Notes and Queries, Number 186, May 21, 1853
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B. H. C.

Gloves at Fairs (Vol. vii., p. 455.).—The custom of "hanging out the glove at fair time," as described by E. G. R., is, in all probability, of Chester origin. The annals of that city show that its two great annual fairs were established, or rather confirmed, by a charter of Hugh Lupus, the first Norman Earl of Chester, who granted to the abbot and convent of St. Werburgh (now the cathedral) "the extraordinary privilege, that no criminals resorting to their fairs at Chester should be arrested for any crime whatever, except such as they might have committed during their stay in the city." For several centuries, Chester was famous for the manufacture of gloves; and in token thereof, it was the custom for some days before, and during the continuance of the fair, to hang out from the town-hall, then situate at the High Cross, their local emblem of commerce—a glove: thereby proclaiming that non-freemen and strangers were permitted to trade within the city, a privilege at all other times enjoyed by the citizens only. During this period of temporary "free trade," debtors were safe from the tender mercies of their creditors, and free from the visits of the sheriff's officer and his satellites. On the removal of the town-hall to another part of the city, the leathern symbol of "unrestricted competition" was suspended, at the appointed season, from the roof of St. Peter's Church; until that reckless foe to antiquity, the Reform Bill, aimed a heavy blow at all our prescriptive rights and privileges, and decreed that the stranger should be henceforth on a footing with the freeborn citizen. Notwithstanding this, the authorities of the city still continued to "hang out their banner on the outward walls;" and it is only within the last ten years that the time-honoured custom has ceased to exist.



Astronomical Query (Vol. vii., p.84.).—Your fair correspondent LEONORA makes a mistake in reference to the position, in regard to the zodiac, of the newly-discovered planets. It is indeed not at all surprising that these bodies were not discovered before, for this reason—they do not move within the circle of the zodiac: they lie far beyond it, so much so, that to include them the zodiac must be expanded to at least five times its present breadth. Hence they lie out of the path of ordinary observation, and their discovery is usually the result of keen telescopic examination of distant parts of the heavens. LEONORA is of course aware, that, with the exception of Neptune (the discovery of which is a peculiar case), all the recently discovered planets belong to the cluster of asteroids which move between Mars and Jupiter. These are all invisible to the eye with the exception of Vesta, and she is not to be distinguished by any but an experienced star-gazer, and under most favourable circumstances; their minuteness, their extra-zodiacal position, and the outrageous orbits which they describe, all conspire to keep them out of human ken until they are detected by the telescope, and ascertained to be planets either by their optical appearances, or by a course of watching and comparison of their positions with catalogues of the fixed stars.


Tortoiseshell Tom Cat (Vol. v., p. 465.; Vol. vii., p. 271.).—See Hone's Year Book, p. 728.


Sizain on the Pope, the Devil, and the Pretender (Vol. vii., p. 270.).—This is given as one of the prize epigrams in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1735, vol. v. p. 157.

ZEUS. {511}

Wandering Jew (Vol. vii., p. 261.).—Your correspondent will find an account of the Wandering Jew prefixed to "Le Juif errant," the 3ieme livraison of Chants et Chansons Populaires de la France.



The earliest account of this legend is in Roger of Wendover, under the year 1228: De Joseph, qui ultimum Christi adventum adhuc vivus exspectat, vol. iv. p. 176. of the Historical Society's edition, vol. ii. p. 512. of Bohn's Translation: see also Brand's Popular Antiquities, vol iii. p. 360., Bohn's edition.


Hallett and Dr. Saxby (Vol. vii., p. 41.).—I know nothing of the parties, but have the book about which S. R. inquires. The title is not accurately given in the Literary Journal. Instead of "An Ode to Virtue," by Dr. Morris Saxby, it is An Ode on Virtue by a Young Author, dedicated to Dr. William Saxby; with a Preface and Notes, Critical and Explanatory, by a Friend—"Mens sibi conscia recti"—A good intention. Printed anno Domini MDCCXCI, pp. 16.

A more stupid production could not easily be found; but, as it must be scarce, if the story about the destruction of all but eight copies is true, I transcribe a part of the dedication:

"Most August Doctor,

"The reputation you have acquired by professional merit, with the respect which is universally shown to you on account of your practical observance of moral philosophy, has induced me to select you as a protector of the following work; which being evidently intended to promote a cause for which you was always a zealous advocate, I have nourished the most flattering hopes that you will be rather pleased than offended by this unwarrantable presumption.

"It is necessary I should deviate from the general rule of celebrating a patron's virtues in a high strain of panegyric, being sensible how generally yours are known, and how justly admired."—P. 3.

The ode contains only ten lines:

"Virtue, a mere chimera amongst the fair, Is now quite vanquished into air; Formerly it was thought a thing of worth, But now who thinks of such poor stuff. It's only put on to deceive, That us poor mortals on them may crave; Fall down and swear their beauty far Surpasses what are ever saw! Then they who think all's true that's said," &c.

I omit the final line as unseemly.

Dr. Saxby is mentioned only on the title-page, and that part of the dedication which I have copied. He must have been a sensitive man to have felt such an attack, and a prompt one to settle his account with the author so quickly. As it is obvious that the ode was published solely to annoy him, we may be allowed to hope that in the "severe personal chastisement" he was not sparing of whipcord. The absence of place of publication and printer's name render inquiry difficult; and there is no indication as to whether Dr. Saxby was of Divinity, Law, or Physic.

H. B. C.

U. U. Club.

"My mind to me a kingdom is" (Vol. i., pp. 302. 489.; Vol. vi., pp. 555. 615.).—The idea is Shakspeare's (Third Part of Hen. VI.):

"Keeper. Ay, but thou talk'st as if thou wert a king. K. Henry. Why, so I am in mind; and that's enough."



Claret (Vol. vii., p. 237.).—The word claret seems to me to be the same as the French word clairet, both adjective and substantive; as a substantive it means a low and cheap sort of claret, sold in France, and drawn from the barrel like beer in England; as an adjective it is a diminutive of clair, and implies that the wine is transparent.



Suicide at Marseilles (Vol. vii., pp. 180. 316.).—The original authority for the custom at Marseilles, of keeping poison at the public expense for the accommodation of all who could give the senate satisfactory reasons for committing suicide, is Valerius Maximus, lib. ii. cap. vi. Sec. 7.


Etymology of Slang (Vol. vii., p. 331.).—

"SLANGS are the greaves with which the legs of convicts are fettered, having acquired that name from the manner in which they were worn, as they required a sling of string to keep them off the ground.... The irons were the slangs; and the slang-wearer's language was of course slangous, as partaking much if not wholly of the slang."—Sportsman's Slang, a New Dictionary and Varieties of Life, by John Bee: Preface, p. 5.


Scanderbeg's Sword (Vol. vii., pp. 35. 143.).—The proverb, "Scanderbeg's sword must have Scanderbeg's arm," is founded on the following story:

"George Castriot, Prince of Albania, one of the strongest and valiantest men that lived these two hundred yeares, had a cimeter, which Mahomet the Turkish Emperor, his mortall enemy, desired to see. Castriot (surnamed of the Turks, Ischenderbeg, that is, Great Alexander, because of his valiantnesse), having received a pledge for the restitution of his cimeter, sent it so far as Constantinople to Mahomet, in whose court there was not any man found that could with any ease wield that piece of steele: so that Mahomet sending it back againe, enioyned the messenger to tell the prince, that in this action he kind proceeded enemy-like, and with a fraudulent mind, sending a counterfeit cimeter {512} to make his enemie afraid. Ischenderbeg writ back to him, that he had simply without fraud or guile sent him his owne cimeter, with the which he used to helpe himselfe couragiously in the wars; but that he had not sent him the hand and the arme which with the cimeter cleft the Turkes in two, struck off their heads, shoulders, legs, and other parts, yea, sliced them of by the wast; and that verie shortly he would show him a fresh proofe thereof; which afterwards he performed."—Historical Meditations from the Latin of P. Camerarius, by John Molle, Esquire, 1621, book iv. Cap. xvi. p. 299.

The following, relating to the arm and sword of Scanderbeg, may perhaps not inappropriately be added, although not connected with the proverb:

"Marinus Barletius (lib. i.) reports of Scanderbeg, Prince of Epirus (that most terrible enemy of the Turks), that, from his mother's womb, he brought with him into the world a notable mark of warlike glory: for he had upon his right arm a sword, so well set on, as if it had been drawn with the pencil of the most curious and skilful painter in the world."—Wanley's Wonders of the Little World, 1678, book i. cap. vii.


Arago on the Weather (Vol. vii., p. 40.).—ELSNO will find extracts from Arago's papers in the Pictorial Almanack, 1847, p. 30., and in the Civil Engineer and Architects' Journal, which volume I cannot say, but I think that for 1847. Also in the Monthly Chronicle, vol. i. p. 60., and vol. ii. p. 209.; the annals of the Bureau des Longitudes for 1834 and the Annuaire for 1833.


Rathe (Vol. vii., p. 392.).—MR. CROSSLEY is, I believe, mistaken in his derivation of the word rathe from the Celtic raithe, signifying inclination, although rather seems indisputably to belong to it. Rathe is, I believe, identical with the Saxon adjective raetha, signifying early. Chaucer's—

"What aileth you so rathe for to arise,"

has been already quoted as bearing this meaning. Milton, in Lycidas, has—

"Bring the rathe primrose that forsaken dies."

In a pastoral, called a "Palinode," by E. B., probably Edmond Bolton, in England's Helicon, edit. 1614, occurs:

"And make the rathe and timely primrose grow."

And we have "rathe and late," in a pastoral in Davidson's Poems, 4th edit., London, 1621.

Rathe is a word still in use in the Weald of Sussex, where Saxon still lingers in the dialect of the common people; and a rathe, instead of an early spring, is spoken of; and a species of early apple is known as the Rathe-ripe.


Carr Pedigree (Vol. vii., p. 408.).—The pedigree description of Lady Carr is "Gresil, daughter of Sir Robert Meredyth, Knt., Chancellor of the Exchequer in Ireland." Sir George Carr died Feb. 13, 1662-3, and was buried in Dublin. His sons were 1, Thomas, and 2, William; and a daughter Mary, who married 1st, Dr. Thomas Margetson (son to the Archbishop of Armagh); and 2ndly, Dr. Michael Ward. The pedigree is continued through Thomas the eldest son, who was the father of the Bishop of Killaloe. It does not appear that William left any issue. His wife's name was Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Sing, D.D., Lord Bishop of Cork.

W. ST.

Banbury Cakes (Vol. vii., p. 106.).—In A Treatise of Melancholy, by T. Bright, doctor of physic, and published in 1586, I find the following:

"Sodden wheat is of a grosse and melancholicke nourishment, and bread especially of the fine flower unleavened: of this sort are bag-puddings or pan-puddings made with flour, frittars, pancakes, such as we call Banberie cakes, and those great ones confected with butter, eggs, &c., used at weddings; and howsoever it be prepared, rye and bread made thereof carrieth with it plentie of melancholie."

H. A. B.

Detached Belfry Towers (Vol. vii., pp. 333. 416. 465.).—To your already extensive list of church towers separate from the church, Launceston Church, Cornwall, and St. John's Church, Chester, may not unfittingly be added.



Elstow, Bedfordshire, is an instance of a bell tower separated from the body of the church.

B. H. C.

Dates on Tombstones (Vol. vii., p. 331.).—A correspondent asks for instances of dates on tombstones prior to 1601. I cannot give any, but I can refer to some slabs lying upon the ground in a churchyard near Oundle (Tausor if I remember aright), on which appear in relief recumbent figures with the hands upon the breast, crossed, or in the attitude of prayer. These are of a much earlier date, and I should be much pleased to know if many or any such instances elsewhere occur.

B. H. C.

Subterranean Bells (Vol. vii., pp. 128. 328.).—Bells under ground and under water, so often referred to, remind me of the Oundle Drumming Well, which I remember seeing when a child. There is a legend connected with it which I heard, but cannot accurately recollect. The well itself is referred to in Brand, vol. ii. p. 369. (Bohn's ed.), but the legend is not given.

B. H. C.

Mistletoe in Ireland (Vol. ii., p. 270.).—I have just received, in full blossom, a very fine spray from a luxuriant plant of this parasite growing on an apple tree in the gardens of Farmley, the seat of William Lloyd Flood, Esq., in the county of Kilkenny. This plant of mistletoe has existed at {513} Farmley beyond the memory of the present generation; but Mr. Flood's impression, communicated to me, is, that it was artificially produced from seed by some former gardener. If natural, which may be the case, this instance of its occurrence in Ireland is, I believe, unique.



Stars and Flowers (Vol. iv., p. 22.; Vol. vii., p. 151. 341.).—Passages illustrative of this similitude have been quoted from Cowley, Longfellow, Hood, and Moir. The metaphor is also made use of by Darwin, in his Loves of the Plants:

"Roll on, ye stars! exult in youthful prime, Mark with bright curves the printless steps of time; Flowers of the sky! ye, too, to age must yield, Frail as your silken sisters of the field."


The Painting by Fuseli (Vol. vii., p. 453.).—The picture by the late Henry Fuseli, R.A., inquired after by MR. SANSOM, is in the collection at Sir John Soane's Museum; it was purchased by him in 1802.

It was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1780, and is thus entered in the Catalogue of that year:

"No. 77. Ezzelin Bracciaferro musing over Meduna, destroyed by him, for disloyalty, during his absence in the Holy Land. Fuseli."

There is an engraving of the picture in Essays on Physiognomy, by J. C. Lavater, translated from the French by Henry Hunter, D.D., 4to.: London, 1789. The second volume, p. 294.

The inscription under that engraving, by Holloway, is as follows:

"Ezzelin, Count of Ravenna, surnamed Bracciaferro or Iron Arm, musing over the body of Meduna; slain by him, for infidelity, during his absence in the Holy Land."


The subject of your correspondent J. SANSOM'S inquiry is in the Soane Museum, Lincoln's Inn Fields. Search among the Italian story-tellers will not discover the origin of the picture of Count Ezzelin's remorse: it sprung from that fertile source of fearful images—Henry Fuseli's brain. The work might well have been left without a name, but for the requirements of the Royal Academy Catalogue, and, it must be added, Fuseli's desire to mystify the Italian as well as the other scholars of his day.

For confirmation of the correctness of these statements, I refer your correspondent to the Life of Fuseli by Knowles, and to that by Cunningham in the Lives of the British Painters.

R. F., Jun.

"Navita Erythraeum" (Vol. vii., p. 382.).—Since I requested a reference to these lines, I have possessed myself of a very elaborate Latin work on Bells, in two vols. 8vo., published at Rome, 1822, by Alexander Lazzarinus, De Vario Tintinnabulorum usu apud veteres Hebraeos et Ethnicos: wherein, in a section on the effect of the sound of bells on different animals, he quotes those very lines from "Cornelius Kilianus Dufflaeus in suis poematibus."

I shall now be thankful to be told something about the said Dufflaeus,—who and what he was,—when and where he lived?


Rectory, Clyst St. George.

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Language, Literature, and Government. Architecture and Sculpture. Drama, Music, Painting, and Scientific Discoveries. Articles of Dress, &c. Titles, Dignities, &c. Names, Trades, Professions. Parliament, Laws, &c. Universities and Religious Sects. Epithets and Phrases. Remarkable Customs. Games, Field Sports. Seasons, Months, and Days of the Week. Remarkable Localities, &c. &c.


The Third Edition, revised and improved, by MERTON A. THOMS, ESQ.

London: WILLIAM TEGG & CO., 85 Queen Street, Cheapside.

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SPECTACLES.—WM. ACKLAND applies his medical knowledge as a Licentiate of the Apothecaries' Company, London, his theory as a Mathematician, and his practice as a Working Optician, aided by Smee's Optometer, in the selection of Spectacles suitable to every derangement of vision, so as to preserve the sight to extreme old age.

ACHROMATIC TELESCOPES, with the New Vetzlar Eye-pieces, as exhibited at the Academy of Sciences in Paris. The Lenses of these Eye-pieces are so constructed that the rays of light fall nearly perpendicular to the surface of the various lenses, by which the aberration is completely removed; and a telescope so fitted gives one-third more magnifying power and light than could be obtained by the old Eye-pieces. Prices of the various sizes on application to

WM. ACKLAND, Optician, 93. Hatton Garden, London.

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A Narrative of recent Travels and old Experiences in the Golden, Pastoral, and Agricultural Districts of Victoria and New South Wales.

By SAMUEL MOSSMAN, Author of "The Gold Regions of Australia," &c. and THOMAS BANISTER, Author of "England and her Dependencies," &c.

With Maps by A. K. JOHNSTON, Geographer to Her Majesty.

"The narrative is of a truthful, matter-of-fact character. The writers tell us what they saw, with little if any colouring or exaggeration. Wherever there is any interest in the things themselves, it is preserved in the book, whether it relates to the appearance of the gold-diggings and the diggers or their mode of life—to the places frequently depopulated of men by the gold fever pervading the colonies, to the night bivouac of quiet people to avoid the close atmosphere and riotous companions at the roadside inns from the crowds rushing to or returning from the diggings, or to many other more permanent scenes of still or animated life. With the actual are mingled remarks on Australia, and advice to emigrants, the latter of which is of a judicious kind."—Spectator.

"The authors of this compact volume have well worked out the purpose they had in view, as put forth in the preface, making the book a real book, indulging in no flights of imagination lest injury should be inflicted thereby upon the uninformed and ingenuous.... This straightforward and eminently practical book."—Lloyd's Weekly News.

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"This work resembles several productions of the last few years. The Diary professes to be written by a noble young lady of the sixteenth century. 'Lady Adolie' has an advantage over most of its precursors in the greater depth and variety of the incidents. The Journal begins just before the accession of Bloody Mary, and ends with the martyrdom of the youthful writer at Smithfield.... The book is charmingly written; the kindly, simple, loving spirit of a girl in her teens, thrown much upon her own resources, is truthfully depicted, as well as the firm piety of that age."—Spectator.

"The familiar conversation of the day, as sought to be reproduced in this Diary, wears an appearance of singular truthfulness, and whether the topic be the deathbed of good King Edward, the merits of Somerset, Ladye Jane Grey, her Grace the Ladye Elysabeth, the Queen herself, or the demeanour of her Spanish husband, the proceedings of Cardinal Pole, the doings at the Tower prison, the volume reflects as in a faithful mirror the opinions current in the national mind."—Globe.

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In Two Vols. crown 8vo., price 12s., elegantly bound in cloth, gilt,



The celebrated Stories of the Brothers Grimm.

Embellished with 200 small and 36 full-page Illustrations by E. H. WEHNERT.

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"The stories are delightful."—Leader.

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In 8vo., handsomely bound in cloth gilt, price 5s., the First Volume of




Embellished with more than One Hundred Illustrations by LEJEUNE, KAULBACH, WEIR, WEHNERT, ABSOLON, SKILL, &c. &c.

The Work is continued in Monthly Numbers, price Sixpence each.

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"Children, we find, love this periodical."—Critic.

"'The Charm' is an excellent monthly periodical, full of pleasant stories and engravings."—Atlas.

"An attractive and well-varied book."—Spectator.

"'The Charm,' a book for boys and girls, is the completed volume, handsomely bound, of a book which has been appearing in monthly numbers during the year, and in which form we have several times noticed it with warm approval. It is full of interesting matter to read, and adorned with upwards of one hundred engravings, of admirable execution, illustrative of natural history, topography, juvenile science, costumes, and sports, drawn by the best artist."—Critic.

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Large 4to., 6s. in elegant Picture Binding, by LUKE LIMNER, a New Edition of



An Edition is also published mounted on cloth, price 12s.

"'The Picture Pleasure Book' is really the child's joy, for it gives him large folio pages full of woodcuts, executed in the best style of art, teaching him natural history, educating his eye to good drawing and graceful form, and telling stories in pictures. It is an admirable design, and no house that holds children should be without it."—Critic.

* * * * *


* * * * *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10 Stonefield Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.—Saturday, May 21. 1853.

Corrections made to printed original.

p501. "the birth of Antonius Stradivarius" - "Autonius" in original


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