Memoirs of Lady Fanshawe
by Lady Fanshawe
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The next day, being the 16th, Don Francisco de Ayala was visited, by my husband's example, by most of the council and nobility of this Court. In the evening, in a letter to the Duke de Medina de las Torres, my husband inclosed a memorial to his Catholic Majesty, demanding the prisoner, saying, he was very sorry that at one time, a few years ago, in the year 1650, some English gentlemen, whereof Mr. Sparks was one, did kill one Askew, an agent of Oliver's to the Catholic King. When they had thus done, all those persons and degrees made their escape but Mr. Sparks, who took sanctuary in one of their churches; notwithstanding which, the privilege thereof being defended both by the Archbishop of Toledo and the greatest prelates of this kingdom, he was by the King and council pulled out of the church and executed, so great at that time was the fear that this Court had of Oliver; and now, violation of privileges should only have been used to his Majesty, the King of England, assuring his Majesty he neither could nor would put it up without ample restitution made.

Upon the perusal of this memorial, his Catholic Majesty did immediately command the President of Castile to send his warrant the next day, and to release Don Francisco de Ayala, and to send him home immediately to my husband, which was done accordingly that night; and my husband, with all his coaches and family, which were near a hundred persons, carried him and placed him in his own house before the officers' faces that brought him home from prison. All this you will find in your father's transactions in his Spanish embassy. In this action my husband did not receive so much content in the victory as the Spaniards of all sorts, on whom it made a very great impression; though the chief Minister of state in our country did not value this, nor give the encouragement to such a noble action as was due. And here I will impartially say, what I have observed of the Spanish nation, both in their principles, customs, and country.

I find it a received opinion that Spain affords not food either good or plentiful: true it is that strangers that neither have skill to choose, nor money to buy, will find themselves at a loss; but there is not in the Christian world better wines than their midland wines are especially, besides sherry and canary. Their water tastes like milk; their corn white to a miracle, and their wheat makes the sweetest and best bread in the world; bacon beyond belief good; the Segovia veal much larger and fatter than ours; mutton most excellent; capons much better than ours. They have a small bird that lives and fattens on grapes and corn, so fat that it exceeds the quantity of flesh. They have the best partridges I ever eat, and the best sausages; and salmon, pikes, and sea-breams, which they send up in pickle, called escabeche [Footnote: "Escabeche; a pickle made of white wine, bay leaves, sliced lemons, and spices, used for preserving fish and other food."—Dic. de la Acad. Esp.] to Madrid, and dolphins, which are excellent meat, besides carps, and many other sorts of fish. The cream, called nata, is much sweeter and thicker than any I ever saw in England; their eggs much exceed ours; and so all sorts of salads, and roots, and fruits. What I most admired are, melons, peaches, burgamot pears, grapes, oranges, lemons, citrons, figs, and pomegranates; besides that I have eaten many sorts of biscuits, cakes, cheese, and excellent sweetmeats I have not here mentioned, especially manger- blanc; and they have olives, which are no where so good; and their perfumes of amber excel all the world in their kind, both for household stuff and fumes; and there is no such water made as in Seville.

They have daily curiosities brought from Italy and the Indies to this Court, which, though I got my death-wound in, without partiality, I must say, is the best established, but our own, in the Christian world that I ever saw; and I have had the honour to live in seven. All Ambassadors live in as great splendour as the most ambitious can desire, and if they are just and good, with as much love as they can deserve.

In the Palace none serve the King and Queen but the chiefest of the nobility and ancientest families; no, not in the meanest offices.

The nation is most superstitiously devout in the Roman Catholic religion; true in trust committed to them to a miracle, withstanding all temptations to the contrary, and it hath been tried, particularly about Cadiz and St. Lucar, that for eight or ten pieces-of-eight, poor men will undertake stealing for the merchants their silver aboard when their shipping come in, which sometimes by the watch for that purpose are taken; and after their examination and refusal to declare whose the silver is, or who employed them to steal, they are oftentimes racked, which they will suffer with all the patience imaginable; and notwithstanding their officers, as they execute their punishment, mingle great promises of reward if they will confess, yet it was never known that any ever confessed; and yet these men are not worth ten pounds in the world.

They are civil to all as their qualities require, with the highest respect, so that I have seen a grandee and a duke stop their horse when an ordinary woman passeth over a kennel, because he would not spoil her clothes; and put off his hat to the meanest woman that makes a reverence, though it be their footman's wife. They meddle with no neighbour's fortune or person, but their own families; and they are punctual in visits, men to men, and women to women. They visit not together, except their greatest ministers of state, so public ministers' wives from princes. If they have animosities concerning place, they will by discretion avoid ever meeting in a third place, and yet converse in each other's houses, all the days of their lives, with satisfaction on both sides. They are generally pleasant and facetious company; but in this their women exceed, who seldom laugh, and never loud; but the most witty in repartees, and stories, and notions in the world. They sing, but not well, their way being between Italian and Spanish; they play on all kinds of instruments likewise, and dance with castanuelas very well. They work but little, but very well, especially in monasteries. They all paint white and red, from the Queen to the cobbler's wife, old and young, widows excepted, who never go out of close mourning, nor wear gloves, nor show their hair after their husband's death, and seldom marry. They are the finest- shaped women in the world, not tall, their hair and teeth are most delicate; they seldom have many children; there are none love cleanliness in diet, clothes, and houses more than they do. They dress up their oratories very fine with their own work and flowers.

They have a seed which they sow in the latter end of March, like our sweet basil; but it grows up in their pots, which are often of China, large, for their windows, so delicately, that it is all the summer as round as a ball and as large as the circumference of the pot, of a most pleasant green, and very good scent.

They delight much in the feasts of bulls and stage plays, and take great pleasure to see their little children act before them in their own houses, which they will do to perfection; but the children of the greatest are kept at great distance from conversing with their relations and friends, never eating with their parents but at their birth. [Footnote: i.e., on their birth-days.] They are carried into an apartment with a priest, who says daily the office of their church; a governess, nurse, and under-servants, who have their allowance according to the custom of great men's houses, so many pounds of flesh, fruit, bread, and the like, with such a quantity of drink, and so much a year in money. Until their daughters marry, they never stir so much as down stairs, nor marry for any consideration under their own quality, which to prevent, if their fortunes will not procure husbands, they make them nuns. They are very magnificent in houses, furniture, pictures of the best, jewels, plate, and clothes; most noble in presents, entertainments, and in their equipage; and when they visit, it is with great state and attendance. When they travel, they are the most jolly persons in the world, dealing their provisions of all sorts to every person they meet when they are eating.

One thing I had like to have forgotten to tell you. In the palace there never lies but one person in the King's apartment, who is a nobleman, to wait the King's commands; the rest are lodged in apartments at further distance, which makes the King's side most pleasant, because it is most airy and sweet. The King and Queen eat together twice a week in public with their children, the rest privately, and asunder. They eat often, with flesh to their breakfast, which is generally, to persons of quality, a partridge and bacon, or capon, or some such thing, ever roasted, much chocolate, and sweetmeats, and new-laid eggs, drinking water either cold with snow, or lemonade, or some such thing. Their women seldom drink wine, their maids never; they all love the feasts of bulls, and strive to appear gloriously fine when they see them.

Upon February the 11th, the Emperor's Ambassador's lady visited me. Upon Thursday the 19th of February, went from us to England, Mr. Charles Bertie, Mr. Francis Newport, Sir Andrew King, Sir Edmund Turner, Mr. Francis Godolphin, Mr. Wycherley, Mr. Hatton, and Mr. Smith, with all their servants. This day likewise we received letters of the arrival of Mr. Price from Elvas, a gentleman of my husband's, who had been sent by him on the 28th of January last past to the King of Portugal, upon business of state.

Upon the 2nd of March, we went to see a country house of the Marquesa de Liche, who presented me with a dog and bitch, perfect greyhounds, and I could put each of them in my pocket.

On Thursday the 5th, I returned the visit of the Emperor's Ambassador's lady. March the 8th, we went to see a house of Don Juan de Congro, at Chamartin.

On Wednesday the 19th, we went to take the air, and dined at Vicalvaro. Mr. Price came from Lisbon this day to Madrid.

Upon the 20th of March 1665, stilo novo, upon desire of the Duchess de Medina de las Torres, who was then sick, and had long kept her bed, I visited her Excellency, taking all my children with me. After I had been there a little while, passing those compliments, her Excellency told me that her Catholic Majesty had commanded her to assure me that her Majesty had a very high esteem for me, not only as I was the wife of a great King's Ambassador, for whom her Majesty had much respect, but for my person, and the delight her Majesty took in my conversation, assuring me from her Majesty that, upon all occasions, I should find her most cheerfully willing to do me all possible kindness in her Court; and for a token thereof, her Majesty had herewith sent me a jewel of diamonds, that cost the Queen eight thousand five hundred and fifty ducats, plate, [Footnote: See note, p. 179.] which is about two thousand pounds sterling; which then her Excellency did deliver to me, saying she thought herself much honoured, and much contented, that her Majesty had employed her in a business in which she took so much delight.

I desired her Excellency to lay me at the feet of her Majesty, and to tell her Majesty that I esteemed the honour according as I ought, of whose bounty and graces I and mine had abundantly received ever since our coming into this kingdom. That the ribbon, wherewith the jewel was tied, coming from her Majesty, was a favour of which I should have bragged all the days of my life, though I could never have deserved it; much more did I esteem so rich a jewel her Majesty was pleased to send me; but, above all, her Majesty's gracious acceptance of my service, and her Majesty's promise of her grace and favour to me, in which I desired I might live, giving her Excellency many thanks for the kindness on her part therein, believing that her Excellency had, upon all occasions, made my best actions seem double, and winked at my imperfections, but that which I did certainly know, and desired her Excellency to believe, was, that I was her Excellency's most humble servant.

On Tuesday the 24th of March, the Marquesa de Liche visited me, who had not made a visit before in seven years. On Thursday the 26th, I returned the visit to her Excellency the Marquesa, who entertained me with a very fine banquet, and gave to my youngest girl, Betty, a little basket of silver plate, very richly wrought.

On Thursday the 8th of April, being his Catholic Majesty's birthday, I went to give the Empress and her Catholic Majesty the parabien [Footnote: Congratulation. ] thereof, and likewise my thanks to her Majesty for the many honours she had done me, and particularly for that of the jewel.

Upon the 5th of April here appeared a new blazing star, rising in the east about two o'clock in the morning, rising every day a quarter of an hour later than the former, so that it appeared to our view but about three weeks, because the daylight obscured.

Thursday the 23rd of April, we dined at a pleasure-house of the King's, three leagues from Madrid, called the Torre del Prado. Monday, 26th of April, we went to see a garden-house of the Marquis de Liche, which had been the Marquis of Fuentes'. The house was finely adorned with curious pictures painted on the wall, with a very fine and large garden thereunto belonging, in which on many days following we dined.

On Saturday the 3rd of May we heard, by letters from my father, the sad news of the death of my good brother-in-law, my Lord Fanshawe; and, at the same time, of his son's being happily married to one of the daughters and heirs of Sir John Evelyn, of Wiltshire, and widow of Sir John Wray, of Lincolnshire.

May the 28/18th, we went to see the feast of bulls, in a balcony made at the end of a street that looked in even with the row of houses. On the King's right hand, just below the Councils, which is over against all other Ambassadors, there sat the Pope's Nuncio, and the rest of the Ambassadors below him; but we not owning the Pope's priority, your father was placed by himself.

June the 20th, came to this Court by an express, the news of the total rout of the King of Spain's army, commanded by the Marquis of Caracena, by the Portuguese.[Footnote: At Montesclaros, where the Portuguese were commanded by the Marquis de Marialva.]

Upon the 6th of July, went to the feast of bulls again.

Upon the 7th, anno 1665, came to my husband the happy news of our victory against the Dutch, fought upon the 13th of June, stilo novo.

August the 6th, at eleven o'clock in the morning, was born my son, Richard Fanshawe, God be praised! and christened at four of the o'clock that afternoon by our Chaplain, Mr. Bagshaw: his godfathers my cousin Fanshawe, Chief Secretary, and Mr. Cooper, Gentleman of the Horse: his godmother, Mrs. Kestian, one of my gentlewomen. The same day the Duke of Medina and his Duchess sent to give us joy. Upon the 7th the Duke came in person to give us joy, with all his best jewels on, as the custom of Spain is, to show respect.

Upon Thursday the 10th of August, the Queen sent her Majesty's Mayor- domo, the Marquis of Aytona, to visit me from her Majesty, and to give me joy. The next day her Majesty's Camarera Mayor and the Princess Alva gave me joy, as did likewise most of the others of the greatest ladies at court.

'Oh, ever living God, through Jesus Christ, receive the humble thanks of thy servant for thy great mercy to us in our son, whom I humbly desire thee, O Jesus, to protect; and to make him an instrument of thy glory. Give him thy Holy Spirit, O God, to be with him all the days of his life; direct him through the narrow paths of righteousness, in faith, patience, charity, temperance, chastity, and a love and liking of thy blessed will, in all the various accidents of this life: this with what outward blessings thou, O Heavenly Father, knowest needful for him, I beg of thee, not remembering his sins nor the sins of us his parents, nor of our forefathers, but thy tender mercy, which thou hast promised shall be all over thy works, and for the blessed merits of our only Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ; to whom with thee and the blessed Spirit be all honour and glory, as it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be. Amen.'

On Thursday the 17th of September, died Philip the Fourth of Spain having been sick but four days, of a flux and fever. The day before his death he made his will, and left the government of the King and kingdom in the hands of his Queen, Donna Ana of Austria; and to assist her Majesty, he recommended for her council therein, the President of Castile, Conde de Castilla, the Cardinal of Toledo, the Inquisitor General, the Marquis of Aytona, the Vice-Chancellor of Aragon, and the Conde de Penaranda. He declared for his successor, Charles Second, who now reigns; and in case that he should die without issue, the Emperor, if he marries the Infanta, now called the Empress, to whom he is affianced; but if not, the Infanta before himself; after the Emperor, the Duke of Savoy; the Queen of France to inherit next to the Infanta, in case she be a widow, and all her children successively by any other husband; but neither she can inherit nor any child of France.

The body of Philip the Fourth lay exposed from the 18th of September till Saturday night the 19th, in a great room in his palace at Madrid, where he died; in which room they used to act plays. The room was hung with fourteen pieces of the King's best hangings, and over them rich pictures round about, all of one size, placed close together. At the upper end of the room was raised a throne of three steps, upon which there was placed a bedstead, boarded at the bottom, and raised at the head: the throne was covered with a rich Persia carpet; the bottom of the bedstead was of silver, the valance and head-cloth, for there were no curtains, were cloth of gold, wrought in flowers with crimson silk. Over the bedstead was placed a cloth of state, of the same with the valance and head-cloth of the bedstead; upon which stood a silver-gilt coffin, raised about a foot or more higher at the head than at the feet, in which was laid a pillow, and in the coffin lay Philip the Fourth, with his head on the pillow, upon it a white beaver hat, his head combed, his beard trimmed, his face and hands painted. He was clothed in a musk colour silk suit, embroidered with gold, a golilla (or ruff) about his neck, cuffs on his hands, which were clasped on his breast, holding a globe and a cross on it therein; his cloak was of the same, with his sword by his side; stockings, garters, and shoe- strings of the same, and a pair of white shoes on his feet. In the room were erected six altars for the time, upon which stood six candlesticks, with six wax candles lighted, and in the middle of each altar a crucifix; the forepart of each altar was covered with black velvet, embroidered with silver. Before the throne a rail went across from one side of the room to the other. At the two lower corners of the throne, at each side, stood a nobleman, the one holding an imperial crown, the other the sceptre; and on each side of the throne six high candlesticks with six tapers in them. The doors of that room were kept by the Mayor-domo of the King and Queen then in waiting, and the outward by the Italian guard.

On the Saturday night, he was carried upon a bier, hung betwixt two mules, upon which the coffin with the King's body was laid, covered with a covering of cloth of gold, and at every corner of the bier was placed a high crystal lanthorn with lighted tapers in it. He was attended by some grandees, who rode next after him, and other noblemen in coaches, with between two and three hundred on horseback, of whom a great part carried tapers lighted in their hands: this was the company, besides footmen. When the King's body came to the Convent of the Escurial, the friars of that convent stood at the gate, and there, according to the institution of the place, performed the ceremonies as follow. The priors asked the grandees, who carried the King on their shoulders, for none other must touch him, 'Who is in that coffin, and what do they there demand?' Upon which the Sumiller de Corps, [Footnote: Properly, the Groom of the Stole; "a cuyo cargo esta la asistencia al Rey en su retrete."—Dic. de la Acad.] who is the Duke de Medina de las Torres, answered, 'It is the body of Philip the Fourth of Spain, whom we here bring for you to lay in his own tomb.' Upon which the Duke delivered the Queen's letter, as Regent of the kingdom, to testify that it was her Majesty's command that the King's body should be there buried. Then the Prior read the letter, and accompanied the body before the high altar, where it was for some time placed, till they had performed the usual ceremonies for that time appropriated. After which the grandees took up the corpse again, and carried it down into the Pantheon, into which as soon as they were entered, the Prior demanded of the Duke the covering of the King's body as his fee.

Then demanded he the keys, upon which the Duke delivered him his, as Sumiller de Corps, and then the Prior's own sent him by the Queen, and the Mayor-domo then in waiting delivered him his. The Prior having received these three keys, demanded franca [Footnote: i.e., puerta franca; admittance.] of the Duke and Mayor-domo, that in that coffin was the body of Philip the Fourth; and when they had done, they there left the body with the Prior, who after the body's lying some time in the place where the infants are buried, placed it in his own tomb.

My husband with all his family and coaches were put into mourning for Philip the Fourth of Spain.

October the 4th following, I waited upon the Queen to give her Majesty pesame [Footnote: Compliments of condolence.] of the King's death, who received me with great grace and favour, as likewise did the King and the Empress, who were both present.

On the 8th of October my husband and I, with all our family and son, being the first time he went out of doors, went to the Placa Mayor, to hear and see King Charles the Second proclaimed by the Duke de Medina de las Torres, who was very richly apparelled in a silk suit, embroidered with silver and gold, set with diamond buttons: he was accompanied by most of the nobles in the town on horseback, as he himself was. In his right hand he carried the King's royal standard, and by his left side rode the Mayor of the town. The Heralds that rode before went first upon the scaffold, which was there made for that purpose before the King's balcony, where he was wont to see the juego de toros. The scaffold was covered with carpets. On each side of the Duke stood the Heralds, and on his left hand stood the Mayor, and by the Heralds two Notaries. The King was proclaimed in five places; at the Court above named, at the Descalcas Reale, at the Town House, at the Gate of Guadajara, and at the Palace.

November the 9th, I went to give the Queen the parabien of the King's birth-day, who, the 6th of this month, completed four years of age. Her Majesty received me with great grace and favour, causing the King to come in and receive of me the parabien of his anos likewise.

The 14th of this month I went to wait on the Camerara Mayor and the Marquis de los Velez, the King's Aya, [Footnote: Governor or tutor.] from both of whom I received great kindnesses.

December the 17th, 1665, my husband, upon the part of our King his master, and the Duke de Medina de las Torres, on the part of his Catholic Majesty, did conclude and signed together the peace between England and Spain, and the articles for the adjustment between Spain and Portugal, which articles were cavilled at by the Lord Chancellor Clarendon and his party, that they might have an opportunity to send the Earl of Sandwich out of the way from the Parliament, which then sat, and who, as he and his friends feared, would be severely punished for his cowardice in the Dutch fight. He neither understood the customs of the Court, nor the language, nor indeed any thing but a vicious life; and thus was he shuffled into your father's employment to reap the benefit of his five years' negotiation of the peace between England, Spain, and Portugal: and after above thirty years studying state affairs, and many of them in the Spanish Court: so much are Ambassadors slaves to the public ministers at home, who often, through envy or ignorance, ruin them!

December the 23rd, I went to give the Queen the parabien of her anos, whereof she had completed thirty-one. I likewise gave joy to the Empress and the King, who were both then present.

The 6th of January, 1666, twelfth-day, stilo novo, my husband sent Mr. John Price, one of his secretaries, to Lisbon, to advertise that King, by the Conde de Castel Melhor, of his intended journey the week following. On the 14th of this present January, the Duke of Medina de las Torres wrote a letter to my husband, by the command of her Catholic Majesty, which said, that for the great kindness and pains he had and did take for the accommodating a peace between England and Spain, and procuring a truce for thirty years between the crowns of Spain and Portugal, that, on the day of the ratification thereof, her Majesty did give him [Footnote: These gratifications were never paid, because my Lord Sandwich was sent to receive what advantage he could make. But the body of the peace being concluded before by my husband, he received very small advantage thereby; but had my husband lived, he would, through their justice and kindness to him, for his great wisdom and indefatigable pains in procuring a triple peace between the three crowns of England, Spain, and Portugal, have received a sum.] an hundred thousand pieces-of-eight, and likewise for a further expression of her Majesty's kindness, to me fifty thousand pieces-of- eight.

The 16th of January, 1666, being twelfth-day, English account, my husband began his journey from Madrid to Portugal. The day before he went, her Catholic Majesty sent the Marquis Aytona to offer a set of her Majesty's machos to carry his litter, and another set for his coach, but my husband refused both, with many humble thanks to her Majesty for so great grace and honour done him, which he refused upon no other score but the consideration of the length of the journey, and the badness of the way, which the time of the year caused, which would expose the beasts to that hazard, as he could not satisfy himself to put them in; and although my husband was next day pressed again to receive this favour, yet he refused it with much respect to her Majesty, for the forenamed reasons. Likewise the Duke de Medina de las Torres sent two sets of very brave machos to convey my husband to Portugal, which he refused with many thanks to his Excellency, upon the same account he had done those formerly to her Majesty. My husband carried none of his own horses or mules, but hired all he used for himself or his retinue. He went in his own litter, and carried one of his own coaches with him, and five sumpters, covered with his own sumpter cloths. His retinue were:—Mr. Fanshawe, Chief Secretary; Mr. Price, gone before to Lisbon; Mr. Cooper, Gentleman of the Horse; Mr. Bagshawe, Chaplain; Mr. Ashburnham, Mr. Parry, Mr. Creighton, Mr. Eyres, Steward; Mr. Weeden, Mr. Jemmet, Mr. Bumstead, Pages; Mr. Hellow, Butler; William, a Cook; Francis, a Groom; Frances, a Laundress, and four Spanish footmen.

To every five mules went a moco, and a sobrestante over all. Her Majesty sent an alguazil of the court with my husband through Spain, to provide him lodgings, and to assist him in all other occasions belonging to his journey. I accompanied my husband a league out of town in our coach of state; then he entered his litter, and so began his journey.

Within an hour after I was returned to my house, the Duke and Duchess de Medina de las Torres sent each of them a gentleman with very kind messages to me on the part of their Excellencies.

The 17th, came the Master of the Ceremonies to see me, and offered the services of this Court, with high compliments and much kindness; the 18th, came the Duke of Aveyro to see me, and afterwards the Marquis of Trucifal; the 19th, came to see me the Baron of L'Isola's lady; the 20th of January, I received a letter from my husband at Toledo; the 26th, the Marquis de Liche came to visit me; the 28th, the Duchess de Aveyro sent a gentleman to me, to excuse her not coming to see me, by reason of her being with child, and not having stirred out of her chamber from the time she had conceived with child; the 29th I received a letter from my husband, from Frexenal.

The 2nd of February, the Duke de Medina de las Torres sent to me Don Nicolas Navas, with letters from her Catholic Majesty herself to my husband, and putting up the packet here before me, inclosed my letters therein, I giving a cover, and sealing it with my seal, and a passport to the post that carried it, to come and go: all which was required of me by his Excellency, who was pleased to continue this for me every post that he sent during my husband's stay in Portugal.

The 12th of February, the Duchess of Albuquerque sent a gentleman to excuse her not visiting me, her Excellency being sick of a fever. This night likewise the Duke sent a second post to my husband as before. The 13th, Father Patricio came to visit me, from the Duke; the 17th died the Queen-mother of Portugal; the 20th, the Duke despatched a third post to my husband. The 23rd, the Duke and his Duchess came to visit me in very great state, having six coaches and two sedans to wait on them, and above a hundred gentlemen and attendants. The 27th, one of the three posts returned from my husband; another on the 2nd of March; the third on the 10th.

On the 8th of March, 1666, stilo novo, my husband returned from Lisbon to this Court, with all his family in very good health, God be praised! I went with my children two leagues out of town, to Ricon, to meet him. He brought in his company Sir Robert Southwell, an enviado from our King to Portugal and Spain, if need so required. My husband entertained him at his house three weeks and odd days.

Upon the 26th of March, came a letter from Coruna, advertising this Court of the Earl of Sandwich's arrival, as Extraordinary Ambassador from our King to his Catholic Majesty.

Sunday the 12th of April, I took my leave of the Queen of Spain, and Empress, and the King, and the next day of the Camarera Mayor, and of the King's Aya.

The 13th of April, returned from hence a gentleman named Mr. Weeden, who came hither on the 6th of the same month, bringing letters to this Court and my husband from his Lord, the Earl of Sandwich, and likewise a list of the Extraordinary Ambassador's family, which was as follows:—

Mr. Sidney Montague, his son; Sir Charles Herbert, Mr. Steward, Mr. Godolphin, Secretary to the Embassy; Mr. Worden, Mr. Bedles, Mr. Cotterrel, Mr. Bridges, Mr. Clarke, Mr. Melham, Mr. Stuard, Mr. Linch, Mr. Boddie, Interpreter; Mr. Parker, Mr. Shere, Mr. Moore, Chaplain; The Steward; Captain Ferrer, Gentleman of the Horse; Mr. William Ferrer, Mr. Gateley, Clergyman; Mr. Gibbs, Mr. Boreman, Clerk of the Kitchen; Mr. Lond, Mr. Veleam, Mr. Mallard; Mr. Richard Jarald, Mr. Joseph Chaumond, Under Secretaries; Francis Paston, Confectioner; Henry Pyman, Butler; Gentleman, Mr. Cooke; Balfoure and Attenchip, two Cooks; Allion Thompson, Trumpeter; William Killegrew, Thomas Rice, William Rich, Francis Warrington, James Ashton, Mr. Place, John Beverley, Briggs, Richard Cooper, Mr. Kerke, Mr. Churchill, Mr. Jeffereys, Mr. Crown, Pages, ten; Mr. Nicholas Neto, Mr. Righton, Edward Hooton, Richard Russel, Andrew Daniel; Peacock, Dennis, Footmen; Thomas Gibson, Thomas Williams, Josias Brown, Caspar, el negro; Nathaniel Bennet; the Nurse, her Husband, two Maids, Nicholas Bennet, Henry Mitchell, and John Goods.

On the 14th I took my leave of the Duchess de Medina de las Torres, the Marquesa de Trucifal, and the Condessa de Torres Vedras. On the 15th, I took my leave of the Duchess de Aveiro, who gave my daughter Katharine a jewel of twenty-seven emeralds; and to my daughter Margaret a crystal box set in gold, and a large silver box of amber pastilles to burn; and to my daughter Ann a crystal bottle, with a gold neck, full of amber water, and a silver box of filagree; and to my daughter Betty a little trunk of silver wire, made in the Indies. This day I likewise visited the Marquesa de Liche, and daughter-in-law of the Almirante of Castilla, the Baron de L'Isola's lady, and Don Diego Tinoco's lady, who had all visited me.

On the 16th, I took my leave of the Duchess of Albuquerque, and her Excellency Donna Maria de la Cueva. The Duchess showed me a large room full of gilt and silver plate, which they said cost a hundred thousand pistoles, though to my eye it did not seem of half the worth. It was made for the Duke's journey into Germany, being the principal person entrusted to dispose of her Imperial Majesty's family and money for a voyage to that Court; and afterwards he and his lady are to return to Sicily, and there to remain Viceroy. The same day I took my leave of the German Ambassador's lady. Easterday being the 25th of April, 1666, the Infanta Donna Maria was married to the Emperor by proxy, viz., the Duke de Medina de las Torres.


First went a great high coach of the Duke's, drawn by four black Flanders' mares; in it were the Duchess's two sons, with other persons of quality. In Madrid none can go with six horses but the King or Queen, as I said before. Then went the Duke's coach, a most exceeding rich one, drawn by four grey Flanders' mares, in the upper end whereof the Duke himself sat, with the German Ambassador on his right hand, the Duke of Alva on his left, in the other end the Conde de Penaranda, between the Duke of Pastrana and his son. After this coach followed immediately the Duke of Medina's Gentleman of the Horse, upon a very fine white one. Then went a very rich new coach, empty, of the German Ambassador's, made on purpose for the day, drawn by four horses. Then followed another of the Duke's coaches with some of his gentlemen in it; then the German Ambassador's second coach, with some of his gentlemen in it. Then one of the Duke's coaches, in which was the Baron de Lesley, Envoy Extraordinary from the Emperor, and one person with him; then another of the Duke's coaches with more of his gentlemen. Then another of the German Ambassador's coaches with more of his family in it. The Duke's pages walked by his coach, and had gold chains across their shoulders. The Baron de Lesley's went in some of the before-named coaches.

On Monday the 26th, Don John of Austria came to Court to give the Empress joy, but the ceremony performed, returned immediately, the same day, to a retiring place his Highness had at Ocana, near Aranjuez, which famous seat of royal recreation, for a farewell, the Empress lay at night at, being in her way to Denia, where she was to embark. Don John, from Ocana accompanied her Imperial Majesty two or three days' journey.

On Tuesday the 27th, my husband, (invited there by the Master of the Ceremonies, and then to come in short mourning, with something of jewels,) gave to the Empress joy in his master's name, also to the Queen jointly sent; and then giving her daughter the hand. Sir Robert Southwell was admitted to accompany him in like manner, and perform the same function.

On Wednesday the 18/28th of April, her Imperial Majesty went from the palace to the Descalcas Reales, and from thence to the Atoche, from whence she began her journey for Vienna. Her passing through the town was in this manner.

First passed several persons of quality in their coaches, intermixed with others. Then the two Lieutenants of her Catholic Majesty's guards, on horseback; then the two Captains of the said guards, the Marquis de Salina, and the Marquis de Malpica, on horseback. Then a coach of respect, lined with cloth of gold, mixed with green. Then a litter of respect lined with the same stuff; then four trumpeters on horseback; then the Duke of Albuquerque, in a plain coach; then twenty-four men upon horses and mules, with portmanteaus before them; then two trumpeters more; then the Empress and her Camarera Mayor (Condessa de Benavente), in a plain large coach; then eight men without cloaks on horseback, who I presume were pages to her Catholic Majesty; then the Empress's nurse, and four or five pretty children of her's in a coach; then four young ladies with caps and white feathers with black specks in them, in another coach; then duenas or ancient ladies; then more young ladies with caps and black hats, pinned up with rich jewels; then another coach with young ladies; then followed many other coaches irregularly.

The Duke de Medina de las Torres, as also the German Ambassador, and many of the nobility of Spain, went out of town, and stayed about a league off for the Empress's coming that way. All the meaner sort of her Imperial Majesty's train, and her carriages, as also the Duke of Albuquerque's, went before.

On Monday the 26th, I wrote to the Camarera Mayor and the Empress's Aya, giving both their Majesties joy of this marriage.

May the 5th, we dined at Salvatierra, two leagues from Madrid, and returned again at night.

On Friday the 18/28th of May, 1666, came to Madrid the Earl of Sandwich, Ambassador Extraordinary from our King to the Queen Regent of this kingdom. My husband went with all his train two leagues to welcome and conduct him to this Court. This day twenty-two years we were married.

The 29th, my Lord of Sandwich delivered my husband the King's letters of revocation, and therewith a private letter of great grace and favour. This afternoon my Lord Sandwich, with most part of his train, came to visit me.

June the 9th, stilo novo, being the King's birthday, my husband made an entertainment for my Lord of Sandwich., with all his retinue and the rest of the English at Madrid.

The next [Sun-] day, being Whit-Sunday, [Footnote: This was the last time my husband received the communion.] my husband went with the Earl of Sandwich to a private audience, where my husband introduced him to the King of Spain. Monday the 14th, my husband went with the Earl of Sandwich to the Duke de Medina de las Torres.

On the 15/25th, being Tuesday, [Footnote: Query, 5/15th June.] my husband was taken ill with an ague, but turned to a malignant inward fever, of which he lay until the 26th of the same month, being Sunday, [Footnote: Query, Saturday, 16/26th June.] until eleven of the clock at night, and then departed this life, fifteen days before his intended journey to England.

'O all powerful good God, look down from Heaven upon the most distressed wretch upon earth. See me with my soul divided, my glory and my guide taken from me, and in him all my comfort in this life; see me staggering in my path, which made me expect a temporal blessing for a reward of the great integrity, innocence, and uprightness of his whole life, and his patience in suffering the insolency of wicked men, whom he had to converse with upon the public employment, which thou thoughtest fit, in thy wisdom, to exercise him in. Have pity on me, O Lord, and speak peace to my disquieted soul, now sinking under this great weight, which, without thy support, cannot sustain itself. See me, O Lord, with five children, a distressed family, the temptation of the change of my religion, the want of all my friends, without counsel, out of my country, without any means to return with my sad family to our own country, now in war with most part of Christendom. But, above all, my sins, O Lord, I do lament with shame and confusion, believing it is for them that I receive this great punishment. Thou hast showed me many judgments and mercies which did not reclaim me, nor turn me to thy holy conversation, which the example of our blessed Saviour taught. Lord, pardon me; O God, forgive whatsoever is amiss in me; break not a bruised reed. I humbly submit to thy justice; I confess my wretchedness, and know I have deserved not only this but everlasting punishment; but, O my God, look upon me through the merits of my Saviour, and for his sake save me: do with me and for me what thou pleasest, for I do wholly rely on thy mercy, beseeching thee to remember thy promises to the fatherless and widow, and enable me to fulfil thy will cheerfully in this world; humbly beseeching thee that, when this mortal life is ended, I may be joined with the soul of my dear husband, and all thy servants departed this life in thy faith and fear, in everlasting praises of thy Holy Name. Amen.'

The next day my husband was embalmed. The following day I began to receive messages from the Queen and the Court of Spain.

July the 4th, stilo novo, 1666, my husband was buried by his own Chaplain, with the ceremony of the Church of England, and a sermon preached by him. In the evening I sent the body of my dear husband to Bilbao, intending suddenly to follow him: he went out of town privately, being accompanied only by a part of his own retinue. His body arrived safe at Bilbao on the 14th of July 1666, and was laid in the King's house. Mr. Cooper, Gentleman of his Horse; Mr. Jemett, who waited on him in his bed-chamber; Mr. Rookes, Mr. Weeden, Mr. Carew, Richard Batha, and Francis.

The 5th of July 1666, stilo novo, the Queen-Mother sent the Master of the Ceremonies of Spain to invite me to stay with all my children in her Court, promising me a pension of thirty thousand ducats a year, and to provide for my children, if I and they would turn our religion and become Roman Catholics. I answered, I humbly thanked her Majesty for her great grace and favour, which I would ever esteem and pay with my services, as far as I was able, all the days of my life; for the latter I desired her Majesty to believe that I could not quit the faith in which I had been born and bred, and in which God had pleased to try me for many years in the greatest troubles our nation hath ever seen; and that I do believe and hope that in the profession of my own religion God would hear my prayers, and reward her Majesty, and all the princes of that royal family, for this so great favour which her Majesty was pleased to offer me in my greatest affliction.

The 6th and 7th days of this month I was visited by the German Ambassador's lady, and several other ladies; also by the Ambassador and the Duke de Medina de las Torres, de Aveiro, Marquis de Trucifal, Conde de Monterey, with several others of that Court.

The Queen sent me, for a present, two thousand pistoles which her Majesty sent me word was to buy my husband a jewel if he had lived. The week following I gave the Secretary of State a gold watch and chain, worth thirty pounds. I gave the Master of the Ceremonies, at my coming away, a clock, which cost me forty pounds. I sold all my coaches and horses, and lumber of the house, to the Earl of Sandwich, for one thousand three hundred and eighty pistoles. I likewise sold there one thousand pounds' worth of plate to several persons, all the money I could make being little enough for my most sad journey to England.

The 8th of July 1666, at night, I took my leave of Madrid, and of the Siete Chimineas, the house so beloved of my husband and me formerly. I carried with me all my jewels, and the best of my plate, and other precious rarities, all the rest being gone before to Bilbao, with part of my family. All the women went in litters, and the men on horseback. Myself, my son, and four daughters, one gentlewoman, one chambermaid, Mr. Fanshawe, my husband's Secretary; Mr. Price, the Chaplain; Mr. Bagshawe, Mr. Creyton, Mr. White, Mr. Hellowe, John Burton, William, the Cook; besides other Spanish attendants.

My Lord Sandwich came in the afternoon to accompany me out of town, which offer, though earnestly pressed by my Lord, as well as by other persons of quality, I refused, desiring to go out of that place as privately as I could possibly; and I may truly say, never any Ambassador's family came into Spain more gloriously, or went out so sad.

July the 21st, after a tedious journey, we arrived at Bilbao, to which place my dear husband's body came the 14th of this month, and was lodged in the King's house, with some of his servants to attend him; but I hired a house in the town during my stay there, in which I received several letters from Madrid, from England, and from Paris. The Queen-Mother was graciously pleased to procure me passes from the King of France, which I received the 21st of September, stilo novo, accompanied by a letter from my Lady Guilford, and several others of her Majesty's Court; likewise I did receive a pass from the Duke of Beaufort, then at Lixa.

October the 1st, I sent answers of letters to England, to my Lord Arlington, my brother Warwick, my father, and to several other persons. Here heard the sad news of the burning of London.

December the 3rd, being Sunday, I began my journey from Bilbao, with the body of my dear husband, all my children, and all my family but three, whom I left to come with my goods by sea. The 7th of October, we came to Bayonne, in France, having had a dangerous passage between Spain and France. October the 9th, we began our journey from Bayonne towards Paris, where we arrived the 30th of October, being Saturday.

November the 2nd, the Queen-Mother sent my Lady Guilford to condole my loss, and welcome me to Paris: many of her Majesty's family, of their own accord, did the same. On the 26th, her Majesty sent Mr. Church, in one of her coaches, to convey me to Chaillot, a nunnery, where the Queen then was, who received me with great grace and favour, and promised me much kindness, when her Majesty returned to England. Her Majesty sent by me letters to the King, Queen, Duke and Duchess of York, with a box of writings for her Majesty's Secretary, Sir John Winter.

November the 11th, we began our journey towards Calais; and upon the 11th of November, old style, we embarked at Calais in a little French man-of-war, which carried me to the Tower Wharf, where I landed the next day, at night, being Monday, at twelve of the clock. I made a little stay with my children at my father's house, on Tower-hill. The next day, being the 13th, we all went to my own house in Lincoln's-inn Fields, on the north side, where the widow Countess of Middlesex had lived before; and the same day, likewise, was brought the body of my dear husband.

On Saturday following, being the 16th of November 1666, I sent the body of my dear husband to be laid in my father's vault in Allhallows Church, in Hertford: none accompanied the hearse but seven of his own gentlemen, who had taken care of his body all the way from Madrid to London; being Mr. Fanshawe, Mr. Bagshawe, Mr. Cooper, Mr. Freyer, Mr. Creyton, Mr. Tarret, and Mr. Rooks.

On the 18th, my Lord Arlington visited me, proffering me his friendship, to be shown in the procuring of arrears of my husband's pay, which was two thousand pounds, and to reimburse me five thousand eight hundred and fifteen pounds my husband had laid out in his Majesty's service. Likewise I was visited to welcome me into England, and to condole my loss, by very many of the nobility and gentry, and also by all my relations in these parts.

November the 23rd, I waited on the King, and delivered to his Majesty my whole accounts. He was pleased to receive me very graciously, and promised me they should be paid, and likewise that his Majesty would take care of me and mine. Then I delivered his Majesty the letters I brought from the Queen-Mother; then I did my duty to the Queen, who with great sense condoled my loss, after which I delivered the Queen- Mother's letter sent to her Majesty by me. After staying two hours longer in her Majesty's bed-chamber, I waited on his Royal Highness, who having condoled me on the loss of my dear husband, promised me a ship to send for my goods and servants to Bilbao; then I waited on the Duchess, who with great grace and favour received me, and having been with her Highness about an hour, and delivered a letter from the Queen-Mother, I took my leave. I presented the King, Queen, Duke of York, and Duke of Cambridge, with two dozen of amber skins, and six dozen of gloves. I likewise presented my Lord Arlington with amber skins, gloves and chocolate, and a great picture, a copy of Titian's, to the value of one hundred pounds; and I made presents to Sir William Coventry, and several other persons then in office.

In February, the Duke ordered me the Victory frigate, to bring the remainder of my goods and people from Bilbao, in Spain, which safely arrived in the latter end of March 1667. I spent my time much in soliciting and petitioning my Lord Treasurer Southampton, for the present dispatch of my accounts, which did pass the Secretary, then Lord Arlington, and within two months I got a privy seal for my money, without either fee or present, which I could never fasten on my Lord. Now I thought myself happy, and feared nothing less than further trouble. God, that only knows what is to come, so disposed my fortune, that losing that good man and friend, Lord Southampton, my money, which was five thousand six hundred pounds, was not paid me until December 1669, notwithstanding I had tallies for the money above two years before. This was above two thousand pounds loss to me. Besides, these commissioners, by the instigation of one of their fellow commissioners, my Lord Shaftesbury, the worst of men, persuaded them that I might pay for the Embassy plate, which I did, two thousand pounds; and so maliciously did he oppress me, as if he hoped in me to destroy that whole stock of honesty and innocence which he mortally hates. In this great distress I had no remedy but patience: how far that was from a reward, judge ye, for near thirty years' suffering by land and sea, and the hazard of our lives over and over, with the many services of your father, and the expense of all the monies we could procure, and seven years' imprisonment, with the death and beggary of many eminent persons of our family, who when they first entered the King's service, had great and clear estates. Add to this the careful management of the King's honour in the Spanish Court, after my husband's death, which I thought myself bound to maintain, although I had not, God is my witness, above twenty-five doubloons by me at my husband's death, to bring home a family of three score servants, but was forced to sell one thousand pounds' worth of our own plate, and to spend the Queen's present of two thousand doubloons in my journey to England, not owing nor leaving one shilling debt in Spain, I thank God, nor did my husband leave any debt at home, which every Ambassador cannot say. Neither did these circumstances following prevail to mend my condition, much less found I that compassion I expected upon the view of myself, that had lost at once my husband, and fortune in him, with my son but twelve months old in my arms, four daughters, the eldest but thirteen years of age, with the body of my dear husband daily in my sight for near six months together, and a distressed family, all to be by me in honour and honesty provided for, and to add to my afflictions, neither persons sent to conduct me, nor pass, nor ship, nor money to carry me one thousand miles, but some few letters of compliment from the chief ministers, bidding, 'God help me!' as they do to beggars, and they might have added, 'they had nothing for me,' with great truth. But God did hear, and see, and help me, and brought my soul out of trouble; and by his blessed providence, I and you live, move, and have our being, and I humbly pray God that that blessed providence may ever supply our wants. Amen.

Seeing what I had to trust to, I began to shape my life as well as I could to my fortune, in order whereunto I dismissed all my family but some few persons. At my arrival I gave them all mourning, and five pounds apiece, and put most of them into a good way of living, I thank God.

In 1667, I took a house in Holborn-row, Lincoln's-inn Fields, for twenty-one years, of Mr. Cole. This year I christened a daughter of Lord Fanshawe's. Here, in this year, I only spent my time in lament and dear remembrances of my past happiness and fortune; and though I had great graces and favours from the King and Queen, and whole Court, yet I found at the present no remedy. I often reflected how many miscarriages and errors the fall from that happy estate I had been in would throw me; and as it is hard for the rider to quit his horse in a full career, so I found myself at a loss, that hindered my settling myself in a narrow compass suddenly, though my narrow fortune required it; but I resolved to hold me fast by God, until I could digest, in some measure, my afflictions. Sometimes I thought to quit the world as a sacrifice to your father's memory, and to shut myself up in a house for ever from all people; but upon the consideration of my children, who were all young and unprovided for, being wholly left to my care and disposal, I resolved to suffer, as long as it pleased God, the storms and flows of fortune.

As soon as I got my tallies placed again by the Commissioners, I sold them for five hundred pounds less than my assignments to Alderman Buckwell, who gave me ready money, and I put it out upon a mortgage of Sir Richard Ayloff's estate, in Essex, at Braxted.

In 1668, I hired a house and ground, of sixty pounds a year, at Hartingfordbury, in Hertfordshire, to be near my father, being but two miles from Balls, both because I would have my father's company, and because the air was very good for my children; but when God took my father, I let my time in it, and never saw it more.

About this time Sir Philip Warwick retired himself from public business, to his house at Frogpool, in Kent; his son and daughter-in- law lived with him some time, until this year, 1669, they went into France. She was the daughter and coheir of the Lord Freschville.

In my brother Warwick's house, in London, in 1666, died my sister Bedell, and was carried down into Huntingdonshire, to Hamerton, and was there buried by her husband in the chancel. She was a most worthy woman, and eminently good, wise, and handsome; she never much enjoyed herself since the death of her eldest daughter, who married Sir Francis Compton, and, in her right, he had Hamerton, in Huntingdonshire. She died five years before my sister, a most dutiful daughter, and a very fine-bred lady, and excellent company, and very virtuous.

About this time died my brother Lord Fanshawe's widow. She was a very good wife and tender mother, but else nothing extraordinary. She was buried in the vault of her husband's family in Ware church. Within a year after this, his son, Lord Fanshawe, sold Ware Park for 26,000 pounds to Sir Thomas Byde, a brewer, of London.

Thus, in the fourth generation, the chief of our family, since they came into the south, for their sufferings for the Crown, sold the flower of their estates, and near 2000 pounds a year more. There remains but the Remembrancer's place of the Exchequer office: and very pathetical is the motto of our arms for us—'The victory is in the Cross.' [Footnote: "In Cruce Victoria." Another motto of the Fanshawe family was, "Dux vitae ratio." Of these mottoes a Correspondent in the Gentleman's Magazine for July 1796, tells the following story. "When Sir Richard was ambassador, and was travelling in Spain, in an English carriage, with his arms upon it, surrounded by the two mottoes belonging to them—Dux vitae Ratio—In Cruce Victoria; a crowd of peasants gathering round the unusual sight of so many foreigners, in a town where they stopped for refreshment, were very anxious with a priest, who happened to be amongst them, for an explanation of the Latin, which being beyond his skill, he informed them that the coach belonged to the Duke of Vitae Ratio, who had done great things for the Cross."]

I had, about this time, some trouble with keeping the lordships of Tring and Hitching, which your father held of the Queen-Mother; but I not being able to make a considerable advantage of them, gave them up again: and then I sold a lease of the Manor of Burstalgarth, which was granted for thirty-one years to your father from the King. Dean Hicks bought it, it being convenient for him, lying upon Humber. There was a widow, one Mrs. Hiliard, hired this manor, and had so done long. She was very earnest to buy it at a very under rate. When she saw it sold, she, as was suspected, fired the house, which was burnt down to the ground within two months after I had sold it.

In this year my brother Harrison married the eldest daughter of the Lord Viscount Grandison. I let in this year a lease of eleven years of Fanton Hall, in Essex, to Jonathan Wier, which I held of the Bishopric of London: this lease was bought the first year the King came home, of Doctor Sheldon, then Bishop of London, who was exceeding kind to us, and sold it for half the worth, which I will ever acknowledge with thankfulness.

My dear father departed this life, upon the 28th of September, 1670, being above eighty years of age, in perfect understanding, God be praised! He left five hundred pounds to every one of my four daughters; and gave me three thousand pounds for a part of the manor of Scallshow, near Lynn, in Norfolk, but the year before he died, to make my sister Harrison a jointure. The 11th I christened the eldest daughter of my brother Harrison, with Lord Grandison, and Sir Edmund Turner.

The death of my father made so great an impression on me, that with the grief, I was sick half a year almost to death; but through God's mercy, and the care of Doctor Jasper Needham, a most worthy and learned physician, I recovered; and as soon as I was able to think of business, I bought ground in St. Mary's Chapel, in Ware Church, of the Bishop of London, and there made a vault for my husband's body, which I had there laid by most of the same persons that laid him before in my father's vault, in Hertford Church deposited, until I could make this vault and monument, which cost me two hundred pounds; and here, if God pleases, I intend to lie myself.

He had the good fortune to be the first chosen, and the first returned member of the Commons' House of Parliament, in England, after the King came home; and this cost him no more than a letter of thanks, and two brace of bucks, and twenty broad pieces of gold to buy them wine. Upon St. Stephen's day the King shut the







The Letters from which part of the following Extracts have been taken, were printed in 1701, under the title of "Original Letters of his Excellency Sir Richard Fanshawe, during his Embassies in Spain and Portugal; which, together with divers Letters and Answers from the Chief Ministers of State of England, Spain, and Portugal, contain the whole negociations of the treaty of Peace between those three Crowns." 8vo, pp. 510.

The remainder are now printed, for the first time, from the rough copies of the originals, or the originals themselves, preserved in the Harleian MS. 7010, in the British Museum.

Although these Extracts were chiefly made with the view of illustrating the statements in the Memoir, nearly every passage has been copied from the Correspondence which is of the slightest general interest, unconnected with political affairs.


[See MEMOIRS, p 152.]

On Board his Majesty's Admiral, entering the Bay of Cadiz, Wednesday about noon, 24th of February, 1669, English style.

"By former advertisements, I presume his Majesty, from you, hath understood how, after sharp storms and cross winds, with the first favourable breath we adventured to put to sea a third time, and out of Torbay the second, upon Monday the 15th instant, at nine of the clock at night; from whence in so few days, as appears by computation, to the time of the date hereof, and with the most auspicious weather that could be imagined, we were all arrived thus far, in perfect health and safety; where perceiving some sailors steering towards us, which we took to be English, and homewards bound, I thought it my duty, en duda, to prepare hastily, thus much only, against we speak with them in passage; which may suffice at present, from him who knows no more as yet."

Original Letters of Sir Richard Fanshawe, p. 30.


[See MEMOIRS, p. 153.]

Cadiz, February 29, 1663/March 10, 1664.

My last of the 29th of February, English style, (which yet cannot go sooner than this, having not met with the present opportunity of conveyance I then expected,) advertised your honour we were just then entering this bay, after a brief and very fair passage from Torbay.

The same evening we came to anchor at some distance from this city, intending, God willing, the next day, 6th instant, to come on shore; but a strong Levant rising, not only that was impossible, but even for any to come to me from the land.

The next morning, 7th, our ships weighing, made a hard shift to get into the port, and I from thence a harder to land in boats. The Duke of Medina Celi, in the interim, having complimented me aboard, by a Caballero de el Habito, with a letter from Port S. Mary, and in person from this city the deputed governor of this town, Don Diego de Ibarra, both of them, as by a general order from his Catholic Majesty, which they had had some weeks by them in case of my arrival here, in virtue whereof somewhat more than ordinary salutes were given by this city to his Majesty's Ambassador and fleet; also a house ready furnished for me, whereunto I was very honourably conducted, with appearance of universal joy, and there visited the same day by the Duke of Albuquerque, the Cabildo, and all the nobles and principal gentlemen here residing. My table, the governor signified, was to be at my own finding, yet that I must not refuse to accept of the first meal from him; of the former I was very glad, as enjoying thereby a liberty which I preferred to any delicacies whatsoever upon free cost; the latter, I was not at all nice to receive for once. But I had not been three hours on shore, when an Extraordinary arrived from Madrid, with more particular orders than formerly from his Catholic Majesty, importing, that our Master's fleet, when arrived, and this Ambassador, should be presaluted from the city, in a manner unexampled to others, and which should not be drawn into example hereafter. Moreover, and this so likewise, that I and all my company must be totally defrayed, both here and all the way up to Madrid, upon his Catholic Majesty's account; with several other circumstances of particular esteem for our Royal Master above all the world besides. The substance of all hath been related to me, and the effects declare it; but a copy of the order itself I have not as yet been able to obtain though desired, it being the style not to communicate it without leave from above, and out of the Secretary of State, else I should have thought it my duty to remit it unto his Majesty from hence, and shall from thence if I get it.

The first night the keys of the city were brought to me in a great silver basin, by the governor, which, after several refusals, I took and put into the right hands; then the governor forced me to give him the word, which, after like refusals, I did, and was Viva el Rey Catolico.

At supper, he and his Lady would bear me and my wife company, which I accepting as a great favour, told him my wife should eat with her Ladyship, retired from the men, after the Spanish fashion, it being more than sufficient, they would not think strange, we used the innocent freedom of our own when we were among ourselves. But by no means, that he would not suffer; and to keep us the more in countenance, alleged this manner of eating to be now the custom of many of the greatest families of Spain, and had been from all antiquity to this day of the majestical House of Alva; the generosity whereof, particularly in the person of the present duke, he took this occasion to celebrate very highly. So, in fine, he had his will of me in this particular.

As the Duke of Albuquerque, newly created Generalissimo of the Ocean, and very shortly going to enjoy that high puesto at his ease in the Court, where he is likewise Gentilhombre de la Camara—had done to me before, so yesterday his Duchess and their daughter, (married to his own brother, to keep up the name, for want of issue male,) both vastly rich in jewels, as lately returned from the viceroyship of Mexico, so full as to refuse that of Peru, in consequence of the other, began an obliging visit of many hours to my wife; both of the above-named Dukes and Duchess, whether by letter and message, as the Duke of Medina, or in person, as the other, treating us both to a full equality in all respects.

I had forgot to specify, as I may have done several other remarkable points of respect to his Majesty's Ambassador, how one part of this King's last order was, that for more honour and security, a guard of soldiers, with a captain of it, should be night and day in my house; which is practised where I now am, and, as I understood it, is to be in like manner in all towns of note; a person of quality, by the same royal command, conducting me from one to another.

All this ceremony, I hope, is not instead of substance; for then it would prove very tedious and irksome to me indeed; but an earnest and prognostic of it, which time will try when I come to treat.—Ibid. p. 31.


[See MEMOIRS, pp. 159-166.]

Seville, March 23, 1663, 2 April, 1664

Pursuing my journal, from the date of my last to you from Cadiz, Feb. 29th, 1663/March 10th, 1664 you may be pleased to understand that, March 3/13, the old Governor, D. Ant. Pimentel, returned thither, surprising me with a visit in my house before he would enter into his own, or had any notice of his landing; the cause of his suspension having been only that which I then signified, and as powerfully removed at Court by a letter from the Duke de Medina Celi to his Catholic Majesty in his defence, as it seemed to have been laid on with a very good will by the Duke of Albuquerque; the letter I have seen, wanting neither rhetoric, logic, nor assurance.

6/16, (of the same.) The said Don Antonio treated me and all my company with splendour and magnificence, borrowing us for that dinner from the King's entertainment.

The 9/19. Himself in person accompanied me to Port St. Mary, my first step towards Madrid, and had been my first landing-place, as nearest and of most convenience, if it had not been signified to me by message, that I must not waive Cadiz, where all things were orderly prepared for my reception, from whence also I pressed to have removed sooner; but that the Duke of Medina intimated his desire of the contrary, as not till then so well prepared for my entertainment as his Excellency intended to be; and in particular, because a rich gondola, built purposely, said they, for the wafting over of Princes, had some days' work to do about it, before it could be fitted for my transportation.

Arrived therein at Port St. Mary, the Duke, with all his family and vassals, (that city being his patrimony,) met me at the landing-place, whence, with coaches, and vollies of shot by many troops, not upon the King's pay but his own, for so his Excellency then told me, he conducted me to a very fair house, prepared by his care, and furnished with the richest of what he had for his own palace moreover, under his Excellency's proper inspection against my coming from Cadiz, whence, having been there revisited at parting by the Duke of Albuquerque, and all other who had visited me at my arrival, I was dismissed with great and small shot from the town, and in like manner saluted in my passage by the Spanish Armada, and all other ships in the bay, as well Spanish as strangers, Van Tromp riding there at the same time with his squadron. The rest of my entertainment at Port St. Mary was proportionable to the beginning, and there also the Duke of Medina gave me one treat at his own palace. The civilities to me of the Marquis of Bayona, Gentleman of the Galleys of Spain, the constant station thereof is there, and of his lady to my wife, inheritrix or the Marquisate of Santa Cruz, and so of a Grandeeship, noted likewise for eminent virtue and education at Court, came nothing behind; but these two great men cannot set their horses together.

On Monday, March 14/24, I was accompanied out of the city of Port by the Duke of Medina, Don Antonio de Pimentel, who had never left me till then, being one, and the Marquis of Bayona, with his Lady, planting his coach upon the way-side, beyond the place where the Duke took leave. I came that night to Xerez de la Frontera; met and welcomed before our approaching to the city by the magistrates thereof and principal gentlemen, that is all, with many troops of soldiers, and shoals of common people. The next day, treated in the interim, and then dismissed as before at the other two places, I arrived and lodged at Lebrija. The next at Utrera; met about a league short, by order of the Conde de Molina, Assistente de Sevilla, with a troop of horse, and by Don Lope de Mendoza, Alguazil, mayor of the city, as Teniente del Duque de Alcal, proprietor by inheritance of that office, the said Don Lope being, by the same order, to conduct me as far as Cordova.

The next day, 16/26 of March, accompanied with the same troop and conductor, we set forth for Seville; but this small stream soon lost itself, when, about the distance before named it fell into a torrent of people of all sorts and degrees, both military and civil, which, together with the Conde Assistente, rushed out to receive and conduct me to the King's palace, or Alcazar, which accordingly was done. Churches, streets, inhabitants, river, places much noted at all times, setting now upon this occasion the best side outward to express a pride in their joy of a hoped perfect correspondence with England.

Here, at my arrival, I found lying for me, in the hand of a servant of the Duke of Medina de las Torres, a letter from his Excellency, of high welcome to Spain, and no less respect. Here, since my arrival, besides a perpetual court of company and entertainments of the best above stairs, and ranks of soldiers, with multitudes of others below, upon my account, in this famous palace of the King, where I am lodging in his Majesty's own bedchamber, as royally furnished as when himself was in it, visits I have received in form from their Excellency the City, by their Representatives; from their Senoria the Audiencia, by their Regente; from their Senoria the Contratacion House, by their Presidente; and from his Illustrissima the Archbishop, being at present sick, by message; all which I have repaid respectively; and tomorrow, God willing, set forth towards Cordova; perceiving beforehand that my salida will be proportionable to my entrada. The conclusion I make of the whole is, 'thus shall it be done to the man whom the King our Master is pleased to honour,' and the King of Spain, for his Majesty's sake, as far as outward ceremony can testify it; well, hoping that neither his Majesty, nor any other at home, will apprehend I take aught of this as done to my person, or for any thing of intrinsic value supposed to be in me, but merely as I bear my master's image and superscription; his Majesty's prerogative shining the more therein, by how much the metal on which he is stamped hath less of value in itself. Not a compliment, which will be always a saucy thing, as well as impertinent, with a man's prince; but a sober and natural inference, at least so understood by such as could wish it were otherwise.—Ibid. p. 36.


[See MEMOIRS, pp, 167, 168.]

Cordova, 29 March/7 April, 1664.

My last journal—such I call all letters of mine as related only to my motions towards Madrid—with something of the splendid and ceremonious entertainment of his Majesty's Ambassador, from place to place, more or less as the places themselves are more or less eminent and plentiful, was dated at Seville, 23 Mart, 1663/2 Aprilis, 1664 and figured I.

The next day, according to the account I then made, departed from Seville, accompanied out of the city about a mile by the Conde Assistente, and divers other of the nobility and gentry of that place, and was guarded by foot soldiers quite through the city, with colours displayed, and abased as I passed by, and muskets discharged; a company of foot having been upon my guard all the while I stayed there, as in all other places of note.

That night I came to Carmona, a city formerly considerable for the lofty situation, strong, and pleasant palace there of the Kings of Castile, and were the last which held out for Don Pedro the Cruel; both the one and the other now ruinous enough. About half a league short thereof, I was met by the magistrates and gentry of the place, and by them conducted to my lodging; having placed a company of foot at the entrance into the town, who discharged their muskets, &c.

From Carmona, the next day, to Fuentes; a very pleasant and healthful small town, from whence the Marquis, uncle to the now Duke Medina Sidonia, had his title. From Fuentes, the next day, to Ezija; which, in respect of the great heats thereof at some times, is called 'the Frying-pan of Andaluzia,' yet we, upon the 5th of April, their style, found it cold enough. I was there very civilly and splendidly lodged and entertained for two days; being, indeed, an extraordinary place. Our company and cattle harassed; and foreseeing we must make a halt at Cordova till the Holy Week, now begun, were past, and therefore to no purpose to hurry thither.

From Ezija, 28 March/7th April, I arrived at Cordova, where now I am: where also my reception without this most ancient and famous city, by the Corregidor and gentry thereof, the flower of all Spain for extraction and civility, was, and our lodging and treatment of all sorts within is, and is like to be, do what we can, and the Lent season too, to avoid and qualify it, such as will require a letter apart, and more lines therein, to abbreviate it only, than the feasting and pastimes themselves will probably allow me leisure for whilst I am here; and therefore I must defer that to another occasion.—Ibid. p. 44.


[See MEMOIRS, pp. 168-170.]

Ballecas, one league from Madrid, 7th May, 1664, stilo loci.

My last from Cordova, 29th of March, N. S. 7th of April, carried on the journal of my great reception and entertainment in my way up to Madrid, to the day of the date thereof.

What was afterwards in the same city, whilst I remained there, which was until Tuesday in Easter Week—because those gentlemen would needs make the King of England's Ambassador a fiesta of canas upon the Monday, at the rate of taking up their horses from verde, [Footnote: i.e., From grass. ] on purpose for it; and since, in all other places proportionably, particularly in Toledo, where there was another fiesta of bulls given, was every way rather exceeding than inferior to any thing that was elsewhere before, until my safe arrival at this very place, which I reckon my journey's end; and by earnest suit to this Court from Seville, did obtain it might be so esteemed by them; leaving me here to my own expense and disposal, although I have as yet no house provided for me in Madrid; notwithstanding all diligence towards it by the Aposentadores there, upon the King's special command, and also by such private persons as I myself have employed not to stick at any just rate for a good one, upon my particular account, with advance of a year's rent in plata doble, and so to be continued, as long as the house should be used by me, upon merchant security: such a dearth there is really of accommodations of this nature for the present, and for a long time hath been; yet there want not descants, that there is some great mystery of state in the matter, which doubtless will fly as far as Paris, if not reach London.

POSTSCRIPT.—Since my arrival in this village, and that my present want of a house in Madrid is more murmured at there than needs, considering the King is absent, and moreover, though I am much straitened in matter of lodgings, yet that I have a very large and pleasant garden thereunto belonging, to expatiate and refresh myself and wearied family in, I received a message from Baron Battevil to this effect, besides general tenders of all manner of service which is in his power; that he is at present (as in truth he is) sick, or else would have waited upon me himself in person; but that he will with all his heart quit his house to me—which I am told is a very fine one, as he hath made it, with chargeable additions of his own, in the midst of the Calle de Alcala, with a fair garden to it, and that it is no compliment at all. This I have thought reasonable to advertise in England, though not to accept.—Ibid. p.63-66.


Madrid, 27th of May, 1664.

"The Bull-feast will be on Thursday next; and by reason that your Excellency seems desirous to be a spectator incognito, I have taken care to procure you a shady balcony in the first story. I have likewise ordered a window to be secured for your Excellency's retinue. If there be anything more wherein I can serve your Excellency, I hope you will freely command it, as I shall be always forward to serve you. God keep your Excellency, and grant you the long life I desire."— Ibid. p. 86.


Ballecas, 18/28 May, 1664.

The Duke of Aveiro had recovered, by final sentence, the 17th of May, the two dukedoms of Maqueda and Najara. Maqueda he hath; for Najara he hath not yet sued, but keeps it in the decks: then Maqueda is a great deal better worth than I thought, valued by some at sixty thousand ducats per annum, at forty thousand generally; and moreover his sister, (as a domestic, who you know, of that family, tells me,) as a consequent of the late sentence, will recover for, or towards, her dowry, a deposited arrear of between three or four hundred thousand ducats. She was lately, in all appearance, very near marriage with the heir of the Conde de Oropesa; but quite broke off before this sentence, upon point of alimony, and liberty of rewarding her own attendants out of her own estate, in case of future dissension. I am particular in the domestic concernments of this family when they come in my way, though the passages relate nothing of interest of state, in regard to that esteem or their persons, [Footnote: The following passage occurs in Sir Richard's instructions: "You shall visit, in our name, the Duke of Aveiro and his sister, assuring them of our friendship and particular concernments for their persons, for the name and royal blood of which they are descended, and promising them all effects of it in our power, especially if the agreement between the two Crowns give us an opportunity to have any part in the restitution of their estates, with all other good offices, which shall happen to be in our power."—Ibid. p. 17.] which his Majesty's instruction to me on that behalf doth express, and knowing yourself to be particularly an honourer of them.

Upon the 22nd current, Ascension-day at night, [Footnote: In 1664 Ascension-day fell on the NINETEENTH of May] after a play in the palace, upon a slight occasion of snappish words, unless there were something of old grudge or rivalship in the case, the Marquis of Albersan, challenging Don Domingo Guzman, and he fought under the palace, near the Marquis de Castel Rodrigo's house in the Florida, where Don Domingo gave the Marquis that whereof he died. The next morning they that knew the Marquis to be so near and dear to the Conde de Castrillo as he was, and knew Don Domingo to be the Duke of St. Lucar's son, knowing withal how well that Conde and Duke do love one another, and how they do both divide the Spanish world between them in power, will conclude this private accident hath an influence upon the public; indeed so great a one, as hath seemed for some days past to make a vacation in Court, that I may not call it an inter-reign, or the dividing of a kingdom against itself.

For since, and upon, this accident, all seems of a light flame between these duumviri, to so high a degree, that each crossing whatsoever the other promotes, the most of others of quality take sides, and such as appear neuters with the monarchy a monopoly in either of their hands; weeping over the graves of the Conde, Duque, and Don Luis de Haro, because they were absolute and sole favourites in their generations; attributing to this very cause the seeming disproportion, if not contradiction, between my reception in, and conduction from, Cadiz, hitherto, and now my long demurrage so near the Court, for want of a house in it, and prophesying already that this animosity and emulation will gangrene into the substance, as well as accidents, of my embassy.

I do not here pretend to paint unto his Majesty the state of Spain, but the populace of it; asking more time, by a great number of years, to understand the former, though but in a competent measure, than I hope his Majesty will give me: and if his Majesty would, God will not. I have learned by the yet invincible ignorance of some Foreign Ambassadors to England (an open-breasted country!—how apt they are to mistake), who (begging the question, in the first place, of their own personal abilities) can never be convinced that Mas vee el loco en su casa, que el cuerdo en la agena.—Whilst I am writing, I am called to entertain the Count de Marcin, [Footnote: John Gasper Ferdinand de Marcin, Count de Graville, Marquis de Claremont d'Antrague, &c., Captain-General of the Spanish Service, was Lieutenant-General of Charles the Second's forces by sea and land, and was elected a Knight of the Garter in 1658.] who is upon the way from Madrid to find me out in this obscurity, contrary to the style of Spain, but suitable to the freedom of a soldier, and of a subject of his Majesty, as to his most noble Sovereignty of the Garter.—Ibid. p. 90.


[See MEMOIRS, pp. 170, 171]

Madrid, June 10/20, 1664.


After a long progress from Cadiz to Ballecas, a village one league distant from this Court, and almost as long a parenthesis there—which the French Court will say was no elegant piece of oratory, nor the middle at all proportionable to the beginning with me, whatever the end may prove—upon the 8th instant I arrived happily at my journey's end howsoever; where, as speedily then as myself could possibly in any measure be ready for it, namely, upon the 18th, both stilo loci, I received my public audience of entrada at the King's palace, in the same form, neither more or less, as my predecessors have ever done; and only two days having since intervened, as by the account doth appear, within two or three more from the date of this, the King removing to-day unto the Buen Retiro, I do expect my first private audience.

Being thus fixed, after long running, in the centre of my negotiation, I do presume to beg from your Excellency, and hereby to begin on my part, a mutual correspondence; first in order to the service of our Royal master, whereunto we are both obliged in common; secondly, to that of your Excellency, whereunto myself in particular.

To begin with what concerns my embassy, being so much a fresh man as your Excellency sees I am in this Court, visible it is by what proceeds, I can as yet have nothing to descant or touch upon, but matter of ceremony only from and towards me, divisible into two considerations; the first, in reference to the past, of which I have already said the same hath been, as from, and to, other Ambassadors, in all this and all other ages; the second, in reference to the present concurring Ambassadors, and other public ministers of this Court; and now upon this branch I shall, with your Excellency's patience, if I may presume so much, dilate myself so far as to the heads only of what hath past, in fact, as followeth.

I need not tell your Excellency, because it differs not from the custom of all or most Courts, until abuses thereof enforced an alteration in some, that in this, always heretofore, Ambassadors and other Foreign Ministers upon the place, did send their families to accompany new comers to their first public audience, and this went round. Therefore, accordingly, I was now, in my turn, to expect this function towards me, as I did. The Master of the Ceremonies thereupon, who is a man new in his place, advertised me in writing, that this, since Henry the Eighth's time, was never practised to, nor by, Ambassadors of England. Finding this matter of fact utterly mistaken, I replied. Soon after he brought me a message from the King, that I should not expect this ceremony; but still upon the same misgrounded supposition, therefore unto this likewise I replied. Finally, his Majesty, having weighed my last reply, by the Secretary of State for the North, Don Blasco de Loyola, coming to my house the evening before my audience, signified to me, that for certain reasons, whatsoever was heretofore in practice of that kind, it must thenceforward be no more, from or towards English, or any Ambassador whatsoever in this Court, the which being his Majesty's own order, in his own kingdom, and equally indifferent to all, my answer to the Secretary was—That for the present I saw no further cause of reply, but would and did submit thereunto.

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