Popular Education - For the use of Parents and Teachers, and for Young Persons of Both Sexes
by Ira Mayhew
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Their industrial habits are of incalculable benefit to them. They all learn some trade, and acquire the habits and the skill requisite to constitute them producers, and thus practically conform to this fundamental law, "that if any man would not work, neither should he eat." The other conditions that have been stated as essential to success are also complied with, the scholars being kept under the influence of good teachers, and of the same teachers from year to year, during their continuance in the institution.

The well-qualified and eminently successful teacher who has long been connected with the Refuge in New York, in a late report says, "The habits of industry which the children here acquire will be of incalculable benefit to them through life. Yet we look upon the School Department as the greatest of all the means employed to save our youthful charge from ignorance and vice. As it is the mind and the heart that are mostly depraved, so we must act mostly upon the mind and the heart to eradicate this depravity.

"The education here is a moral education. We do endeavor, it is true, by all the powers we possess, to impress upon the mind the great importance of a good education; and not only to impress it upon the mind, but to assist the mind to act, that it may obtain it. But our principal aim is to fan into life the almost dying spark of virtue, and kindle anew the moral feelings, that they may glow with fresh ardor, and shine forth again in the beauty of innocence. Our object is not to store the memory with facts, but to elevate the soul; not to think for the children, but to teach them to think for themselves; to describe the road, and put them in the way; never to hint what they have been, nor what they are, but to point them continually to what they may be.

"We feel assured that our labor will not be lost. Judging the future from the past, we are sanguine in our belief that our toils have left an impress upon the mind which time can not efface. Scarcely a week passes but our hearts are cheered and animated, and our eyes are gladdened at the sight of those whom we taught in by-gone years, who bid no fairer then to cheer us than those with whom we labor now. Yet they are saved—saved to themselves; saved to society; saved to their friends—who, but for this Refuge, would have poisoned the moral atmosphere of our land, and breathed around them more deadly effluvia than that of the fabled Upas."

The success which has attended well-directed efforts for the reformation of juvenile delinquents, and evening free schools for the education of adults of all ages whose early education has been neglected, ought to inspire the friends of human improvement with increased confidence in the redeeming power of a correct early education, such as every state in this Union may provide for all her children. When this confidence is begotten, and when a good common education comes to be generally regarded as the birth-right of every child in the community, then may the friends of free institutions and of indefinite human advancement look for the more speedy realization of their long-cherished hopes. For one generation the community must be doubly taxed—once in the reformation of juvenile delinquents, and in the education of ignorant adults in evening schools, and again in the correct training of all our children in improved schools. This done, each succeeding generation will come upon the stage under more favorable circumstances than the preceding, and each present generation will be better prepared to educate that which is to follow, to the end of time.


If all our schools were under the charge of teachers possessing what I regard as the right intellectual and moral qualifications, and if all the children of the community were brought under the influence of these schools for ten months in the year, I think that the work of training up THE WHOLE COMMUNITY to intelligence and virtue would soon be accomplished, as completely as any human end can be obtained by human means.—REV. JACOB ABBOTT.

I might here introduce a vast amount of incontrovertible evidence to show that, if the attendance of all the children in any commonwealth could be secured at such improved common schools as we have been contemplating for ten months during the year, from the age of four to that of sixteen years, they would prove competent to the removal of ninety-nine one hundredths of the evils with which society is now infested in one generation, and that they would ultimately redeem the state from social vices and crimes.

The Hon. Horace Mann, late Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, issued a circular in 1847, in which he raised the question now under consideration. This circular was sent out to a large number of the most experienced and reputable teachers in the Northern and Middle States, all of whom were pleased to reply to it. Each reply corroborates the position here stated; and, taken together as a whole, they are entitled to implicit credence. The whole correspondence is too voluminous to be here exhibited; I can not, however, forbear introducing a few illustrative passages.

Says Mr. Page, the late lamented principal of the New York State Normal School, "Could I be connected with a school furnished with all the appliances you name; where all the children should be constant attendants upon my instruction for a succession of years; where all my fellow-teachers should be such as you suppose; and where all the favorable influences described in your circular should surround me and cheer me, even with my moderate abilities as a teacher, I should scarcely expect, after the first generation submitted to the experiment, to fail in a single case to secure the results you have named."

Mr. Solomon Adams, of Boston, who has been engaged in the profession of teaching twenty-four years, remarks as follows: "Permit me to say that, in very many cases, after laboring long with individuals almost against hope, and sometimes in a manner, too, which I can now see was not always wise, I have never had a case which has not resulted in some good degree according to my wishes. The many kind and voluntary testimonials given years afterward by persons who remembered that they were once my way-ward pupils, are among the pleasantest and most cheering incidents of my life. So uniform have been the results, when I have had a fair trial and time enough, that I have unhesitatingly adopted the motto, Never despair. Parents and teachers are apt to look for too speedy results from the labors of the latter. The moral nature, like the intellectual and physical, is long and slow in reaching the full maturity of its strength. I was told a few years since by a person who knew the history of nearly all my pupils for the first five years of my labor, that not one of them had ever brought reproach upon himself or mortification upon friends by a bad life. I can not now look over the whole of my pupils, and find one who had been with me long enough to receive a decided impression, whose life is not honorable and useful. I find them in all the learned professions and in the various mechanical arts. I find my female pupils scattered as teachers through half the states of the Union, and as the wives and assistants of Christian missionaries in every quarter of the globe.

"So far, therefore, as my own experience goes, so far as my knowledge of the experience of others extends, so far as the statistics of crime throw any light upon the subject, I confidently expect that ninety-nine in a hundred, and I think even more, with such means of education as you have supposed, and with such Divine favor as we are authorized to expect, would become good members of society, the supporters of order, and law, and truth, and justice, and all righteousness."

The Rev. Jacob Abbott, who has been engaged in the practical duties of teaching for about ten years in the cities of Boston and New York, and who has had under his care about eight hundred pupils of both sexes, and of all ages from four to twenty-five, has expressed in a long letter the sentiment placed at the head of this section. "If all our schools were under the charge of teachers possessing what I regard as the right intellectual and moral qualifications, and if all the children of the community were brought under the influence of these schools for ten months in the year, I think the work of training up THE WHOLE COMMUNITY to intelligence and virtue would soon be accomplished as completely as any human end can be obtained by human means."

Mr. Roger S. Howard, of Vermont, who has been engaged in teaching about twenty years, remarks, among other things, as follows: "Judging from what I have seen and do know, if the conditions you have mentioned were strictly complied with; if the attendance of the scholars could be as universal, constant, and long-continued as you have stated; if the teachers were men and women of those high intellectual and moral qualities—apt to teach, and devoted to their work, and favored with that blessing which the word and providence of God teach us always to expect upon our honest, earnest, and well-directed efforts in so good a cause—on these conditions and under these circumstances, I do not hesitate to express the opinion that the failures need not be—would not be one per cent."

Miss Catharine E. Beecher, of Brattleboro, Vermont, who has been engaged directly and personally as a teacher about fifteen years, in Hartford, Connecticut, and Cincinnati, Ohio, and who has had the charge of not less than a thousand pupils from every state in the Union, after stating these and other considerations, remarks as follows: "I will now suppose that it could be so arranged that, in a given place, containing from ten to fifteen thousand inhabitants, in any part of the country where I ever resided, all the children at the age of four shall be placed six hours a day, for twelve years, under the care of teachers having the same views that I have, and having received that course of training for their office that any state in this Union can secure to the teachers of its children. Let it be so arranged that all these children shall remain till sixteen under these teachers, and also that they shall spend their lives in this city, and I have no hesitation in saying I do not believe that one, no, NOT A SINGLE ONE, would fail of proving a respectable and prosperous member of society; nay, more, I believe every one would, at the close of life, find admission into the world of endless peace and love. I say this solemnly, deliberately, and with the full belief that I am upheld by such imperfect experimental trials as I have made, or seen made by others; but, more than this, that I am sustained by the authority of Heaven, which sets forth this grand palladium of education, 'Train up a child in the way he should go, and when he is old he will not depart from it.

"This sacred maxim surely sets the Divine imprimatur to the doctrine that all children can be trained up in the way they should go, and that, when so trained, they will not depart from it. Nor does it imply that education alone will secure eternal life without supernatural assistance; but it points to the true method of securing this indispensable aid.

"In this view of the case, I can command no language strong enough to express my infinite longings that my countrymen, who, as legislators, have the control of the institutions, the laws, and the wealth of our physically prosperous nation, should be brought to see that they now have in their hands the power of securing to every child in the coming generation a life of virtue and usefulness here, and an eternity of perfected bliss hereafter. How, then, can I express, or imagine, the awful responsibility which rests upon them, and which hereafter they must bear before the great Judge of nations, if they suffer the present state of things to go on, bearing, as it does, thousands and hundreds of thousands of helpless children in our country to hopeless and irretrievable ruin!"

Testimony similar to the preceding might be multiplied to almost any extent. Enough, however, I trust, has been said to remove any doubts in relation to the redeeming power of education which the reader may have previously entertained. Universal education, we have seen, constitutes the most effectual and the only sure means of securing to individuals and communities, to states and nations, exemption from all avoidable evils of whatever kind, and the possession of a competency of this world's goods, with the ability and disposition so to enjoy them as most to augment human happiness. Yes, education, and nothing short of it, will dissipate the evils of ignorance; it will greatly increase the productiveness of labor, and make men more moral, industrious, and skillful, and thus diminish pauperism and crime, while at the same time it will indefinitely augment the sum total of human happiness. By diminishing the number of fatal accidents that are constantly occurring in every community, and securing to the rising generation such judicious physical and moral treatment as shall give them sound minds in sound bodies, it will lay an unfailing foundation for general prosperity, will greatly promote longevity, and will thus, in both of these and in many other ways, do more to increase the population, wealth, and universal well-being of the thirty states of this Union than all other means of state policy combined.

At the late Peace Convention at Paris to consider the practicability and necessity of a Congress of Nations to adjust national differences, composed of about fifteen hundred members, picked men from every Christian nation, VICTOR HUGO, the President of the Convention, on taking the chair, made an address that was received with great applause, in which the following passages occur:

"A day will come when men will no longer bear arms one against the other; when appeals will no longer be made to war, but to civilization! The time will come when the cannon will be exhibited as an old instrument of torture, and wonder expressed how such a thing could have been used. A day, I say, will come when the United States of America and the United States of Europe will be seen extending to each other the hand of fellowship across the ocean, and when we shall have the happiness of seeing every where the majestic radiation of universal concord."

That such a time will come, every heart that glows with Christian benevolence must earnestly desire and fervently pray. But we can not hope to attain the end without the use of the necessary means. So glorious a result as this, that has become an object of universal desire throughout Christendom, must follow when the conditions upon which it depends are complied with. What these are there can be little room for doubt. Let, then, every friend of Universal Peace seek it in the use of the appropriate means—Universal Education.

The same remark will apply to every form of Christian benevolence and universal philanthropy; for, as has been well remarked, in universal education, every "follower of God and friend of human kind" will find the only sure means of carrying forward that particular reform to which he is devoted. In whatever department of philanthropy he may be engaged, he will find that department to be only a segment of the great circle of beneficence of which Universal Education is the center and circumference; and that he can most successfully promote the permanent advancement of his most cherished interest in securing the establishment of, and attendance upon, IMPROVED SCHOOLS FREE TO ALL.


Abbott, Rev. J., on the redeeming power of common schools, page 456.

Abdominal Supporters, their use considered, 109.

Academy, New York Free, 386.

Accidents, cause and prevention of, 298.

Adams, John Q., accustomed to the daily reading of the Scriptures, 222.

Adams, Solomon, on the redeeming power of common schools, 455.

Agriculture requires education for its successful prosecution, 269.

Air, want of, causes death, 85. Necessary to purify the blood, 89. What composed of, 89. Quantity respired, 91, 93. How changed in respiration, 86, 89. Once respired will not sustain life, 91. Importance of to health, 98. Abundance of for man's use, 99. How freed from impurities, 100. Estimated loss of money and life from breathing impure, 299, 438. An excellent medicine, 108.

Alcott, Dr., on breathing bad air, 103.

Alphabet, how taught, 426. A better method, 426-427.

Anecdote of the Indian, 203, 225. Of Laura Bridgman, 157-159. Of Dr. Franklin, 103. Of a practical teacher, 256. Of a German schoolmaster, 416. Of a farmer plowing with three horses, 254.

Apoplexy, how caused, 90, 92. Death by, 90, 93.

Apparatus and Library, 398. May be useful to adults, 399, 400.

Appurtenances to school-houses, 401.

Arithmetic, often poorly taught, 433. Its morals, 437.

Arts, the useful, require education, 272. Improvements made in the, 280, 282. How improvements are to be made in the, 285.

Astrology believed in, to what extent, 234.

Atmospheric impurities, 100, 101. May be detected, 104.

Barnard, Hon. Henry, School Architecture by, 380. Testimony of, in relation to school libraries, 400. In relation to the external arrangements of school-houses, 402.

Bartlett, H., testimony of in relation to the productiveness of labor, 264.

Bathing, the importance of, 59. The luxury of, 59. The benefits of, 60, 62. The time for, 61, 62. A preservative of health, 63. A good exercise, 80.

Beecher, Miss Catharine E., quoted, 457.

Benevolent females, means of usefulness of, 444.

Bible, its use in schools, 209. Vote on, in the New York Legislature, 219. What it has done for mankind, 222.

Black Hole in Calcutta referred to, 96, 97.

Blindness, hereditary, 36. How caused in schools, 182. Blind persons inferior, 124. Injured by inaction, 127. How taught, 150.

Blood, circulation of the, 82.

Bones, how injured, 68. Lengthened by habit, 72.

Books furnished at the expense of the district, 443.

Boxing the ears injurious, 171.

Brain, the seat of the mind, 113. Its functions the highest in the animal economy, 113. Conditions of its healthy action, 114, 118, 121. How affected by bad air, 118. Requires exercise, 121. Seclusion injurious to, 122. Want of exercise of the, a cause of disease, 127. Effects of excessive activity of the, 128, 129. In childhood, 130-135. Rules for the exercise of the, 135, 137, 140, 143.

Breath known to take fire, 86.

Bull Fights an amusement in Spain, 228.

California, state of agriculture and the arts in, 270.

Capital punishment and compulsory attendance upon school, 446, 449.

Carriage of the body important, 71.

Celebrations, common school, recommended, 364.

Character, how affected by associations, 142, 143, 405.

Chest, how developed, 69, 79, 105, 106. Should not be compressed, 88.

Children, seats for, 69. How deformed, 69. Should not be confined too long, 77. Rational treatment of, 77.

Chylification, the process and necessity of, 50.

Chymification, the second important step in digestion, 49.

Circulation of the blood, 81. Two circulations, 83.

Clark, John, testimony of, in relation to education and labor, 267.

Cleanliness a virtue, 60.

Clergymen, their relation to the primary schools, 414, 442. A text for, 445.

Clothing, office of, 64. Necessity of airing and changing, 65.

Cold, how to prevent taking, 108.

Combe, Dr., on bathing, 63.

Confinement injurious to children, 77.

Conflagration, general, how it may be produced, 320, 321.

Consumption, hereditary, 87. How death caused by, 84. How prevented, 80, 106. Common among the deaf and dumb, 126.

Conventions, educational, recommended, 364.

Costiveness, effects of, 53. How prevented, 54.

Crime diminished by education, 286. Statistics of, 295. Expense of, 358.

Deaf and dumb, why inferior to other persons, 125.

Deafness, cause and cure of, 172.

Digestion, process of, 48.

Diseases, hereditary, 41, 114, 126. Caused by mental inactivity, 127.

District libraries, 399, 400.

District lyceum, how rendered useful, 400.

Drawing an exercise in schools, 191.

Drunkenness becomes constitutional, 41, 42.

Dumb-bells, their use recommended, 105, 403.

Ears, how injured, 171.

Eclipses, a source of alarm to the ignorant and superstitious, 233.

Education, in what it consists, 13. Not finished in schools, 18. Should have reference to man's future existence, 19. Not limited to man's physical powers, 24. Not limited to his intellectual powers, 25. Not limited to his moral powers, 26. Physically considered, 28. Intellectual and moral, 111. Of the five senses, 146. Necessity of moral and religious, 193. The importance of, 225. It dissipates the evils of ignorance, 226, 242. It increases the productiveness of labor, 253. Necessary for females, 268, 279. It diminishes pauperism and crime, 286. It improves the moral habits, 287, 288. It increases human happiness, 311, 315. Degree of, in the United States, 337. Existing provisions for, 343. The means of rendering its blessings universal, 362.

Educational department, the state should maintain an, 370.

Emerson, George B., quoted, 408.

Epidemics arrested by ventilation, 101.

Evacuation, importance of, to the preservation of health, 53.

Evening schools for adults, 453.

Exercise, effects of, 74. When not to be taken, 75. Other laws of, 77. Should be taken regularly, 78.

Experiment on breathing air, 91. In visiting a school, 96. In plowing with three horses, 254.

Eye, description of the, 175. Its sympathy with the other bodily organs, 184. Rational care of the, 180-192. See Sight.

Factories, labor in, requires education to render it productive, 261-269. School teachers employed in, 268.

Failures in business accounted for in certain cases, 140, 141.

Farming requires knowledge, 269. Illustrative anecdote, 254. In California, 270.

Females, benevolent and Christian, their relation to the primary school, 442, 444, 445.

Fortune-telling practiced in Great Britain and in the United States, 234.

Fracture of the skull, cases of, referred to, 129.

France infidel—the United States Christian, 204.

Franklin's Methusalem, 103.

Free Academy, New York, 386.

Freezing of water, law of, illustrates the beneficence of God, 221-223.

French ladies, posture of, 71.

Friday and other unlucky days, 236-238.

Funds for the support of schools, 366. When useful, 369.

General conflagration may be produced by the decomposition of air or water, 321.

Geography, how taught in many schools, 432.

Gestation, state of the mother during, affects the health and happiness of the offspring, 116, 117.

Grain, influence of the moon on the growth of, 250.

Greeley, Horace, extract from Address of, on free schools, 267.

Habits, mental and physical, how formed, 140.

Happiness increased by education, 311.

Health, laws of, 44-81.

Hearing, the sense of, 169. How improved, 171. How injured, 171. Cultivation of, 172-174.

Hereditary diseases, 41, 115.

Hot-bed system of education, 130-135.

House of Refuge for juvenile delinquents, 450-458.

Howard, Roger S., on the redeeming power of common schools, 456.

Howe, Dr. Samuel G., on the importance of physical education, 36.

Humphrey, Dr., on moral and religious training, 194.

Hypocrisy, why unsuccessful, 142.

Idiocy, extent of, 301. Causes of, 302, 303, 409.

Idiots, who are, in law, 151. Condition of, 304. May be educated, 300, 307.

Ignorance, its effects considered, 230. Of the correct treatment of children, 133. Man in a state of, 311.

Indians never have consumption, 109. Anecdote of an, 203, 225.

Indigestion caused by mental anxiety, 137.

Inhaling tubes, their use considered, 109, 110.

Insanity, how caused, 126, 138, 308, 409.

Instruction, modes of, extensively practiced, 425.

Insurance of property, the best modes of, 266, 267.

Intellectual education, its nature, 111.

Intemperance, hereditary, 41, 42. A cause of idiocy, 302. Expense of, in this country, 358, 360. See Breath.

Intermarriages, influence of, on posterity, 115.

Irritability of teachers accounted for, 120.

Juvenile delinquents, provisions for, 449, 450.

Knowledge essential to prosperity in agriculture, 269. Required in the useful arts, 272. See Education.

Labor, education increases the productiveness of, 253. During rapid growth often injurious, 68. Of females in factories and in the domestic employments of the sex, 268, 279.

Ladies in France, consequences of their erect posture, 71.

Lardner, Dr., on popular fallacies, 246, 248.

Laura Bridgman, the deaf, dumb, and blind girl, 148.

Library and apparatus, 398. Township and district libraries, 399.

Life, extensive loss of, how caused, 298.

Lunacy, origin and signification of, 251, 252.

Lunar influences considered, 250.

Lungs strengthened by reading aloud and singing, 79, 80. Blood changed in the, 85. Exhalations from the, 86. Absorption in the, 87. Diseases of the, hereditary, 87. Exercise of the, a means of preventing disease, 105. When they should not be exercised, 107.

Lyceums in districts, how rendered popular and useful, 400.

Mann, Hon. Horace, referred to and quoted, 257, 328.

Manufactories, to be productive, require educated workmen, 261-269. Education of children employed in, 278.

Marriage of relatives a cause of consumption, 126. A cause of idiocy, 303, 304.

Mastication, importance of, to digestion, 48.

Masturbation, 409. See Secret Vice.

Meals, proper time for partaking of, 55.

Measures, a system of, for schools, 188, 404.

Mills, James K., testimony of, in relation to education and labor, 261.

Mind, laws of, 111, 112. See Brain.

Moral education, its nature, 111. Necessity of, 193. Want of, a cause of insanity, 309. Should be pursued practically, 435.

Moon, its influence on the weather, 248.

Mortality, cause and extent of, among infants, 298-300.

Muscles, how they act, 72. Of the eye, 179. See Exercise.

Music, vocal, a branch of education in Germany, 80.

National education, political necessity of, 325. Degree of, in this country, 337. Provisions for, 343. Practicability of, 353. The means of, 362-460.

Natural philosophy, the mode of teaching, 434.

Navigation among the ignorant and educated, 250.

Nerves, sensibility of the, 161, 162. See Brain.

New York, Free Academy, 386. Public Schools in, 386, 434.

Normal Schools, necessity for, 421-440.

Oliver Caswell, the deaf, dumb, and blind boy, 159.

Onanism, 409. See Secret Vice.

Page, D. P., on the redeeming power of common schools, 454.

Parents, the natural educators of their children, 411. Vicious, sometimes reformed by school children, 441.

Pauperism, diminished by education, 286. Extent of, in New York, 358. Expense of maintaining, 358.

Peace convention at Paris referred to, 459.

Petulancy in teachers and others accounted for, 94, 120.

Physical education, importance of, 28. A preventive of disease, 34. The only correct basis for intellectual and moral, 32, 111.

Physician, his office and that of the clergyman compared, 34. How he may be most useful in his profession, 34, 35.

Physiology, made by law a study in common schools, 61. Lectures upon, by school teachers, 61.

Play-rooms, important for small children, 403.

Politics, definition of, 335. Should be a school study, 335.

Politeness should be habitual, 142.

Popular intelligence, degree of, in the United States, 337. Existing provisions for, 343.

Poverty, extent of in Spain, 294. How diminished, 253, 286.

Precocity of scrofulous and rickety children, 130. How they should be treated, 131, 132, 133.

Pregnancy, the state of the mother during, influences the character of the child, 116, 117.

Punishments, certain kinds injurious, 77, 171. See Capital Punishment.

Purblind students, suggestions for, 185.

Quincy, Hon. Josiah, Jr., on compulsory attendance upon school, 447.

Reading aloud a healthful exercise, 79. How reading is frequently taught, 429. A better way, 430.

Reading-room in connection with the school-house, 399.

Recesses in schools should be frequent, 77.

Reform school. See State Reform School.

Regularity, in bodily exercise, 78. In mental exercise, 139.

Relatives, consequences of the marriage of, 126, 303.

Religion defined, 207. Of some kind unavoidable, 207.

Religious education, the necessity for, 193. Should be reduced to practice, 435.

Respiration, philosophy of, 81.

Rickety children injured by study, 130.

Riots, expense of, in Philadelphia, 357.

Roman notation table, how taught, 428. A better way, 429.

Rush, Dr., on the use of tobacco, 67.

School funds, their utility considered, 366-369.

School-houses, their common size, 92. Good ones should be provided, 372. The condition of, 373. The location of, 379. Size and construction of, 382. For country districts, 383. For cities and villages, 385. Plans for, 387-389. Ventilation of, 390. Means of warming, 392. Appurtenances to, 401. Influence of, 405.

Schools, the support of, 366. The redeeming power of, 454. Should continue through the year, 440. Every child should attend, 442. Compulsory attendance upon, 447.

Scrofulous children injured by study, 130. Proper treatment of, 131, 132.

Seclusion from society injurious to both body and mind, 122.

Secret vice, how increased, 405. How remedied, 407. Causes idiocy, insanity, and other evils, 409.

See-saws, how rendered interesting and useful, 403.

Senses, education of the, 146. Loss of the, impairs the health, 124, 125. Loss of the, causes insanity, 126. General law concerning the, 162. Their cultivation increases human happiness, 191.

Shooting stars a source of terror to the ignorant, 234.

Shoulder braces, their use considered, 109, 110.

Sickness in school accounted for, 94, 95, 96, 119.

Sight, the sense of, 175. Influence of tobacco and spectacles on the, 186. How injured, and how preserved and improved, 180-186. How persons become near or long sighted, 183, 184. How the sight may be disciplined, 188.

Skin, functions of the, 55. Cleanliness of, important, 59.

Skull, cases of fracture of the, 129.

Smell, the sense of, 165. Its uses, 167. How injured, 168.

Snuff, its influence upon the sense of smell, 169.

Spectacles, the use of, often injurious, 186.

Sports, what kinds most advantageous, 79.

State Reform School in Massachusetts, 449.

Statistics of education in the United States, 337-351.

Stooping, how induced, 70. Habitual, to be avoided, 70.

Study, best time for, 138. See Brain.

Sulphureted hydrogen gas poisonous, 102.

Summary of important principles, 145, 286, 323, 361. Of improvements in the arts, 282.

Taste, the sense of, its uses and abuses, 163-165.

Teachers, why their health fails, 94-96. Employed in factories, 268. Their relation to the school, 410-440. Books for, 410. Tobacco used by, 417. Indulge in other evil practices, 417-420. Who make the best, 438. Qualifications of, 340, 350, 417, 420, 422. Institutes for, 420.

Teaching, should be ranked among the learned professions, 412, 439. Compared with the practice of law, 413. With the business of legislation, 413. With the practice of medicine, 414. With the clerical profession, 414.

Teeth, their relation to health, 65. How to preserve them, 65. Acids injurious to them, 66. Tobacco not a preservative of, 66.

Timber, time for felling, 248.

Tobacco, its use tends to drunkenness, 67. It impairs the sight, 186. Used by teachers, 417. Used by ministers, 417, 418. A lady's inquiry concerning the use of, 419. The use of, expensive, 420.

Touch, sense of, 160. How improved, 161.

Township libraries instead of district libraries, 399.

Truancy, legal provisions concerning, 447-450.

Union or graded schools, 384. They should possess a normal characteristic, 433.

United States, the, a Christian nation, 204. See France.

Universal education. See Education, National Education, and Free Schools.

Unlucky days in Scotland, 236. In the United States, 237.

Vaccination, how effected, 59.

Ventilation, necessity of, 91-99. Of clothing, 57, 64. Means of, 390, 397.

Vocal gymnastics, influence of, 107.

Vocal music useful as an exercise, 80. Dr. Rush's testimony quoted, 80. Should be introduced into all our schools, 107.

Walking, not the best exercise, 78. How rendered most beneficial, 78.

Washington, quotation from Farewell Address of, 221.

Waste, the cause of, 44. The repair of, 47.

Water, the freezing of, illustrates the beneficence of God, 321-323.

Watson, Rev. James V., on the providence of God, 62.

Weather, does the moon influence the, 248.

Weights and measures for school apparatus, 404. See Measures.

Witchcraft in England and New England, 240.

Young, the Hon. Samuel, on the use of the Bible in schools, 220.


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The Spectator in Miniature. Selections from the Spectator; embracing the most interesting Papers by Addison and others. 2 vols. 18mo, Muslin, 90 cents.

Arabian Nights' Entertainments. Or, the Thousand and One Nights. Translated and arranged for Family Reading, with explanatory Notes, by E. W. LANE, Esq. With 600 Engravings. 2 vols. 12mo, Muslin, plain edges, $3 50; Muslin, gilt edges, $3 75; Turkey Morocco, gilt edges, $6 00.

Bacon and Locke. Essays, Moral, Economical, and Political. And the Conduct of the Understanding. 18mo, Muslin, 45 cents.

Bucke's Beauties, Harmonies, and Sublimities of Nature. 18mo, Muslin, 45 cents.

Chesterfield's Works. Including his Letters to his Son, complete. With a Memoir. 8vo, Muslin, $1 75.

The Moral, Social, and Professional Duties of Attorneys and Solicitors. By SAMUEL WARREN, F.R.S. 18mo, Muslin, 75 cents.

The Incarnation; Or, Pictures of the Virgin and her Son. By the Rev. CHARLES BEECHER. With an introductory Essay, by Mrs. HARRIET B. STOWE. 18mo, Muslin.

Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England. With the last Corrections of the Author, and Notes from the Twenty-first London Edition. With copious Notes explaining the Changes in the Law effected by Decision or Statute down to 1844. Together with Notes adapting the Work to the American Student, by J. L. WENDELL, Esq. With a Memoir of the Author. 4 vols. 8vo, Sheep extra, $7 00.

Burke's complete Works. With a Memoir. Portrait. 3 vols. 8vo, Sheep extra, $5 00.

Letters, Conversations, and Recollections of S. T. Coleridge. 12mo, Muslin, 65 cents.

Specimens of the Table-talk of S. T. Coleridge. Edited by H. N. COLERIDGE. 12mo, Muslin, 70 cents.

Mardi: and a Voyage Thither. By HERMAN MELVILLE. 2 vols. 12mo, Muslin, $1 75.

Omoo; Or, a Narrative of Adventures in the South Seas. By HERMAN MELVILLE. 12mo, Muslin, $1 25.

Montgomery's Lectures on General Literature, Poetry, &c., with a Retrospect of Literature, and a View of modern English Literature. 18mo, Muslin, 45 cents.

Boswell's Life of Dr. Johnson. Including a Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides. With numerous Additions and Notes, by J. W. CROKER, LL.D. A new Edition. Portraits. 2 vols. 8vo, Muslin, $2 75; Sheep extra, $3 00.

Dr. Samuel Johnson's complete Works. With an Essay on his Life and Genius, by A. MURPHY, Esq. Engravings. 2 vols. 8vo, Muslin, $2 75; Sheep extra, $3 00.

Cicero's Offices, Orations, &c. The Orations translated by DUNCAN; the Offices, by COCKMAN; and the Cato and Laelius, by MELMOTH. With a Portrait. 3 vols. 18mo, Muslin, $1 25.

Paley's Natural Theology. A new Edition, from large Type, edited by D. E. BARTLETT. Copiously Illustrated, and a Life and Portrait of the Author. 2 vols. 12mo, Muslin, $1 50.

Paley's Natural Theology. With illustrative Notes, &c., by Lord BROUGHAM and Sir C. BELL, and preliminary Observations and Notes, by ALONZO POTTER, D.D. With Engravings. 2 vols. 18mo, Muslin, 90 cents.

The Orations of Demosthenes. Translated by Dr. LELAND. 2 vols. 18mo, Muslin, 85 cents.

Lamb's Works. Comprising his Letters, Poems, Essays of Elia, Essays upon Shakespeare, Hogarth, &c., and a Sketch of his Life, by T. N. TALFOURD. Portrait. 2 vols. royal 12mo, Muslin, $2 00.

Hoes and Way's Anecdotical Olio. Anecdotes, Literary, Moral, Religious, and Miscellaneous. 8vo, Muslin, $1 00.

Dendy's Philosophy of Mystery. 12mo, Muslin, 50 cents.

Potter's Hand-book for Readers and Students, Intended to assist private Individuals, Associations, School Districts, &c., in the Selection of useful and interesting Works for Reading and Investigation. 18mo, Muslin, 45 cents.

Amenities of Literature; Consisting of Sketches and Characters of English Literature By I. D'ISRAELI, D.C.L., F.S.A. 2 vols. 12mo, Muslin, $1 50.

Dryden's complete Works. With a Memoir. Portrait. 2 vols. 8vo, Sheep extra, $3 75.

Woman in America; Being an Examination into the Moral and Intellectual Condition of American Female Society. By Mrs. A. J. GRAVES. 18mo, Muslin, 45 cents.

Homes and Haunts of the most eminent British Poets. By WILLIAM HOWITT. With numerous Illustrations. 2 vols. 12mo, Muslin, $3 00.

Mrs. Jameson's Visits and Sketches at Home and Abroad. Including the "Diary of an Ennuyee." 2 vols 12mo, Muslin, $1 00.

The Sacred Philosophy of the Seasons. Illustrating the Perfections of God in the Phenomena of the Year. By the Rev. HENRY DUNCAN, D.D. Edited by F. W. P. GREENWOOD, D.D. 4 vols. 12mo, Muslin, $3 00.

Mackenzie's Novels and Miscellaneous Works: Comprising The Man of Feeling, The Man of the World, Julia de Roubigne, &c. With a Memoir of the Author, by Sir WALTER SCOTT. Royal 12mo, Muslin, $1 00.

How to Observe: Morals and Manners. By Miss HARRIET MARTINEAU. 12mo, Muslin, 42-1/2 cents.

The Spoon. With upward of 100 Illustrations, Primitive, Egyptian, Roman, Mediaeval, and Modern. By H. O. WESTMAN. 8vo, Muslin, $1 25.

Neele's Literary Remains. The Literary Remains of Henry Neele. 8vo, Muslin, $1 00.

A New Spirit of the Age. Edited by R. H. HORNE. 12mo, Paper, 25 cents.

Men, Women, and Books. A Selection of Sketches, Essays, and Critical Memoirs, from his uncollected Prose Writings. By LEIGH HUNT. 2 vols. 12mo, Muslin, $1.50.

Georgia Scenes. With original Illustrations. 12mo, Muslin, 90 cents.

Hannah More's complete Works. With Engravings. 1 vol. 8vo, Sheep extra, $2 50; 2 vols., Sheep extra, $2 75.

Hannah More's complete Works. Printed from large Type. 7 vols. royal 12mo, Muslin, $6 50.

Blunt's Ship-master's Assistant and Commercial Digest: comprising Information necessary for Merchants, Owners, and Masters of Ships on the following Subjects: Masters, Mates, Seamen, Owners, Ships, Navigation Laws, Fisheries, Revenue Cutters. Custom House Laws, Importations, Clearing and Entering Vessels, Drawbacks, Freight, Insurance, Average, Salvage, Bottomry and Respondentia, Factors, Bills of Exchange, Exchange, Currencies, Weights, Measures, Wreck Laws, Quarantine Laws, Passenger Laws, Pilot Laws, Harbor Regulations, Marine Offenses, Slave Trade, Navy, Pensions, Consuls, Commercial Regulations of Foreign Nations. With an Appendix, containing the Tariff of the United States, and an Explanation of Sea Terms. 8vo, Sheep extra, $4 50.

Miss Edgeworth's Tales and Novels. With Engravings. 10 vols. 12mo, Muslin. 75 cents per Volume. Sold separately or in Sets.

Mrs. Sherwood's Works. With Engravings. 16 vols. 12mo, Muslin. 85 cents per Volume. Sold separately or in Sets.

Louis the Fourteenth, and the Court of France in the Seventeenth Century. By Miss PARDOE. With numerous Engravings, Portraits, &c. 2 vols. 12mo, Muslin, $3 50.

The Philosophy of Life and Philosophy of Language, in a Course of Lectures. By FREDERICK VON SCHLEGEL. Translated from the German, by the Rev. A. J. W. MORRISON, M.A. 12mo, Muslin, 90 cents.

Prescott's Biographical and Critical Miscellanies. Containing Notices of Charles Brockden Brown, the American Novelist.—Asylum for the Blind.—Irving's Conquest of Granada.—Cervantes.—Sir Walter Scott.—Chateaubriand's English Literature.—Bancroft's History of the United States.—Madame Calderon's Life in Mexico.—Moliere.—Italian Narrative Poetry.—Scottish Song, &c. 8vo, Muslin, $2 00; Sheep extra, $2 25; half Calf, $2 50.

Pursuit of Knowledge under Difficulties; Its Pleasures and Rewards. Illustrated by Memoirs of eminent Men. 2 vols. 18mo, Muslin, 90 cents.

Pursuit of Knowledge under Difficulties; Its Pleasures and Rewards. Illustrated by Memoirs of eminent Men. Edited by Rev. Dr. WAYLAND. With Portraits. 2 vols. 12mo, Muslin, $1 50.

Letters to Mothers. By Mrs. L. H. SIGOURNEY. 12mo, Muslin, 90 cents; Muslin, gilt edges, $1 00.

Letters to Young Ladies. By Mrs. L. H. SIGOURNEY. 12mo, Muslin, 90 cents; Muslin, gilt edges, $1 00.

The Doctor, &c. By ROBERT SOUTHEY. 12mo, Muslin, 45 cents.

Percy Anecdotes. To which is added, a Selection of American Anecdotes. With Portraits. 8vo, Sheep extra, $2 00.

The Writings of Robert C. Sands. With a Memoir. 2 vols. 8vo, Muslin, $3 75.

Sismondi's Historical View of the Literature of the South of Europe. Translated, with Notes, by THOMAS ROSCOE. 2 vols. 12mo, Muslin, $1 80.

Hon. J. C. Smith's Correspondence and Miscellanies. With an Eulogy, by the Rev. WILLIAM W. ANDREWS. 12mo, Muslin, $1 00.

England and America: A Comparison of the Social and Political State of both Nations. By E. G. WAKEFIELD. 8vo, Muslin, $1 25.

Letters of the British Spy. By WILLIAM WIRT. To which is prefixed a Sketch of the Author's Life. 12mo, Muslin, 60 cents.

Paulding's Letters from the South. 2 vols. 12mo, Muslin, $1 25.

Indian Tales and Legends; Or, Algic Researches. Comprising Inquiries respecting the Mental Characteristics of the North American Indians. By HENRY R. SCHOOLCRAFT. 2 vols. 12mo, Muslin, $1 25.

Cassius M. Clay's Writings; Including Speeches and Addresses. With a Preface and Memoir, by HORACE GREELEY. Portrait. 8vo, Muslin, $1 50.

Past and Present, Chartism, and Sartor Resartus. By THOMAS CARLYLE. 12mo, Muslin, $1 00.

Mathews's Miscellaneous Writings: Embracing The Motley Book, Behemoth, The Politicians, Poems on Man in the Republic, Wakondah, Puffer Hopkins, Miscellanies, &c. 8vo, Muslin, $1 00.

Verplanck's Right Moral Influence and Use of Liberal Studies. 12mo, Muslin, 25 cents.

Raphael; Or, Pages of the Book of Life at Twenty. By A. DE LAMARTINE. 12mo, Paper, 25 cents.

Thankfulness. A Narrative. Comprising Passages from the Diary of the Rev. Allan Temple. By the Rev. C. B. TAYLER. 12mo, Paper, 37-1/2 cents; Muslin, 50 cents.

Longfellow's Poems. A new Edition, enlarged by the Addition of "Evangeline." 8vo, Paper, 62-1/2 cents.

Harper's Illustrated Shakespeare. The complete Dramatic Writings of William Shakespeare, arranged according to recent approved collations of the Text; with Notes and other Illustrations, by Hon. GULIAN C. VERPLANCK. Superbly Embellished by over 1400 exquisite Engravings by Hewet, after Designs by Meadows, Weir, and other eminent Artists. 3 vols. royal 8vo, Muslin, $18 00; half Calf, $20 00; Turkey Morocco, gilt edges, $25 00.

Shakespeare's Dramatic Works. With the Corrections and Illustrations of Dr. JOHNSON, G. STEEVENS, and others. Revised by ISAAC REED, Esq. With Engravings. 6 vols. royal 12mo, Muslin, $6 50.

Shakespeare's Dramatic Works and Poems. With Notes, by SAMUEL WELLER SINGER, and a Life of the Poet, by CHARLES SYMMONS, D.D. With Engravings. 8vo, Sheep extra, 1 vol., $2 50; 2 vols., $2 75.

Milton's Poetical Works. With a Memoir and Critical Remarks on his Genius and Writings, by JAMES MONTGOMERY. With 120 Engravings. 2 vols. 8vo, Muslin, gilt edges, $3 75; imitation Morocco, gilt edges, $4 25; Turkey Morocco, gilt edges, $5 00.

Cowper's Poetical Works. With a Biographical and Critical Introduction, by the Rev THOMAS DALE. With 75 Illustrations. 2 vols. 8vo, Muslin, gilt edges, $3 75; Turkey Morocco, gilt edges, $5 00.

Thomson's Seasons. With numerous engraved Illustrations. And with the Life of the Author, by PATRICK MURDOCH, D.D., F.R.S. Edited by BOLTON CORNEY, Esq. 8vo, Muslin, gilt edges, $2 75; imitation Morocco, gilt edges, $3 50; Turkey Morocco, gilt edges, $4 00.

Goldsmith's Poetical Works. Illustrated by numerous Wood Engravings. With a Biographical Memoir, and Notes on the Poems. Edited by BOLTON CORNEY, Esq. 8vo, Muslin, gilt edges, $2 50; imitation Morocco, gilt edges, $3 25; Turkey Morocco, gilt edges, $3 75.



Alison on the Nature and Principles of Taste With Corrections and Improvements, by ABRAHAM MILLS. 12mo, Muslin, 75 cents.

Beecher's (Miss) Address. The Evils suffered by American Women and American Children: the Causes and the Remedy. Also, an Address to the Protestant Clergy of the United States. 8vo, Paper, 12-1/2 cents.

Boyd's Elements of Rhetoric and Literary Criticism. With practical Exercises and Examples. Also, a succinct History of the English Language, and of British and American Literature. 18mo, half Bound, 50 cents.

Burke on the Sublime and Beautiful. A Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful. With an introductory Discourse concerning Taste. Edited by A. MILLS. 12mo, Muslin, 75 cents.

Campbell's Philosophy of Rhetoric. Revised Edition. 12mo, Muslin, $1 25.

Dick on the Improvement of Society by the Diffusion of Knowledge. 18mo, Muslin, 45 cents.

Combe's Constitution of Man, Considered in Relation to external Objects. 18mo, Muslin, 45 cents.

Duty of American Women to their Country. 18mo, Muslin, 37-1/2 cents.

Edgeworth's Treatise on Practical Education. By RICHARD L. EDGEWORTH and MARIA EDGEWORTH. Engravings. 12mo, Muslin, 85 cents.

Family Instructor; Or, a Manual of the Duties of Domestic Life. By a Parent. 18mo, Muslin, 45 cents.

The Importance of Practical Education and Useful Knowledge. By Hon. EDWARD EVERETT. 12mo, Muslin, 75 cents.

Johnson's (A. B.) Lectures to Young Men. Religion in its Relation to the Present Life. In a Series of Lectures. 18mo, Muslin, 45 cents.

Johnson's (A. B.) Treatise on Language; Or, the Relations which Words bear to Things. 8vo, Muslin, $1 75.

Maury's Principles of Eloquence. With an Introduction, by Rev. Dr. POTTER. 18mo, Muslin, 45 cents; half Bound, 50 cents.

Parker's Aids to English Composition. Embracing Specimens and Examples of School and College Exercises, and most of the higher Departments of English Composition. 12mo, Muslin, 80 cents; Sheep extra, 90 cents.

Sedgwick's (Miss) Means and Ends; Or, Self-training. 18mo, Muslin, 45 cents.

The School and the Schoolmaster. The School; its Objects, Relations, and Uses. With a Sketch of the Education most needed in the United States, the present State of Common Schools, &c. By Rev. Dr. POTTER.—The proper Character, Studies, and Duties of the Teacher, with the best Methods for the Government and Instruction of Common Schools, and the Principles on which School-houses should be Built, Arranged, Warmed, and Ventilated. By G. B. EMERSON. With Engravings. 12mo, Muslin, $1 00.

Phelps's (Mrs.) Fireside Friend; Or, Female Student: being Advice to Young Ladies on the Subject of Education. 12mo, Muslin, 75 cents.

Smith's History of Education: With a Plan of Culture and Instruction, based on Christian Principles, and designed to aid in the right Education of Youth, Physically, Intellectually, and Morally. 18mo, Muslin, 45 cents.

Russell's Juvenile Speaker, Comprising elementary Rules and Exercises in Declamation, with a Selection of Pieces for Practice. 12mo, Muslin, 60 cents; half Bound, 70 cents.

Mill's Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive. Being a connected View of the Principles of Evidence and Methods of Scientific Investigation. 8vo, Muslin, $2 00.

Cicero's Three Dialogues on the Orator. Translated into English by W. GUTHRIE. Revised and corrected, with Notes. 18mo, Muslin, 45 cents.

Nott's Counsels to Young Men, On the Formation of Character, and the Principles which lead to Success and Happiness in Life. 18mo, Muslin, 50 cents.


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