Insects and Diseases - A Popular Account of the Way in Which Insects may Spread - or Cause some of our Common Diseases
by Rennie W. Doane
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See also under Fleas.


BAKER, C.F. Fleas and Disease. Science, N.S., Vol. 22, No. 559, Sept. 15, 1905, p. 340. Discusses the possibility of fleas transmitting leprosy.

DOANE, R.W. Notes on Fleas, Collected on Rat and Human Hosts in San Francisco and Elsewhere. Can. Ento., 40, 1908, pp. 303-304. Shows that Ceratophyllus fasciatus and Pulex irritans are common on both man and rats.

FOX, CARROLL. The Flea in Its Relation to Plague, with a Synopsis of the Rat Fleas. The Military Surgeon, 24, June, 1909, pp. 528-537. Review of the work of the Indian Plague Commission and others. Key for identification of rat fleas.

GALLI-VALERIO. The Part Played by Fleas of Rats and Mice in the Transmission of Bubonic Plague. Jour. Trop. Med., Feb., 1902. Attacks the theory that plague can be conveyed from rats to men by fleas because rat fleas do not bite men.

MCCOY, G.W. Siphonaptera Observed in the Plague Campaign in California with a Note upon Host Transference. Pub. Health Report, Pub. Health and Mar. Hospt. Ser., Vol. XXIV, No. 29, July 16, 1909. Lists of species from various hosts. Report on experiments in transferring rat fleas to squirrels and squirrel fleas to rats.

MCCOY, G.W., AND MITZMAIN, M.B. An Experimental Investigation of the Biting of Man by Fleas Taken from Rats and Squirrels. Public Health Report, XXIV, No. 8, Feb. 19, 1909, pp. 189-194. Rat and squirrel fleas will bite man.

MITZMAIN, M.B. Insect Transmission of Bubonic Plague. A Study of the San Francisco Epidemic. Entomological News, Oct., 1908. Source and distribution of species of fleas and brief notes on work of Indian Plague Commission.

MITZMAIN, M.B. How a Hungry Flea Feeds. Entomological News, Dec., 1908.

MITZMAIN, M.B. Some New Facts on the Bionomics of the California Rodent Fleas. Annals Ento. Soc. Amer., III, pp. 61-82, 1910.

SHIPLEY, A.E. Rats and Their Animal Parasites. Jour. of Economic Biology, Vol. 3, No. 3, Oct. 28, 1908. List of species ecto- and endoparasites.

See also reports of Advisory Commission under Plague.


ANDERSON, J.F. The Differentiation of Outbreaks of Typhoid Fever Due to Water, Milk, Flies and Contact. Amer. Jour. Pub. Health, 19, pp. 251-259. Discusses flies and typhoid.

MCCRAE, THOMAS. Typhoid Fever. Osler's Mod. Med., Vol. II, p. 70, 1907. A full discussion of this disease.

REED, WALTER; VAUGHAN, V.C., AND SHAKESPEARE, E.O. Abstract of Report on the Origin and Spread of Typhoid Fever in the U.S. Military Camps During the Spanish War of 1898. Washington, Govt. Printing Office, 1900. Shows among other things that "flies undoubtedly served as carriers of infection."

ROSEMAN, M.J., LUMSDEN, L.L., AND KASTLE, J.H. Report on Origin and Prevalence of Typhoid Fever in D.C. Including reports by Stiles, Goldberger and Stimson. Bull. 35 of Hygienic Laboratory of U.S. Public Health and Mar. Hospt. Ser., 1907. (Second report in Bull. 44, 1907, includes nothing about insects.)

VEEDER, M.A. Typhoid Fever from Sources Other Than Water Supply. Med. Record, 62, pp. 121-124, July 26, 1902. Cites several instances where flies might act as the carriers of the disease.

WHIPPLE, GEO. C. Typhoid Fever, Its Causation, Transmission and Prevention. N.Y., 1908. Considers that house-flies and probably fruit-flies carry typhoid bacilli.


FELT, E.P. Observations on the House-fly. Jour. Eco. Ento., III, No. 1, Feb., 1910, pp. 24-26. Shows that it does not breed freely in darkness.

GRIFFITH, A. The Life-history of House-flies. Public Health (London), 21, No. 3, 1908, pp. 122-127. Study of life-history. Flies require water frequently, eggs hatch in twenty-four hours, larval stage four days. Each female may lay four batches of eggs. Destroy manure and rubbish.

HAMER, W.H. The Breeding of Flies Summarized. Am. Med., 3, 1908, p. 431. Habits of flies and experiments to show that they may carry the germs of various diseases.

HEPWORTH, JOHN. On the Structure of the Foot of the Fly. Quar. Jour. Micro. Sci., II, 1859, pp. 158-563. One plate showing feet of different flies. A review of the older theories of how a fly was able to walk on smooth surfaces.

HERMS, W.B. The Essentials of House-fly Control. Bull. of Berkeley Board of Health, Berkeley, Cal., 1909. Recommends removing manure as soon as possible and keeping it in tight bins until removed. No very satisfactory insecticides have been found for use in treating manure piles.

HERMS, W.B. The Berkeley House-fly Campaign. Cal. Jour. of Technology, Vol. XIV, No. 2, 1909. Discusses the methods that have been used in fighting the fly in Berkeley, Cal. Removing manure regularly or keeping it in closed bins recommended.

HEWITT, C.G. A Preliminary Account of the Life-history of the Common House-fly. Mem. and Proc. Manchester Lit. Phil. Soc., 1906, Vol. 51, pp. 1-4.

HEWITT, C.G. On the Bionomics of Certain Calyptrate Mucidae and Their Economic Significance with Especial Reference to Flies Inhabiting Houses. Jour. Econ. Biol., 1907, Vol. II, pp. 79-88. Character and importance of group and notes on many species.

HEWITT, C.G. Structure, Development and Bionomics of the House-fly, Muca domestica. Part I, Quar. Jour. Micro. Sci., 1907, p. 395, on anatomy, external and internal, and bibliography. Part II, same; 1908, p. 495. Breeding-habits, development and anatomy of larvae, bibliography. Part III, same; 1909, pp. 347-414. The bionomics, allies, parasites, and the relations to human disease. The best article on the house-fly.

HOWARD, L.O. Further Notes on the House-fly. Bull. 10, U.S. Dept., Agric. Div. of Ento., p. 63, 1898. Experiments to kill larvae in manure.

HOWARD, L.O. House-flies. U.S. Dept. of Agric., Bureau of Ento., Circular No. 71, revised ed., 1906. Methods of control of house-fly and related species.

HOWARD, L.O., AND MARLATT, C.L. Bull. 4, U.S. Dept. Agric., Div. of Ento., pp. 43-47, 1896. General account with methods of controlling.

JEPSON, F.P. The Breeding of the Common House-fly During the Winter Months. Jour. Econ. Biol., 4, 1909, pp. 78-82. Records of certain experiments which show that the flies will breed in winter under favorable conditions.

NEWSTEAD, R. Preliminary Report on the Habits, Life-cycle and Breeding-places of the Common House-fly as Observed in the City of Liverpool, with Suggestions as to the Best Means of Checking Its Increase. Liverpool, Oct. 3, 1907.

NEWSTEAD, R. On the Habits, Life-cycle and Breeding-places of the Common House-fly. Ann. Trap. Med. Para., Vol. I, No. 4, Feb. 29, 1908, pp. 507-520. Final report on this subject. Sums up notes on life-history, habits, breeding-places, etc. Important article.

PACKARD, A.S. On the Transformation of the Common House-fly with Notes on Allied Forms. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. XVI, 1874, pp. 136-140. Life-history and anatomy.

WILCOX, E.V. Fighting the House-fly. Country Life in America, May, 1908. Methods of controlling this pest.


AUSTEN, E.E. The House-fly and Certain Allied Species as Disseminators of Enteric Fever Among the Troops in the Field. Jour. Roy. Army Med. Corps, June, 1904. Suggests that it may carry enteric fever and other diseases; method of control.

FELT, E.P. The Typhoid or House-fly and Disease. In 24th Rept. of State Ento. in N.Y. State Museum Bull., No. 455, 1909. A general discussion with complete bibliography.

FIRTH, R.H., AND HORROCKS, W.H. An Inquiry Into the Influence of Soil, Fabrics, and Flies in the Dissemination of Enteric Infection. Brit. Med. Jour., Vol. II, 1902, pp. 936-942. House-flies carry enteric bacilli. They may pass through digestive tract and remain virulent.

HAMILTON, ALICE. The Fly as a Carrier of Typhoid. Jour. Amer. Med. Assn., 40, 1903, pp. 576-83. A study of a typhoid outbreak in Chicago gives good evidence that the flies were important factors in the spread of the disease.

HEWITT, C.G. The Biology of House-flies in Relation to Public Health. Royal Inst. Pub. Health Jour., Oct., 1908.

HOWARD, L.O. A contribution to the Study of the Insect Fauna of Human Excrement. Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 2, 1900, pp. 541-600. Special reference to the house-fly and typhoid fever.

HOWARD, L.O. Flies and Typhoid. Pop. Sci. Mo., Jan., 1901, pp. 249-256. A popular account of several species of flies that may be concerned in carrying typhoid.

KLEIN, E. Flies as Carriers of B. typhus. Brit. Med. Jour., Oct. 17, 1908, pp. 1150-51. In cultures made from flies he found great numbers of B. coli communis and B. typhosus, showing that flies may carry these germs.

MARTIN, A. Flies in Relation to Typhoid and Summer Diarrhea. Public Health, 15, 1903, pp. 652-653. Believes that the house-fly is largely responsible for these diseases.

REED, WALTER. War Dept. An. Rept., 1899, pp. 627-633. Flies the cause of a typhoid outbreak in army in 1899.


BUCHANAN, R.A., GLASG, F.F., AND M.B. The Carriage of Infection by Flies. Lancet, 173, 1907, pp. 216-218. Flies carry various germs on their feet and distribute them where they walk. Must protect food from contamination.

BREWSTER, E.T. The Fly. The Disease of the House. McClure's Magazine, XXXIII; No. 5, Sept., 1909, pp. 564-568. Proposes to make use of tropisms for ridding the houses of flies.

CASTELLANI, ALDO. Experimental Investigation on Framboesia tropica (Yaws). Jour. of Hyg., Vol. VII, 1907, pp. 558-599. On pages 566-568 he discusses the part played by insects in transmitting the disease. Gives detail of experiments conducted and concludes that under certain conditions yaws may be conveyed by flies and possibly other insects.

COBB, J.O. Is the Common House-fly a Factor in the Spread of Tuberculosis? Amer. Med., 9, 1905, pp. 475-477. Believes that the bacilli may enter the system through the digestive tract and that flies carry them to our food.

DICKENSON, G.K. The House-fly and Its Connection with Disease Dissemination. Med. Record, 71, 1907, pp. 134-139. Summary; bibliography.

ESTEN, W.M., AND MASON, C.J. Sources of Bacteria in Milk. Starr's Agric. Ex. Stn., Conn. Bull., 51, 1908. Shows how flies may carry bacteria to milk. Table showing number of bacteria on flies from various sources.

FELT, E.P. The Economic Status of the House-fly. Jour. Eco. Ento., Vol. 2, No. 1, Feb., 1909, pp. 39-45. A summary of the charges, possibilities, proofs, etc. Discussion.

GUDGER, E.W. Early Note on Flies as Transmitters of Disease. Science, N.S. Vol. 31, Jan. 7, 1910, pp. 31-32.

HAMER, W.H. Nuisance from Flies. London County Council Rept. No. 1,138, pp. 1-10, and No. 1,207, pp. 1-6, 1908. Observations on various flies and their relation to diseases.

HAYWARD, E.H. The Fly as a Carrier of Tuberculosis Infection. N.Y. Med. Jour., 80, 1904, pp. 643-644. Tubercular bacilli pass through the digestive tract of flies and remain virulent.

HOWARD, L.O. The Carriage of Disease by Flies. Bull. 30, N.S., pp. 39-45, U.S. Dept. Agric, Div. of Ento., 1901. Discussion of flies as carriers of disease.

HOWARD, L.O. House-flies. U.S. Dept. of Agric., Bureau of Ento., Cir. No. 71, revised ed., Sept. 21, 1906. Notes on the various species visiting houses; habits; methods of control; regulations for controlling flies in cities.

HUTCHINSON, WOODS. The Story of the Fly That Does Not Wipe Its Feet. Sat. Evening Post, March 7, 1908.

JACKSON, DANIEL D. Conveyance of Disease by Flies Summarized. Bost. Med. & Surg. Jour., 1908, p. 451. Disease and flies prevail at same time; records over 1,000,000 bacteria to each fly caught on swill-barrels.

JACKSON, DANIEL B. Pollution of New York Harbor as a Menace to Health by the Dissemination of Intestinal Diseases Through the Agency of the Common House-fly. Account of experiments and deductions. Pamphlet issued July, 1908, by Merchants' Assn. of New York.

LEIDY, JOSEPH. Flies as a Means of Communicating Contagious Diseases. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 23, 1871, p. 297. Believes that flies may carry disease; refers to flies in connection with gangrene and wounds.

LORD, F.T. Flies and Tuberculosis. Bost. Med. & Surg. Jour., 1904, pp. 651-654. Fly-specks may contain virulent tubercular bacilli for at least fifteen days.

MAYS, THOS. J. The Fly and Tuberculosis. N.Y. Med. Jour. & Phila. Med. Jour., 82, 1905, pp. 437-438. Believes that J.O. Cobb's data as given in Amer. Med. Jour. is not at all conclusive.

NASH, J.C.T. A Note on the Bacterial Contamination of Milk as Illustrating the Connection Between Flies and Epidemic Diarrhea. Lancet, II, 1908, pp. 1668-69. Experiments show that milk left exposed to flies soon contains many more germs than that protected from them.

NASH, J.C.T. The AEtiology of Summer Diarrhea. Lancet, 164, 1903, p. 330. Believes house-fly carries this disease because the two appear and disappear together.

ROBERTSON, A. Flies as Carriers of Contagion in Yaws. Jour. Trop. Med. & Hyg., 11, 1908, No. 14, p. 213. As a result of examinations the author concludes that the house-fly is capable of carrying the virus of yaws.

SANDILANDS, J.E. Epidemic Diarrhea and the Bacterial Control of Food. Jour. Hyg., 6, 1906, pp. 77-92. Believes that house-flies convey these diseases from the excrement of infected infants.

SIBTHORPE, E.H. Cholera and Flies. Brit. Med. Jour., Sept., 1896, p. 700. Flies considered scavengers, think they thus help abate the disease.

SMITH, T. The House-fly as an Agent in Dissemination of Infectious Diseases. Amer. Jour. Pub. Hyg., Aug., 1908, pp. 312-317. Points out that flies on account of their habits, are dangerous sources of contamination.

SMITH, THEOBALD. The House-fly at the Bar. Merchants' Assn., New York, 1909, pp. 1-48. Letters from various authorities giving their opinion; quotations from various authors. Bibliography.

VEEDER, M.A. Flies as Spreaders of Sickness in Camps. Med. Record, 54, 1898, pp. 429-430. Flies feed on typhoid excreta and pass to food. Cultures made from fly tracks and excreta show many bacteria present.

VEEDER, M.A. The Relative Importance of Flies and Water Supply in Spreading Disease. Med. Record, 55, 1899, pp. 10-12. Reasons for believing that flies spread disease in many instances. Burial of infected typhoid material no protection but a menace.

Dangers from Flies. E.P.W. Nature, Vol. 29, pp. 482-483. Review of an article by Dr. B. Grassi in regard to flies and various diseases. Opthalmia is discussed. Flies may ingest and pass unharmed eggs of various human parasites including tapeworm.


ALLEN, CHAS. H. Demonstration of Locomotion in the Larvae of the OEstridae. Proc. Amer. Assn. Adv. Set., Vol. 24, 1875, pp. 230-236. Larvae taken from flesh of child, one had moved thirty-six inches and one six inches.

FRENCH, G.H. A Parasite the Supposed Cause of Some Cases of Epilepsy. Canad. Ento., 32, 1900, pp. 263-264. Larvae of Gastrophilus or Dermatobia in the alimentary canal supposed to have caused spasms in young boy.

GILBERT, N.C. Infection of Man by Dipterous Larvae with Report of Four Cases. Archives of Internal Med., Oct., 1908. Historical; various kinds sometimes found in man; good summary of subject. Bibliography.

HARRISON, J.H.H. A Case of Myiasis. Jour. Trop. Med. & Hyg., XI, Oct. 15, 1908, p. 305. Over 300 larvae of Lucilia macellaria removed from face of negro woman.

HUMBERT, FRED. Lucilia macellaria Infesting Man. Proc. U.S. Nat. Museum, 6, 1883, pp. 103-104. Records several cases in which the screw-worm infested patients.

JENYUS, LEONARD. Trans. Ento. Soc., London, Vol. II, 1839, pp. 152-159. Notice of a case in which the larvae of a dipterous insect, supposed to be Anthomyia canicularis, Meig., were expelled in large quantities from the human intestines.

KANE, E.R. A Grub Supposed to Have Traveled in the Human Body. Insect Life, II, 1890, pp. 238-239. Larva of bot-fly taken from face of boy. It had been traveling under the skin for about five months.

MCCAMPBELL, E.F., AND COOPER, H.J. Myiasis intestinalis Due to Infection with Three Species of Dipterous Larvae. Jour. Amer. Med. Assn., 53, Oct. 9, 1909, pp. 1160-62. General notes on this subject and a report on a case in which larvae of three different species of flies were obtained from one patient.

MEINERT, FR. Lucilia nobilis Parasitic on Man. Insect Life, II, 1892, pp. 36-37. Two larvae from the ear of a man proved to be the above species.

MURTFELEDT, M.E. Hominivorous Habits of the Screw-worm in St. Louis. Insect Life, IV, 1891, p. 200. Many larvae of this species removed from the nasal passages of a patient.

NELSON, J.B. Insects in the Human Ear. Insect Life, VI, 1893, p. 56. Two cases in which blow-fly larvae are reported as coming from the human ear.

RILEY, W.A. A Case of Pseudoparasitism by Dipterous Larvae. Canad. Ento., 38, 1906, p. 413. Several larvae, species undetermined, removed from back of patient.

SAY, THOMAS. On a South American Species of OEstrus Which Inhabits the Human Body. Tr. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., Vol. 2, 1822, pp. 353-360. Extended notes on various dipterous larvae infesting man.

SNOW, F.H. Hominivorous Habits of Lucilia macellaria "The Screw-worm." Psyche, 4, 1883, pp. 27-30. Cites observations made by himself and others.

WILLISTON, S.W. The Screw-worm Fly Compsomyia macellaria. Psyche, 4, 1883, pp. 112-114. Notes on this species with a translation of a Spanish article by Anibalzaga in which instances of this fly infesting human beings are recorded.

YOUNT, C.E., AND SUDLER, M.T. Human Myiasis from the Screw-worm Fly. Jour. Amer. Med. Assn., Vol. 49, No. 23, 1907, p. 1912. Several cases giving reference to literature, symptomatology, diagnosis.


AUSTEN, E.E. Blood-sucking and Other Flies Known or Likely to Be Concerned in the Spread of Disease. In Albutt's and Rolleston's System of Med., 2, 1907, pp. 169-186. A descriptive list of these flies. Bibliography.

AUSTEN, E.E. Illustrations of African Blood-sucking Flies Other Than Mosquitoes and Tsetse-flies. London, 1909.

NEWSTEAD, R. On the Life-history of Stomoxys calcitrans. Jour. Econom. Biology, Vol. I, 1906, pp. 157-166. Describes habits and life-history of larvae and adults. Important article.

STEPHENS, J.W.W., AND NEWSTEAD, R. The Anatomy of the Proboscis of Biting Flies. Part II, Stomoxys. Ann. of Trop. Med. & Parasit., Vol. I, No. 2, June 15, 1907, pp. 171-182. Good anatomical paper. Part I (Glossina) was published in mem. XVIII, 1906, Liverpool School Trop. Med.

TULLOCK, F. Internal Anatomy of Stomoxys. Proc. Roy. Soc., London, 77, Series B, 1906, pp. 523-531. Descriptions and drawings comparing with Glossina.


AUSTEN, E.E. A Monograph of the Tsetse-flies. Published by order of the Trustees of the British Museum, 1903.

MANSON, P. Tsetse-flies. In Trop. Diseases, p. 174. Description of genus; table of species; distribution; reproduction, habits.

MINCHIN, E.A. Report of Anatomy of the Tsetse-fly (Glossina palpalis). Proc. Roy. Soc., London, 76, Series B, 1905, pp. 531-547. Good account of internal anatomy of this fly, important because of its relation to trypanosomiasis.

MINCHIN, E.A. The Breeding-habits of the Tsetse-fly. Nature, Oct. 25, 1906, p. 636.

MINCHIN, E.A., GRAY, A.C.H., AND TULLOCK, F.M.G. (Sleeping Sickness Com.) Glossina palpalis in Its Relation to Trypanosoma gambiense and Other Trypanosomes (Preliminary Report). Proc. Roy. Soc., Vol. 78, 1906, pp. 242-258. Report on certain experiments in feeding these flies on infected animals and in allowing supposedly infected flies to feed on various animals.

NOVY, F.G. The Trypanosomes of Tsetse-flies. Jour. Infec. Dis., III, 1906, pp. 394-411. Notes on the various species.


BRUCE, DAVID. Trypanosomiasis. Osler's Mod. Med., Vol. I, 1907, p. 460. A discussion of Trypanosoma lewisi, evansi, brucei, gambiensi, and the diseases caused by them.

DUTTON, J.E., TODD, J.L., AND HARRINGTON, J.W.B. Trypanosome Transmission Experiments. Am. Trop. Med. & Parasit., Vol. I, No. 2, June 15, 1907, pp. 201-229. Sections on attempts to transmit trypanosomes by tsetse-flies; by other blood-sucking Arthropods, etc., conclude that trypanosomes may be mechanically transmitted by the bite of blood-sucking Arthropods.

HOOKER, W.A. Descriptions of Certain Trypanosomes, and Review of the Present Knowledge of the Role of Ticks in the Dissemination of Disease. Jour. Econ. Ento., Vol. I, No. 1, 1908, pp. 65-76. Good review, tables and literature.

MINCHIN, E.A. Investigations on the Development of Trypanosomes in Tsetse-flies and Other Diptera. Quart. Jour. Micro. Sci., 1908, pp. 159-260.

MUSGROVE, W.E., AND CLEGG, M.T. Trypanosomes and Trypanosomiasis, with Special Reference to Surra in the Philippine Islands. Biological Lab., Bull. No. 5, Manila, 1903. Discuss flies, fleas, mosquitoes, lice and ticks as possible disseminators of the disease.

NOVY, T.G., MCNEAL, M.J., AND TORRY, H.M. The Trypanosomes of Mosquitoes and Other Insects. Jour. Infec. Diseases, IV, 1907, pp. 223-276. These parasites are often found in mosquitoes and other insects. Bibliography.

NUTTALL, G.H.F. The Transmission of Trypanosoma lewisi by Fleas and Lice. Parasitology, Vol. I, No. 4, Dec., 1908, pp. 296-301. This rat trypanosome is transmitted by fleas and lice.

OLD, J.E.S. Contribution to the Study of Trypanosomiasis and to the Geographical Distribution of Some of the Blood-sucking Insects, etc. Jour. Trop. Med. & Hyg., 12, Jan. 15, 1909, pp. 15-22. Notes on blood-sucking Diptera and ticks.

ROGERS, LEONARD. The Transmission of the Trypanosoma evansi by House-flies and Other Experiments Pointing to the Probable Identity of Surra of India and Nagana or Tsetse-fly Disease of Africa. Proc. Roy. Soc., Vol. LXVIII, 1901, pp. 163-170.

THIMM, C.A. Bibliography of Trypanosomiasis; embracing original papers published prior to April 1909, and references to works and papers on tsetse-flies. London, 1909.

TODD, J.L. A Note on Recent Trypanosome Transmission Experiments. Jour. Trop. Med. & Hyg., 12, Sept., 1909, p. 260. Show that they develop in G. palpalis when taken from their mammal host at the proper stage of development.

WOODCOCK, H.M. The Haemoflagellates: a Review of Present Knowledge Relating to the Trypanosomes and Allied Forms. Quar. Jour. Micro. Sci., Vol. 50, 1906, pp. 151-331. Characteristics; mode of infection; effects on host; biological considerations; life-cycle, etc. Spirochaetae; bibliography. Important article.

Trypanosomiasis and Sleeping Sickness. Jour. Trop. Med. & Hyg., II, pp. 146-147, 162, 179-180, 196. List of recent literature.


BAGSHAWE, A.G. Recent Advances in Our Knowledge of Sleeping Sickness. Lancet, II, 1909, pp. 1193-97. A summing up of the important discoveries of the preceding year.

HEARSEY, H. Sleeping Sickness. Jour. Trop. Met. & Hyg., 12, Sept. 1, 1909, pp. 263-264. Report on work accomplished particularly in relation to the distribution of Glossina and other biting flies.

JARVIS, C. Sleeping Sickness. Internat. Clinics, Vol. II, 1904, pp. 37-44. Shows the relation of the tsetse-fly to this disease.

LANKESTER, E.R. The Sleeping Sickness. Quar. Review, July, 1904, p. 113. Discovery and early history; the fly, the parasite; other related parasites. Relation of parasites to their hosts.

MINCHIN, E.A. The AEtiology of Sleeping Sickness. Nature, Nov. 15, 1906, pp. 56-59.

WOLLASTON, A.F.R. Amid the Snow Peaks of the Equator: a Naturalist's Explorations Around Ruwenzori, with an Account of the Terrible Scourge of Sleeping Sickness. Nat. Geo. Mag., XX, No. 3, Mar., 1909. Abstracted from "From Ruwenzori to the Congo" by above author.

Reports of the Sleeping Sickness Com. of the Royal Society, I to IX, 1903 to 1908. Studies and experiments with the trypanosomes and flies concerned in this disease. Later articles by this commission are to be found in the Pro. Royal Soc., Series B, LXXXI and LXXXII.

Sleeping Sickness Bureau Bulletins, 1 to 14, 1908-1910. Records of studies and experiments with trypanosomes and tsetse-flies, etc.

Transmission of Sleeping Sickness. Editorial in Jour. Amer. Med. Assn., 53, Oct. 2, 1909, pp. 1104-05. Reviews recent experiments and studies.


ANDERSON, J.F. Spotted Fever (Tick Fever) of the Rocky Mountains. Hyg. Lab. Pub. Health and Mar. Hospt. Ser., Bull. 14, 1903. Distribution, aetiology, etc. Believes that ticks are responsible for the transmission of the disease.

COOLEY, R.A. Preliminary Report on the Wood-tick. Bull. 75, Mont. Ex. Stn., 1908. Sums up Ricketts' finding; notes on life-history in laboratory and field.

KING, W.W. Experimental Transmission of Rocky Mountain Fever by Means of the Tick. Preliminary note. Pub. Health and Mar. Hospt. Ser., 21, July 27, 1906, pp. 863-864. Conveyed this fever from one guinea-pig to another by means of the tick.

RICKETTS, H.T. The Transmission of Rocky Mountain Fever by the Bite of the Wood-tick (Dermacentor occidentalis). Jour. Amer. Med. Assn., Vol. 47, Aug., 1906, p. 358. Guinea-pig successfully inoculated by means of tick.

RICKETTS, H.T. The Role of the Wood-tick (Dermacentor occidentalis) in Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Jour. Amer. Med. Assn., Vol. 49, July 6, 1907, pp. 24-27. Notes on experiments conducted and studies made. Takes position that these experiments connect the tick with the transmission of the fever.

ROBINSON, A.A. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Med. Rec., Nov. 28, 1908. Occurrence and distribution of the disease; review of the various theories in regard to its transmission. P.E. Jones of Salt Lake believes it is transmitted by mosquitoes.

STILES, C.W. A Zooelogical Investigation Into the Cause, Transmission and Source of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Hyg. Lab. Pub. Health and Mar. Hospt. Ser., Bull. 20, 1905. Does not find the parasite that had been recorded by others, and finds no evidence to indicate that the ticks transmit the disease.

WILSON, L.B., AND CHANNING, W.M. Studies in Pyroplasmosis hominis (Spotted Fever or Tick Fever of the Rocky Mountains). Jour. Infec. Diseases, 1, 1904, pp. 31-57. Evidence that the disease is transmitted solely by means of the ticks.


BANKS, NATHAN. Tick-borne Diseases and Their Origin. Jour. Eco. Ento., Vol. I, No. 3, 1908, pp. 213-215. Shows how ticks may become important disease-carriers by changing their hosts as the normal host is exterminated, or for other reasons.

BANKS, NATHAN. A Revision of the Ixodoidea or Ticks of the United States. Tech. Series No. 15, Bull. of Bureau of Ento., U.S. Dept. Agric., 1908. Structure, life-history, classification, catalogue, bibliography.

BARBER, C.A. The Tick Pest in the Tropics. Nature, 52, 1895, pp. 197-200. Direct and indirect effects of ticks on their hosts.

CHRISTY, C. Ornithodoros moubata and Tick Fever in Man. Brit. Med. Jour., Vol. II, 1903, p. 652. Relation of the tick to Filaria perstans.

DUTTON, J.E., AND TODD, J.L. The Nature of Human Tick Fever in the Eastern Part of the Congo Free State with Notes on the Distribution and Bionomics of the Tick. Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. Memoir, 17, Nov., 1905, pp. 1-18.

HOOKER, W.A. A Review of the Present Knowledge of the Role of Ticks in the Transmission of Disease. Jour. Eco. Ento., Vol. I, No. 1, 1908, p. 65. Review of the subject; table showing zooelogical position of parasites transmitted by ticks. Table showing zooelogical position of ticks.

HOOKER, W.A. Life-history, Habits and Methods of Study of the Ixodoidea. Jour. Eco. Ento., Vol. 1, No. 1, 1908, p. 34. Notes on several species, especially M. annulatus. Host relationship; adaptations as factors in host relationship; mating; geographical distribution; methods of breeding, etc.

HOOKER, W.A. Some Host Relations of Ticks. Jour. Eco. Ento., Vol. 2, No. 3, 1909, p. 251. Notes on ticks found on various hosts.

HUNTER, W.D., AND HOOKER, W.A. Information Concerning the North American Fever Tick with Notes on Other Species. Bull. 72, Bureau of Ento., 1907. Life-history, host relation, etc., of fever tick; classification and notes on other species; bibliography divided into sections.

LOUNSBURY, C.P. Habits and Peculiarities of Some South African Ticks. Rept. of the Brit. Assn. for the Advancement of Sci., 1905 (South Africa), pp. 282-291.

MCCRAE, THOMAS. Relapsing Fever. Osler's Mod. Med., Vol. II, p. 245, 1907. AEtiology, symptoms, treatment, etc. (Apparently communicated by blood-sucking insects.)

NEWSTEAD, R. On the Pathogenic Ticks Concerned in the Distribution of Diseases in Man. Brit. Med. Jour., II, 1905, pp. 1695-97. Classification and habits, particularly of Ornithodoros moubata.

NUTTALL, G.H.F. The Ixodoidea or Ticks. Jour. of Roy. Inst. of Pub. Health, 1908. List of disease-bearing ticks. Position of ticks, classification. Biology. Preventive measures.

NUTTALL, G.H.F. Piroplasmosis. Jour. Roy. Inst. of Pub. Health, 1908. What piroplasma are; diseases produced by them. Biology.

NUTTALL, GEO. F., and co-workers. Canine Piroplasmosis, Parts I to VI. Jour. Hyg., Vol. 4, No. 2, Apr., 1904, to Vol. 7, No. 2, Apr., 1907. A thorough discussion of the disease, the parasite which causes it and the ticks which convey it.

POCOCK, R.I. Ticks. In Albutt and Rolleston's System of Med., II, 1907, pp. 187-203. Classification; description of the best-known pathogenic species. Extended bibliography.

SKINNER, B. Preliminary Note on Ticks Infecting the Rats Suffering from the Plague. Brit. Med. Jour., Vol. II, 1907, p. 457. Records taking tick on a plague-sick rat and finding bacilli similar to plague bacilli in connection with it.

SMITH, T., AND KILBORNE, F.L. Texas Fever. U.S. Dept. Agric. Bureau of Animal Industry, Bull. No. 1, 1893. Records of the experiments showing disease to be transmitted by ticks.

WELLMAN, F.C. Preliminary Note on Some Bodies Found in Ticks—Ornithodoros moubata—Fed on Blood Containing Embryos of Filaria. Brit. Med. Jour., July 20, 1907, p. 142. Believes that F. perstans is conveyed from man to tick and from tick to man.


GIRAULT, A.A. The Indian Bedbug and Kala-azar Disease. Sci., N.S., Vol. XXV, 1907, p. 1004. Indian bedbug is C. rotundatus Sig. Its distribution. Summary of Dr. Patton's paper on "Preliminary Report on the Development of the Leishman-Donovan Body in the Bedbug."

PATTON, W.S. The Development of the Leishman-Donovan Parasite in Cimex rotundatus. Scientific Mem. of Gov. of India, Nos. 27 and 31, 1907. Traces the development of this parasite; believes that the bedbug is concerned in transmitting this disease.

See also Manson's Tropical Diseases, pp. 178-190.


ABBOTT, A.C. Hygiene of Transmissible Diseases. Phil., 1899. Causes, modes of dissemination, prevention, treatment of infectious and contagious diseases.

ALLBUTT, T.C., AND ROLLESTON, H.D. A System of Medicine. London, 1907. Vol. II, Pt. II, contains sections on tropical diseases; animal parasites and the diseases they carry and zooelogical articles dealing with Protozoa, mosquitoes, flies and ticks. All articles have bibliographies, some of them quite extensive.

BALFOUR, ANDREW. Review of Recent Advances in Tropical Medicine. Supplement to Third Rept. Wellcome Research Lab., London, 1908. Notes, extracts and references in regard to important articles during the preceding few months.

DANIELS, C.W. Studies in Laboratory Work, 2d ed., London, 1907. A good discussion of animal parasites in the blood and blood-plasma; development of malarial parasites in mosquitoes; flies, fleas, lice, bedbugs, ticks, etc.

JACKSON, C.W. Tropical Medicine. Phil., 1907. Discusses diseases due to bacteria and the parasites and uncertain causes. Splendid recent summary of the various ways in which the different diseases are disseminated.

LANGFELD, MILLARD. Introduction to Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Including Their Causes and Manner of Transmission. Phil., 1907. Chapters on infection, animal parasites, avenues of exit and portals of entry of infectious agents and parasites into the body.

MANSON, PATRICK. Lectures on Tropical Diseases. London, 1905. Delivered at Cooper Medical College, 1905. Discusses several of these diseases. Last chapter on problems in tropical medicine.

MANSON, PATRICK. Tropical Diseases. London, 1907, Diseases of the tropics discussed in a very comprehensive manner. Considerable attention given to the part played by insects in the transmission of many of the diseases.

METCHNIKOFF, E. Immunity in Infectious Diseases. (Trans. from the French by F.G. Binnie.) Cambridge, 1905. Splendid discussion of various kinds of immunity. Insects referred to occasionally.

OSLER'S Modern Medicine. Vol. I, 1907, Pt. VI, Diseases Caused by Protozoa. Part VII, Diseases Caused by Animal Parasites. Vol. II, 1907, Infectious Diseases. Vol. III, Infectious Diseases (cont.). One of the best and most modern text-books; the volumes noted above contain many references to the relation of insects to the particular diseases under discussion.

PARK, W.H. Pathogenic Micro-organisms, Including Bacteria and Protozoa. N.Y., 1908. These organisms comprehensively treated.

RICKETTS, H.T. Infection, Immunity and Serum Therapy. Chicago, 1906. Chapters on parasitism, infection, contagion, immunity, various diseases, etc.

SCHEUBE, B. The Diseases of Warm Countries: a Handbook for Medical Men. Trans. from Ger. by Pauline Falcke, London, 1903. Sections on general infectious diseases, diseases caused by animal parasites, etc. Good bibliography of each disease treated.

SIMPSON, W.J.R. The Principles of Hygiene as Applied to Tropical and Subtropical Climates. London, 1908. Occasional references to flies and mosquitoes as carriers of disease. Chapter XV deals with malaria and other diseases caused by mosquitoes.

WILSON, J.C. Modern Clinical Medicine; Infectious Diseases. New York and London, 1905. Chapters on yellow fever, malarial diseases and plague; contains references to the relation of insects to these diseases.


BALFOUR, ANDREW. Further Observations on Fowl Spirochaetosis. Jour. Trop. Med. & Hyg., 12, Oct. 1, 1909, pp. 285-289. Ticks and lice may carry this disease.

CHITTENDEN, F.H. Harvest-mites or "Chiggers." Circular 77, U.S. Dept. Agric. Bur. Ento., 1906, pp. 1-16. Descriptions of these pests and their habits. Remedies.

DOTY, A.H. The Means by Which Infectious Diseases Are Transmitted. Amer. Jour. of Med. Sci., 138, July, 1909, pp. 30-39. Flies and mosquitoes as disseminators of disease briefly discussed.

DUNCAN, F.M. Industrial Entomology: the Economic Importance of a Study of Insect Life. Jour. Roy. Soc. Arts, May 22, 1908, pp. 688-696. A very interesting review of the subject of insects and disease.

FLEXNER, SIMON. Science, N.S., Vol. 27, No. 682, Jan. 24, 1908, pp. 133-136. On these pages the author discusses relation of bacteria and Protozoa to human diseases.

GOLDBERGER, JOS., AND SHAMBERG, J.F. Epidemic of an Utricaroid dermatitis Due to a Small Mite (Pediculoides ventricosus) in the Straw of Mattresses. Pub. Health Rept., Pub. Health and Mar. Hospt. Ser., July 9, 1909, Vol. XXIV, No. 28. Experiments showed that a certain skin disease occurring during summer was due to this mite.

GORGAS, W.C. The Part Sanitation Is Playing in the Construction of the Panama Canal. Jour. Amer. Med. Assn., 53, Aug. 21, 1909, pp. 597-599. Shows the changes that have been brought about by modern sanitation and the destroying of the mosquitoes' breeding-places.

HOWARD, L.O. Hydrocyanic-acid Gas Against Household Insects. Circular 46, U.S. Dept. Agric., Div. of Ento., 1902. Directions for handling this dangerous gas.

KING, A.F.G. Insects and Disease; Mosquitoes and Malaria. Pop. Sci. Mo., XXIII, 1883, pp. 644-658. Extended article in which the author sums up the observations which led him to believe that malaria and other diseases were transmitted by the mosquito. One of the earliest articles on this subject; refers to an article in New Orleans Med. & Surg. Jour., Vol. IV, 1848, pp. 563-601, by Josiah Nott, who maintained that yellow fever was carried by mosquitoes.

MANSON, PATRICK. Recent Advances in Science and Their Bearing on Medicine and Surgery. Jour. Trop. Med. & Hyg., XI, pp. 337-338, Sept. 16, 1908. Discussion of parasites and disease and their methods of dissemination.

NEWSTEAD, R., DUTTON, J.E., AND TODD, J.L. Insects and Other Arthropoda Collected in the Congo Free State. Ann. Trop. Med. & Parasit., Vol. 1, No. 1, Feb. 1, 1907, pp. 3-100. An interesting paper giving notes on many insects that cause or carry disease.

NUTTALL, G.H.F. Spirochaetosis in Man and Animals. Jour. of Roy. Inst. of Pub. Health, 1908. Why Spirochaetes should be regarded as Protozoa. Classification; list of blood-inhabiting forms; relapsing fevers; transmission by ticks and other Arthropods.

O'CONNELL, M.D. The Oversea Transport of Insect-borne Disease. Jour. Trop. Med. & Hyg., XI, 43, Feb. 1, 1908. Refers to article in same journal (Jan. 15) and points out that malaria is very likely to be transmitted by mosquitoes in this way.

OSBORN, HERBERT. Insects Affecting Domestic Animals. U.S. Dept. of Agric., Div. of Ento., Bull. No. 5, N.S., 1896. Discusses the various insect pests of man and domestic animals Host lists. Bibliography.

RICKETS, H.T., AND WILDER, R.M. The Typhus Fever of Mexico. Jour. Amer. Med. Assn., LIV, No. 6, Feb. 5, 1910, p. 463. Believes this disease is transmitted by insects, probably lice.

RITCHIE, JAMES. A Review of Current Theories Regarding Immunity. Jour. Hyg., 2, 1902, pp. 215-285, and pp. 452-464. Discussion of various theories. Bibliography.

SHIPLEY, A.E. On the Relation of Certain Cestode and Nematoda Parasites to Bacterial Disease. Jour. of Eco. Biol., 4, 1909, pp. 61-71. Shows that these parasites may often cause serious diseases by opening the way for malignant germs.

WARD, H.B. Spirochetes and Their Relationship to Other Organisms. Amer. Nat., 42, 1908, No. 498, pp. 374-387. Still undecided as to whether they belong with bacteria or Protozoa, probably the latter.

WARD, H.B. The Relation of Animals to Disease. Science, N.S., 22, 1905, pp. 193-203. An interesting, comprehensive review of the subject.

WARD, HENRY B. Relation of Animals to Disease. Transactions of Amer. Micro. Soc., Vol. 27, 1907, pp. 5-20. The various ways in which animals may produce or carry disease.

The Oversea Transport of Insect-borne Diseases. Editorial in Jour. Trop. Med. & Hyg., XI, Jan. 15, 1908, pp. 22-23. Points out the danger of yellow fever, plague and other diseases being borne overseas by infected insects.

The Society for the Destruction of Vermin. Editorial in Jour. Trop. Med. & Hyg., XI, Apr. 15, 1908, p. 124. Tells of organization of such society and its purposes.


Adams, S.H., 132.

Advisory Committee, 146.

Agramonte, Dr. Aristides, 123.

Alimentary canal, fly larvae in, 49.

Amoeba, 19.

Anopheles, adults, 91; eggs, 92; habits of adults, 94; larvae, 78, 79, 93; pupae, 93; resting position, 92; species in U.S., 92.

Anthrax, 44; and flies, 70.

Arthropoda, 26.

Asexual reproduction, 111.

Bacillus, anthracis, 44; icteroides, 124; leprae, 171; pestis, 150.

Bacillus carriers, 66.

Back-swimmers, 100.

Bacteria, 15; saprophytic and parasitic, 17; effect on host, 18; dissemination, 18.

Bedbugs, 54, 147.

Banks, Nathan, 34.

Bell-animalcule, 22.

Berne, 51.

Birds as enemies of mosquitoes, 99.

Black-flies, 46.

Blackheads, 35.

Blow-flies, 48.

Blue, Dr. Rupert, 143.

Blue-bottle flies, 48.

Bot-flies, 50.

Break-bone fever, 169.

Breeze-fly, 44.

Buffalo-gnats, 46.

Calliphora vomitoria, 48.

Camphor, for mosquitoes, 102.

Cancer, 36.

Carroll, Dr. James, 123.

Castor-bean tick, 27.

Cattle tick, 29.

Cedar oil, for mosquitoes, 102.

Ceratophyllus, faciatus, 153; acutus, 156.

Cesspools, 72.

Chigger, 53.

Chigger-flea, 53.

Chigo, 30, 39.

Chigoe, 53.

Cholera, 68.

Chrysomyia macellaria, 47.

Cimex, lectularis, 54; rotundatus, 173.

Contagious diseases, 8.

Conjugation, 20.

Cooley, Prof. R.A., 33.

Craig, Dr. C.F., 118.

Ctenocephalus, canis, 154; felis, 154.

Culex, fatigans, 96, 170; pipiens, 98.

Dengue, 169.

Dermatobia cyaniventris, 51.

Dermatophilus penetrans, 53.

Diarrhea, 69.

Diptera, 43.

Diving beetles, 100.

Dragon-flies, 99.

Dysentery, 20.

Eggs, of flies, 63; of mosquitoes, 77; of Anopheles, 92.

Egyptian opthalmia, 52.

Elephantiasis, 164.

Enemies of mosquitoes, 97.

Enteritis, 69.

Euglena, 21.

Eye-worm, 12.

Face-mite, 35.

Fighting mosquitoes, adults, 101; larvae, 103.

Fiji Islands, Anopheles in, 117.

Filaria bancrofti, 164.

Finlay, Dr. Charles, 124.

Fish, 100.

Flagella, 20.

Fleas, 52; and plague, 142, 145, 147; structure and habits, 151; common species, 153; on ground squirrels, 156; remedies for, 157.

Flies, 43; and typhoid, 65; specks, 66; and various diseases, 68.

Flesh-flies, 48.

Fumigating for mosquitoes, 102.

Gad-fly, 43.

Glossina palpalis, 163.

Golgi, Camillo, 109.

Grassi, Prof. G.B., 118.

Gray-flies, 47.

Ground squirrels and plague, 155.

Guinea-worm, 11.

Haemamoeba, 109.

Haematobia, 45.

Haemosporidiida, 24.

Haemotopinus spinulosus, 55.

Harvest-mite, 37.

Havana, yellow fever in, 131.

Hawaii, mosquitoes in, 98.

Hemiptera, 54.

Homalomyia canicularis, 49.

Hoplopsyllus anomalus, 156.

Horse bot-flies, 50.

House-flies, 57; structure, 59; how they carry bacteria, 62; life-history and habits, 63; fighting, 71; and typhoid, 65.

Horse-flies, 43.

Howard, Dr. L.O., 59, 73.

Hyperparasitism, 3.

Immunity, 5.

Indian Plague Commission, 144.

Infectious diseases, 8.

Infusoria, 22.

Insects, cause or carry disease, 40; numbers, 40; annual loss caused by, 41; how they carry disease germs, 55.

Irrigating ditches, 104.

Itch-mite, 36.

Jackson, Dr. D.D., 67.

Jennings, 22.

Jiggers, 38, 53.

Jigger-flea, 53.

Kala-azar, 173.

Kerosene, 104.

Koch, 44.

Laemopsylla cheopus, 153.

Lamprey-eel, 2.

Lancisi, J.M., 107.

Larvae, of flies, 64; of mosquitoes, 78.

Laveran, A., 108.

Laverania, 109.

Lazear, Dr. Jessie W., 123.

Leeuwenhoek, Anton von, 22.

Lepra bacillus, 36.

Leprosy, 36, 70, 171.

Lice, 54.

Linnaeus, 76.

Little house-fly, 49.

Lock-jaw, 18.

Low, Dr. A., 118.

Lucilia spp., 48.

Lugger, Prof. Otto, 38.

Malaria, early theories in regard to, 106; parasite that causes, 108; life history of parasite, 109; parasite in mosquito, 113; summary, 117; experiments, 118.

Maggots, 63.

Malta or Mediterranean fever, 171.

Mange, 37.

Manure-fly, 59.

Manson, Sir Patrick, 112, 123.

Mastigophora, 20.

Melanin, 110.

Micrococcus melitensis, 171.

Microbes, 10.

Mites, 26, 35.

Mosquito, 76; abdomen, 86; adults, 81; Anopheles, 91; how they bite, 84; effect of bite, 87; blood, 90; how they breathe, 89; classification, 91; and dengue, 169; eggs, 77; and elephantiasis, 164; enemies, 77; fighting, adults, 101; larvae, 103; larvae, 78; and malaria, 106; malarial parasite in, 113; mouth-parts, 83; other species, 96; pupae, 80; salivary glands, 87; thorax, 85; and yellow fever, 94, 120.

Mouth-parts, of fly, 60; of mosquito, 83.

Mus, norvegicus, 154; rattus, 154.

Nanga, 45.

Nematodes, 164.

New Orleans, yellow fever in, 120, 132.

Noctiluca, 21.

No-see-ums, 46.

Ochromyia anthropophaga, 49.

Oil of citronella, 102.

Oil of pennyroyal, 102.

Oriental sore, 174.

Ornithodorus moubata, 34.

Oscinidae, 52.

Otospermophilus beecheyi, 155.

Oxwarbles, 50.

Panama Canal zone, 135.

Paramoecium, 22.

Parasite, defined, 1; classes of, 4; in new regions, 5; diseases caused by, 7; effect on host, 9; relation to host, 14.

Parasitism, 3.

Pasteur, L., 44.

Pearls, 13.

Piroplasma bigeminum, 29.

Plague, early history of, 142; fleas that transmit, 153; and flies, 70; and ground squirrels, 155; how combatted in San Francisco, 143; results of other investigations, 150; Verjbitski's experiments, 147; work of Indian Plague Commission, 146.

Plasmodium, 109.

Protozoa, 19; classes of, 20.

Proboscis, of fly, 60; of mosquito, 80.

Privies, 72.

Privy-fly, 59.

Pseudopodia, 20.

Psoroptes communis, 37.

Pulex irritans, 154.

Punkies, 46.

Pupae, of house-flies, 64; of mosquitoes, 80.

Pyrethrum, 102.

Rats, and plague, 143, 145; species of, 154.

Red-bugs, 38.

Reed, Dr. Walter, 123.

Relapsing fever, 21, 33.

Rhizopoda, 20.

Ricketts, Dr. H.F., 32.

Rio de Janeiro, yellow fever in, 137.

Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 32.

Ross, Ronald, 112.

Rucker, Dr. W.C., 143.

Sacculina, 2.

Salivary glands, 84, 87.

Salt marshes, 97, 105.

Sambon, Dr. L.W., 118.

Sand-fleas, 53.

Saprophytic bacteria, 17.

Sarcophaga spp., 48.

Sarcoptes scabiei, 37.

Scab, 37.

Screw-worm, 47.

Seed-ticks, 27, 30.

Sheep bot-flies, 51.

Simmond, Dr. P.L., 145.

Siphonaptera, 52.

Skinner, Dr. H., 159.

Sleeping sickness, 21, 161.

Slipper animalcule, 22.

Small-pox, 70.

Smith, Dr. Theobald, 29.

Smudges, 102.

Sore-eye, 52.

Spiders, 26.

Spiracles, 89.

Spirochaeta, 21, 130.

Spore formation, 24.

Spores, 24.

Sporozoa, 22.

Spotted fever, 32.

Stable-fly, 44, 75.

Stegomyia, calopus, 94, 98, 139; scutellaris, 96.

Sticklebacks, 101.

Stomoxys calcitrans, 44.

Sulphur, 102.

Surra, 45.

Tabanus, 45.

Tahiti, mosquitoes in, 96.

Tapeworms, 2.

Tetanus, 18.

Texas fever, 28.

Theobald, Dr. F.V., 76.

Ticks, 26.

Tide-water minnows, 101.

Tobacco smoke, 102.

Top-minnows, 98, 101.

Torcel, 51.

Tracheae, 89.

Tracheal gills, 79.

Trichina, 2.

Trypanosome, 45, 161.

Trypanosoma, evansi, 45; brucei, 45; lewisi, 162; gambiensi, 162.

Tsetse-fly, 45, 163.

Tubercular bacilli, 69; germs, 69.

Typhoid-fly, 57, 59.

Vaughan, Dr. W.C., 67.

Ver macque, 51.

Verjbitski, D.T., 147.

Vorticella, 22.

Water-boatmen, 100.

Water-troughs, 104.

Whip-bearers, 20.

Whirligig beetles, 100.

White, Surgeon J.H., 134.

Wrigglers, 78.

Yellow fever, 120; Commission, 123; early observations on, 121; experiments, 125; danger of in Pacific Islands, 140; in Havana, results of work on, 131; history of in United States, 120; mosquito, 94; habits of, 95; in Panama Canal zone, 135; in Rio de Janeiro, 137; summary of results of work on, 129.


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