with a considerable number of clergy and laity professing the Arian faith, requested from the bishop the use of two churches, one in the city, the other in the suburbs of Milan. Ambrose refused, and was required to answer for his conduct before the council. He went, attended by a numerous crowd of people, whose impetuous zeal so overawed the ministers of Valentinian that he was permitted to retire without making the surrender of the churches. The day following, when he was performing divine service in the Basilica, the prefect of the city came to persuade him to give up at least the Portian church in the suburbs. As he still continued obstinate, the court proceeded to violent measures: the officers of the household were commanded to prepare the Basilica and the Portian churches to celebrate divine service upon the arrival of the emperor and his mother at the ensuing festival of Easter. Perceiving the growing strength of the prelate's interest, the court deemed it prudent to restrict its demand to the use of one of the churches. But all entreaties proved in vain, and drew forth the following characteristic declaration from the bishop: — "If you demand my person, I am ready to submit: carry me to prison or to death, I will not resist; but I will never betray the church of Christ. I will not call upon the people to succour me; I will die at the foot of the altar rather than desert it. The tumult of the people I will not encourage: but God alone can appease it.''
Many circumstances in the history of Ambrose are strongly characteristic of the general spirit of the times. The chief causes of his victory over his opponents were his great popularity and the superstitious reverence paid to the episcopal character at that period. But it must also be noted that he used several indirect means to obtain and support his authority with the people. He was liberal to the poor; it was his custom to comment severely in his preaching on the public characters of his times; and he introduced popular reforms in the order and manner of public worship. It is alleged, too, that at a time when the influence of Ambrose required vigorous support, he was admonished in a dream to search for, and found under the pavement of the church, the remains of two martyrs, Gervasius and Protasius. The applause of the vulgar was mingled with the derision of the court party.
Although the court was displeased with the religious principles and conduct of Ambrose, it respected his great political talents; and when necessity required, his aid was solicited and generously granted. When Maximus usurped the supreme power in Gaul, and was meditating a descent upon Italy, Valentinian sent Ambrose to dissuade him from the undertaking, and the embassy was successful. On a second attempt of the same kind Ambrose was again employed; and although he was unsuccessful, it cannot be doubted that, if his advice had been followed, the schemes of the usurper would have proved abortive; but the enemy was permitted to enter Italy; and Milan was taken. Justina and her son fled; but Ambrose remained at his post, and did good service to many of the sufferers by causing the plate of the church to be melted for their relief. Theodosius, the emperor of the East, espoused the cause of Justina, and regained the kingdom. This Theodosius was sternly rebuked by Ambrose for the massacre of 7000 persons at Thessalonica in 390, and was bidden imitate David in his repentance as he had imitated him in guilt.
In 302, after the assassination of Valentinian and the usurpation of Eugenius, Ambrose fled from Milan; but when Theodosius was eventually victorious, he supplicated the emperor for the pardon of those who had supported Eugenius. Soon after acquiring the undisputed possession of the Roman empire, Theodosius died at Milan in 395, and two years later (4th
April 397) Ambrose also passed away. He was succeeded by Simplician.
A man of pure character, vigorous mind, unwearying zeal and uncommon generosity, Ambrose ranks high among the fathers of the ancient church on many counts. His chief faults were ambition and bigotry. Though ranking with Augustine, Jerome, and Gregory the Great, as one of the Latin "doctors,'' he is most naturally compared with Hilary, whom he surpasses in administrative excellence as much as he falls below him in theological ability. Even here, however, his achievements are of no mean order, especially when we remember his juridical training and his comparatively late handling of Biblical and doctrinal subjects. In matters of exegesis he is, like Hilary, an Alexandrian; his chief productions are homiletic commentaries on the early Old Testament narratives, e.g. the Hexaemeron (Creation) and Abraham, some of the Psalms, and the Gospel according to Luke. In dogmatic he follows Basil of Caesarea and other Greek authors, but nevertheless gives a distinctly Western cast to the speculations of which he treats. This is particularly manifest in the weightier emphasis which he lays upon human sin and divine grace, and in the place which he assigns to faith in the individual Christian life. His chief works in this field are De fide ad Gratianuni Augustunn, De Spiritu Sancto, De incarnationis Dominicae sacramento, De mysteriis. His great spiritual successor, Augustine, whose conversion was helped by Ambrose's sermons, owes more to him than to any writer except Paul. Ambrose's intense episcopal consciousness furthered the growing doctrine of the Church and its sacerdotal ministry, while the prevalent asceticism of the day, continuing the Stoic and Ciceronian training of his youth, enabled him to promulgate a lofty standard of Christian ethics. Thus we have the De officiis ministrorum, De viduis, De virginitate and De paenitentia.
Ambrose has also left several funeral orations and ninety- one letters, but it is as a hymn-writer that he perhaps deserves most honour. Catching the impulse from Hilary and confirmed in it by the success of Arian psalmody, Ambrose composed several hymns, marked by dignified simplicity, which were not only effective in themselves but served as a fruitful model for later times. We cannot certainly assign to him more than four or five (Deus Creator Omnium, Aeterne rerum conditor, Jam surgit hora tertia, and the Christmas hymn Veni redemptor gentium) of those that have come down to us. Each of these hymns has eight four-line stanzas and is written in strict iambic tetrameter.
On the Ambrosian ritual see LITURGY; on the Ambrosian library see LIBRARIES; on the church founded by him at Milan in 387 see MILAN. Editions: The Benedictine (4 vols., Venice, 1748 ff.); Migne, Patrol. Lat. xiv.-xvii.; P. A. Ballerini (6 vols., Milan, 1875 ff.). LITERATURE: Th. Forster, Ambrose, B. of Mailand (Halle, 1884), and art. in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyk., where the literature is cited in full; A. Ebert, Glesch. der christlich-latein. Litt. (2nd ed., 1889); O. Bardenhewer, Patrologic (2nd ed., 1891); A. Harnack, Hist. of Dogma, esp. vol. v.; W. Bright, Age ofthe Fathers. (A. J. G.)
AMBROSE (ANDREY SERTIS-KAMENSKIY) (1708-1771), archbishop of Moscow, was born at Nezhine in the government of Chernigov, and studied in the school of St Alexander Nevskiy, where he afterwards became a tutor. At the age of thirty-one he entered a monastery, where he took the name of Ambrose. Subsequently he was appointed archimandrite of the convent of New Jerusalem at Voznesensk. From this post he was transferred as bishop, first to the diocese of Pereyaslav, and afterwards to that of Krusitsy near Moscow, finally becoming archbishop of Moscow in 1761. He was famous not only for his interest in schemes for the alleviation of poverty in Moscow, but also as the founder of new churches and monasteries. A terrible outbreak of plague occurred in Moscow in 1771, and the populace began to throng round an image of the Virgin to which they attributed supernatural healing power. Ambrose, perceiving that this crowding together merely enabled the contagion to spread, had the image secretly removed. The mob, suspecting that he was responsible for its removal, attacked a monastery to which he had retired, dragged him away from the sanctuary, and, having given him time to receive the sacrament, strangled him. Ambrose's works include a liturgy and translations from the Fathers.
AMBROSE (AMBROISE), AUTPERT (d. 778), French Benedictine monk. He became abbe of St Vincent on the Volturno "in the time of Desiderius, king of the Lombards.'' He wrote a considerable number of works on the Bible and religious subjects generally. Among these are commentaries on the Apocalypse (see Bibl. Patrum, xiii. 403), on the Psalms, on the Song of Solomon; Lives of SS. Paldo, Tuto and Vaso (according to Mabillon); Assumption of the Virgin; Combat between the Virtues and the Vices.
See Mabillon, Acta sanct. Bolland. III. ii. 259, 266; Georg Lommel, Der ostrsankische Reformator Ambrosius (Giessen, 1847); Bollandist Bibl. hag. lat. (1898), 61.
AMBROSE, ISAAC (1604-1663/4), English Puritan divine, was the son of Richard Ambrose, vicar of Ormskirk, and was probably descended from the Ambroses of Lowick in Furness, a well-known Catholic family. He entered Brazenose College, Oxford, in 1621, in his seventeenth year. Having graduated B.A. in 1624 and been ordained, he received in 1627 the little cure of Castleton in Derbyshire. By the influence of William Russell, earl of Bedford, he was appointed one of the king's itinerant preachers in Lancashire, and after living for a time in Garstang, he was selected by the Lady Margaret Hoghton as vicar of Preston. He associated himself with Presbyterianism, and was on the celebrated committee for the ejection of "scandalous and ignorant ministers and schoolmasters'' during the Commonwealth. So long as Ambrose continued at Preston he was favoured with the warm friendship of the Hoghton family, their ancestral woods and the tower near Blackburn affording him sequestered places for those devout meditations and "experiences'' that give such a charm to his diary, portions of which are quoted in his Prima Media and Ultima (1650, 1659). The immense auditory of his sermon (Redeeming the Time) at the funeral of Lady Hoghton was long a living tradition all over the county. On account of the feeling engendered by the civil war Ambrose left his great church of Preston in 1654, and became minister of Garstang, whence, however, in 1662 he was ejected with the two thousand ministers who refused to conform. His after years were passed among old friends and in quiet meditation at Preston. He died of apoplexy about the 20th of January 1663/4. As a religious writer Ambrose has a vividness and freshness of imagination possessed by scarcely any of the Puritan Nonconformists. Many who have no love for Puritan doctrine, nor sympathy with Puritan experience, have appreciated the pathos and beauty of his writings, and his Looking to Jesus long held its own in popular appreciation with the writings of John Bunyan.
AMBROSE THE CAMALDULIAN, the common name of AMBROGIO TRAVERSARI (1386-1439), French ecclesiastic, born near Florence at the village of Portico. At the age of fourteen he entered the Camaldulian Order in the monastery of Sta Maria degli Angeli, and rapidly became a leading theologian and Hellenist. In Greek literature his master was Emmanuel Chrysoloras. He became general of the order in 1431, and was a leading advocate of the papacy. This attitude he showed clearly when he attended the council of Basel as legate of Eugenius IV. So strong was his hostility to some of the delegates that he described Basel as a western Babylon. He likewise supported the pope at Ferrara and Florence, and worked hard in the attempt to reconcile the Eastern and Western Churches. Though this cause was unsuccessful, Ambrose is interesting as typical of the new humanism which was growing up within the church. Voigt says that he was the first monk in Florence in whom the love of letters and art became predominant over his ecclesiastical views. Thus while among his own colleagues he seemed merely a hypocritical and arrogant priest, in his relations with his brother humanists, such as Cosimo de Medici, he appeared as the student of classical antiquities and especially of Greek theological authors. His chief works are: — Hodoeporicon, an account of a journey taken by the pope's command, during which he visited the monasteries of Italy; a translation of
Palladius' Life of Chrysostom; of Nineteen Sermons of Ephraem Syrus; of the Book of St Basil on Virginity. A number of MSS. remain in the library of St Mark at Venice. He died on the 20th of October 1439.
See G. Voigt, Die Wiederbelebung des klass. Altertums (2 vols., 3rd ed., 1893); his Epistolae were published by Cannato (Florence, 1759 with a life by Menus; Bollandist Bibl. hag. lat. (1898), 65; A. Masius, Uber die Stellung des Kamaldulensers Amborgio Traversari zum Papst Eugen IV. und zum Basler Konzil (Dobeln, 1888); Savigny, Geschichte rom. Rechts, Mittel. (1850), vi. 422-424.
AMBROSIA, in ancient mythology, sometimes the food, sometimes the drink of the gods. The word has generally been derived from Gr. a, not, and mbrotos, mortal; hence the food or drink of the immortals. A. W. Verrall, however, denies that there is any clear example in which the word ambrosios necessarily means "immortal,'' and prefers to explain it as "fragrant,'' a sense which is always suitable; cf. W. Leaf, Iliad (2nd ed.), on the phrase ambrosios upuos (ii. 18). If so, the word may be derived from the Semitic ambar (ambergris) to which Eastern nations attribute miraculous properties. W. H. Roscher thinks that both nectar and ambrosia were kinds of honey, in which case their power of conferring immortality would be due to the supposed healing and cleansing power of honey (see further NECTAR). Derivatively the word Ambrosia (neut. plur.) was given to certain festivals in honour of Dionysus, probably because of the predominance of feasting in connexion with them.
The name Ambrosia was also applied by Dioscorides and Pliny to certain herbs, and has been retained in modern botany for a genus of plants from which it has been extended to the group of dicotyledons called Ambrosiaceae, including Ambrosia, Xanthium and Iva, all annual herbaceous plants represented in America. Ambrosia maritima and some other species occur also in the Mediterranean region.
There is also an American beetle, the Ambrosia beetle, belonging to the family of Scolytidae, which derives its name from its curious cultivation of a succulent fungus, called ambrosia. Ambrosia beetles bore deep though minute galleries into trees and timber, and the wood-dust provides a bed for the growth of the fungus, on which the insects and larvae feed.
AMBROSIANS, the name given to several religious brotherhoods which at various times since the 14th century have sprung up in and around Milan; they have about as much connexion with St Ambrose as the "Jeromites'' who were found chiefly in upper Italy and Spain have with their patron saint. Only the oldest of them, the Pratres S. Ambrosii ad Nemus, had anything more than a very local significance. This order is known from a bull of Gregory XI. addressed to the monks of the church of St Ambrose outside Milan. These monks, it would appear, though under the authority of a prior, had no rule. In response to the request of the archbishop, the pope had commanded them to follow the rule of Augustine and to be known by the above name. They were further to recite the Ambrosian office. Subsequently the order had a number of independent establishments in Italy which were united into one congregation by Eugenius IV., their headquarters being at Milan. Their discipline afterwards became so slack that an appeal was made to Cardinal Borromeo asking him to reform their houses. By Sixtus V. the order was amalgamated with the congregation of St Barnabas, but Innocent X. dissolved it in 1650.
The name Ambrosians is also given to a 16th-century Anabaptist sect, which laid claim to immediate communication with God through the Holy Ghost. Basing their theology upon the words of the Gospel of St John i. 9 — "There was the true light which lighteth every man, coming into the world'' — they denied the necessity of any priests or ministers to interpret the Bible. Their leader Ambrose went so far as to hold further that the revelation which was vouchsafed to him was a higher authority than the Scriptures. The doctrine of the Ambrosians, who belonged probably to that section of the Anabaptists known as Pneumatici, may be compared with the "Inner Light'' doctrine of the Quakers.
See Herzog-Hauck's Realencyklopadie, i. 439.
AMBROSIASTER. A commentary on St Paul's epistles, "brief in words but weighty in matter,'' and valuable for the criticism of the Latin text of the New Testament, was long attributed to St Ambrose. Erasmus in 1527 threw doubt on the accuracy of this ascription, and the author is usually spoken of as Ambrosiaster or pseudo-Ambrose. Owing to the fact that Augustine cites part of the commentary on Romans as by "Sanctus Hilarius'' it has been ascribed by various critics at different times to almost every known Hilary. Dom G. Morin (Rev. d'hist. et de litt. religiouses, tom. iv. 97 f.) broke new ground by suggesting in 1899 that the writer was Isaac, a converted Jew, writer of a tract on the Trinity and Incarnation, who was exiled to Spain in 378-380 and then relapsed to Judaism, but he afterwards abandoned this theory of the authorship in favour of Decimus Hilarianus Hilarius, proconsul of Africa in 377. With this attribution Professor Alex. Souter, in his Study of Ambrosiaster (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1905), agrees. There is scarcely anything to be said for the possibility of Ambrose having written the book before he became a bishop, and added to it in later years, incorporating remarks of Hilary of Poitiers on Romans. The best presentation of the case for Ambrose is by P. A. Ballerini in his complete edition of that father's works.
In the book cited above Professor Souter also discusses the authorship of the Quaestiones Veteris et Novi Testamenti, which the MSS. ascribe to Augustine. He concludes, on very thorough philological and other grounds, that this is with one possible slight exception the work of the same "Ambrosiaster.'' The same conclusion had been arrived at previously by Dom Morin.
AMBROSINI, BARTOLOMEO (1588-1657), Italian naturalist, was born and died at Bologna. He was a pupil of Aldrovandi, several of whose works he published, and whom he succeeded eventually as director of the university botanical garden. He studied at the university, and became successively professor of philosophy, of botany and of medicine; and during the plague of 1630 in Bologna he worked assiduously for the relief of the sufferers. He was the author of several medical works of some importance in their day.
His brother, GIACINTO AMBROSINI (1605-1672), was a distinguished botanist, who succeeded Bartolomeo as professor of botany and director of the university garden in 1657. He published a catalogue of its plants and also a botanical dictionary.
AMBROSIUS AURELIANUS, leader of the Britons against the Saxons in the 5th century, was, according to the legends preserved in Gildas and the Historia Brittonum, of Roman extraction. There are signs of the existence of two parties in the national opposition to the invaders, but as Pascent, son of Vortigern, is said by Nennius to have held his dominions in the west by leave of Ambrosius, the Roman element seems to have triumphed. Some measure of success appears to have attended the efforts of Ambrosius, and it has been suggested that Amesbury in Wiltshire is connected with Emrys, the Celtic form of his name.
See Bede, Eccl. Hist. (Plummer), i. 16; Nennius, Hist. Britt. sec. 31; Gildas, De excidio Brittarum, sec. 25; J. Rhys, Celtic Britain (1884), pp. 104, 105, 107.
AMBULANCE (from the Fr. ambulance, formerly hopital ambulant, derived from the Lat. ambulare, to move about), a term generally applied in England and America to the wagon or other vehicle in which the wounded in battle, or those who have sustained injuries in civil life, are conveyed to hospital. More strictly, in military parlance, the term imports a hospital establishment moving with an army in the field, to provide for the collection, treatment and care of the wounded on the battlefield, and of the sick, until they can be removed to hospitals of a more stationary character. In 1905-1906 the term "field ambulance'' was adopted in the British service to denote this organization, the former division of the ambulance service into "bearer companies'' and "field hospitals'' being done away with. The description of the British service given below applies generally to the system in vogue in the army after the experience gained in the South African War of 1899-1902; but in recent years the medical arrangements in connexion with the British army hospitals have been altered in various details, and the
changes in progress showed no sign of absolute finality. Some of these, however, were rather of nomenclature than of substance, and hardly affect the principles as described below.
The ambulance organization which, variously modified in details, now prevails in all civilized armies, only dates from the last decade of the 18th century. Before that time wounded soldiers were either carried to the rear by comrades or left unattended to and exposed until the fighting was over. Surgical assistance did not reach the battlefield till the day after the engagement, or even later; and for many of the wounded it was then too late. In 1792 Baron Dominique Jean Larrey (1766-1842) of the French army introduced his system of ambulances volantes, or flying field hospitals, capable of moving with speed from place to place, like the "flying artillery'' of that time. They were adapted both for giving the necessary primary surgical treatment and for removing the wounded quickly from the sphere of fighting. Napoleon warmly supported Larrey in his efforts in this direction, and the system was soon brought to a high state of efficiency in the Grande Armee. About the same time another distinguished surgeon in the French army, Baron Pierre Francois Percy (1754-1825), organized a corps of brancardiers, or stretcher-bearers. These were soldiers trained and equipped for the duty of collecting the wounded while a battle was in progress, and carrying them to a place of safety, where their wounds and injuries could be attended to.
important step towards the amelioration of the condition of the wounded of armies in the field was the European Convention signed at Geneva in 1864, by the terms of which, subject to certain regulations, not only the wounded themselves but also the official staff of ambulances and their equipment were rendered neutral, the former, therefore, not being liable to be retained as prisoners of war, nor the latter to be taken as prize of war. This convention has greatly favoured the development of ambulance establishments, but as all combatants have not the same knowledge of the conditions of this convention, or do not interpret them in the same way, charges of treachery and abuse of the Red Cross flag are but too common in modern warfare.
The American Civil War marked the beginning of the modern ambulance system. The main feature, however, of the hospital organization throughout that war was the railway hospital service, which provided for the rapid conveyance of the sick and wounded to the rear of the contending armies. Hospital carriages, equipped with medical stores and appliances, for the transport of cases from the front to the base, were rapidly introduced into other armies, and played a great part in the ambulance service of the Franco-German War.
The German hospital service as existing at the time of the Franco-German War of 1870-71 was modified and extended by the Kriegs Sanitats Ordnung of 1878 and the KriegsEtappen Ordnung of 1887, which completed the organization by the addition in time of war of numerous subordinate offices and departments. The main divisions of the ambulance organization of the German army in the field fall into: (1) sanitary detachments, (2) field hospitals, (3) flying hospitals, (4) hospital reserve depots, (5) "committees for the transport of the sick,'' and (6) railway hospital trains. The whole administration of the ambulance service of the grand army in the field is in the hands of the chief of the ambulance sanitary staff, who is attached to headquarters. Next in command come surgeons- general of armies in the field, surgeons-general of army corps, and under them again surgeons-in-chief of divisions and regiments. Civil consulting surgeons of eminence, and professors from the universities, are also attached to the various armies and divisions to co-operate with and act as advisers to the surgeons of the standing military surgical staff. The hospital transport service on the lines of communication is highly organized and the hospital railway carriages are elaborately equipped.
French system. The French ambulance system, finally settled by the reglement of 1884, is organized on almost identical lines with the German; one of the principal peculiarities of the former being the ambulances volantes already referred to. The peace organization of the German and French systems does not materially differ from that of the British service.
In the Japanese army a special feature is the sanitary corps, whose duty is the prevention of disease among the troops; it has been brought to a great pitch of perfection, with the result that in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) the immunity of the troops from all forms of preventable disease surpassed all previous experience. Not only was the army accompanied by sanitary experts who advised on all questions of camping grounds, water supply, &c., but before the war began the Intelligence Department collected information as to the diseases of the country likely to be the scene of operations, unhealthy places to be avoided, and precautions to be taken.
British army system.
Coming now to the ambulance system of the British army, in which are comprised the arrangements and organization of the medical department for the care and treatment of the sick and wounded from the time they are injured or taken ill, till they are able to return to duty or are invalided home, we will trace the progress of a wounded man from the field of battle to his home; remembering that, as British troops are usually engaged overseas, hospital ships as well as land transport are necessary.
First field dressing.
When a soldier falls wounded in action he is attended by the regimental surgeon and stretcher-bearers, who apply some extemporized method of stopping bleeding and dress the wounds with the "first field dressing'' — a packet of antiseptic material which every officer and man on active service carries stitched to some part of his clothing, and which contains everything necessary for dressing an ordinary gunshot wound. Recent wars have demonstrated that in all uncomplicated cases it is better to leave this dressing undisturbed, as the wounds made by modern projectiles heal up at once if left alone, if air and dirt have been thus excluded.
From the field he is carried on a stretcher by bearers (formerly of the "Bearer Companies'') of the Royal Army Medical Corps to the collecting station, where he is placed on an ambulance wagon of the first line of assistance and taken to the dressing station. Here his would will be examined if considered necessary, but as on the field the first medical officer who examined him has already attached a "specification tally'' to the patient, giving particulars of the wound, it will probably not be disturbed unless complicated by bleeding, splintering of bone or some other condition requiring interference. Any operation, however, which is urgently called for will be here performed, nourishment, stimulants and opiates administered if required, and the patient moved to the field hospital in an ambulance wagon of the second line of assistance. From the field hospital he is transferred as soon as possible by the ambulance train to the general hospital at the advanced base of operations, and from there in due time in another train to the base of operations at the coast, from which he is ultimately either returned to duty or sent home in a hospital ship. The organization by which these requirements are fulfilled is the following: —
Every regiment and fighting unit has posted to it, on proceeding on active service, a medical officer who looks after the health of the men and advises the commanding officer on sanitary matters. When the regiment goes into action he takes command of the regimental stretcher-bearers who, to the number of two per company have been in peace time instructed in first aid and in the carrying the wounded on stretchers. These men leave their arms behind and wear the Red Cross armlets, to indicate their non-combatant functions, but in these days, when a battle is often fought at long ranges, it is not to be wondered at, or attributed to disregard of the red cross flag by the enemy, if medical officers and stretcher-bearers are hit. The bearer company into whose charge the wounded man next passes is composed of men of the Royal Army Medical Corps, with a detachment of the Army Service Corps for transport duties. In future, bearer sections of the Field Ambulances will perform the duties of the bearer company. Its function is to collect and succour the wounded on the battlefield and to hand them over to the field hospitals, with which these bearer companies
are closely associated, though separately organized. In the Indian army the bearer company is provided from the personnel of the field hospital when there is a battle, and reverts to the hospital again after it is over. The war in South Africa of 1899- 1902 clearly demonstrated the superiority of the Indian plan; for after the action the bearer company staff should be available to give the much-needed help in the field hospital, and some amalgamation of the two organizations, or something after the plan of the ambulance volante of the French, is necessary. The bearers afford the wounded any treatment required, supply water and sedatives, and then carry them back on stretchers to the collecting station in the rear, whence they are conveyed to the dressing station in the wagons or other form of transport.
At the dressing station, which ought to be out of range of the firing, and should have a good water supply, the patient is made as comfortable as possible, nourishment and stimulants are administered, and he is then taken to the field hospital. In times of great stress, when it is desirable to remove the wounded quickly from the field, and there are no roads or wheeled transport is not available, large numbers of bearers are employed to carry them on stretchers, &c. These men are engaged locally and are soon given the slight training necessary. This was done in Natal after the battles on the Tugela (1899), in which there were some thousands of wounded to be conveyed; also in Egypt, where the local troops not required for the fighting line were requisitioned; the Japanese in Mongolia employed hundreds of Chinese coolies for this purpose, the general use of sedan-chairs in China having accustomed the poorer class of natives to this kind of labour.
In India, the rank and file of the Royal Army Medical Corps not being employed, the bearer work is carried out by natives specially enlisted and organized into a corps. These men are bearers by caste — a reminiscence of the system which prevailed generally a hundred years ago, and is still met with in out-of-the-way places, of conveyance of travellers in dhoolies, which are closed wooden carriages fixed on long poles and carried on men's shoulders. The bearers convey the wounded in dandies, similar to dhoolies, but made mostly of canvas, so that they are much lighter. The courage of these bearers on the battlefield has often been praised. The old bearer caste is, however, rapidly dying out owing to the general discontinuance of the use of dhoolies. Thus the ambulance organization in India is entirely different from that in other parts of the British empire. The rank and file of the Royal Army Medical Corps are not employed there, although the medical officers are. The warrant and non-commissioned ranks are replaced by a most useful body of men of Anglo-Indian or Eurasian (half caste) birth, called the Subordinate Medical Department, the members of which, now called assistant surgeons (formerly apothecaries), receive a three years' training in medical work at the Indian medical schools and are competent to perform the compounding of medicines and to deal with all but the most serious cases of injury and illness. In the hospitals the men of the Royal Army Medical Corps are replaced by the Native Army Hospital Corps, subdivided into ward-servants, cooks, water- carriers, sweepers and washermen. The caste system necessitates this division of labour, and the men are not so efficient or trustworthy as the white soldiers whose places they take. The bearers of the wounded are a separate and distinct class, partly attached to regiments, &c., as part of the regimental transport, and partly organized into bearer companies, attached to field hospitals. The dandies in which they carry the wounded are much more comfortable than stretchers, being fitted with roofs and sides of canvas to keep off sun and rain, thus being collapsible so that the dandy is quite flat when not in use. Still they are heavy, clumsy, and cannot be folded up into a small compass for transport like a stretcher; they also take up a good deal of room in wagons and can scarcely be carried on the backs of animals owing to the length of the pole. Hence riding ponies and mules are much used in Indian warfare, especially in the mountains, for the carriage of less seriously wounded men. In India separate hospitals are necessary for white and native troops, and the latter have accommodation for the large numbers of non-combatant camp-followers, mule-drivers, cooks, officers' servants, &c., &c., which constitute one of the most remarkable features of the Indian army organization.
Field hospitals, under the new scheme furnished by tent sections of the Field Ambulances, are each supposed to provide accommodation for 100 patients, who live on their field rations suitably cooked and supplemented by various medical comforts. The patients are not supplied with hospital clothing, nor do they have beds, but he on straw, which is spread on the ground and covered with waterproof sheets and blankets; of these latter a considerable reserve is carried. These hospitals can and must at times accommodate more than the regulation number of patients, but in the South African War their resources were at times considerably overtaxed, with consequent discomfort and hardship to the patients, the medical equipment proving insufficient for unexpectedly heavy calls upon its resources.
Hospitals on the lines of communication.
These hospitals are supposed to move with the army, and therefore it is imperative to pass the wounded quickly back from these to the stationary hospitals on the lines of communication (which vary according to the length of these lines) and thence to the general hospitals at the base. The size of the lines of communication hospitals varies according to circumstances, and they are as a rule "dieted,'' that is to say proper hospital diets and not field rations are issued to the patients, who also are supplied with beds and proper hospital clothing. In these hospitals also there may be nursing sisters, who of course are unsuited for the rough work and life nearer the front. Sisters are also employed on the hospital trains, which were found most useful and brought to great perfection in the South African War, being fitted with beds, kitchens, dispensaries, &c., so that patients were moved long distances in comfort.
Arrived at the base of operations the wounded are admitted to the general hospitals, of which the numbers and situation vary with circumstances, but each is supposed to have an officers' ward. In the South African War, owing to the inability of the comparatively small Royal Army Medical Corps to meet all the requirements of the enormous force which was ultimately employed, many of the doctors were drawn from the civil profession, and the rank and file from the St John's Ambulance Association and the Volunteer Medical Staff Corps, while many nursing sisters belonged to the Army Nursing Reserve, ordinarily employed in civil hospitals but liable to be drafted out during war.
Civil general hospitals.
In the South African War the patriotism and liberality of the British public furnished several large general hospitals, perfectly equipped, and officered by some of the most eminent members of the medical profession in the United Kingdom. Among others may be mentioned the Princess Christian, the Imperial Yeomanry (both field and general hospitals), the Langman, the Portland, the Scottish, Irish and Welsh hospitals. These were staffed entirely by civilians, except that an officer of the Royal Army Medical Corps was attached to each as administrator and organizer; and their personnel was made up of physicians, surgeons, nurses, dressers (medical students and in some cases fully qualified surgeons) and servants; the numbers, of course, varying with the size of the hospitals. In addition to the staff of these hospitals several eminent civil surgeons, including Sir William Maccormac and Sir F. Treves, went out to the seat of war as consultants: an innovation in the British service, but in accordance with the system long in vogue in Germany.
To the Army Medical organization is affiliated in war time that of the Red Cross Society and other charitable associations, which during the South African War aided the Army Medical Service greatly by gifts of clothing, money and numerous luxuries for the sick and wounded.
Lastly, the wounded man is transferred to a hospital ship, which is fitted up with comfortable swinging cots in airy wards, with refrigerators for preserving provisions and the supply of ice, punkahs for hot weather, &c. Each division of an army corps is supposed to have one such ship, with from 200 to 250 beds and the same staff of doctors, nurses, &c., as a hospital of similar size on shore, when necessary.
Red Cross societies.
Different regulations are made by various powers as to the work of the Red Cross societies under the Geneva flag. Whereas in Germany and France such aid is officially recognized and placed under direct military control, the English Red Cross societies have acted side by side with, but independently of, the military ambulance organization. In the South African War (1899-1902), however, the bonds of union were drawn considerably closer, and cordial co-operation was brought about to prevent overlapping and waste of money. In Germany the volunteer organization is presided over by an imperial commission or inspector-general appointed in peace time, who in time of war is attached to the headquarters staff. His functions are to control the relations of the various Red Cross societies and secure harmonious co-operation. Delegates appointed by him are attached to the various corps and transport commissions. No volunteer assistance can be utilized which is not entirely subordinate to the military control, and has not already in peace time received official recognition and been organized on a skeleton footing. Moreover, only persons of German nationality can be employed under it with the armies in the field. In case of base hospitals situated in Germany itself, the services of foreigners may be employed when specially authorized by the war office. In France, in the main, the same rules obtain in the case of volunteer hospital service.
St. John's Ambulance Association.
Great attention has been paid to civil ambulance organization in England. In 1878 the British ambulance association of St John of Jerusalem was founded. Its object was to render first aid to persons injured in accidents on the road, railway, or in any of the occupations of civil life. As the result of the initiative taken by this society, ambulance corps have been formed in most large towns of the United Kingdom; and police, railway servants and workmen have been instructed how to render first aid pending the arrival of a doctor. This samaritan work has been further developed and extended to most parts of the British empire, notably Canada, Australia and India, and there is no doubt that many lives are saved annually by the knowledge, diffused by this association, as to how to stop bleeding, resuscitate the apparently drowned, &c. Moreover, during the South African War this association provided a most valuable reserve for the Royal Army Medical Corps, and drafted out some hundreds of partially trained men whose assistance was most valuable to the Army Medical Service in dealing with the enormous numbers of sick and wounded who came upon their hands.
Civil ambulance in America.
In America each city has its own system and organization of civil ambulance service. In some, as in Boston, the service is worked by the police; in others, notably New York, by the hospitals, while Chicago has an admirable service under municipal control. In most of the capitals of Europe similar systems prevail.
British ambulance wagons are built very strongly to stand rough roads, and are of several patterns; those used in the war in South Africa were reported on as heavy, uncomfortable, and so unwieldy as to be incapable very often of keeping up with the troops; but a new and more mobile vehicle, to convey four patients lying down as well as six seated, or fourteen all seated (whereas the old pattern wagons only accommodated two lying-down cases), has been introduced. All patterns of wagons weigh from 17 1/2 to 18 1/3 cwt., while the Boers and the British Colonial auxiliaries used much lighter-carts, which were taken at a gallop over almost any country. The Indian ambulances are small two-wheeled carts, called tongas, drawn by two bullocks or mules; very strongly made, they are capable of holding two men lying down, or four sitting up, besides the native driver.
Various other forms of transport are found, such as mule litters in mountainous districts, where wheeled carriages cannot go, camel litters in the Sudan, dhoolies in India, hammocks on the west coast of Africa, or sedan-chairs in China. In the Russo-Japanese War an ingenious form of mule litter for serious cases was made by fixing the ends of two long springy poles about 15 ft. long into each side of the pack saddles of two mules, one in front of the other, so as to support a bed for the patient between them; the length and resiliency of the poles prevented jolting of the wounded man, and the mules were able to carry him long distances over any kind of ground. The ordinary mule or camel litter provides for a wounded man (lying down) being carried on a sort of stretcher on either side of the animal, or in cacolets in which the less serious cases are slung in seats (one on each side of the animal), sitting up.