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Negro Migration during the War
by Emmett J. Scott
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The beneath-the-surface causes are to be found in the handicaps under which the negro labors in the South and the uncivilized treatment to which he is subjected. He is segregated. To this he most strenuously objects. There is a difference between segregation and separation, especially so in the southern interpretation of segregation as observed in the practice of the South in its enforcement of the idea. Separation in matters social and religious is not necessarily objectionable. Left alone each race group instinctively seeks separation from other race groups. But segregation, as we have it, means more than separation; it means inferiority and humiliation. It means not only another section of the city for the negro, but a section that is inferior in improvement and protection; it means not only a different school, but an inferior school both in building and equipment; it means not only separate accommodations on the railroads, but deplorably inferior accommodations; this, too, in the face of the fact that the negro pays the same price that is paid by others.

Another cause is the code of laws, or rather the practice of it, that gives more concern to the color of a man's skin than to the merits of a case he may have in the courts of justice. The negro is taught not to expect justice in the courts, however industrious, honest, law abiding he may be, when his lawful rights to liberty and protection are contested by a white man. The negro suffers in the courts, not always because he is guilty, not because he lacks character, but because his skin, not his heart, is black.

What was the attitude of the northern negroes toward the migration? With some exceptions, negroes north assumed a friendly attitude toward the migrants. Many of these residents of the North were themselves but recently come from the South. The newcomers were looked upon as brethren, just coming into the "Promised Land." They were welcomed in the churches and otherwise made to feel at home. In some cities there were organizations of resident negroes to look after the welfare of the new arrivals. In the northern race newspapers, the attitude of the negro north was fully set forth, as the following extracts from the New York News[174] indicate:

We hail with no alarm whatever the influx of colored men from the South. The colored people of the North will be strengthened by the hard working, ambitious laborers added to their numbers. The laboring conditions and life of the masses of the colored people in the South will be made better and brighter by their leaving.

Yet a heavy responsibility rests upon every colored leader, moral and civic, in these northern States to take an especial interest in their newly arriving brethren. You must teach them not to take their liberty to be ladies and gentlemen for license to degrade themselves and their race here. You must urge them to avoid the deadly vice and wasting extravagance of the unhealthy congested city. They should find their homes and rear their families in the suburbs, where they can buy their own homes and properly train their children in head, hand and heart. Urge them to get steady work and settle down. Urge them to become good citizens and better parents. Urge them to go to church, to lead patient Christian lives and all will come out well in the end.

The Philadelphia Christian Recorder[175] took the ground that:

1. The negro is an American. He speaks the language of the country and is, therefore, superior to the foreigner in this respect.

2. He knows the customs of the country and here again has the advantage of the foreigner.

3. He is a peaceable worker and is glad to have an opportunity to make good.

4. The negro is physically the equal and morally the superior of the immigrant from Europe.

There are reasons why the negro should succeed in the North. So we have no doubt that many will come.

Indeed, if a million negroes move north and west in the next twelve months, it will be one of the greatest things for the negro since the Emancipation Proclamation. And the movement of a million negroes should not alarm anybody, especially when we remember that a million immigrants were coming every year to this country before the war.

Let the good work go on. Let every community in the North organize to get jobs for our friends in the South. Let a million come. In coming the negroes will get higher wages.

They will get first class schools, running nine months a year—a thing worth leaving the South for, if there were no other advantages.

They will have a chance in the courts. If they should happen to have a difference with a white man, they will not take their lives in their own hands by standing up for their side.

They will be able to defend their homes, their wives and children in a way no negro can now protect them in the South.

They will have the right to vote. The foreigner must wait seven years for this—the negro only one year. If a million negroes come north, they will soon get sufficient political power, which combined with their economic power will be able to force the South to do some things she is now unwilling to do.

With labor competition for the negro between North and South with the North offering higher wages, better living conditions, better education, protection and a vote, the South must bestir herself if she would keep the best labor in the world. And southern statesmen will see that the South must cease to lynch, begin to educate and finally restore the ballot.

"But," says an objector, "these negroes coming north will increase prejudice." What if they do? Then the northern negro will sympathize more with his southern brother. But if prejudice increases, the negro has the ballot which is an effective way to combat it. If a million negroes come here we will have more negro businesses, better churches, more professional men and real political power, and the negro in the North will begin to get a social position not based on mere charity.

What were the causes of migration? A very large part of the discussion of the movement was taken up with setting forth the causes. The Montgomery Advertiser was of the opinion that the chief causes of the negro's leaving central Alabama were floods and the cotton boll weevil:

The negro from middle Alabama is going north because of economic conditions which he can not help and which he can not overcome. He is not being forced out by pressure from the white race. The relations between the two races in this section were never better; the negro is not subjected to oppression or to any outbreaks of violence, which have induced the negro to leave certain sections of the South.

The negro is going because he is the most unfortunate of the victims of the combined disaster this year of the flood and the boll weevil. There have been actual want and hunger among some of the negroes on the plantations. The heads of negro families have been without present resources and without future prospects. The wise planter and farmer has said to his negro employes and tenants:

"You have not made anything this year. I have not made anything this year. But we will do our best and I will see what resources I can get together to keep you until next year, when we can all make a fresh start."

Another class of farmers, and we suspect that their number is too large, has said, "You never made anything this year. I never made anything this year. I can not afford to feed you and your family until the beginning of the next crop year. You must go out and shift for yourselves."

This cold blooded business view of the situation, we suspect, has been the best assistance that the labor agent has received. It is not difficult to know what a negro farm hand will do when he and his family are facing hunger, when a labor agent offers him a railroad ticket and a promise of two dollars and a half a day in the industrial works of the North and East.[176]

Lynching was one of the reasons most often given as a cause of the migration.

Current dispatches from Albany, Georgia, in the center of the section apparently most affected, and where efforts are being made to stop the exodus by spreading correct information among the negroes, say:

"The heaviest migration of negroes has been from those counties in which there have been the worst outbreaks against negroes. It is developed by investigation that where there have been lynchings, the negroes have been most eager to believe what the emigration agents have told them of plots for the removal or extermination of the race. Comparatively few negroes have left Dougherty county, which is considered significant in view of the fact that this is one of the counties in southwest Georgia in which a lynching has never occurred."

These statements are most significant. Mob law we have known in Georgia has furnished emigration agents with all the leverage they want; it is a foundation upon which it is easy to build with a well conducted lie or two, and they have not been slow to take advantage of it.

This loss of her best labor is another penalty Georgia is paying for her indifference and inactivity in suppressing mob law.

If Georgia is injured, agriculturally and industrially by the negro exodus, the white people here have no one to blame but themselves.

The indictment is true, every word of it. The appeal to humanity, to fairness and justice and right, has been apparently without effect. It is unfortunate for the people of Georgia that an appeal to the pocketbook should be necessary to bring back the enthronement of law, but if moral suasion is powerless, the question of personal interest has entered and in no uncertain degree.

The trouble incident to the migration of negroes from Georgia and the South is exactly as stated.

There is no secret about what must be done, if Georgia would save herself from threatened disaster, which, in some sections, has already become serious.

In the first place, there must be no more mobs. Mobs and mob spirit must be eliminated completely, so completely that there will be no danger of recurrence. If a negro be charged with a crime, even if it be known that he is guilty, he must be given the same fair treatment before the law that is accorded the white man. If anything, it would seem that ignorance and childishness demand even more consideration than the crime which lacks that excuse.

But more than that, we must be fair to the negro. There is no use in beating about the bush; we have not shown that fairness in the past, nor are we showing it today, either in justice before the law, in facilities accorded for education or in other directions. Argue it as you will, these things which we have not done are the things which we must do, or Georgia will suffer for it in proportion as she fails.[177]

In connection with lynchings there was the general fear of mob violence. This fear was taken advantage of by labor agents, as the following indicates:

We are astonished, too, to learn that one of the reasons for this unrest among the negroes who were born and reared here is fear that all negroes are to be run out of Georgia. This idea, of course, has been planted in the minds of the simple minded of the race by the crafty and unscrupulous labor agents who have operated in almost every section of the State.

The negroes have this idea from the fact that there are localities in the State right now where a negro can not live. And we do not know of anybody that is doing anything to change this condition.

Labor agents are doing their best to put the fear into the hearts of the negroes in this State that they are going to be run out by the white people, some of them even fixing the time as next June; but this work began long before the negro exodus north was thought of. The example of one county in north Georgia, which ran every negro out, was followed by other counties adjoining, and the general public has little idea how widespread the contagion became—for lawlessness is nearly always contagious.

If Georgia is injured, agriculturally and industrially, by the negro exodus, the white people here have no one to blame but themselves. They have allowed negroes to be lynched, five at a time, on nothing stronger than suspicion; they have allowed whole sections to be depopulated of them; they have allowed them to be whitecapped and whipped, and their homes burned, with only the weakest and most spasmodic efforts to apprehend or punish those guilty—when any efforts were made at all.

Has not the negro been given the strongest proof that he has no assured right to live, to own property nor to expect justice in Georgia?

When the negro is gone, his loss will be felt in every large agricultural section and every industrial community of the South. For the average white man can not do the heavier work at the sawmills, naval stores plants and in many lines of manufacture, that is now being done by the negro. As a consequence, these plants and many large plantations must stand idle or import a class of white labor that will be a great deal worse than the black. Confronted with cheap white labor, and white men of a race of which they have no understanding—then will the South have its labor problems.

But at present, it seems, little can be done. Unless southern white people who have their all invested in agriculture or manufacturing take care of their own interest by seeing that the negro gets justice when suspected and a fair trial when accused, and assured that so long as he behaves he will be guaranteed safety of life and property, it is perhaps as well to let the negro go. It will mean an industrial revolution for the South, but the present condition of affairs has become intolerable.[178]

The negroes of the South used both the white and negro newspapers of that section in carrying on the discussion of the migration movement. The substance of what the negroes said through the press was that, first of all, the negroes wanted to stay in the South and were going north not only because there they could secure better wages than were generally paid in the South, but also because they would, in the North, get protection and have privileges not accorded in the South. Concerning the negro wanting to stay in the South, it was pointed out that in the South he did have economic opportunity and received encouragement. "The truth is that the negroes who are leaving the South in large numbers, and others who are thinking of going, do not want to go. They prefer to remain here."[179]

It was pointed out that the passing of stringent labor laws would not stop the exodus. The negro could not be kept in the South by force.

Various communities [said a negro] are passing stringent laws with the view of making the business of agents either impracticable or impossible. This will ultimately have the very opposite effect of what was intended. I am a negro and know the deeper thoughts and feelings of my own people. I know their yearnings and the religious zeal with which they look forward to the future for better days, and to other climes than this for better conditions.

Now to pass severe laws to block this movement will not only be a waste of time, but the most unwise way of dealing with the problem. The problem can not be solved from the angle of force.

In order for the negro to be kept in the South he must be made to see, to feel, that on the whole it will be better for him to remain in the South than to migrate to the North. Stop lynching. Teach us to love the South and be contented here by ceasing to abridge us in such extremes in common rights and citizenship.

Another method of helping to keep the negro in the South is for the better class of whites to get hold of the negroes. In a word, there should be cooperation between the races. The negroes should be given better schools and the whites should set before the negroes better examples of law and order. The North is offering better homes, better schools and justice before the law. The South can do the same.

"One of our grievances," said a negro correspondent of the Chattanooga Times,[180] "is that in colored localities we have very bad streets, no lights, no sewerage system, and sanitary conditions are necessarily bad. Give the negro the right kind of a show, living wages, consider him as a man, and he will be contented to remain here."

A good presentation of the negroes' side of the case is given in the following letter from a negro minister to the Montgomery Advertiser.[181] He wrote:

Why should the South raise such objections to the jobless man seeking the manless job, especially when it has held that jobless man up to the ridicule of the world as trifling, shiftless and such a burden to the South? Now the opportunity has come to the negro to relieve the South of some of its burden, and at the same time advance his own interests, a great hue and cry is started that it must not be allowed, and the usual and foolish method of repressive legislation is brought into play.

Addressing the editor of the Advertiser, another negro correspondent said:

I have read with profound interest the many articles published in your paper upon the great negro exodus from the South.

The negro has remained in the South almost as a solid mass since his emancipation. This in itself shows that he loves the South, and if he is now migrating to the East, North and West by the hundreds and thousands, there must be a cause for it. We should do our best to find out these causes and at least suggest the remedy.

The time has come for plain speaking on the part of all. It will do us no good to try to hide the facts, because "truth crushed to earth will rise again." In the first place, the negro in this country is oppressed. This oppression is greatest where the negro population is greatest. The negro population happens to be greater in the South than in the North, therefore, he is more oppressed in the South than in the North.

Take the counties in our State. Some are known as white counties and others as black counties. In the white counties the negro is given better educational opportunities than in the black counties. I have in mind one Black Belt county where the white child is given $15 per year for his education and the negro child only 30 cents a year. See the late Booker T. Washington's article, "Is the Negro Having a Fair Chance?" Now these facts are generally known throughout this State by both white and black. And we all know that it is unjust. It is oppression.

This oppression shows itself in many ways. Take for example the railroads running through the rural sections of the South. There are many flag stations where hundreds of our people get off and on the train. The railroads have little stops at the platform about six feet square; only one coach stops at this point; the negro women, girls and boys are compelled to get off and on the train sometimes in water and in the ditches because there are no provisions made for them otherwise.

Again take the matter of the franchise. We all agree that ignorant negroes should not be intrusted with this power, but we all feel that where a negro has been smart and industrious in getting an education and property and pays his taxes, he should be represented. Taxation without representation is just as unjust today as it was in 1776. It is just as unfair for the negro as it is to the white man, and we all, both white and black, know this. We may shut our eyes to this great truth, as sometimes we do, but it is unjust just the same.

Take the matter of the courts. There is no justice unless the negro has a case against another negro. When he has a case against a white man, you can tell what the decision will be just as soon as you know the nature of the case, unless some strong white man will come to the negro's rescue. This, too, is generally known and the negro does not expect justice.

As yet, there has been no concerted action on the part of the white people to stop mob violence. I know a few plantations, however, where the owners will not allow their negroes to be arrested without the officer first consulting them, and these negroes idolize these white men as gods, and so far not one of these negroes has gone north. I repeat there are outcroppings of these oppressions everywhere in this country, but they show themselves most where the negroes are in the largest numbers. But all of this the negro is perfectly willing to endure, and they all may be classed as the secondary cause of this great exodus.

The primary cause is economic. The storms and floods of last July and August destroyed practically all crops in a large part of the South, and especially in the Black Belt section. These people are hungry, they are naked, they have no corn and had no cotton, so they are without food and clothes. What else can they do but go away in search of work? There are a great many wealthy white men here and there throughout the Black Belt section. They have large plantations which need the ditches cleared and new ones made to properly drain their farms. They could have given work to these destitute people; but what have they done? Nothing. They say that it is a pity for the negro to go away in such large numbers, and so it is, but that will not stop them. They have it in their power to stop them by making the negro's economic condition better here.

Thus far the average white man of the South has been interested in the negro from a selfish point of view; he must now become interested in him from a humanitarian point of view. He must be interested in his educational, moral and religious welfare. We know that we have many ignorant, vicious and criminal negroes which are a disgrace to any people, but they are ignorant because they have not had a chance. Why, I know one county in this State today with 10,000 negro children of school age, and only 4,000 of these are in school, according to the report of the Superintendent of Education. We can not expect ignorant people to act like intelligent ones, and no amount of abuse will make them better.

Sometimes we hear it said that the white man of the South knows the negro better than anybody else, but the average white man of the South only knows the ignorant, vicious and criminal negro better than anybody else. He knows little of the best class of negroes. I am glad to say, however, that there are a few southern white men who know the better class, and know them intimately, and are doing what they can to better the negro's condition. I would to God that the number of these few could be increased a hundredfold.[182]

R.R. Wright, President of the Georgia State Industrial College for Negroes, in a discussion of the causes of the migration movement stated that it is undoubtedly true that the high wages offered is the main cause. There are other aiding causes, however, for this movement besides low wages.

Naturally the negro is peculiarly adapted to a southern climate and prefers to remain in the South. He has made his best progress in the South. There are nearly a million negro farm operators and most of them are in the South. The total acreage of their farms is 42,279,510: valued at $1,141,792,526. In the value of farms operated there was an increase of 128.5 per cent, during the last census decade, while the value of farm property operated by white farmers for the same time increased only 99.6 per cent. The negro is prospering in the South. Now this and other facts constitute for the negro a strong tie to the southern soil.

This tie should not be broken lightly. The negro does not want to leave the South. The only thing to break this tie is unfair and cruel treatment of the negro on the part of the white man. In this connection our white friends should know that not only in the lynchings, and in the courts and in the unwholesome conditions on the southern railway common carriers (as vital as these are), but that in the general attitude of many of our southern white people, there is exhibited a contempt for the negro which makes the best of the negroes feel that they are only tolerated in the South. And yet in their individual relations there is no better friend to the negro in the world than the southern white man. In the face of our friends it is hard to explain this discounting and this contemptuous attitude, and yet everybody understands that it exists. "You are only a negro and are not entitled to the courteous treatment accorded to members of other races." Another cause is the feeling of insecurity. The lack of legal protection in the country is a constant nightmare to the colored people who are trying to accumulate a comfortable little home and farm.

There is scarcely a negro mother in the country who does not live in dread and fear that her husband or son may come in unfriendly contact with some white person so as to bring the lynchers or the arresting officers to her door, which may result in the wiping out of her entire family. It must be acknowledged that this is a sad condition.

The southern white man ought to be willing to give the negro a man's chance without regard to his race or color; give him at least the same protection of law given to any one else. If he will not do this, the negro must seek those north or west who will give him better wages and better treatment.[183]

One of the most thoughtful discussions of the causes of migration was by W.T. Andrews, a negro lawyer and editor, formerly of Sumter, South Carolina. In an address before the 1917 South Carolina Race Conference he said:

In my view the chief causes of negro unrest and disturbance are as follows: the destruction of his political privileges and curtailment of his civil rights; no protection of life, liberty and property under the law; Jim Crow car; residential and labor segregation laws; no educational facilities worthy of the name in most of the southern States. These, I believe, are the most potent causes which are now impelling the southern negro to seek employment and find homes in northern and western sections of the country.

In South Carolina, and I believe it is equally true of every southern State, except those classed as "border States," statute after statute has been passed to curtail the rights of the negro, but in not a single instance can a law be pointed to which was enacted for the purpose of enlarging his opportunity, surrounding himself and his family with the protection of the law, or for the betterment of his condition. On the contrary every law passed relating to the negro has been passed with the intent of controlling his labor and drawing his circle of freedom into smaller and smaller compass.

In the rural districts the negro is not only at the mercy of the lawless white individual citizen, but equally at the mercy of the rural police, the constables and magistrates. There is hardly a record in modern history of greater oppression by judicial officers than that dealt to the negroes by a large majority of the magistrates and other officials who preside over the inferior courts of South Carolina.

In towns and cities, as a rule, mayors' and recorders' courts are mills for grinding out negro convicts; negroes charged with petty offenses are brought into these courts, convicted and sentenced with lightning speed, before they even realize that they are on trial unless they are able to hire attorneys, whose fees often equal the fine that would be imposed. They are beaten at will by arresting officers, frequently shot and many killed if attempt is made to escape by running away from the officer, and for any such shooting, officers are seldom put to the inconvenience of trial, even if the victim die.

In tragic truth it must be confessed that there is in the South—South Carolina, more certainly—no protection for the life or person of any negro of whatever standing, sex, age, against the intent of the bloody-minded white man.

The negro does not ask for special privileges or social legislation in his behalf. He does not ask to be measured by any standard less than the white man's standard, but he insists that the same test shall apply to all men of all races. He refuses to accept the declaration of men who claim to be earthly agents and representatives of the Almighty, the interpreters of His will and laws, and who solemnly assert that the God of the Christian ordained and decreed the negro race to be in slavery or semislavery to the white race.

The negro believes that the world is built on a moral foundation with justice as its basic rock. He believes that the Almighty is just, merciful and benevolent, and that He included all men in His plan of human development and reaching out for protection.

He asks only for justice. Nothing less than justice will stay the movement of negroes from the South. Its continued refusal will drive in the next two years a third or more of its negro population to other portions of the country.[184]

[Footnote 156: New Orleans Times Picayune, December 15, 1916.]

[Footnote 157: August 19, 1916.]

[Footnote 158: October 5, 1916.]

[Footnote 159: December 2, 1916.]

[Footnote 160: December 22, 1916.]

[Footnote 161: The Advertiser, Montgomery, Alabama, September 22, 1917.]

[Footnote 162: July 1, 1917.]

[Footnote 163: July 16, 1916.]

[Footnote 164: August 25, 1916.]

[Footnote 165: July 31, 1916.]

[Footnote 166: October 1, 1916.]

[Footnote 167: March 13, 1918.]

[Footnote 168: March 24, 1917.]

[Footnote 169: July 19, 1917.]

[Footnote 170: April 28, 1917.]

[Footnote 171: August 11, 1917.]

[Footnote 172: January 27, 1917.]

[Footnote 173: June 24, 1917.]

[Footnote 174: September 17, 1916.]

[Footnote 175: February 1, 1917.]

[Footnote 176: The Advertiser, Montgomery, Alabama, December 12, 1916.]

[Footnote 177: Atlanta Constitution, December 10, 1916.]

[Footnote 178: Georgia Gazette, reprint from Atlanta Constitution, December 10, 1916.]

[Footnote 179: Age Herald, Birmingham, Alabama, September 25, 1916.]

[Footnote 180: Weldon Victor Jenkins, in Chattanooga Times, October 10, 1916.]

[Footnote 181: The Advertiser, Montgomery, Alabama, October 7, 1916.]

[Footnote 182: W.J. Edwards, Principal of Snow Hill Normal and Industrial Institute (Colored), Snow Hill, Alabama, in the Advertiser, Montgomery, Alabama, January 27, 1917.]

[Footnote 183: Reprinted from the Morning News, Savannah, Georgia, January 3, 1917.]

[Footnote 184: From an address by W.T. Andrews at the South Carolina Race Conference, Columbia, South Carolina, February 8, 1917.]



BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS AND PERIODICALS

A Century of Negro Migration. C.G. Woodson, Washington, 1918.

The Negro Migrant in Pittsburgh. Abraham Epstein, Pittsburgh, 1918.

Negro Newcomers in Detroit. G.E. Haynes, New York, 1918.

The Migration of a Race, 1916-1917, Annual Report of National League on Urban Conditions among Negroes.

The 1917 Report of the Chicago Branch of the National League on Urban Conditions among Negroes.

Negro Migration: What Does It Mean? Gilbert N. Brink (pamphlet issued by American Baptist Home Mission Society, New York).

Negro Migration. New Republic, January 1, 1916.

How the War Brings Unprophesied Opportunities to the Negro Race. Current Opinion, December, 1916.

Negro Moving North. Literary Digest, October 7, 1916.

Cotton Pickers in Northern Cities. H.B. Pendleton, Survey, February 17, 1917.

Exodus in America. Living Age, October 6, 1917.

Lure of the North for Negroes. Survey, April 7, 1917.

Negroes Come North. K. Moses, Forum, August, 1917.

Negroes Go North. R.S. Baker, World's Work, July, 1917.

Negro Migration. P.H. Stone, Outlook, August 1, 1917.

Negro Migration as the South Sees It. Survey, August 11, 1917.

Passing of the Jim Crow. W.E.B. DuBois, Independent, July 14, 1917.

Reasons Why Negroes Go North. Survey, June 2, 1917.

South Calling Negroes Back. Literary Digest, June 23, 1917.

Southern Negroes Moving North. World's Work, June, 1917.

Welcoming Southern Negroes; East St. Louis and Detroit a Contrast. F.B. Washington, Survey, July 14, 1917.

When Labor Is Cheap. B.M. Edens, Survey, September 8, 1917.

Interstate Migration. W.O. Scroggs, Journal Political Economy, December, 1917.

Negroes Move North. G.E. Haynes, Survey, May 4, 1918.

Negroes a Source of Industrial Labor. D.T. Farnham, Industrial Management, August, 1918.

Negro Welfare Workers in Pittsburgh. Survey, August 3, 1918.

Negroes and Organized Labor. Survey, February 9, 1918.

Negro and the New Economic Conditions. R.R. Moton, Proceedings National Conference of Social Workers, 1917.

Migration of Negroes into Northern Cities. G.E. Haynes, National Conference of Social Workers, 1917.

Progress of Work for the Assimilation of Negro Immigrants in Northern Cities. F.B. Washington, National Conference of Social Workers, 1917

Negro Migration. Ralph W. Tyler, Pearsons, November, 1917.

Southern Labor as Affected by the War and Migration. Monroe N. Work, Proceedings of Southern Sociological Congress, 1918.

The Duty of Southern Labor during the War. R.R. Moton, Proceedings Southern Sociological Congress, 1918.

The Foundation (Atlanta), May-June, 1917.

A.M.E. Church Review (Philadelphia), January, 1917; April, 1918.

Voice of Missions (New York City), June, 1917.

Causes of Migration from the South. W.T. Andrews, Address at Race Conference, Columbia (S.C.), February 8, 1917. Specially printed.

The Massacre of East St. Louis. Martha Gruening and W.E.B. DuBois, The Crisis, September, 1917.

The Crisis, October, 1916, page 270; June, 1917, pages 63, 65.

The Nation, September 6; December 7, 1916.

The Problem of the Negro Laborer. Iron Trade Review, April 12, 1917.

Negro Migration Ebbs. Iron Trade Review, December 13, 1917.

Proceedings of Annual Convention of Federation of Labor, 1916, 1917, 1918.

NEWSPAPERS

(References for 1915, 1916. 1917, 1918)[1]

Akron (Ohio) Press, July 12, 1917.

Albany (N.Y.) Argus, Nov. 12, 1916.

Albany (N.Y.) Journal, August 6, 1917.

Albany (N.Y.) Knickerbocker Press, Dec. 21, 1916; Mar. 11, 26, 1917.

Amsterdam (New York City) News, May 28, June 18, 1915; Apr. 17, July 14, Aug. 18, Oct. 1, Dec. 13, 1916; Jan. 24, Aug. 1, 1917; Apr. 10, May 1, June 5, July 10, 24, Sept. 18, Oct. 2, 1918.

Artisan (Jacksonville, Fla.), Aug. 5, 1916.

Ashland (Ohio) Press, Aug. 22, 1917.

Asheville (N.C.) Citizen, July 11, 1917.

Atlanta Constitution, Aug. 23, 28, 1915; Sept. 13, 23, Oct. 10, 16, 18, 22, 24, Nov. 1, 4, 24, 26, 28, Dec. 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 13, 21, 29, 1916; Jan. 8, 10, Mar. 10, 26, 31, May 14, 23, 26, 27, 29-31, June 5, 6, 11, 16, July 7, 13-15, Aug. 13, 30, Sept. 1, Oct. 24-26, Nov. 11, 21, 1917; Feb. 27, Mar. 2, Apr. 2, 4-6, 9, 17, 20, 24, 25, May 2, 7, 10, 21, 26, 27, June 2, 7, 8, 18, 22, 29, July 10, 15, 16, 18, 19, 25, 27, 28, Aug. 2-4, 10, 15, 19, 21, 25, 26, 30, Sept. 1, 21, 1918.

Atlanta (Ga.) Independent, Dec. 2, 9, 16, 23, 1916; Feb. 24, Mar. 31, May 9, 19, 26, June 30, July 21, 1917; Mar. 22, July 20, 27, Aug. 3, 17, 31, 1918.

Atlanta (Ga.) Journal, Oct. 8, 1917, Mar. 28, 1918.

Atlanta (Ga.) Post, June 26, Aug. 9, 1917.

Augusta (Ga.) Chronicle, Feb. 18, 19, Dec. 9, 1917; Mar. 29, 1918.

Aurora (Ill.) News, Feb. 7, 1918.

Baltimore Afro-American, Jan. 26, Sept. 29, 1917; Apr. 19, May 24, June 21, 1918.

Baltimore American, Nov. 17, 1916; Aug. 9, 1918.

Baltimore News, Aug. 13, 1915; Nov. 17, 1916; Apr. 3, 1918.

Baltimore Sun, Mar. 1, 1915; Sept. 21, Nov. 1, 20, 1916; Apr. 1, Aug. 13, 1917; Mar. 13, 1918.

Bath (Me.) Times, July 31, 1917.

Beaumont (Tex.) Enterprise, Sept. 2, 1917; June 20, 1918.

Beaumont (Tex.) Journal, June 24, 1917.

Beloit (Wis.) News, Aug. 25, 1916; Apr. 24, 1918.

Birmingham (Ala.) Age-Herald. Mar. 20, Sept. 25, Nov. 9, Dec. 2, 1916; Mar. 21, Apr. 2, Dec. 24, 1917.

Birmingham (Ala.) Ledger, May 3, 21, 24, 31, July 31, Sept. 27, 1917; Apr. 23, 1918.

Birmingham (Ala.) News, Aug. 31, 1917; June 21, 1918.

Birmingham (Ala.) Reporter, July 28, 1917; Aug. 10, 17, Sept. 28, Oct. 5, 1918.

Boston Christian Science Monitor, May 24, 1916; Jan. 4, July 10, 27, Sept. 25, 1917; Jan. 28, 1918.

Boston Globe, Mar. 23, 1917; Mar. 30, 1918.

Boston Guardian, May 6, Aug. 22, 27, Oct. 10, 1916; Feb. 3, June 16, Aug. 4, 25, Oct. 6, 1917.

Boston Herald, Mar. 23, July 5, Sept. 13, 1917.

Boston Post, Feb. 26, 1917.

Boston Transcript, July 13, Dec. 15, 1916; Mar. 10, 31, Apr. 3, July 3, 7, 1917.

Bridgeport (Conn.) Farmer, Jan. 8, 1917.

Bridgeport (Conn.) Post, Oct. 7, Nov. 21, 1916; June 24, 1917; Jan. 24, 1918.

Bristol (Va.) Courier, July 29, 1917.

Bronx (N.Y.) Record and Times, Oct. 20, 1917.

Brooklyn Eagle, Aug. 10, 1917; Mar. 28, May 12, 21, July 25, Oct. 6, 1918.

Brunswick (Ga.) Banner, Oct. 10, 1917.

Buffalo (N.Y.) Courier, Sept. 16, 1917.

Buffalo (N.Y.) Express, Apr. 14, Oct. 23, Nov. 17, Dec. 7, 1916; June 15, 1917; Apr. 2, 1918.

Buffalo (N.Y.) News, Jan. 1, Aug. 31, 1917; June 18, 1918.

Buffalo (N.Y.) Times, Dec. 7, 1916; Nov. 20, 1917.

Burlington (Vt.) Free Press, Oct. 14, 1916.

Camden (N.J.) Courier, Apr. 30, 1918.

Charleston (S.C.) News and Courier, Oct. 26, Nov. 6, Dec. 18, 20, 1916; Jan. 2, Feb. 1, 23, Mar. 14, 1917.

Charlotte (N.C.) News, Mar. 11, 1918.

Charlotte (N.C.) Observer, July 17, Sept. 2, 1917; Mar. 28, Apr. 13, May 23, June 21, Sept. 21, 1918.

Chattanooga (Tenn.) Times, Dec. 15, 1916; Dec. 7, 1917.

Chester (S.C.) News, Aug. 13, 1918.

Chicago American, Nov. 20, 1916.

Chicago Defender, Mar. 16, 23, 30, Apr. 5, 27, 1915; every issue for 1916; every issue for 1917; almost every issue to Oct., 1918.

Chicago Examiner, Oct. 9, 1916; Mar. 30, July 19, 1917.

Chicago Herald, Oct. 13, 1916; Mar. 4, 19, July 3, 5, Oct. 10, Nov. 17, 1917.

Chicago Idea, June 30, 1917.

Chicago Journal, May 30, July 19, 1918.

Chicago News, Dec. 11, 13, 1916; Jan. 13, Mar. 20, 30, Apr. 21, July 31, Sept. 14, 1917; Jan. 15, Apr. 29, July 13, Aug. 7, 1918.

Chicago Tribune, July 25, 1916; June 9, July 8, 10, 26, Sept. 14, Oct. 27, 1917; February 13, 1918.

Christian Century (Chicago), July 25, 1918.

Christian Index (Jackson, Tenn.), June 21, July 19, Oct. 18, 1917; Feb. 21, Aug. 8, 1918.

Christian Recorder (Philadelphia), Aug. 3, 17, Sept. 14, Oct. 26, Nov. 9, 15, Dec. 21, 1916; Jan. 4, Feb. 1, Mar. 10, June 7 (special edition), Aug. 2, Sept. 20, 27, 1917; Jan. 24, Mar. 28, Apr. 11, 25, May 9, Aug. 1, 8, 15, 22, Sept. 19, 1918.

Cincinnati Commercial Tribune, Aug. 5, 10, Dec. 5, 1917; June 11, 1918.

Cincinnati Enquirer, Aug. 23, Oct. 30, 1916; Feb. 28, Mar. 26, Sept. 8, 12, 1917; July 31, 1918.

Cincinnati Post, Oct. 5, 1917.

Cincinnati Star, Sept. 12, 1917.

Cincinnati Union, Sept. 15, 1917.

Cleveland Advocate, Oct. 5, Sept. 14, 1915; Aug. 10, Nov. 11, 1917; Mar. 30, June 8, July 4, 27, Aug. 3, 10, 17, 1918.

Cleveland Leader, June 7, Dec. 8, 1916; July 10, 1917.

Cleveland News, Aug. 11, 1917.

Cleveland Plain Dealer, Oct. 19, 1916; Aug. 4, Sept. 12, Oct. 25, Dec. 6, 1917; Feb. 14, 1918.

Cleveland Press, Apr. 18, Oct. 25, 1917.

Columbia (S.C.) State, Oct. 2, 3, 7, 19, 23, Nov. 1, 15, Dec. 17, 22, 1916; Jan. 8, Feb. 2, Mar. 2, July 15, Oct. 20, Dec. 10, 1917; Mar 10, 1918.

Columbus (Ohio) Citizen, July 7, Aug. 7, Sept. 24, 1917.

Columbus (Ohio) Dispatch, July 8, Aug. 1, 20, Sept. 3, 20, 1917; May 8, June 30, 1918.

Columbus (Ga.) Enquirer-Sun, Nov. 21, Dec. 2, 17, 1916.

Columbus (Ohio) State Journal, Aug. 2, 21, 22, Oct. 10, Nov. 8, 1917; Aug. 6, 1918.

Cumberland (Md.) Times, July 7, 1917; Apr. 9, 1918.

Dallas (Tex.) Baptist Standard, Aug. 17, 1916.

Dallas (Tex.) Democrat, July 28, 1917.

Dallas (Tex.) Express, July 14, 21, Aug. 11, 25. 1917; July 20, 1918.

Dallas (Tex.) Journal, May 10, June 7, Sept. 24, 1918.

Dallas (Tex.) New Era, June 14, 1917.

Dallas (Tex.) News, Aug. 1, 1917; May 14, 16, 1918.

Dayton (Ohio) News, July 7, 30, Aug. 1, 1917; May 7, 1918.

Deep River (Conn.) Era, Nov. 9, 1918.

Denver (Col.) Star, July 28, 1917.

Detroit Free Press, June 18, Nov. 6, Oct. 23, 1916; Sept. 7, 1917; Mar. 23, Apr. 27, Sept. 28, 1918.

Detroit Journal, Nov. 15, 1916; June 20, Aug. 6, 1917.

Detroit News, Aug. 12, 1916; Oct. 21, 1917; Apr. 2, 7, May 19, 25, Sept. 13, 16, 1918.

Detroit News Tribune, Aug. 12, Nov. 19, 1916.

Detroit Times, Apr. 12, 20, June 29, 1918.

Dublin (Ga.) Herald, July 26, 1917.

Duluth (Minn.) News Tribune, Oct. 9, Nov. 9, 1916.

Elizabeth City (N.C.) Independent, Nov. 30, 1917.

Elmira (N.Y.) Advertiser, Feb. 9, 1917.

Evansville (Ind.) Courier, June 21, 1917.

Fort Wayne (Ind.) Journal-Gazette, Oct. 22, 1916; Oct. 11, 1917; Aug. 22, 1918.

Forth Worth (Tex.) Star-Telegram, Oct. 16, 1917.

Fort Worth (Tex.) Record, Oct. 6, 1916; Mar. 27, July 22, Nov. 3, 1917; May 4, Aug. 11, Sept. 22, 1918.

Galveston (Tex.) News, July 11, Aug. 3, 12, 17, 1917; Jan. 6, Sept. 20, 1918.

Grand Rapids (Mich.) Press, Sept. 10, 1917.

Greenville (S.C.) News, Apr. 3, 1916; Mar. 29, June 18, Sept. 10, 1917.

Hackensack (N.J.) Record, Apr. 4, 1917.

Harrisburg (Pa.) Patriot, July 7, 1917.

Hartford (Conn.) Courant, Aug. 7, Dec. 18, 1916; Feb. 15, Sept. 19, 1917; Feb. 22, 25, Mar. 17, 1918.

Hartford (Conn.) Post, Mar. 17, Sept. 15, 18, Oct. 9, 15, 17, 18, 1917.

Hartford (Conn.) Times, Jan. 11, July 12, Oct. 9, 1917; Apr. 23, May 24, 1918.

Henderson (Ky.) Gleaner, Aug. 24, 1916.

Hoboken (N.J.) Observer, Oct. 18, 1917.

Hotel Gazette (New York City), Oct. 20, 1917; July 13, 20, 1918.

Houston (Tex.) Chronicle, July 22, 1917.

Houston (Tex.) Observer, Oct. 21, 1916; July 7, Oct. 27, 1917; May 18, 21, June 8, Aug. 3, 17, 1918.

Houston (Tex.) Post, files for 1916; files for 1917; June 20, July 29, Aug. 31, 1918.

Houston (Tex.) Press, Aug. 14, 1917.

Holyoke (Mass.) Transcript, July 10, 28, 1917.

Indianapolis Freeman, Nov. 26, Dec. 9, 1916; Jan. 6, 13, Mar. 31, June 2, Oct. 13, 27, 1917; Feb. 9, Mar. 2, May 25, June 6, 29, July 26, 1918.

Indianapolis Ledger, July 16, Sept. 9, 1916; June 9, 1917.

Indianapolis News, Nov. 9, 1915; Nov. 16, 22, 24, Dec. 8, 1916; Jan. 23, 1917; June 7, July 24, 31, 1918.

Indianapolis Star, Sept. 21, 1918.

Indianapolis World, Dec. 9, 1916.

Jacksonville (Fla.) Metropolis, Dec. 22, 1916.

Jacksonville (Fla.) Times Union, Aug. 14, Nov. 10, Dec. 22, 1916; Jan. 20, 1917; Apr. 4, 1918.

Jackson (Miss.) News, June 12, Nov. 11, 1917; May 7, 1918.

Jersey City (N.J.) Journal, June 30, Oct. 10, 18, 1917; July 19, 1918.

Johnstown (Pa.) Democrat, Nov. 2, 1916.

Kansas City (Kan.) Globe, Aug. 25, 1917.

Kansas City (Mo.) Star, Aug. 17, 1916; Mar. 11, 1917; Mar. 9, 1918.

Kansas City (Mo.) Sun, Aug. 11, Sept. 8, 1917.

Kansas City (Mo.) Times, Apr. 6, 1918.

Knoxville (Tenn.) Journal-Tribune, Aug. 3, Sept. 23, 1916.

Lancaster (Pa.) Labor Leader, Sept. 1, 1917.

Louisville Courier Journal, July 18, Dec. 5, 1916; Mar. 28, 1917; Aug. 4, 5, 7, 1918.

Louisville News, Sept. 9, 1916; Sept. 15, 22, 1917; Feb. 23, Mar. 9, June 1, July 6, 1918.

Louisville Times, Sept. 29, 1916; Aug. 6, 14, 16, Sept. 11, 1918.

Macon (Ga.) News, Feb. 14, Apr. 30, May 5, Aug. 27, Sept. 1, 29, 1918.

Macon (Ga.) Telegraph, Sept. 5, Oct. 10, 1916; Feb. 18, Mar. 18, June 14, Nov. 21, 1917; Jan. 28, Aug. 7, 17, Sept. 3. 22, 1918.

Manufacturers Record (Baltimore), June 29, 1916.

Marietta (Ohio) Leader, Aug. 7, 1917.

Mason City (Iowa) Globe-Gazette, Oct. 24, 1917.

Memphis Commercial Appeal, Aug. 20, Oct. 5, 24, 1916; Sept. 9, 1917; Jan. 5, Apr. 6, May 1, 9, 27, 1918.

Memphis Press, July 5, 1917; Apr. 4, Sept. 20, 1918.

Meridian (Miss.) Dispatch, June 25, 1918.

Meridian (Miss.) Star, Jan. 4, Aug. 7, 1917.

Michigan Tradesman (Grand Rapids), Dec. 12, 1917.

Milwaukee (Wis.) Journal, Jan. 11, 1917; May 30, 1918.

Milwaukee (Wis.) Leader, July 13, 1917; Mar. 29, 1918.

Milwaukee (Wis.) Sentinel, Sept. 22, 1916; July 27, Oct. 5, 1917.

Milwaukee (Wis.) Wisconsin, Oct. 3, 1916.

Minneapolis (Minn.) Journal, July 12, 1917; June 11. 12, 13, 14, 1918.

Mobile (Ala.) Register, Jan. 4, Aug. 19, 1917; Apr. 27, 1918.

Montgomery (Ala.) Advertiser, Jan. 5, 1915; Mar. 5, 17, Aug. 5, 9, 20, 23, 24, Sept. 10, 15, 17, 19-21, 24, 27, 29, Oct. 4, 16, 25, 29, Nov. 5, 7, 8, 22, Dec. 7, 9, 10, 12, 17, 19, 21, 27, 31, 1916: Jan. 6, 9, 13, 16, 23, 25, 27, Feb. 1, 7, 14, Mar. 2, Apr. 22, May 5, 12, 21, 24. 30, 31, June 1, 2, 6, 11, Sept. 26, Oct. 1, 1917; Jan. 20, Feb. 3, 8, 10, 18, Apr. 23-26, 29, May 2, 4, 6, 27, June 2, 3, 6, 18, 27, 29, July 5, 26, 31, Aug. 1-3, 10, 11, 23, 27, Sept. 4, 13, 1918.

Nashville (Tenn.) Banner, Aug. 31, Nov. 4, 14, 17, 1916; Mar. 1, 28, Oct. 7, Nov. 25, 1917; June 15, 1918.

Nashville (Tenn.) Globe, Apr. 20, 1917; Feb. 15, Mar. 29, 1918.

Nashville (Tenn.) Tennesseean, Aug. 27, Sept. 1, Oct. 2, 22, 1916.

National Enquirer, July 25, 1918.

Newark (N.J.) Ledger, Apr. 11, 18. 1918.

Newark (N.J.) News, Mar. 10, 17, 29, Sept. 24, 28, Oct. 2, 10, 30, 1917; Feb. 20, Mar. 26, Apr. 9, July 19, Sept. 28, 1918.

Newark (N.J.) Star, July 31, 1915; Nov. 20, 1916; Oct. 5, 9, Nov. 6, 9, 1917.

New Bedford (Mass.) Mercury, July 20, 1917.

New Bedford (Mass.) Standard, July 19. 1917.

New Britain (Conn.) Herald, Sept. 11, 1917.

New Haven (Conn.) Register, Sept. 11, 1917.

New Orleans Item, Sept. 8, 11, 1917; Feb. 10, Mar. 31, May 13, 15, 20, 1918.

New Orleans Times-Picayune, Oct. 1, 19, 26, Nov. 10, 28, Dec. 9, 12, 15, 18. 1916; Jan. 1, 14, Mar. 9, 24, June 13, Sept. 4, 8, 15, 21, Oct. 5, 1917; Apr. 7, 30, May 12, 16, June 14, Sept. 21, 1918.

New Orleans States, July 24, Aug. 7, 28, Oct. 10, 1916; Nov. 3, 1917; Jan. 21, Apr. 6, July 23, 1918.

Newport (R.I.) News, Sept. 1, 1917.

New Philadelphia (Ohio) Times, Oct. 26, 1917; Mar. 17, 1918.

New York Age, Feb. 11, 18, Mar. 4, May 27, Aug. 19, 1915; May 24, July 20, 27, Aug. 24, 31, Sept. 14, Oct. 26, Nov. 15, 23, 30, Dec. 14, 21, 1916; Jan. 4, 11, Feb. 1, 8, 15, 22, Mar. 1, 15, 22. Apr. 5, 19, May 3, 10, 24, June 7, 14, 21, July 5, 26, Aug. 21, Sept. 20, Oct. 10, 11, 18, Nov. 1, 8, 22, 29, Dec. 22, 1917; Jan. 26, 29, Feb. 9, 16, Mar. 2, 9, 23, 30, Apr. 6, 20, 21, 27, May 4, 11, 18, 25, June 2, 8, 20, 22, 29, July 6, 13, 15, Aug. 10, Sept. 14, 21, 28, Oct. 5, 1918.

New York American, July 16, 17, Aug. 12, Sept. 20, 1917; June 23, 1918.

New York Call, Feb. 28, Sept. 15, 1915; Sept. 30, Oct. 10, Nov. 16, 29. Dec. 3, 1916; July 1, Aug. 8, 9, Sept. 28, Nov. 13, 22, 1917; Mar. 5, Apr. 26, May 30, June 8, 24, Aug. 26, 1918.

New York Commerce and Finance, Sept. 13, Nov. 8, 1916; Mar. 27, 1918.

New York Commercial, Oct. 24, 1916; July 14, 1917.

New York Globe, Feb. 10, 18, Mar. 12, 1915; July 31, Oct. 25, Nov. 13, Dec. 6, 1916; Mar. 19, Apr. 9, Aug. 20, Oct. 9, 1917; June 5, Oct. 1, 1918.

New York Herald, June 10, 1917.

New York Journal, July 14, Aug. 25, 27, Oct. 12, 1916; Oct. 4, 11, 1917.

New York Journal of Commerce, Aug. 14, 1917.

New York Mail, Feb. 27, 1915; Nov. 1, 1916; Aug. 1, Sept. 20, 1917; Feb. 6, 12, Mar. 11, 15, 18, Apr. 30, July 1, May 3, 1918.

New York News, Mar. 4, 1915; Apr. 13, Sept. 11, 29, Dec. 21, 1916; Jan. 25, Oct. 10, 1917; Feb. 14, Mar. 23, Apr. 10, 11, 25, Aug. 22, 1918.

New York Post, Dec. 28, 1915; Oct. 5, Nov. 17, Dec. 1, 4, 16; 1916; Feb. 3. July 13, 14, 16, Sept. 19, 20, Oct. 15, 25, 29, 1917; Jan. 31, Feb. 15, June 22, Sept. 25, 1918.

New York Sun, Mar. 27, Nov. 19, 22, 1916; Jan. 15, 20, Mar. 21, Apr. 4, July 2, Aug. 7, 10, 15, Sept. 21, Oct. 5, Nov. 19, 21, 1917; Jan. 31, May 1, 17, June 19, July 1, 2, 7, Sept. 17, 22, 1918.

New York Telegram, Nov. 16, 1916; Sept. 9, 1918.

New York Times, June 11, Aug. 17, Sept. 10, Oct. 21, Nov. 5, 12, Dec. 17, 1916; Oct. 7, 1917; Jan. 21, Feb. 1, May 25, 1918.

New York Tribune, Oct. 22, Dec. 24, 1916; July 2, 21, 31, Oct. 16, 1917; Jan. 6, May 11, 22, Aug. 26, Sept. 22, 1918.

New York World, Oct. 29, Nov. 12, 19, 1916; Mar. 21, 1917; Feb. 14, 23, Apr. 14, 18, May 21, June 23, 25, 1918.

Norfolk (Va.) Journal and Guide, Sept. 9, Oct. 2, Nov. 18, 25, Dec. 2, 16, 1916; Jan. 23, Feb. 2, 24, Mar. 3, 17, 24, Apr. 14, May 12, June 30, July 7, 25, 28, Sept. 11, 15, 22, 29, Oct. 6, 13, 20, Dec. 1, 1917; Feb. 2, 9, 16, Mar. 10, 23, 30, July 13, Aug. 10, 1918.

Norfolk (Va.) Virginian-Pilot, Oct. 20, 1916; Oct. 19, 1917; May 14, 1918.

Oakland (Cal.) Tribune, July 13, 1917.

Omaha (Neb.) Bee, Mar. 4, 1917; Mar. 24, 1918.

Omaha (Neb.) World-Herald, Feb. 3, 1917.

Oshkosh (Wis.) Daily Northwestern, July 28, 1916.

Palatka (Fla.) Advocate, Mar. 10, 1917.

Passaic (N.J.) Herald, Apr. 15, 1918.

Paterson (N.J.) Guardian, Sept. 22, 1917.

Peoria (Ill.) Journal, Nov. 23, 1917.

Philadelphia Bulletin, Mar. 12, June 29, July 26-28, 30, 31, 1917.

Philadelphia Inquirer. Feb. 24, Mar. 2, July 26-31, Dec. 14, 1917; Jan. 31, 1918.

Philadelphia North American, Aug. 9, 30, Nov. 24, 1916; Feb. 2, Mar. 27, July 26-31, 1917.

Philadelphia Public Ledger, May 11, 1916; Jan. 26, Apr. 6, July 16,. 26-31 Aug. 26, 1917; Jan. 31, May 27, Aug. 2, 3, 14, 1918.

Philadelphia Record, Apr. 8, 1915; Dec. 9, 1916; Mar. 2, Apr. 1, July 26-31 1917; June 12, 1918.

Philadelphia Telegraph, Oct. 11, Nov. 21, 1916; July 17, 26-31, 1917.

Pittsburgh Chronicle, Oct. 17, Dec. 1, 1916.

Pittsburgh Courier, June 22, 1917.

Pittsburgh Dispatch, Oct. 1, Dec. 7, 1916; Feb. 26, Mar. 16, Dec. 17, 1917; Mar. 7, Apr. 11, 14, 1918.

Pittsburgh Gazette Times, Nov. 21, 1917; June 28, July 7, 1918.

Pittsburgh Leader, Nov. 1, Dec. 7, 1916; June 28, 1918.

Pittsburgh Press, Mar. 28, 29, 1917.

Pittsburgh Sun, Mar. 26, 1917; Apr. 11, 1918.

Portland (Me.) Express and Advertiser, Nov. 25, 1916.

Portland (Me.) Press, Aug. 10, 1917.

Portland (Ore.) Oregonian, Nov. 7, 1917.

Providence (R.I.) Bulletin, Nov. 11, 1916; Feb. 13, 1918.

Providence (R.I.) Journal, Aug. 17, 28, Oct. 29, Nov. 9, 20, Dec. 23, 1916; Aug. 7, 1918.

Providence (R.I.) Tribune, Dec. 22, 1917.

Raleigh (N.C.) Independent, Apr. 28, July 21, Sept. 15, Oct. 27, Dec. 22, 1917; June 1, 29, 1918.

Raleigh (N.C.) News and Observer, Aug. 11, Oct. 4, Nov. 14, 1916.

Reading (Pa.) Telegram, Sept. 7, 1916; July 11, 1917.

Richmond (Va.) News Leader, July 6, 1917; June 4, 1918.

Richmond (Va.) Planet, Mar. 10, Apr. 7, 28, May 5, 19, June 23, Aug. 18, 1917; Feb. 16, 28, Mar. 30, Apr. 20, June 8, July 6, 1918.

Richmond (Va.) Times-Dispatch, Aug. 26, 1916.

Rochester (N.Y.) Democrat Chronicle, June 5, 1916; Feb. 18, Mar. 27, 1917.

Rochester (N.Y.) Post Express, Nov. 11, 17, Dec. 8, 1916; Jan. 8, 1918.

Rochester (N.Y.) Times, Dec. 11, 1916.

Rochester (N.Y.) Union and Advertiser, Dec. 8, 1916.

Rome (N.Y.) Sentinel, Mar. 21, 1917.

Sacramento (Cal.) Union, June 16, 1917.

Saginaw (Mich.) Courier-Herald, Mar. 21, 1917.

St. Joseph (Mo.) News. Feb. 17, 1917.

St. Louis Argus, Aug. 25, Oct. 20, 1916; Jan. 6. Feb. 9, Mar. 23, June 1, 8, Sept. 14, Oct. 5, 1917; Mar. 15, 22, Aug. 9, Sept. 27, Oct. 4, 11, 1918.

St. Louis Globe-Democrat, Feb. 15, May 30, 31, July 2-18, 1917; March 28, 1918.

St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Dec. 1, 10, 14, 1916: May 30, 31, July 2-18; Sept. 9, Nov. 3, 1917; May 10, 11, July 12, 18, Aug. 28, 1918.

St. Louis Star, May 30, 31, July 2-6, 8-13, 15-18, 1917.

St. Louis Times, May 30, 31, July 2-6, 8-13, 15-18, Aug. 11, 28, 1917.

Salina (Kas.) Union, Aug. 30, 1917.

Salt Lake City (Utah) Tribune, Mar. 4, 1917.

San Antonio (Tex.) Light, Sept. 10. 1916; May 14, Sept. 1, 1918.

San Jose (Cal.) Herald, Aug. 28, 1916.

Savannah (Ga.) Morning News, July 31, Aug. 2, 1916; Jan. 3, July 18, 1917; June 6, 1918.

Savannah Tribune, Aug. 5. 19, Sept. 9, 23, 30, Nov. 11, Oct. 28, 1916; Feb. 3. Mar. 31, Apr. 7, 28, May 10, 12, 17, 19, June 2, July 2, 1917; Feb. 13, Mar. 16, Apr. 13, May 20, July 20, 27, Aug. 3, 24, 1918.

St. Paul (Minn.) News, June 12, 14, 17, 1918.

St. Paul (Minn.) Pioneer Press, July 9, Oct. 5, 1915; Dec. 1, 1916; Aug. 6, 1918.

Scranton (Pa.) News, Mar. 3, 1915.

Seattle (Wash.) Post, Dec. 15, 1916; Aug. 16, 1917.

Sharon (Pa.) Herald, Feb. 1, 1917.

Shreveport (La.) Times, July 18, Aug. 2, Oct. 6, 1917; May 28, 1918.

Southern Standard (Macon, Ga.), June 16, 1917; May 2, 13, 1918.

Southwestern Christian Advocate (New Orleans), Dec. 7, 1916; Jan. 4, 11, Mar. 1, 22, July 19, Oct. 18, 1917; Mar. 9, May 30, July 25, Aug. 22, 1918.

Spartanburg (S.C.) Journal, Sept. 11, 1917.

Spokane (Wash.) Chronicle, Dec. 11, 1916.

Springfield (Mass.) News, Mar. 6, 1918.

Springfield (Ohio) News, Aug. 2, 1917.

Springfield (Mass.) Republican, May 12, Sept. 8, 10, Nov. 1, 17, 27, Dec. 3, 1916; Jan. 17, 19, 21, 25, Feb. 15, Mar. 8-11, July 7, Aug. 8, Nov. 27, 1917; Jan. 20, May 15, 1918.

Springfield (Mo.) Republican, Sept. 9, 1917; Mar. 14, 1918.

Springfield (Mass.) Union, Apr. 16, 1915; July 16, Sept. 6, 1916; Apr. 2, 1917.

Star of Zion (Charlotte, N.C.), July 19, Aug. 16, 1917.

Steubenville (Ohio) Star, Aug. 4, 20, 1917.

Syracuse (N.Y.) Herald, July 17, 1917.

Syracuse (N.Y.) Journal, Aug. 4, 1917.

Syracuse (N.Y.) Post-Standard, Aug. 2, 1916; Oct. 10, 1917.

Tacoma (Wash.) News, May 25, 1918.

Tampa (Fla.) Times, June 8, 9, 1917.

Texas Freeman (Houston), Oct. 13, 1917.

The Daily Herald (Baltimore), Nov. 22, Dec. 17, 1917; Jan. 5, Feb. 16, Mar. 8, 16, 23, 27, 30, April 1, 2, 16, 17, 19, 22, May 11, 13, 17, 18, 28, 30, June 6, July 8, 31, Aug. 6, 1918.

The Economic World (New York City), Mar. 9, June 29, 1918.

The Living Church (Milwaukee), Dec. 22, 1917.

The Observer (New York City), Oct. 7, 1916.

The Piedmont (Greenville, S.C.), Mar. 16, 1917.

The Progressive Farmer (Raleigh, N.C.), Jan. 27, 1917.

The Public (New York City), Nov. 30, 1917; May 25, 1918.

The Standard (Chicago), July 16, 1917; Jan. 26, 1918.

The Voice of the People (Birmingham), Aug. 5, Dec. 2, 16, 1916; Apr. 22, May 19, July 14, 1917.

The Watchman (New York City), Mar. 1, 1917.

Topeka (Kas.) Plain Dealer, Dec. 20, 1916; June 29, 1917.

Toledo (Ohio) Blade, July 12, Aug. 20, 1917.

Toledo (Ohio) Times, June 14, 1917.

Trenton (N.J.) State Gazette, Aug. 10, Sept. 24, Oct. 8, Nov. 14, Dec. 3, 1917.

Trenton (N.J.) Times, July 28, Aug. 6, 1916; July 6, Sept. 18, 19, 21, 22, 28, Oct. 13, Dec. 3, 1917; Feb. 13, Mar. 9, Apr. 10, July 11, 1918.

Troy (N.Y.) Times, July 7, Nov. 1, 1916; Feb. 16, Mar. 28, July 25, 1917.

Utica (N.Y.) Observer, Nov. 17, 1916; Aug. 22, 1917.

Utica (N.Y.) Press, Sept. 15, 1917.

Valdosta (Ga.) Times, July 3, 1917; Jan. 29, 1918.

Vicksburg (Miss.) Herald, Aug. 19, 1916; July 7, Dec. 7, 1917; July 30, 1918.

Vicksburg (Miss.) Post, Nov. 9, 1917; July 31, 1918.

Walla Walla (Wash.) Bulletin, Mar. 13, 1918.

Washington (D.C.) Bee, Feb. 13, 1915; Nov. 11, 1917; Mar. 23, Aug. 17, 24, Sept. 7, 1918.

Washington (D.C.) Herald, Jan. 23, 1916.

Washington (D.C.) National Tribune, Nov. 10, 1916.

Washington (D.C.) Post, Dec. 4, 1916; Feb. 25, 1918.

Washington (D.C.) Star, Nov. 23, 1916; Apr. 2, July 18, 1917; Sept. 8, 1918.

Washington (D.C.) Times, Nov. 13, 1916; Sept. 8, 1918.

Waterbury (Conn.) Democrat, Feb. 8, Oct. 29, 1917.

Waterbury (Conn.) Republican, July 4, 1917.

Waterloo (Iowa) Courier, Apr. 3, 1918.

Watertown (N.Y.) Times, Nov. 17. 1916: Feb. 2, 1917.

Weekly Witness (New York City), Sept. 6, 1916.

Wesleyan Christian Advocate (Atlanta, Ga.), Mar. 22, 1917.

Westerly (R.I.) Sun, Nov. 8, 1916.

Wilmington (Del.) News, Dec. 1, 1916; Sept. 17, 1917.

Wisconsin Weekly Blade (Madison, Wis.), Jan. 18, Mar. 15, Apr. 5, 1917.

Women's Wear (New York City), July 12, 13, 21, Oct. 3, 1917; Jan. 23, Mar. 27, Aug. 5, 1918.

Yonkers (N.Y.) Herald, July 12, 1915.

Youngstown (Ohio) Telegram, Aug. 21, 1917.

Youngstown (Ohio) Vindicator, Jan. 9, Mar. 23, 1918.

[Footnote 1: The newspaper discussion of the migration had its beginning in 1915 in statements about the conditions of negro labor in the South and the outlook for it in the North. The discussion was continued in the 1918 newspapers.]



INDEX

Adams, Henry, 4, 6.

Abbott, William, 84.

African Methodist Episcopal Church, 145.

Akron, migrations to, 57, 126.

Alabama: migrations from, 4, 7, 59, 63-74, 95-96, 107, 109; causes of migrations, 14-15, 20-21; Colonization Council, 5; efforts to check migrations, 72, 76; effects of migrations, 86.

Albany, migrations to, 56.

Albert Trostel Co., employment of negro labor, 114-115.

Allis Chalmers Co., employment of negro labor, 114.

Altoona, migrations to, 134.

Aluminum Ore Works, employment of negro labor, 100-101.

Amaca, Tom, 37.

American Baptist Home Mission Society, 144.

American Car & Foundry Co., employment of negro labor, 97.

American Cast Iron Pipe Co., employment of negro labor, 93.

American Federation of Labor, 147-148. See also Labor Unions.

American International Shipbuilding Co., employment of negro labor, 139.

American Steel & Wire Co., employment of negro labor, 108-109.

Andrews, W.T., 172.

Arkansas: migrations to, 3, 9, 65-68; efforts to check migrations, 72.

Armour & Co., employment of negro labor, 100.

Armstrong Association, 137-138.

Atlanta Constitution, 59.

Atlanta Independent, 162.

Atlanta Mutual Insurance Co., 64.

Badham, Henry L., 20.

Bailey, H.C., 128.

Banks, Edward T., 128.

Beloit: migrations to, 110-111; wages in, 111.

Beloit News, 159.

Bibliography, 175-183.

Birmingham Voice of the People, 160.

"Bloody Isle," The, 99.

Boll weevil, damage to cotton crops by, 14, 165.

Booker T. Washington Social Settlement, 114.

Bricklayers, wages of, 16, 86.

Brickmasons, wages of, 86.

Brink, Gilbert N., 144.

Brown Farm, 37.

Bryant, Lewis T., 141.

Buffalo, migrations to, 56, 67.

Building trades, negroes employed in, 122.

Bus boys, wages of, 17.

Butler, J.H., 75.

Butchers, wages of, 114.

Cantonments, construction of, in South, 84.

Capital, influence on migration of Northern, 47.

Carpenters: in Pittsburgh, 122; wages of, 16, 86.

Carter, R.A., 146.

Causes of migrations: Of 1879, 3-6; unemployment, 14-15, 59; failure of crops, 14-15, 165; wages, 14-16, 83; demand for labor in North, 14, 17-18, 28-29, 102, 111; lack of educational facilities, 18-19, 81, 83; treatment in courts, 19-20, 22, 83-85; fee system and street tax, 20-21; traveling accommodations, 21-22; lynchings and mob violence, 18-19, 22, 79-81, 83, 166-167; prejudice, 24-25, 83; between cities in North, 117; as expressed through the press, 152-174.

Champion Chemical Co., 128.

Charlotte Star of Zion, 161.

Chart showing extent and trend of migrations, 71.

Chattanooga Times, 169.

Chauffeurs, wages of, 114.

Chicago: migrations to, 45, 58, 66-67, 69, 102; opportunities, 29, 102; increases in negro population, 7, 51; housing, 102-106; wages, 17, 102-103, 114; welfare work, 103. See also East Chicago; Illinois.

Chicago Defender, 29-33.

Chicago Renting Agents Association, 103.

Chicago Women's Club, 103.

Chisholm, J.N., 37.

Christian Index, 163.

Churches: effects of migrations on, 86, 144; aid rendered by, 132, 144-147.

Cigar factories, employment of women in, 129.

Cincinnati, migrations to, 57, 125.

Cleveland, migrations to, 57, 126-127.

Cleveland Association of Colored Men, 128.

Cleveland Welfare Federation, 126.

Colonization Council, 4-5.

Colored Methodist Episcopal Church, 146.

Colored Protective Association, 137.

Columbia (S.C.) State, 155.

Columbus, migrations to, 7, 57, 126.

Commerce and Labor, Secretary of, 99.

Conferences to check migrations, 79-81, 83; in Ohio, 128; in New Jersey, 140; American Federation of Labor, 147-148; National League on Urban Conditions among Negroes, 143-144, 149.

Connecticut: demand for labor, 54; migrations to, 56, 58, 141-142; wages, 142. See also Hartford.

Connors, William R., 127.

Convict system, 3-4.

Cooks, 122.

Core makers, 129.

Correspondence, influence of, on migrations, 34, 69.

Cotton crop, failures of, 14.

Council of National Defense, 120.

Courts, treatment in: cause of migrations, 10-20, 22, 83-85; effects of migrations, 89.

Crawford, Anthony, 47.

Credit system, 92-93.

Crop failures, 14-15.

Cudahy Soap Factory, 109.

Culver, Charles M., 130.

Dallas Express, 162.

Davis, I.D., 81.

Dayton, migrations to, 126.

Discussion, stimulus to migration, 26.

District of Columbia, migrations to, 57.

Diversification of crops, 15.

Delaware, migrations to, 57, 134.

Delinquency problem, study of, in Cleveland, 127.

Detroit: opportunities in, 28; negro labor, 51, 130-131; wages, 129; welfare work, 131-132; housing, 131-132. See also Michigan.

Detroit Labor News, 151.

Detroit Employers' Association, 130.

Dock hands, wages of, 114.

Domestic service: in North, 17, 50-51, 122, 129; in South, 16.

Domination, removal of fear of, 91.

Dressmaking trade, negro labor in, 50.

East Chicago: migrations to, 109-110; wages, 109-110; housing, 109-110; recreation facilities, 110; prejudice, 110; returns to former homes from, 110. See also Chicago; Illinois.

East St. Louis: migrations to, 57, 99-101; riot of 1917, 98-101; wages, 99; demand for labor, 99; housing, 100. See also St. Louis; Missouri.

East St. Louis Journal, 101.

Economic policy of South, change in, following migrations, 87-88.

Edge, Governor, of New Jersey, 140.

Educational facilities: lack of, cause of migration, 18-19, 81, 83; improvement in, 83, 90-91; separation in schools, 96.

Effects on the North: increase in crime, 141; views of the press, 152-174.

Effects on the South: wages, 86-87; change in economic policies, 88-92; labor unions, 88, 147-151; lessening of prejudice, 88-89; welfare work, 88, 92-94; increased educational facilities, 83, 90-91; land tenure and credit systems, 92-93; views of the press, 152-174.

Efforts of the North to induce migration: labor agents, 29, 36-37, 40, 60, 65; in Milwaukee, 112, 114; in Pittsburgh, 119-120.

Efforts of the South to check migration: suppression of labor agents, 38, 72-74, 76-77; through Tuskegee Institute, 81-82; through the churches, 83; legislation, 72-73, 76; increased wages, 79, 83; change in policies, 84-85; improved educational facilities, 83, 90-91.

Eiffin, William T., 141.

Ellis, J.B., 81.

Emerson & Birmingham: employment of negro labor, 106; housing of its labor, 107.

Epstein, Abraham, 18, 119-120, 122-123.

Erie Railroad, demand of, for labor, 135.

Factories, negro labor employed in, 51.

Fairbanks, Morse & Co., employment of negro labor, 111.

Farm hands, wages of, 86.

Faulks' Manufacturing Co., employment of negro labor, 114-115.

Fee system, 20-21.

Firemen, wages of, 114.

Floods as cause of migration, 14.

Florida: migrations to, 9; migrations from, 38, 43-44, 55, 59, 62-63, 69; causes of migration, 14, 22; efforts to check migration, 72-73.

Floyd, William, 54.

Foundrymen, wages of: in Massachusetts, 17; in Minnesota, 18; in Chicago, 17, 114.

Fraily, E.J., Jr., 54.

Free Sewing Machine Co.: employment of negro labor, 106; housing of its labor, 107.

Free transportation, 47-48.

Garment factories, employment of women in, 129.

Gasselli Chemical Co., employment of negro labor, 109-110.

Georgia: migrations from, 38, 59-62, 69, 109; causes of migrations, 14, 22, 79-80, 83; efforts to check migrations, 72-76, 79, 80-81, 86; activities of labor agents, 60.

Georgia Enquirer Sun, 154.

Glass works, employment of negro labor in, 100.

Goldsmiths Detinning Co., employment of negro labor, 109.

Gompers, Samuel, 151. See also American Federation of Labor.

Great Lakes Naval Training Station, 108.

Great Northern Drive, The, 30, 33.

Grimke, Archibald H., 150.

Harrisburg, migrations to, 57, 134.

Harris, George W., 150.

Hartford: migrations to, 56, 58, 141-142; wages, 142; housing, 142.

Hartford Baptist Association, 141.

Hartford Civic Club, Housing Committee of, 142.

Haynes, George E., 129.

Hobson & Walkers Brick Yard, employment of negro labor, 109.

Hoffman Manufacturing Co., employment of negro labor, 114-115.

Home Missions Council of Churches of Christ in America, 132, 145.

Housing: in St. Louis, 97-98; in East St. Louis, 100; in Chicago, 102-106; in Rockford, 106-107; in Waukegan, 108; in East Chicago, 109-110; in Beloit, 111; in Milwaukee, 117-118; in Pittsburgh, 120-122; in Cleveland, 126-127; in Detroit, 131-132; in Pennsylvania, 135; in Philadelphia, 137-139; in New Jersey, 139-140; in Hartford, 141-142.

Howe, Frederick C., 53.

Illinois: migrations to, 7, 58, 68, 108-109; housing, 108; wages, 108; prejudice, 109; migrations from, 112. See also Chicago; East Chicago.

Illinois Central Railroad, importation of negro labor, 102.

Immigration Bureau of Social Uplift Work for Negroes, 143.

Indiana, migrations to, 5, 57, 68.

Influences on migrations: discussion, 26; public speaking, 27-28; attitude of North, 27; reports of opportunities in North, 28-29, 34; rumors, 28-29, 40, 78-79; activities of Chicago Defender, 29-33; activities of labor agents, 29, 36-37; correspondence, 34, 40, 69; circulation of literature and poems, 35, 37.

Inland Steel Foundry, employment of negro labor, 109.

Interdenominational Ministerial Union, 137.

International Lead Refining Co., employment of negro labor, 109.

Intersectional migration: number born in specified divisions and living in or out of these divisions, 10; number living in specified divisions, 10; migration north to south, south to north and east to west, 11; net migration eastward and westward and northward and southward, 12.

Interstate Mill, employment of negro labor, 109.

Intoxicants, use of, among negroes in Pittsburgh, 124.

Invasion, rumors of, 28.

Iowa, migrations from, to Wisconsin, 112.

Iron and steel industries, employment of negro labor in, 113.

Janitors: in Milwaukee, 114; in Pittsburgh, 122.

Jersey City, migrations to, 57.

Johnson, Charles S., 23, 128.

Jones, E.K., 93, 150.

Jones, Thomas Jesse, 18, 150.

Joyce, labor agent, 72.

Kansas, migrations to, 3-6, 58.

Kentucky: migrations to, 68; migrations from, 95.

Krolick Co., employment of women by, 131.

Labor:— Labor agents: activities of, 29, 36-37, 40, 60, 65; from St. Louis, 96; from East St. Louis, 99; from Milwaukee, 112; from Pittsburgh, 120; from Pennsylvania, 135; efforts of the South to suppress, 38, 72-74, 76-77; inquiry of Council of National Defense, 129. Labor Unions: prejudice of, 49; change in policy, 88, 147-151. Suitability of negro labor, 115-116, 123, 130-131; demand in North for, 14; competition in North, 50-52; comparison of negro with foreign labor, 125; wages—see Wages.

Labor, Department of, 53, 78.

Lancaster, B.S., 150.

Lancaster, migrations to, 134.

Land tenure system, improvement in, 92-93.

Legal aid to negroes in North, 127.

Legislation: to check migration, 72-73, 76; to aid migrants in North, 141.

Lindeman-Hoverson Co., A.J., employment of negro labor, 113-115.

Literature, circulation of, influence on migration, 35.

Louisiana: migrations from, 4, 59, 68; causes of migrations, 14; Colonization Council, 5; efforts to check migrations, 78.

Lumber stackers, wages of, 103.

Lynchings: cause of migrations, 18-19, 22, 79-81, 83, 166-167; checking of, 94; Anthony Crawford, 47; in Georgia, 22, 79; in Tennessee, 22.

Machinists: in Detroit, 129; in Massachusetts, 17.

Macon Telegraph, 156

Marks Manufacturing Co., wages paid by, 103.

Massachusetts: migrations to, 56; wages in, 17.

Massacres, cause of migration of 1879, 4.

Maxwell, William H., 140.

Mechanics, negro labor in, 51.

Memphis Commercial Appeal, 154.

Michigan: migrations to, 58, 68, 129-133; migrations from, 112. See also Detroit.

Middletown, migrations to, 126.

Migrations: to Kansas, 1879, 3-6; to Arkansas and Texas, 1888 and 1889, 3; of May 15, 1917, 30-33; of August 15, 1917, 33; chart showing extent and trend of, 71; efforts to check—see Efforts; effects of—see Effects.

Milwaukee: migrations to, 111-118; efforts to secure negro labor, 111-112, 114; recreation facilities, 112, 117-118; wages, 113-115; prejudice, 116; housing, 117-118; migrations from, 117.

Milwaukee Coke & Gas Co., employment of negro labor, 113-115.

Ministers, aid of, sought to check migrations, 83.

Minnesota: migrations from, to Wisconsin, 112; wages in, 18.

Mississippi: migrations from, 4, 45, 59, 64-68, 95-96, 99, 109, 111; Colonization Council, 5; causes of migrations, 14-15, 20, 24-25; efforts to check migrations, 72, 76-78, 82-83; effects of migrations, 87, 89-90.

Missouri, migrations to, 57. See also St. Louis; East St. Louis.

Missouri Malleable Iron Works, employment of negro labor, 100.

Mob violence, 79-80, 83, 167. See also Riots.

Molders: in Chicago, 17; in Detroit, 129.

Moldsetters, in Pittsburgh, 122.

Montgomery Advertiser, 150, 165, 169-170.

Moore, Fred R., 150.

Morris & Co., employment of negro labor, 100.

Moton, Robert R., 150-151.

Motormen in Detroit, 28.

Muckers, wages of, 114.

Nagel, Charles, 99.

Nashville Banner, 153.

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 98, 128, 137, 151.

National League on Urban Conditions among Negroes: aid to migrations, 54, 56; welfare work, 93, 143-144, 149; conferences, 143-144, 149; in St. Louis, 98; in Chicago, 69, 104; in Pittsburgh, 121; in Detroit, 131-132; in Philadelphia, 137.

National Malleable Iron Works, employment of negro labor, 113-115.

National organizations, remedies for relief by, 143-151.

Nebraska, migrations to, 58.

Nelson & Co., employment of negro labor, 100.

New Orleans Times Picayune, 152.

Newark. See New Jersey.

New Jersey: migrations to, 39, 56-57, 139; migrations to Newark, 56-58; return of migrants to South from, 139; housing, 139-140; wages, 140; legislation, 141; effects of migrations, 141; welfare work, 139-141.

Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., 93.

New York, migrations to, 39, 56, 58, 67-68.

New York New Republic, 157.

New York News, 54, 164.

New York Age, 43.

New York Globe, 159.

Norfolk Journal and Guide, 160.

North: opportunities, 17, 28-29; attitude toward migrants, 27, 136, 152-174; aids to migrants, 143-151.

North Carolina, migrations from, 4-5, 39.

Northwest, migrations to, 69.

Northwestern Railroad, need of, for labor, 108.

Oates, W.H., 21.

Ohio: migrations to, 7, 57, 125-129; housing, 126-127; welfare work, 126-128; conferences to aid migrants, 128.

Ohio Federation for Uplift of the Colored People, 128.

Ohio State Council of National Defense, 128.

Ohio State and City Labor Bureau, 128.

Ohio Charter Commission, 128.

Oklahoma, migrations to, 9.

Omaha, migrations to, 58.

Oshkosh Daily Northwestern, 158.

Packing houses, negroes employed in: East St. Louis, 100; Chicago, 29, 102; Milwaukee, 114.

Painters: in Pittsburgh, 122; wages of, 86.

Parker, Judge T.A., 81.

Parks, Rev., 79.

Pattern Makers, wages of, 17.

Pass Riders, 77.

Pennsylvania: migrations to, 9, 38-39, 55, 57, 67, 134-139; labor agents from, 135; returns to former homes from, 135. See also Philadelphia; Pittsburgh.

Pennsylvania Railroad Co., demand of, for labor, 69, 135.

Persuasion, use of, to check migrations, 79.

Pfister-Vogel Co., employment of negro labor, 114-115, 117.

Philadelphia: migrations to, 57-58, 135; prejudice, 135; attitude of negroes in, toward migrants, 136; wages, 136; riots, 136; housing, 137-139; social work, 137-139. See also Pennsylvania.

Philadelphia Academy of Medicine, 137.

Philadelphia Christian Recorder, 164.

Pittsburgh: migrations to, 58, 67, 119-125; efforts to secure negro labor, 119-120; housing, 120-122; social conditions in, 121, 124-125; prejudice, 123; wages, 18, 123-124; comparison of negro labor with foreign labor, 125. See also Pennsylvania.

Pittsburgh Associated Charities, 121.

Pittsburgh Dispatch, 160.

Pittsburgh, University of, 121.

Plankington Packing Co., employment of negro labor, 113-115.

Plantation government, 84.

Poems, circulation of, influence on migration, 37.

Political prosecution in South, 4.

Porters: in Chicago, 17; in Milwaukee, 114; in Pittsburgh, 122; wages of, 17, 114.

Pottsville, migrations to, 134.

Poughkeepsie, migrations to, 56.

Prejudice: Rockford, 107-108; Waukegan, 109; East Chicago, 110; Beloit, 111; Milwaukee, 116; Pittsburgh, 123; Philadelphia, 135; cause of migration, 3, 22, 24-25; of labor unions, 49-51; decrease in, 91.

Press, causes and effects of migrations, as expressed through the, 152-174.

Prisoners, care of discharged, 127.

Professional men, migration of, 45.

Public opinion regarding migrations, 152-174.

Public speaking, stimulation of migration by, 27-28.

Puddlers, employment of, in Pittsburgh, 122.

Railroads: efforts of, to secure negro labor, 38, 120; wages, 103; in Pittsburgh, 122.

Raleigh Independent, 161.

Realty Housing and Investment Co., 127.

Reeves, Alexander, 72.

Remedies: in Georgia, 80; increased educational facilities, 83, 90; through W.P. Thirkfield, 83; through Tuskegee Institute, 81; conferences, 143-144; through churches, 144-147; through labor unions, 147-151.

Rents: in Chicago, 105; in Cleveland, 126; in New Jersey, 139; in Hartford, 142. See also Housing.

Republic Rolling Mill, employment of negro labor, 109.

Returns to South: from East Chicago, 110; from Pennsylvania, 135; from New Jersey, 139.

Riley, George S., 73.

Riots: in East St. Louis, 98-100; in Philadelphia, 136. See also Mob violence.

Robinson, Joe, 72.

Robinson, William, 107.

Rockford: migrations to, 106-108; housing, 106-107; wages, 106-107; prejudice, 107-108.

Rockford Malleable Iron Company: employment of negro labor, 106-107; housing of its labor, 106-107; wages paid by, 107.

Rumors, influence on migrations of, 28-29, 40, 78-79.

St. Louis: migrations to, 57, 66-67, 95-101; separation, 95; efforts to secure migrants, 96; wages, 96-97; housing, 97-98. See also East St. Louis; Missouri.

Sanitary conditions: improvements in, 92, 94; in St. Louis, 98.

Scarborough, W.S., 128.

Schwartz, John E., 37.

Scott, Emmett J., 150.

Scroggs, William Oscar, 9.

Segregation, 95-96.

Servants. See Domestic service.

Shillady, J.R., 150-151.

Shoemakers, wages of, 114.

Singleton, "Pap" (Benjamin), 5-6.

Skilled workers, 122, 129.

Smith, Bridges, 59.

Social conditions: in Pittsburgh, 121; in Cleveland, 127. See also Welfare work.

Social Service Commission of the Churches of Christ, 121.

Solvay Steel Castings Co., employment of negro labor, 114.

South Carolina: migrations from, 46-47; race conference, 172.

Southwestern Christian Advocate, 144.

Springfield, migrations to, 126.

Springfield Union, 158.

Stanton, V.L., 81.

Steel industry: demand for labor, 38, 119; negroes employed in Pittsburgh, 122.

Steel molders, wages of, 114.

Stimulation of migrations. See Influences.

Street construction workers, wages of, 114.

Street tax in South, cause of migration, 20.

Superstitions of migrants, 40, 45-46.

Swift and Company, employment of negro labor, 100.

Tannery laborers, wages of, 114.

Teachers, wages of, 18.

Tennessee: migrations from, 4-5, 95-96, 99; migrations to, 68; lynchings, 22.

Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Co., 93.

Texas: migrations to, 3; migrations from, 4; Colonization Council, 5.

Theater ushers, women employed as, 129.

Thirkfield, Bishop W.P., 83.

Tifton Gazette, 79.

Tobacco fields, wages of labor employed in, 17.

Trakem Pump Co., employment of negro labor, 106.

Tunnell Construction Co., employment of negro labor, 114-115.

Tuskegee Institute: efforts to check migrations, 81; conference of, 82.

Transfer yards, negro labor employed in, 100.

Transportation, influence on migration of fears of, 28-29.

Transportation paid by Northern employers, 135.

Traveling accommodations, influence on migrations, 21-22; effects of migrations, 91.

Trenton, migrations to, 57.

Truckers, employment of negro laborers as, 129.

"Underground Railroad," 68.

Unemployment, 14-16, 59.

Union Central Relief Association, 64.

United States Production Co., 109.

Unskilled labor, 122, 129.

Vicksburg Herald, 153.

Virginia, migrations from, 39.

Wages:— South: cause of migrations, 14-18, 29, 34, 83, 171; comments of press, 84; effects of migrations, 81, 83, 85-87, 91. North: In Pittsburgh, 18, 123-124; in Massachusetts, 17; in Minnesota, 18; in St. Louis, 96-97, 99; in Chicago, 17, 102-103, 109-110, 114; in Rockford, 106-107; in Waukegan, 108; in Beloit, 111; in Milwaukee, 113-115; in Detroit, 129-130; in Philadelphia, 136; in New Jersey, 140; in Hartford, 142.

Walker, A.P., 37.

Walla Walla Bulletin, 160.

Warehousemen, wages of, 17.

Waukegan, migrations to, 108-109.

Waukegan industries, employment of negro labor, 108-109.

Wehr Steel and Machine Shops, employment of negro labor, 113.

Welfare work: National League on Urban Conditions among Negroes, 93, 143-144, 149; in Chicago, 103; in Ohio, 126-128; in Detroit, 131; in New Jersey, 139-141; in Philadelphia, 137-139; in Hartford, 141-142.

Wilberforce University, 128.

Wilder Tannery Co., employment of negro labor, 108.

Wills, J. Walter, 128.

Wilmington, migrations to, 134.

Wilson Packing Co., wages paid by, 103.

Winston, Francis D., 153.

Wisconsin: migrations to, 110-111; wages, 111. See also Milwaukee.

Women's Health League, 88.

Woods, J.S., 114.

Wright, R.R., 171.

Yard workers, wages of, 17.

York, migrations to, 134.

Young Negroes' Progressive Association, 132.

Youngstown, migrations to, 57, 126.

THE END

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