Will you kindly inform me what you consider the best treatment for apple trees affected by woolly aphis?
The best way to kill the woolly aphis on the roots is to remove the earth from around the tree to a distance of one or two feet, according to the size of the tree, digging away a few inches of the surface soil, Then soak the soil around the tree with kerosene emulsion, properly made, of 15 per cent strength, and replace the earth. Be sure you get a good emulsion, for free oil is dangerous. For the insects above ground on the twigs, a good spraying while the tree is out of leaf will kill many, but some will survive for summer spraying, and for this a tobacco spray may be most convenient.
Blister Mite on Walnuts.
I am sending you some walnut leaves with some swellings an them. They are very plentiful on some trees here. Is the trouble serious and will it spread?
This is merely Erinose, or Blister Mite, which is a very common trouble on walnuts, but does not do enough damage to call for methods of control. These swellings are caused by numerous, very small insects which live within the blisters on the under side of the leaf amongst a felt-like, heavy growth which develops there. While this effect is very common, it produces no appreciable injury and needs no treatment for its control.
Scale on Apricots.
I would like to know how to check the scale on apricot trees.
The most common scale on apricots, the brown apricot scale, is usually held in check by the comys fusca, which is as widely distributed as the scale itself. If it gets beyond the parasite, you should spray in winter with crude oil emulsion. If some scales are punctured or have a black spot on top, the comys fusca is busy and you probably will be safe enough without doing anything.
Fumigating for Black Scale.
I would like to know the best method of eradicating the black scale from my orange trees, whether by spraying or fumigation?
Spraying has been given up as a suitable method for controlling the black scale on citrus trees, and the only recognized method of merit where the scale is bad is by fumigation with hydrocyanic acid gas. You should communicate with your county horticultural commissioner, who, through inspectors, will see that you have a good job done, at the right time and at as moderate price as is compatible with good work. It is impossible to 'eradicate' the black scale, but there is a great difference in the amount that can be killed, and it pays to have a job done as near perfectly as possible. Similar methods of attacking other scale insects on citrus trees are used.
How can the presence of pear thrips be detected in a prune orchard? Will the distillate emulsion-nicotine spray control brown scale as well as thrips?
You can find thrips by shaking a cluster of blossoms, as soon as they open, over a sheet of paper or in the palm of your hand. The thrips are very minute, transparent, somewhat louse-like insects. The spray you mention would probably have little effect on the brown scale which would still be in the egg state and under cover, at the time the early spring spraying for the thrips.
Control of Pear Slug.
I am sending, under separate cover, some samples of cherry tree leaves that have been attacked by a small snail or slug. Kindly let me know what they are, and how to rid the trees of them.
The creatures you speak of are the pear slugs, or the cherry slugs, as they are sometimes known. Although slimy, like the big yellow slug that is a pest in vegetable gardens, it is no relation thereto, but is the larva of an insect. Its olive green color, slimy appearance and the way it eats the surface of the leaves make it about the easiest of all insects to identify. Parasites and predacious insects usually keep it in fair control. Whenever artificial methods of control are needed the slugs can best be destroyed by sprinkling dust of any kind upon them. If you can get a machine for sulphuring a vineyard and use some air slaked lime or other fine dust, it will fix them quickly and inexpensively, though any way of applying dust may be used.
Cutworms and Young Trees.
What method should be used to protect young fruit trees from cutworms?
Hoe around the trees or vines and kill the fat, greasy grubs which you will find near the foliage. Put out a poisoned bait which the worms like better than the foliage, viz. Bran, 10 pounds; white arsenic, 1/2 pound; molasses, 1/2 gallon; water, 2 gallons. Mix the arsenic with the bran dry. Add the molasses to the water and mix into the bran, making a moist paste. Put a tablespoonful near the base of the tree or vine and lock up the chickens.
Control of Squash Bugs.
We are troubled with pumpkin bugs. Please tell us what to do for them.
When the bugs first make their appearance in the field they can be easily disposed of by hand picking and dropping into a bucket containing about two inches of water with about one-fourth inch of kerosene on top to kill the bugs. The picking should be done in the morning, as the bugs are apt to fly in the warm part of the day and scatter where already picked. Two persons can pick over an acre in one and a half hours, and two pickings are usually sufficient for a season, as after the vines begin to run over the ground pretty well the bugs will not be able to hurt them much. A pair of thin old gloves will help to keep off one's hands some of the perfume from the bugs. The sooner the work starts the fewer bugs to pick. Cleaning up of all old vines in the fall and removing litter in which the mature bugs hide for the winter will permit less eggs to be laid in the spring and there will be fewer bugs to pick as a result.
The Corn Worm.
Last year all my ears of corn were infested with maggot, growing fat thereon. Can you help me scare them away?
You have to do with the so-called corn worm which is very abundant in this State and one of the greatest pests to corn growing. It is the same insect which is known as the boll worm of the cotton in the Southern States. No satisfactory method of controlling this has been found, although a great deal of experimentation has been done. Nearly everything that could be thought of has been tried without very satisfactory results. A late planted corn has sometimes been free, for the insect is not in the laying stage then. If it were not for this insect the canning of corn would be an important industry in this State.
I have in about four acres of watermelons, and there seem to be lice and a small gnat or fly, and also some small green bugs and white worms on the under part of the leaves, which seem to be stopping the growth of the vines, making them wilt and die. They seem to be more in patches, although a few on all the vines. Can you please tell me what to do for them?
Melon lice are very hard to catch up with after you have let them get a start. Spraying with oil emulsions, tobacco extracts, soap solutions, etc., will all kill the lice if you get it onto them with a good spray pump and suitable nozzles for reaching the under sides of the leaves. The gnats you speak of are the winged forms of the lice; the white worms may be eating the lice; the "small green bugs" may be diabroticas. If you had started in lively as soon as you saw the first lice you could have destroyed them in the places where they started. Now your chance lies largely in the natural multiplication of ladybirds and the occurrence of hot winds which will burn up the lice. It is too late probably, to undertake spraying the whole field.
Is there any way to destroy or overcome the destructive work of the wireworm, which I find in some spots takes the lion's share of crops, such as beans, potatoes, onions, etc.?
We do not know any easy way with wire worms. Nitrate of soda is believed to kill or repel them, but you have to be careful with it, for too much will either over-stimulate or kill the kill; about 200 pounds per acre, well distributed, is the usual prescription for the good of the plants. Wire worms can probably be killed with carbon bisulphide, using a tablespoonful poured into holes about a foot deep, three or four feet apart. The vapor would permeate the soil and kill all ground insects, but the acre-cost of such treatment must be measured in its relation to the value of the crop. The most promising policy with wire worms is rotation of crops, starving them out with a grain or grass crop and not growing such crops as you mention continually on the same land.
How can I keep certain insects from getting into my dry beans? I have finished picking the crop. Every year a little, short, stubby beetle gets in them before spring and makes them unfit for use.
You have to do with the bean weevil. The eggs are inserted by the insect while the beans are still green in the pods; subsequently the eggs hatch and the worm excavates the interior of the ripened beans. The beans can be protected after ripening by heating carefully to 130 Fahrenheit, which will destroy the egg, or the larva if already hatched. Of course, this heating must be done cautiously and with the aid of a good thermometer for fear of destroying the germinating power. The work of the insect can also be stopped by putting the beans in a barrel or other close receptacle, with a saucer containing about an ounce of carbon bi-sulfid to vaporize. Be careful not to approach the vapor with a light. After treatment for one-half hour, the cover can be removed and the vapor will entirely dissipate. This is a safer treatment than the heating. Similar methods of control can be used on other pea and bean weevils.
Slugs in Garden.
Can you advise me how I can get rid of slugs in my garden?
When barriers of lime, ashes, etc., are ineffective, traps consisting of pieces of board sacking and similar materials placed about the field prove inviting to the slugs. They collect under these and by going over the field in the early morning they may be put into a salt-water solution or otherwise destroyed. Arsenical sprays applied with an underspray nozzle to the lower surface of the leaves will help control the slugs. Poison bran mash consisting of 16 pounds of coarse bran, 2 quarts of cheap syrup, and enough warm water to make a coarse mash, is very good for cutworms and should be equally effective for slugs. It should be placed in small heaps about the plants to be protected. Cabbage leaves dipped in grease drippings and placed about the fields also prove attractive bait for the slugs, which may then be collected there. If a person has a taste for poultry, the keeping of a few ducks may solve the slug problem without further bother. Cultivation or irrigation methods that give a dry surface most of the time also discourage these pests.
Cause of Mottle Leaf.
What is the cause and cure of mottle leaf of citrus trees?
There are apparently a number of causes of this trouble, all more or less obscure and hard to overcome. It is generally thought that it is due to poor nutrition, whatever the reason for poor nutrition might be. The presence of a nematode or eel worm on the roots has found to be a cause of mottle leaf in many cases. Poor drainage, too sandy soil and a number of other things frequently cause it. Whatever the cause, no one good method of cure has been found.
I think most of my potatoes will have some scab. Will you please tell me if my next crop would be apt to have scab, provided I got good clean seed and planted in the same ground?
It seems demonstrated that a treatment of the seed will practically insure against potato scab. One method is dipping the potatoes in a solution of corrosive sublimate. Dissolve one ounce in eight gallons of water and soak the seed potatoes in this solution for one and one-half hours before cutting.
I have some alfalfa, some hogs and some gophers, also some strychnine and carrots. If I put the strychnine on the carrots, and endeavor to poison the gophers, and the hogs get hold of the poison will it kill them?
You will find that hogs are liable to poison like any other animal, and the safest way to poison the gophers, while the hogs are running in the field is to bury the poisoned carrots very deeply in the gopher hole and then put a row of sticks or branches over the mouth of the hole so that the hogs cannot root around and get at the poisoned carrots.
How to Make Bordeaux.
Use copper sulphate (bluestone) 5 pounds; quick-lime (good stone lime), 6 pounds; water, 50 gallons. Put the bluestone in a sack and hang it so it will be suspended just under the surface of a barrel of water over night, or dissolve in hot water. Use one gallon of water to one pound of bluestone. Slake the lime in a separate barrel, using just enough water to make a smooth, clean, thin whitewash. Stir this vigorously. Use wooden vessels only. Fill the spray tank half full of water, add one gallon of bluestone solution for each pound required, then strain in the lime and the remainder of the water and stir thoroughly. The formula may be varied according to conditions, using from 3 to 8 pounds of bluestone to 50 gallons of water and an equal or slight excess of lime. Use the stronger mixture in rainy weather. Keep the mixture constantly agitated while applying.
Formula for Lime-Sulphur.
To make lime-sulphur take quick-lime, 20 pounds; ground sulphur, 15 pounds and water 30 gallons. Slake the lime with hot water in a large kettle, add the sulphur and stir well together. After the violent slaking subsides add more water and boil the mixture over a fire for at least one hour. After boiling sufficiently strain into the spray tank and dilute with water to the proper strength. If a steam boiler is available, this mixture may be prepared more easily on a large scale by cooking in barrels into which steam pipes are introduced. This mixture cannot be applied safely except during the winter when the trees are dormant. A large proportion of the lime-sulphur used in the State is purchased already prepared in more concentrated form.
Almond Grafting on Peach Pruning Budding and Grafting Planting Pollination Roots for Longevity of Seedlings Do Not Plant in Place Stick-Tights And Peach Apples Shy-Bearing Not on Quince Stock For And Alfalfa Top Grafting Mildew on Seedlings Pruning Will They Be Same Kind Places for Grafting in Place Resistant Roots For Hot Place Die-Back of Storage of Root-Grafts Apricots Pruning Shy-Bearing Propagation Renewing Old Summer Pruning Bananas In California Berries Pruning Himalayas Hardiness of Hybrids With Perfect Flowers Pruning Loganberries Strawberry Planting Blackberries for Drying Planting Bush Fruits Strawberry Plants Strawberries in Succession Gooseberries, Limitations of Carobs In California Cherries For Hot Place Wild Pruning Training Grafts Restoring Tress Pollination Citron Curing Citrus Fruit Temperatures Filbert Roots Filbert Growing Figs Stickers No Gopher-Proof Roots Trays, Cleaning Fruit Trees Depth of Soil What Slopes and Overflow Roots for and Sunburn Budding Starting from Seed Square or Triangular Planting Planting on Clearings Dipping Roots of Preparing for Planting Depth of Planting In Wet Place Cutting Back at Planting Branching Young Coal Tar and Asphaltum Regular Bearing of Avoiding Crotches Crotch-Splitting Strengthening Covering Wounds Covering Sunburned Bark Gravel Streak Transplanting Old Dwarfing Seedling Filling Holes in Deferring Bloom Repairing Rabbit Injuries Crops Between Scions for Mailing Scions from Young Trees Whitewashing Deciduous Planting On Coast Sands Over Underflow Grapefruit and Nuts Grapes Dry Farming Cutting Frosted Canes Dipping Seedless Zante Currant Vines for Arbor Pruning Old Vines Bleeding Vines Scant Moisture Sulphuring for Mildew Sugar in Canned Planting Grafting Wax June Drop Killing Moss on Tree Interplanting, Wrong idea Lemons Citrus Budding No Citrus Fruits on Roots Mulberries Pruning and Grafting Nursery Stock in Young Orchard Orchard Replanting Plowing in Young Pigs in Forage Under Sprayed Trees Oranges Water and Frost Thinning Wind-Blown Trees Handling Balled Trees Navel Not Thornless Over-Size Budding or Grafting in Orchard Under-Pruning Trees Keeping Trees too Low Dying Back of Trees Young Trees Dropping Fruit Training Crops Between Trees Navels and Valencias Seedlings Acres to One Man Roots for Trees Soil and Situation Transplanting Protecting Young Trees Not on Osage No Pollenizer for Navels Water and Frost Frosted, What to do Pruning Frosted Trees Pruning Olives Cultivating Moving Old Trees Darkening Pickled Seedlings Must Be Grafted Oranges and Peppers Budding Seedlings Budding Old from Small Cuttings from Large Cuttings Trimming Up Canning Renewing Trees Growing from Seed Neglected Trees Peaches Lye-peeling Aged Trees Renewing Orchard Will He Have Fillers in Apple Orchard Grafting on Almond on Apricot Replanting after Root Knot Buds in Bearing Trees Pollen Must Be Same Kind Grafting on Young Trees Fail to Start Planting in Alfalfa Sod Pecan Growing Pears Pollination of Bartletts Comics Not on Peach Dwarf Pears Yield in Drying Problems Blight and Bees on Quince Plowing, Young Orchard Plums - Pollenizing Prunes On Almond Re-grafting Silver French or Italian Myrobalan Seedlings Drying Sugar Glossing Dried Price on Size Basis Pruning Times Shaping a Young Tree Late Too Much In Frosty Places Low Growth Are Tap-Roots Essential For a Bark Wound Bridging Gopher Girdles Roots, Whole or Piece Soil, Binding Plant for Winter Spineless Cactus Fruit Stumps, Medication to Kill Sucker, What will it Be Walnuts Early Bearing Handling Seedlings How to Start Planting Pruning Grafting on Oaks Eastern or California Blacks Ripening Cutting Below Dead Wood in Alfalfa in the Hills Increase Bearing Temperature and Moisture from Seed High-grafted
Artichokes Jerusalem Globe Growing Asparagus Growing Beets Leases for Sugar Topping Mangel Wurzels Brussels Sprouts - Blooming Bean Growing Hoeing as Nitrogen Gatherer Yard-Long Why Waiting Blackeye Are Cow-Peas Horse-Bean Growing Growing Castor Inoculation On Irrigated Mesas California Grown Seed Cloth for Hotbeds Celery, Blanching Chili Peppers Corn in Sacramento Valley in Warm Ground Sweet, in California Cucumbers Forcing Growing Continuous Cropping Ginger in California In Cold, Dark, Draft Licorice in California Lentils, Growing Lettuce, Transplanting Melons Winter Ripe Onions Seeds and Sets Ripening from Sets Crops from Seed Peas Canada for Seed Growing Niles Peanuts Harvesting and Adobe Potatoes Cutting Planting Northern Seed Planted Early Balls Seed-ends and the Moon Planting Whole How to Cut Seed Scab Double-cropping Keeping Yield New for Seed Growing After Alfalfa Flat or Hill Bad Conditions for On Heavy Land Storage for Seed and Frosts Sweet, Plant Growing Growing Between Trees Less Water, More Heat Radish, Giant Japanese Rhubarb, Rotting Soil for Vegetables Squashes Dislike Hardship Sunflowers, Harvesting Tomatoes Irrigating Big Worms Loss of Bloom
Grain and Forage Crops
Alfalfa Improving Land Cultivating Suburban Patch and Bermuda and Salt Grass and Alkali on Adobe and Soil Depth Irrigating Curing Preparation of Land Where Grown Sowing and Foxtail Which is Best and Dry Land Inoculating Unirrigated Time to Cut and Overflow No Nurse Crop Re-seeding Taking Bloat from What Crop for Seed Siloing First Crop Soil For Handling Young With Gypsum Alfileria, Winter Pasture Barley California Varieties Chevalier on Moist Land and Alfalfa Beet Sugar, Home-made Beets and Potatoes for Stock Stock, Summer Start Berseem Bermuda Grass Objectionable Black Medic Broom Corn Buckwheat Growing Clover and Drought for Wet Lands Crimson for Shallow Land for High Ground-Water Not an Alfalfa Sweet, Cover Crop Corn for Silage Irrigation for Eastern Seed Suckering and Cow Peas Cover Crop for Hop Yard Cow Peas in San Joaquin Cowpeas Growing and Canadian Peas Crop Rotation Dry Plowing for Grain Fall Feed Forage Plants in Foothills Winter Poultry Flax, New Zealand Grasses, for Bank-holding Grass Seeds, Scattering Hay Midsummer Sowing Loose by Measure Oat, When to Cut Rye for Frosted Grain Summer Crop Heating and Fermentation Insect Powder Johnson Grass Jersey Kale Kafir and Egyptian Corn Lawns, Mossy Moonshine Farming Oats and Rust Pasturing Young Grain Hurry-up California Winter Rape and Milo Rye in California Rye Grass, Italian better than Speltz Spurry, Giant Soil Light, Scant Moisture Sunflowers and Soy Beans Russian Spineless Cactus Sorghum Smutty Late Sown Sorghums for Seed for Planting Sacaline Special Crops Teosinte Vetches for San Joaquin for Hay Wheat, Seven-headed
Soils, Fertilizing and Irrigation.
Alkali Soil and Trees Treatment of and Gypsum Distribution Plants Will Tell and Litmus Alfalfa over Hardpan Ashes and Tomatoes in Garden and Poultry Manure Blasting or Tiling Effects of Barnyard Manure and Alkali Bones for Grape Vines Can a Man Farm Charcoal, Medicine, not Food Cover Crop, Best Legume Cowpeas, best cover crop Cementing Soils, Improvement Cultivation, Depth of Draining Wet Spot Dry Plowing Treatment and Sowing Dynamite, More Needed Electro-Agriculture Fenugreek as Cover Crop Fertilizer in Tree Holes Best for Sand Prunings as Suburban Wastes Composting Garden Wastes for Sweet Potatoes Pear Orchard Olives Consult Trees Nursery Almond Hulls and Sawdust Fruit Trees Oranges Seed Farm Refuse Slow Stuff Alfalfa Corn Scrap Iron Kelp as Nitrate of Soda Strawberries Ground Water Gypsum on Grain Land and Alfalfa What it Does How Much Garden Peas for Green Manure Grape Pomace Handling Abuse of Hardpan and Low Water Humus Burning Out Straw for Irrigating Palms Condensation for Winter Young Trees Alfalfa How Much for Crops Sewage Creamery Wastes House Waste Intensive Cultivation Irrigate or Cultivate Irrigation Underground of Potatoes of Apples of Walnuts Summer and Fall and Fertilizers Liming Chicken Yard Legumes, Two in Year Lime Caustic not Absorbent on Sandy Soil Alfalfa Sugar Factory Fertilizer Manure Water, Cultivation Ashes Poultry too Much Stable and Bean Straw Pit Roofing Value of Animals Fresh and Dry and Shavings Sheep, and Goat Hog and Potatoes Vineyard and Nitrate with Clover Nitrate, Late Applications of Oranges Over Ground Water Organic Matter, Needs Oranges How Much Water Damping Off Planting in Mud Potash or Water Reviving Blighted Trees Soils and Oranges Crop Changes Moisture Defects Refractory Suitable for Fruits Blowing Improving Heavy Reclaimed Swamp Improving Uncovered Sand for Clay Sour and Old Plaster Handling Orchard Depth for Citrus Summer Fallow Sub-soil, Plow for Stable Drainage for Fruit Seeds, Soaking Trees over High-water Plowing toward or from Irrigated or not Too Much Water Too Little Water Thomas Phosphate, Applying Water Artesian from Wells or Streams
Live Stock and Dairy.
Buttermilk Paint Butter Going White Fat, What it is Why not Come Fat in Cream Breeding Young Mare in Purple Line Cream That Won't Whip Cows in Hill Country Concrete Stable Floor Drying Persistent Milker Foot-hill Dairy Free Martin Grade, What it is Granary, Rat-proof Hogs, Best Breed Jersey Short-horn Cross Bad Tempered Legal Milk House Milk Strong Separator as Purifier Certified Self-Milker, Cure for Silos, Heating not Dangerous Shingles, Make Durable Trespassing Live Stock Whitewashes for Buildings Government for Spray
Feeding Farm Animals
Alfalfa and Concentrates Barley, Rolled for Cows for Hay Feeding Brewers' Grains for Cows Balanced Rations Corn Stalks and Concentrates Cut for Silage Calves, Feeding Feed for Cows Family Cow Young Pigs Grape Pomace as Hog Feed Grain for Horses Horses, Vetch for Horse Beans and Melons Hay Salting Chopping for Horses Cut Alfalfa Storing Cut Alfalfa Grinding Kale for Cow Feed Plow Horses, Feed for Pumpkins Feeding Keeping Pasture and Cover Crop Fall and Winter Summer for Hogs Pigs and Pie-Melons Grain or Pasture for Growing on Roots Sheep, Winter Feeding Sorghum, Feeding Silage 200 Dry Fodder Sugar Beets and Silage Stover Stock Beets Storing Kind of Spelt, Value of Steers on Alfalfa Silo, Size of Soiling Crops Wheat or Barley for Hogs for Feeding
Diseases of Animals.
Abscess of Gland Abnormal Thirst Bloat, Easement Bowel Trouble Bloody Milk Barren Heifers Blind Teat Bovine Rheumatism Bleeding for Blackleg Chronic Indigestion Castration of Colt Chronic Cough Cowpox Calf Dysentery Cleft Hoof Cocked Ankles Cleanse Cows Caked Bag Cow Chewing Bones Depraved Appetite Dentist Needed Dehorning Forage Poisoning Fungus Poisoning Fly Repellants Flea Destroyers Garget Gland Enlarged Heaves Horse with Itch Horses Feet, Treatment Hog Cholera Hog Sickness Infectious Mastitis Irritation of Udder Injury to Udder Kidney Trouble Lumpy jaw Lumps in Teat Loss of Cud Mange, Is it Mangy Cow Musty Corn for Pigs Nail Puncture Neck Swelling Pregnancy of Mare Paralysis Pneumonia in Pigs Paralysis of Sow Rickets in Hogs Scabby Swelling Skin Disease, Fatal Scours Side-bone Shoulder injury Stiff joints Swelling in Dewlap Sterile Cow Supernumerary Teat Sore Eyes in Pigs Sow, Over-fat Tuberculous Milk Uterus, Diseased Urination Defective Warts on Horse Worms in Horses Wound Sore in Teat Swellings
Bowel Trouble in Chicks Cure for Feather-Eating Cannibal Chicks Caponizing Chicken Pox Clipping Hens Dipping Fowls Disinfectants Dry Mash Feeding for Eggs Grain for Chickens Liver Disease Limber Neck Melons for Fowls Open Front Houses Roup Treatment in Turkeys Quick Roosters and Laying Hens Preserving Eggs Poultry Tonic in Orchard Point on Mating Poultry Diarrhea Rupture of Oviduct Rape for Chickens Sunflower Seeds for Chicks Teaching Chicks to Perch
Pests and Diseases of Plants.
Apple-Leaf Aphis Bordeaux Mixture Bean Weevil Borers on Olive Twigs Blister Mite on Walnuts Black Scale, Fumigation Cutworms in Young Trees Control of Pear Slug of Grasshoppers of Red Spider of Squash Bugs Corn Worm Gumming Prune Trees Gopher Poison Lime-Sulphate Formula Melon Lice Mottle Leaf, Cause of Potato Scab Raspberry Cane Borer Sunburn and Borers Scale on Apricots Spray for Red Spider Slugs in Garden Thrips, Finding Wooly Aphis Wire Worms