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Ireland In The New Century
by Horace Plunkett
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We kept at the Exhibition, for six months, a staff of competent experts, whose instructions were to give to all-comers this simple lesson. They were to bring home to our people that, here in Ireland before their very eyes, there were industries being carried on by foreigners, by Englishmen, by Scotchmen, and in some instances by Irishmen, but in all cases by men and women who had no advantage over our workers except that they had the technical training which it was the desire of the Department to give to the workers of Ireland. The officials of the Department entered into the spirit of this scheme enthusiastically and cheerfully, some of them, in addition to their ordinary work, turning the office into a tourist agency for these busy months. With the generous help of the railway companies they organised parties of farmers, artisans, school teachers, members of the statutory committees, and, in fact, of all to whom it was of importance to give this object lesson upon the relations between practical education and the promotion of industry. Nearly 100,000 persons were thus moved to Cork and back before the Exhibition closed—an achievement largely due to the assistance given by the Irish Agricultural Organisation Society and the clergy throughout the country.

This experiment, both in its conception and in its results, was perhaps unique. There were not wanting critics of the new Department who stood aghast at so large an expenditure upon temporary edifices and a passing show; but those who are in touch with its educational work know that this novel application of State assistance fulfilled its purpose. It helped substantially to generate a belief in, and stimulate a demand for, technical instruction which it will take us many years adequately to supply.

An American visitor who, as I afterwards learned, takes an active part in the discussion of the rural problems of his own country, disembarked at Queenstown in order to 'take in' the Cork Exhibition. In his rush through Dublin he 'took in' the Department and the writer. 'Mr. Vice-President,' he said, before the hand-shaking was completed, 'I have visited all the great Expositions held in my time. I have been to the Cork Exposition. I often saw more things, but never more ideas.'

With this characteristically rapid appreciation of a movement which seeks to turn Irish thought to action, my strange visitor vanished as suddenly as he came.

* * * * *

Those whose sympathy with Ireland has induced them to persevere through the mass of details with which this story of small beginnings is pieced together may wonder why the bearing of hopeful efforts for bringing prosperity and contentment to Ireland upon the mental attitude of millions of Irishmen scattered throughout the British Empire and the United States, and so upon the lives of the countries in which they have made their homes, is apparently ignored. I fully recognise the vast importance of the subject. A book dealing comprehensively with the actual and potential influence of Irish intellect upon English politics at home, and upon the politics of the United States, a carefully reasoned estimate of the part which Irish intellect is qualified, and which I firmly believe it is destined, to play wherever the civilisation of the world is to be under the control of the English-speaking peoples—more especially where these peoples govern races which speak other tongues and see through other eyes—a clear and striking exposition of the true relation between the small affairs of the small island and that greater Ireland which takes its inspiration from the sorrows, the passions, the endeavours, and the hopes of those who stick to the old home—such a book would possess a deep human interest, and would make a high and wide appeal. Nevertheless, I feel that at the present time the most urgent need, from every point of view on which I have touched, is to focus the thought available for the Irish Question upon the definite work of a reconstruction of Irish life.

Such is the purpose of this book. I do not wish to attach any exaggerated importance to the scheme of social and economic reform of which I have attempted to give a faithful account; nor is it in their practical achievement, be it great or small, that the initiators and organisers of the new movement take most pride. What these Irishmen are proud of is the manner in which the people have responded to their efforts to bring Irish sentiment into an intimate and helpful relation with Irish economic problems. They had to reckon with that greatest of hindrances to the spirit of enterprise, a rooted belief in the potentiality of government to bring material prosperity to our doors. As I have pointed out, the practical demonstration which Ireland had received of the power of government to inflict lasting economic injury gave rise to this belief; and I have noted the present influences to which it seems to owe its continuance until to-day. I believe that, if any enduring interest attaches to the story which I have told, it will consist in the successive steps by which this initial difficulty has been overcome.

Let me summarise in a few words what has been, so far, actually accomplished. Those who did the work of which I have written first launched upon Irish life a scheme of organised self-help which, perhaps more by good luck than design, proved to be in accordance with the inherited instincts of the people, and, therefore, moved them to action. Next they called for, and in due season obtained, a department of government with adequate powers and means to aid in developing the resources of the country, so far as this end could be attained without transgressing the limits of beneficial State interference with the business of the people. In its constitution this department was so linked with the representative institutions of the country that the people soon began to feel that they largely controlled its policy and were responsible for its success. Meanwhile, the progress of economic thought in the country had made such rapid strides that, in the administration of State assistance, the principle of self-help could be rigidly insisted upon and was willingly submitted to. The result is that a situation has been created which is as gratifying as it may appear to be paradoxical. Within the scope and sphere of the movement the Irish people are now, without any sacrifice of industrial character, combining reliance upon government with reliance upon themselves.

That a movement thus conceived should so rapidly have overcome its initial difficulties and should, I might almost add, have passed beyond the experimental stage, will suggest to any thoughtful reader that above and beyond the removal by legislation of obstacles to progress—and much has been accomplished in this way of recent years—there must have been new, positive influences at work upon the national mind. These will be found in the growing recognition of the fact that the path of progress lies along distinctively Irish lines, and that otherwise it will not be trodden by the Irish people. Much good in the same direction has been done, too, by the generous and authoritative admission by England that the future development of Ireland should be assisted and promoted 'with a full and constant regard to the special traditions of the country.'[52] But after all, while these concessions to Irish sentiment, vitally important though they be, may speed us on our road to national regeneration, they will not take us far. It remains for us Irishmen to realise—and the chief value of all the work I have described consists in the degree in which it forces us to realise—the responsibility which now rests with ourselves. We have been too long a prey to that deep delusion, which, because the ills of the country we love were in past days largely caused from without, bids us look to the same source for their cure. The true remedies are to be sought elsewhere; for, however disastrous may have been the past, the injury was moral rather than material, and the opportunity has now arrived for the patient building up again of Irish character in those qualities which win in the modern struggle for existence. The field for that great work is clear of at least the worst of its many historic encumbrances. Ireland must be re-created from within. The main work must be done in Ireland, and the centre of interest must be Ireland. When Irishmen realise this truth, the splendid human power of their country, so much of which now runs idly or disastrously to waste, will be utilised; and we may then look with confidence for the foundation of a fabric of Irish prosperity, framed in constructive thought, and laid enduringly in human character.

THE END.

FOOTNOTES:

[48] Pages 38, 39.

[49] It must be borne in mind that the Department is not officially concerned with the question of the economic distribution of land referred to on pp. 46-49.

[50] For a full description of the Department's scheme of agricultural education I may refer to a Memorandum on Agricultural Education in Ireland, written by the author and published by the Department, July, 1901.

[51] See ante, pp. 236-238.

[52] Speech of the Lord Lieutenant to the Incorporated Law Society, November 20th, 1902. See also p. 170.



INDEX

A.E. (George W. Russell) 200 Agitation as a policy, 82, 83 Agricultural Board, 228, 234, seq. 269 Agriculture:— Agricultural Holdings:— Improvement of, 46 seq. Transfer of peasants to new farms, 48 seq. Agricultural Organisation: Denmark, 131 Department of Agriculture and farmers' societies, 211 England, Mr. Hanbury's and Lord Onslow's views, 242 Irish Agricultural Organisation Society (see that title) Societies 44, 45 Co-operation (see that title). Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction (see that title) Depression in, 179 Education in relation to, 126, 264 seq. 269 Exodus of Rural Population, 39 State-Aid, 45, 211 Tillage, decrease of, 42 Agriculture and Technical Instruction (Ireland) Act, 224, 227, 236, 238 Albert Institute, Glasnevin, 230, 271 Altruism, appeal to in co-operation, 210 America, Irish in: 72 Causes of their success and failure, 55 seq. Irish in American politics, 70 seq. Loss of religion in, 111 Anderson, R.A.:— Co-operative movement, 184, 190 Irish Agricultural Organisation Society, 200 Andrews, Mr. Thomas:— Recess Committee, 219 Anti-English Sentiment:— Irish in America and, 72 Nature and cause, 13 Anti-Treating League, 114 Arnott, Sir John:— Recess Committee, 218 Art, modern ecclesiastical art in Ireland, 108 Association, economic, value of, 167 Associative qualities of the Irish, 166

Bacon Curing:— Denmark, 131, 194 Bagot, Canon:— Creamery movement, 189 Balfour, Arthur:—168 Irish policy, 243, 244 Balfour, Gerald:—243, 256 Agriculture and Technical Instruction (Ireland) Act, 225, 233 Local Government Act, 224, 238, 240 Policy of explained, 225 Recess Committee Proposals; Bill, 224 Banks, agricultural credit, 195 seq. Barley Experiments of the Department of Agriculture, 282 Belfast Chamber of Commerce and Home Rule, 67 Berkeley, Bishop:— Irish priests, 141 On "Mending our state," 6 "Parties" and "politics," 63 Bessborough Commission, tenants improvements, &c. 22 Board of National Education, 126 Board of Technical Instruction, 228, 234 seq. 257 Bodley's France, Madame Darmesteter's review, 242 Boer war and the Irish attitude, 9 Bogs, utilisation of, 249 Boycotting, 87 Bright, John:— Peasant proprietorship, 25 Brooke, Stopford, 92 Buckle, personal factor in history, 27 Bulwer Lytton, 34 Burke, 137 Butt, Isaac, 78 Butter, Danish, 131

Cadogan, Lord, 224 Catholic Association, 99 Catholic Emancipation Act, 104, 125, 132 Catholic University (see University Question). Celtic Race, Harold Frederic's opinion, 161 seq. Character:— Associative qualities of the Irish, 166 Education and character, 144 Gaelic Revival, effect of on national character, 148, 155 Industrial character, 18 Irish inefficiency a problem of character, 32 Irish question a problem of character, 32, 59, 164 Lack of initiative in Irish character, 163 Moral timidity of Irish character, 64, 65, 80, 81 Prosperity of Ireland, to be founded on character, 291 Roman Catholicism and Irish character, 101-105, 110 Chesterfield, Lord:— Education as the cause of difference in the character of men, 144 Christian Brothers' Schools, 131 Christian Socialists, 184 Church-building in Ireland,. 107 Church Disestablishment Act, 1869,—Land Purchase Clauses, 25 Clan-System in Ireland, 75 Clergy, Roman Catholic:— Action and attitude towards questions of the day 105 Authority, 96, 105 seq. Moral influence, 115, 116 Political influence, 117 Temperance reform, 112, 114 College of Science and Department of Agriculture, 229 Colonies, history of the Irish in, 72 seq. Commercial Restrictions—effect of on Irish industrial character, 17 seq. Con O'Neal forbids his posterity to build houses, etc., 57 Congested Districts Board:— Agricultural banks, loans to 197 Department of Agriculture and, 245 Land Act (1903) and, 245 Success of, 243, 244 Convents and Monasteries, increase of, 108 Co-operative Movement:— Agricultural Banks, 195 seq. Agricultural depression, cause of, 179 Altruism, appeal to, 210 Anderson, R.A., 184, 190, 200 Associative qualities of Irish, 166, 178, 186 Beginnings, 178 Combination, necessity of, 181 Co-operative Union, Manchester, 184 Craig, Mr. E.T., and the Vandeleur Estate, 184 Creameries, 187 seq. Denmark, 131, 194 Educating adults, 177 English co-operation, 166, 184 Finlay, Father Thomas, 119, 192, 218 Gaelic Revival and, 149 seq. Gray, Mr. T.C., 184 Holyoake, Mr., 184 Hughes, Mr. Tom, 184 Irish Agricultural Organisation Society (see that title). Irish Homestead, 190, 202 Ludlow, Mr., 184 Marum, Mr. Mulhallen, 189 Middlemen, 180 Monteagle, Lord, 184 Moral effects, 207, 208 Neale, Mr. Vansittart, 184 Necessity of co-operation for small landholders, 44 seq. Production and distribution problems, 179, 180 Roman Catholic clergy and, 119 State-aid side, 45, 165 Success, causes of 210, 211 Vandeleur estate community, 184 Village libraries, 199 Wolff, Mr. Henry W., 199 Yerburgh, Mr., 199 Cork:— Exhibition, Department's Exhibit, 119, 285 seq. Craig, Mr. E.T.— Co-operative Movement 184 Creameries, co-operative, beginnings, 187 seq. Crop improvement schemes of the Department, 282 Council of Agriculture, 228, 232 seq. 257

Dairying Industry—Co-operation and, 187 seq. Dane, Mr.:— Recess Committee, 218 Darmesteter, Madame, Syndicats agricoles, 242 Davis, Thomas:—137 Political Methods, 77, 83 Denmark:— Co-operation in, 131, 194 High Schools, 131 Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction:— 60 Agriculture and Technical Instruction (Ireland) Act, 224, 227, 236, 238 Agricultural Board, 228, 234 seq. 257 Agricultural education, 236, 237, 264 seq. 269, 272 Agricultural Organisation, 241 Albert Institute, Glasnevin, 230, 271 Balfour, Gerald, 225, 233 Board of Technical Instruction, 228, 234 seq. 257 College of Science and, 229 Congested Districts Board and Department, 245 Consultative Committee for Co-ordinating Education, 236, 237, 272 Constitution, etc., 228 Co-operative movement and the benefits of organisation, 241 Cork Exhibition exhibit, 119, 285 seq. Council of Agriculture, 228, 232 seq. 257 Crop improvement schemes 282 Domestic economy teaching, 272 Early days' experiences, 217 seq. Educational policy, 236, 237, 272, 274 Educational work, 262 Endowment, etc., 231 Home Industries, 275 Industrial education and industrial life, 130 Intermediate Education Board and, 235, 237 Itinerant instruction, 126, 270 Irish Agricultural Organisation Society and, 203 Live Stock Schemes, 279 Local Committees, 261 Local Government Act and work of Department, 239 Metropolitan School of Art 230 Munster Institute, Cork, and, 230, 274 Parliamentary representation, 220, 228 Powers, 229 seq. Provincial Committees, 234 Purposes, 228 Recess Committee's Recommendations, 220 Royal Dublin Society and, 279 Rural life improvement, 159 Sea Fisheries, 282 Staff, 228 Teachers, 267 Technical instruction, 130, 228, 234, seq., 257, 263, 267, 279 Work already accomplished, 278 seq. Desmolins, M.:— English love of home, 53 Devon Commission, tenants' improvements, 22 Dineen, Rev. P.S.:— Editor O'Rahilly's poems, 76 Dixon, Sir Daniel:— Recess Committee, 218 Domestic economy teaching, 272 Drink Evil:— Anti-Treating League, 114 Causes, 112 Roman Catholic Clergy's influence, 112, 114 Dudley, Lord, 170, 290 Dufferin, Lord:— Effect of commercial restrictions in Ireland, 20 Duffy, Sir C.G. 77 Dunraven Conference, 8, 10, 207

Economic system in England, individualism of, 166 Economic thought:— Influence of Roman Catholicism, 101 seq. Lack of in Ireland, 133 seq. Education:— Agricultural instruction, 126 264 seq. 269 Board of National Education, 126 Christian Brothers, 131 Commissioners of National Education, 235 Consultative Committee for co-ordinating Education, 236, 237, 272 Continental methods, 129 Defects of present system, 128 Denmark High Schools, 131 Department of Agriculture's policy and work, 236, 237, 262, 272, 274 Economic, 130, 133 Education Bill, 99 English education in Ireland, 122 Influence of on national life, 59 Industrial, 130, 264 Intermediate Education system, 128, 235, 237 Irish education schemes, 123 seq. Itinerant instruction, 126, 270 Keenan, Sir Patrick, 126 Kildare Street Society, 123 Literary Education, 131 Lord Chesterfield on Education 144 Manual and Practical Instruction in Primary Schools, Commission, 128, 129 Maynooth, influence of, 134-136, 138, 139 Monastic and Conventual institutions, 108 National factor in national education, 152, 153 Practical, 129 seq. Reports of Commissions, 127 Roman Catholics, higher education, 97, 132, 133 Royal University, 128 Technical instruction, 228, 231 seq., 257, 263 Trinity College, influence of, 134, 136 seq. University:— Place of the University in education, 133 Royal Commission on University Education, 128 Wyse's Scheme, 125 Education Bill, 99 Emigration, causes of, etc., 40, 116 England:— Anti-English sentiment in Ireland, 13, 72 Co-operation in, 166, 184, 192, 206, 242 Economic system, individualism of, 166 Misunderstanding of Irish question, 7 seq. Ewart, Sir William:— Recess Committee, 218 Experimental Plots of the Department, 281

Ferguson, Sir Samuel:— National sentiment, 154 Field, Mr. William, 217 Finlay, Father Thomas:— 119, 208 Irish Agricultural Organisation Society, 192 Recess Committee 218 Fisheries—Department of Agriculture, development scheme, 282 seq Flax improvement Schemes, 282 Fortnightly Review:— Harold Frederic on Irish Question, 162 France, syndicats agricoles, 242 Franchise extension in 1885, effects of on Irish political thought, 78 Frederic, Harold:— Views on Irish question, 161 seq. Free Trade, effect of in Ireland, 19

Gaelic Revival:— 148 seq. Appeal to the individual 155 Co-operative movement and, 149 seq. Gaelic League, aims and objects, 150 Hyde, Douglas, 151 Irish language as a commercial medium, 158 National factor in education, importance of, 153 Politics and the Gaelic revival, 156, 187 Rural life, rehabilitation, 159 Gill, Mr. T.P.:— Recess Committee, 219 Gladstone:— 85 Belfast Chamber of Commerce, Home Rule deputation, 67 Home Rule, attitude towards, 3, 66, 67 Tenants' improvements, 22 Glasnevin, Albert Institute, 230, 271 Grattan, 137 Gray, Mr. J.C.:— Co-operative movement, 181 Grazing, increase of, 42 Grundtvig, Bishop, 131

Hanbury, Mr.:— 251 Agricultural Societies, necessity of, 242 Suppression of Swine Fever, 252 Hannon, Mr. P.J.—I.A.O.S. 200 Harrington, Mr. T.C.:— Recess Committee 218 Healy, Archbishop, work for Ireland, 118 Hegarty, Father, work for Ireland, 119 Historical Grievances, 14, 17, 59, 104, seq. 120, 147 Holdings, small, problem of, 46 Holyoake, Mr.:— Co-operative Movement, 184 Domestic Economy Teaching, 272 Home: Improvement of, 159 Irish Conception of, 53 Irish, "homelessness at home," cause of 57, 58 Home Industries, 192, 275 Home Rule:—Bill 1886, 61 Gladstone's attitude to the question 3 Nationalist tactics as a means of attaining 84 Rosebery, Lord, attitude to the question, 4 Ulster and Home Rule, 66, 86. seq. Unionist attitude towards, 35 Hughes, Tom, Co-operative Movement, 184 Hyde, Douglas, 151

Individualism of English economic system, 166 Industrial character of the Irish, effect of commercial restrictions, 18 Industrial leadership, and political leadership, 212 Industry:— Commercial Restrictions, 16-20 Education and Industrial Life, 130 Free Trade, effect of, 19 Gaelic League and, 135 Home Rule and, 87 Peasant Industries 52 Protestantism and Industry 100 Roman Catholicism and Industry. 100, 103 seq. State-Aid 45 Initiative, lack of in Irish character, 163 Intermediate Education 128, 235, 237 Irish Agricultural Organisation Society:— 149 Agricultural Banks, 195 seq. Agricultural Organisation:— Denmark, 131 Department of Agriculture and Farmers' Societies, 241 England, Mr. Hanbury's view, 242 Onslow, Lord, opinion, 242 Welsh Co. Councils, and, 242 Anderson, R.A., 200 Central body, necessity for 194 Cork Exhibition, tours organised by, 286 Department of Agriculture and, 203 Federations, principal, 193 Finlay, Father Thomas, 119, 192, 208, 218 Funds, 202 seq. Gaelic revival and the co-operative movement, 149 seq. Hannon, Mr. P.J., 200 Inauguration, 191 Irish, Homestead, 190, 202 Monteagle, Lord, 192 Roman Catholic clergy and the movement, 119 Rural life social movements, 159, 199 Russell, George W. (A.E.), 200 Societies, number, etc. 192 Staff, &c. 200 Village libraries, 199 Irish Homestead, 190, 202 Irish language as a commercial medium, 158 "Irish night" in House of Commons, 2 Irish Question:— Anomalies, 33 Character, a problem of, 32, 59, 164 Emigration, 40 English misunderstanding, 7 seq. Frederic, Harold, diagnosis by, 161 seq. Gaelic Revival and, 148 Historical grievances, 16 seq. Home Rule (see that title) Human problem, 2 Land Act marks a new era in, 11 Land system (see that title). Our ignorance about ourselves 32 Parnell's death, effect of, 5 Political remedies, Irish belief in, 33 Rural life, problem, 39, 57, 263 Sentiment, force of, 15 Ulster's attitude important, 38 Itinerant Instructors, 126, 127, 271, 284

Johnson, Dr., on "economy," 278

Kane, Rev. R.R.:— 157 Recess Committee, 218 Keenan, Sir Patrick:— Itinerant instructors, 126, 127 Kelly, Dr. (Bishop of Ross):— Work for Ireland, 118 Kildare Street School of Domestic Economy 274 Kildare Street Society, 123-125

Land Acts:— 1870, 23; 1881, 23, 24; 1891, Congested Districts, 243 1903:— 10, 11, 42, 48, 245 Marks a new era in Ireland, 11 Transfer of peasants to new farms, 48 Land Conference:— 93 Landed gentry not to be expatriated, 85 Nationalist leaders' attitude, 89 Land Purchase Acts, 25 Land Question and Tenure Question, 41, 42 Land system:— 17 Causes of failure in Irish land system, 21 Dual ownership 25 Land Acts: 1870, 23; 1881, 23, 24; 1891, 243; 1903, 10, 11, 42, 48, 246. Land Purchase Acts, 25 Legislation, 23 seq. Peasant proprietorship, germs of, 25 Tenure question, 41, 42 Lawless, Emily:— "With the Wild Geese," 92 Le Bon, "La Psychologie De la Foule," 167 Lea, Sir Thomas:— Recess Committee, 218 Leadership in Ireland, political and industrial, 212 Lecky, Mr.:— Irish grievances, 14 Kildare Street Society, 124 Live stock improvement schemes, 279 Liverpool Financial Reform Association, 127 Local Government:— 83 Balfour, Mr. Gerald, 224, 238, 240 Department of Agriculture and local effort, Educative effect of, 90 Nationalist leaders' attitude 88 Success in working, 88, 240 Lucas, Mr., 77 Ludlow, Mr.:— Co-operative movement, 184

McCarthy, Mr. Justin:— Recess Committee, 215 Manchester, Co-operative Union 181 Manual and Practical Instruction in Primary Schools' Commission, 128, 129 Manures, Artificial— Department of Agriculture's encouragement in the use of, 282 Marum, Mr. Mulhallen—Co-operative Movement 189 Maynooth, influence of, 134 136, 138, 139 Mayo, Lord:— Recess Committee, 218 Memorandum on Agricultural Education 269 Metropolitan School of Art, 230 Middlemen, 180 Monasteries and Convents, increase of, 108 Monteagle, Lord:— Co-operative movement, 184 I.A.O.S. President, 192 Recess Committee 218 Moral timidity of Irish character, 65, 80, 81 Morals:— Roman Catholic Clergy's influence on, 115, 116 Mulhall, Mr. Michael:— Recess Committee, 219 Munster Institute, Cork, 230, 274 Musgrave, Sir James:— Recess Committee, 219

National Education Board, Agricultural Teaching, 126 Nationalist Party:— Home Rule, 35, 84 Land Conference and, 89 Local Government and, 88 Policy, 69 Qualifications of leaders, 90, 91 Recess Committee and, 222 Responsibility of leaders, 81 Tactics:— 84 seq. Effect of on Irish political character, 80 Nationality:— Education and nationality, 152 seq. Expansion of, outside party politics, 154 Modern conception of Irish nationality, 76 Neale, Vansittart:— Co-operative movement, 184 O'Connell, 77 O'Conor Don:— Recess Committee, 218 O'Dea, Dr.:— University Commission, statements, 109, 141 O'Donnell, Dr.:— Ploughing up of grazing lands, 43 O'Donovan, Father, 119 O'Dwyer, Dr.:— Evidence before University Commission, 140 O'Gara, Dr.:— On the cultivation of the land, 43 O'Grady, Standish, 154 Onslow, Lord:— Agricultural organisation, benefit of, 242 O'Rahilly, Egan:— Lament for the Irish clans, 27 Oyster Culture, 283

Parnell:— 48, 78 Downfall, effect on national idea and aims, 5, 79, 80 Peasant industries, necessity for, 52 Peasant Proprietary:— Agricultural organisation, necessity of, 44 seq. Bright, John, and, 25 Peasant industries, necessity of, 52 Problem of next generation, 50, 51 Penal laws, effect of, 104, 132 Plantation system, 76 Politics:— Agitation as a policy, 82, 83 America, Irish in politics in, 70 seq, Gaelic revival and politics, 156, 157 Irishmen as politicians,. 69 seq. "Irish night" in House of Commons, 92 Nationalist leaders' effect on Irish political character, 80 Obsession of the Irish mind by politics, 59, 61 seq. "One-man" system, 79 Political leadership and industrial leadership, 212 Political remedies, Irish belief in, 33 Political "wilderness," 91 "Priest in politics," 117 Separation, 87 Ulster Liberal Unionist Association, 66 Unionists (Irish):— Industrial element and, 67, 68 Influence in Irish life, 63 seq. Population.— Relation of population to area, 49 Potato culture improvement schemes, 282 Production and distribution, problems, 179, 180 Protestantism:— Duty of, 119 Ulster, 98, 99

Raiffeisen System of banking, 195-198 Railways—Light railway system, 243 Raimeis, 153 Recess Committee:— 83, 210 seq. 238, 241 Cadogan, Lord, and, 224, 225 Constitution proposed, 215 Finlay, Father Thomas, 218 Gill, Mr. T.P. 219 Ideas leading to its formation, 213 M'Carthy, Mr. Justin, letter, 215 Members, 218 Mulhall, Mr. Michael, 219 Nationalist members, 222 Recommendations, 220 Redmond, Mr. John, and, 217 Report, 10, 129, 221 Results, 223 seq. State-aid question, 223 Tisserand's memorandum, 220 Redmond, Mr. John:— Recess Committee, 217 Religion:— Influence of on Irish life, 59, 94 seq. Protestantism, 98, 99, 119 Roman Catholic Church (see that title). Sectarian animosities, 98, 99 Toleration, meaning of word, 95 Ritualistic movement, 99 Robertson, Lord:— University Commission, 140 Roman Catholic Church:— Church-building and increase of monasteries, etc., 107, 108, 109 Clergy:— Action and attitude towards questions of the day, 105 seq. Authority of, 98, 105 seq. Co-operative movement, 119 Moral influence, 115, 116 Political influence, 77, 117 Temperance reform, 112, 114 Economic conditions, influence on 101 seq. Effect on Irish character, 101-105, 110 Higher education of Roman Catholics, 97, 132 Rosebery, Lord:— Attitude towards Home Rule, 4 Ross, Mr. John:— Recess Committee, 218 Royal College of Science, 229, 268, 270 Royal Commission on University Education, 118, 128, 140 Royal Dublin Society, Aid to Department of Agriculture, 279 Royal University education, defects in, 128 Rural life:— Emigration, causes of, 40, 116 Gaelic revival's influence on, 159 Industries, 52, 262, 266 Problem of, 39, 51, 263 Rehabilitation, 159, 199 Russell, George W. (A.E.), 200

Salisbury, Lord:— "Twenty years of resolute government," 61 Saunderson, Colonel:— Recess Committee, 217 Scotch-Irish in America, 71 Sea Fisheries—Department of Agriculture's improvement schemes, 282 Self-help movement (see Co-operative movement). Sentiment:— Anti-English, cause of, 13 seq. Force of in Irish question, 15, 127 Separation, Home Rule and, 87 Shinnors, Rev. Mr.:— Irish in America, 111 Sinclair, Thomas:— Recess Committee, 218 Social order, Irish attachment to, 54 Spectator:—English non-allowance for sentiment, 15 Speed's Chronicle:— Con O'Neal, etc. 57 Spencer, Lord, 168 Starkie, Dr.:— Mr. Wyse's education scheme, 126 State-aid:— 45, 211, 219, 220, 223 Stephen, J.K. ("Cynicus") 164 Stopford Brooke, 92 Swine fever, 251

Technical Instruction, 130, 228, 234 seq. 257, 263, 267, 279 Temperance Reform, 112 seq. Tenure question and land question, 41 Tillage, decrease of, 42 Tisserand, M.:— Recess Committee memorandum, 220 Tobacco culture, 282 Trinity College, influence of, 134, 136 seq. Two Irelands, 37

Ulster:— Attitude towards the rest of Ireland, 38 Home Rule, objections to, 66, 86, 87 Ulster Liberal Unionist Association, political thought in, 66 Unionist (Irish) Party:— Industrial element in Irish life and, 67, 68, 86 Influence in Irish life, 63seq. Policy, 68 Ulster and Home Rule, 66,86 seq. United Ireland, first real conception of, 77 United Irish League, 90 University Question:— 99, 109 Catholic University:— O'Dea, Dr., on, 141 O'Dwyer, Dr., on, 140 Hyde, Dr., evidence before Commission, 151 Maynooth, influence of, 134, 136, 138, 139 Place of the University in education, 133 Trinity College, influence of, 134, 136 seq. University reform necessary, 138

Vandeleur Estate, co-operative community, 184 Village libraries, 119, 199

Wolff, Mr. Henry W.:— People's banks, 199 Wyndham, Mr.:— Land Act. 1903, 10, 12 Wyse, Mr. Thomas:— Scheme of Irish education, 125

Yeats, W.B. 154 Yerburgh, Mr. R.A.:— Agricultural banks, 199

THE END

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