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In Indian Mexico (1908)
by Frederick Starr
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The agente rode with us in the morning quite a league upon our road, to a place which he was clearing for a milpa. We had heard so much of the horrors of the road to El Salto, that we were prepared for the worst. It was not an abrupt descent, as we had expected, but for the most part level, over black mud. There were a few ups and downs, and there was one limestone hill with tree-ferns and begonias, and all that that implies. Much of the way we had a drizzling rain, and everywhere the air was hot and heavy. After four hours' riding, we stopped at ten to eat a breakfast which we had brought with us, and then rode through to El Salto, where we arrived at 12:30. This is the cabecera of the district, and the jefe could not understand why we should continue on our journey, as the steamer would not leave until the following day. Don Enrique, however, had urged us not to stop at El Salto, where he insisted the risk from yellow fever was great. He advised us to go on to La Cruzada, where he had a house and an agent, and where, he told us, we could arrange for sleeping and eating as comfortably, and far more safely, than in the town. The distance was short, but the place, in truth, was dreary. The landing was at the bottom of a little slope, at the upper edge of which stood Don Enrique's place, the store-house of the steamship company, the house and barnyard of the manager of the mule trains, and one or two unattractive huts. When we arrived, we found that the mayor domo had that day resigned, and left the place, going to El Salto; before he left, he quarreled with the cook, and she had gone off in high dudgeon. Two young employes, left behind, advised us to return to El Salto until the time of embarkation. We, however, had left El Salto behind us, and had our luggage with us, and were little inclined to retrace our steps. After some grumbling, we were supplied with beds, but told that the food problem was impossible. After much wheedling, coaxing, bribing, and threatening, a woman in one of the huts promised to cook something for us, and we had nothing more to do but wait, until the steamer should be ready. The chief excitement of the day was when the mule trains were driven in, towards evening. With them came a swarm of mosquitoes, which absolutely darkened the air. Fortunately they did not stay, but after an hour and a half of troubling, disappeared as suddenly as they arrived. The river had fallen to that degree that it was impossible for our steamer, the Mariscal, to come up to La Cruzada, and we learned that it was anchored about a league down the river. A flatboat, poled by indians, came up to the landing, ready to receive cargo and passengers, and to transfer them to the steamer. In the morning, the loading of the flatboat and the getting ready for departure, took all our thought. At ten o'clock Mr. and Mrs. Ellsworth, with their baby and two servants, appeared in small canoes, which had been poled by indians from the plantation, several hours' journey up the Michol River. At the last moment, Mr. Ellsworth had decided to accompany his party to the city. When everything was loaded, quite promptly, at twelve o'clock, the flatboat pushed out from its moorings. Mr. Ellsworth's little launch was standing at the landing, and he invited me to ride in it, with him and Mrs. Ellsworth and the baby, to the steamer. We started off right proudly in the Miriam, but, alas, pride goes before destruction, and we had hardly left the heavy flatboat a little behind us, when our machinery broke down, and we had to wait until the clumsy scow overtook us, when we became common passengers again, and drifted down the stream to the Mariscal, passing the Lumeha plantation, an American enterprise.



The Mariscal itself was a little steamer, too small for the passengers and freight it had to carry. It had no beds nor cabin; it was dirty and crowded; it had not food enough to feed the first-class passengers, who paid twenty-five pesos each for their short journey. There was, indeed, no other class of passengers, only one grade of tickets being sold. When complaints were made of the accommodations, or lack of all accommodations, the agente, who was on the vessel with us, expressed surprise, and seemed profoundly hurt. The stream is full of curves and bends, is broad, and notably uniform in breadth; it has considerable current, and is bordered closely by the tropical forest, except where little clearings have been made for fincas. Formerly, caimans, or alligators, were common, but they have become rare, through the diligent hunting to which they have been subjected for supplying skins. Two days are usually taken in the journey to Frontera, though it is not a fifteen hours' run. Mr. Ellsworth arranged for our going directly through, so that, except one stop at a midway station, we made a continuous journey, and drew up at Frontera at 9:50 in the morning.

It is a mean little town, but far cleaner than Coatzacoalcos. Real grass grows there, and the little plaza is almost a lawn. Last year, when yellow fever was so terrible at Coatzacoalcos, and when, even at El Salto, there were forty cases, there were none here. The town is hot, and during the two days we spent there, our chief effort was to keep cool. The steamer, Mexico, appeared upon the 6th, planning to leave the same day. A norther came, however, and rendered the bar impassable. In the morning, Easter Sunday, the wind had fallen somewhat. We saw the little celebration at the church, and, learning that the boat was likely to leave at noon, went aboard. At one we started. Sailing down the river, we soon found ourselves between the piers, and the moment of test had come. At the first thump of the keel upon the sand, we doubted whether we should pass the bar; still we kept along with steam full on and the bow headed seaward; nine times we struck the sandy bottom, but then found ourselves in deeper water, and were again upon the Gulf. The Mexico was just as dirty, the food was just as bad, and the crew just as unaccommodating, as in 1896, when we had our first experience of her. Rather than lie in the stuffy cabin, I took my blanket out on deck, and rolled up there for the night. Room was plenty, as there were only a score of passengers. When we woke, the boat was standing in the harbor of Coatzacoalcos, and we landed to eat a breakfast at the hotel. Through the day, we wandered about town, but were again upon the vessel at four o'clock. We now numbered about a hundred passengers, and everything was crowded. In the company was a comic theatre troupe. The day before, a number of the passengers had been seasick; on this occasion, three-fourths were suffering, and the decks were a disgusting spectacle. Still, fresh air was there, and again I made my bed on deck. In the middle of the night, having moved slightly, I felt a sharp and sudden pain in my right temple, exactly as if I had rolled upon a sharp, hot tack. I had my jacket for a pillow, and thought at first that there really was a tack in one of the pockets, and sought, but in vain, to find it. Lying down to sleep again, I presently moved my hand over the blanket on the deck, and suddenly, again, I felt the sharp, burning prick, this time in my thumb. Certain that it could not be a tack this time, I brought my hand down forcibly, and, rising, saw by the moonlight that I had killed a large, black scorpion. For two hours the stings felt like fire, but by morning had ceased to pain me; then I found two or three of the other passengers suffering from similar stings, and reached the conclusion that the Mexico was swarming with the creatures. At dawn, we sighted Vera Cruz, and were soon in the harbor, standing at anchor; at eight o'clock, we stood upon the wharf, and our journeys in Indian Mexico were ended.



CHAPTER XXVII

CONCLUSION

But it was not necessary to go to distant Oaxaca and Chiapas to find Mexican indians. On the border of the capital city lie Santa Anita, Iztacalco, Mexicalcingo, Ixtapalapa, and a quantity of other villages and towns, where one may still find Aztec indians of pure blood, sometimes speaking the old language, sometimes wearing characteristic dress, and maintaining, to the present, many ancient practices and customs. At Santa Anita, for example, one may eat juiles and tamales, catch a glimpse of indian weddings, and delight his eyes with the fresh beauty of the chinampas,—wonderful spots of verdure and flowers—the floating gardens of the ancient Aztecs. Half an hour, or less, in the tram-car takes the traveller to Guadalupe, which may be called the heart of Indian Mexico. There, on the rock of Tepeyac, the Virgin appeared to Juan Diego; there, in the churches, dedicated in honor of that apparition, thousands of indians, from leagues around, gather yearly. On December 12, in the crowded streets of Guadalupe, groups, fantastically garbed as indians, dance in the Virgin's honor, and in their songs and dances, modern though they be, can be found suggestions of the olden time. Now and then, one may witness, what I saw in December, 1895—a group of indian pilgrims from a distant town, singing and dancing to the Virgin, within the great church itself. And near the high altar, where thick glass plates are set into the floor, letting a dim light into the crypts below, one may see crowds of indians rubbing the smooth surface with their diseased parts to effect a cure. On the streets of the capital city, one daily sees bands of pure Otomis in rags and filth, bringing their loads of charcoal and of corn to market. Their ugly dark faces, their strange native dress, their harsh language, make on the stranger an impression not easily forgotten.

Reliable figures are wanting as to the number of pure Mexican Indians. If the population of the Republic be estimated at fifteen millions, it should be safe to say that five millions of this number are indians of pure blood, speaking their old language, keeping alive much of the ancient life and thought. In some parts of Mexico, it almost seems as if what white-blood once existed is now breeding out. The indian of Mexico is conservative; he does not want contact with a larger world; his village suffices for his needs; he is ready to pay taxes for the sake of being let alone, to live in peace, after the way his fathers lived. In his bosom there is still hatred of the white man and the mestizo, and distrust of every stranger. The Chamula outbreak in 1868, and the Maya war just ended, are examples of this smouldering hatred. Mexico has a serious problem in its Indians; the solution of the problem has been attempted in various ways, according to whether the population dealt with was Totonac, Yaqui, Maya: it is no small task, to build a nation out of an indian population.

Soon after the publication of my "Indians of Southern Mexico," I had the pleasure of presenting a copy of the book to President Diaz, and of looking through its pictures with him. When we came to the general view of Yodocono, and its little lake, tears stood in the old man's eyes as he said, "Sir, that was my mother's birthplace, and in her honor I have established, at my own expense, two schools, one for boys, and one for girls." Looking at the round huts of Chicahuastla, he shivered, and remarked: "Ah, sir, but it is cold in Chicahuastla." I replied, "Your Excellency, I see that you have been in Chicahuastla." When he saw the Zapotec types, from the District of Tehuantepec, he said: "They are fine large fellows; they make good soldiers; when I was Governor of Oaxaca, I had a body-guard of them." He then told me of the six orphan boys who, in memory of his body-guard, he had adopted and educated; he told me with pride of the success which the five who still live had made, and of the positions they were filling. When he reached the portrait of the little Mixtec, carrying a sack of corn, who, with pride, had told me, in answer to my question, that his name was Porfirio Diaz, the President of the Republic looked long and earnestly at the picture, and I noticed that, when we turned the pages, his finger marked the spot where the likeness of his name-sake was, and, when the book was finished, before closing it, he turned back again, and looked at the little fellow's face. At the first Otomi portrait, he had said: "Ah, sir, but my schools will change the Otomis."

It would be pleasant to have faith in President Diaz' solution of the Otomi problem, but to me it seems doubtful. Of course, I recall with pleasure my visit to the boys' school at San Nicolas Panotla. It was interesting to see those little Tlaxcalan fellows solve problems in alligation and percentage, in bonds and mortgages; but it is doubtful whether any of them, in actual life, will have to deal with blending coffees, or with selling bonds, and cutting coupons. Still, from such indian towns great men have come in the past, and great men will come in the future. Benito Juarez, who laid the foundations on which Diaz has so magnificently built, was a pure-blood Zapotec. From the Aztecs, the Tlaxcalans, Mixtecs, Zapotecs and Mayas, we may hope much in the future. They were races of achievement in the past, and the monuments of their achievement still remain. But that the Otomi, the Triqui, or the Mixe, should be made over by the schools is doubtful. Personally, I feel that the prosperity of Mexico rests more upon the indian blood than on any other element of national power. That schools will do much to train the more gifted tribes perhaps is true. But there are indians, and indians, in Mexico.



GLOSSARY OF SPANISH AND INDIAN WORDS

abusos. abuses, disturbances. adios. adieu, good-bye. agente. agent. agua. water. agua bendita. blessed water. agua miel. lit. honey water, the unfermented juice of the maguey. aguardiente. a spirituous liquor. aguas frescas. refreshing drinks. ahuacate. a fruit, the alligator pear. aje, or axe. an insect; a greasy mass, yielding a lacquer-like lustre. alcalde. a town judge. arbol. tree. arriero. a convoyer of loaded mules or horses. atole. a corn gruel. autorizada. authorized, having authority. axolotl. a water salamander, with peculiar life-history. ayatl, or ayate. a carry-cloth. barranca. a gorge, or gully. bruja. witch. brujeria. witchcraft. burro. ass. cabecera. the head-town of a district. cafe. coffee. caiman. a reptile much like an alligator. camaron. shrimp. camisa. shirt. cantera, cantero. a water-jar, or pitcher. cargador. carrier. carreta. cart. carretero. a carter. cascaron. an eggshell filled with bits of cut paper. catalan. a wine, named from a Spanish town. cenote. a cave with water. centavo. a coin, the one-hundredth part of a peso; a cent. chac mool. a stone figure, found at Chichen Itza, Yucatan. chalupa. a boat-shaped crust with meat or vegetables in it. chamara. a blanket for wearing. champurrado. a mixture, as of atole and chocolate. chapapote. chewing-gum. chicha. an intoxicant made from sugar-cane. chicle. chewing-gum. chinampa. "floating garden," a garden patch. chirimiya. a shrill musical instrument, somewhat like a fife or flageolet. chirimoya. the custard-apple. cigarro. cigarette. cincalotl, cincalote. granary. clarin. a bird, with clear note. cochero. coachman. colorin. a tree. comiteco. a spirits made at Comitan. Conquista. Conquest. copal. a gum, much used as incense. coro. loft. corral. an enclosure for animals. costumbre. custom. coton, cotones. a man's upper garment, a sort of poncho. cuartel. barracks. cuezcomatl, cuezcomate. granary. cura. parish priest. curato. parish house. danza. dance. doctrina. doctrine, catechism. don. Mr., used only when the Christian name of a person is spoken. dulce. sweet, sweetmeat. dulcero. maker or seller of sweets. dulceria. sweetmeat factory. enagua. woman's skirt. enchilada. a fried tortilla with chili and cheese. feria. fair. fiesta. festival. finca. farm, plantation. firma. signature. fiscal. fiscal officer, frijol, frijoles. bean, beans, golondrina. swallow, gramatica. grammar. gringo. somewhat derisive term applied to foreigners, especially Americans. guardia. guard. hacienda. a country-place. haciendado, haciendero. the owner of an hacienda. hennequin. a plant producing fibre, sisal hemp. hermita. a retired shrine. herreria. smithy, forge, ironworks. h'men. conjuror. huehuetes. the old ones. huehuetl, huehuete. the ancient upright drum. huerfano. orphan. huipil, huipili. a woman's waist garment. huipilili. a woman's waist garment, worn under the huipil. idioma. idiom, language. incomunicado. solitary, not allowed communication. itinerario. itinerary. itztli. obsidian. ixtli. fibre from the maguey and cactus. jacal. a hut. jarabe. a popular dance. jicara. a gourd-cup, or vessel. jonote. a tree. Jornada. a day's march. juez. judge. ke'esh. a votive figure. ladino. a mestizo, a person not Indian. ladron, ladrones. thief, thieves. liana. vine. licenciado. lawyer. lima. a fruit, somewhat like an insipid orange. lindas. pretty (girls). llano. a grassy plain. machete. a large knife. maestro. teacher, a master in any trade. maguey. a plant, the century plant or agave, yielding pulque. mai, pelico. tobacco, mixed with chili and lime. malacatl, malacate. spindle-whorl. malinche. malinche. mamey. a fruit, orange flesh and brown exterior. manta. cotton-cloth, a woman's dress. manana. to-morrow. mapachtl. a small animal, perhaps the raccoon or badger. mapaho. beating-sticks, for cleaning cotton. mayores. chiefs, village elders, police. medio. six centavos. meson. a house for travellers. mescal. a spirits, made from an agave. mestizo. a person of mixed blood. metate. stone upon which corn is ground. milagro. miracle. milpa. cornfield. mogote. a mound or tumulus. mole. a stew, highly seasoned with chili. mole prieto. black mole. moral. a tree, mulberry. mozo. a young man, a servant. mudo. mute, dumb. mulada. a mule train. muneco. doll, figure. municipio. town, town-government, town-house. nacimiento. an arrangement of figures and grotto-work, made at Christmastide. nada. nothing. nagual. conjuror. negrito. (diminutive) negro. nublina. mist, fog. ocote. pine-tree, splinter of pine. otro. other. padre. father, priest. padrecito. priest. pais. country, esp. one's native town. panela. sugar in cake or loaf. papaya. a fruit. pastorela. a drama relative to the Nativity. pastores. shepherds. patio. inside court of house. pelico, mai. tobacco, with chili and lime. peso. a money denomination, one hundred centavos, one dollar. petate. mat. pinolillo. a species of tick. pinto. a disease, spotted skin. pita. a fibre. pitero. a fifer. pito. fife. plaza. town square. portales. a building with corridor in front. posol, posole. corn prepared to carry on journey, for mixing with water. prefecto. prefect. presidente. president. principales. principal men, councillors. pueblito. small pueblo, village. pulque. an intoxicant, made from maguey sap. quichiquemil. a woman's upper garment. rancho. a country-place. ranchito. a small ranch. rebozo. a woman's garment, a wrap or light shawl. regidor. alderman. remedio. remedy. sangre. blood. santo, santito. saint. senor. sir, gentleman. senora. madam, lady. senorita. Miss, young woman. serape. a blanket, for wearing. sindico. recorder. soltero. an unmarried man. sombrero. hat. subida. ascent. tabla. board. tamales. dumplings of corn-meal. tambour. drum. tatita. papa. tepache. a fermented drink. teponastl, teponaste. the ancient horizontal drum. tienda. store, shop. tierra caliente. hot country. tigre. tiger, jaguar. tinaja. water-jar. topil. a messenger or police. toro. bull. tortillas. corn-cakes, cooked on a griddle. tortuga. turtle. tsupakwa. dart-thrower. ule. rubber. vaca. cow. vamonos. come on, we are going. viejos. old. vomito. yellow fever. xalama. a tree. xtol, xtoles. a dancer, or dancers (see Merida, narrative). zacate, sacate. hay, fodder.



ITINERARY

The expedition of 1896 was preliminary. We went by rail from the City of Mexico to Oaxaca, capital of the state of the same name. Thence, we journeyed by horse through the states of Oaxaca and Chiapas, to the city of Guatemala, entering the Republic of Guatemala at Nenton. The return journey was made by rail to the Pacific port of San Jose, steamer to Salina Cruz, rail to Coatzacoalcos, steamer to Vera Cruz, and rail to the City of Mexico. Only the portion of this journey between Oaxaca and Nenton is here described, the rest not lying in Indian Mexico. The City of Mexico was headquarters for the work in 1897-98. A trip was made by rail from there to Dos Rios, to measure and photograph the Otomis of Huixquilucan, in the state of Mexico. Thence we went to Patzcuaro by rail, and studied the Tarascans in the villages about Lake Patzcuaro, visiting these by canoe-trips. We then made a trip on horseback to Uruapan (then without rail connection), returning by some important indian towns. After returning to Mexico, we visited the states of Tlaxcala and Puebla. In and around the City of Tlaxcala, we secured our Tlaxcalan subjects. At Cuauhtlantzinco, we worked upon Aztecs. Our experiences at this large town of Puebla are not described, as Bandelier has already rendered the place familiar, and we ourselves have written of it elsewhere. With these two peoples, we made our first essays at bust-making. After returning to Mexico, we went by rail, on the Guadalajara branch of the Mexican Central, to Negrete. From there, by coach (there being then no railroad) to Zamora. Thence, we struck, on horseback, through the Tarascan territory, across to Patzcuaro. On the way, we secured our full series of Tarascan busts, at the Once Pueblos. By rail, we went from Patzcuaro to Dos Rios, to secure our lacking busts of Otomis at Huixquilucan. In the second field expedition, January to March 1899, we worked entirely in the state of Oaxaca. At first a trip was made, by horse, from Oaxaca into the Mixteca Alta, where Mixtecs and Triquis were studied. Again starting from Oaxaca, we traveled over our old trails of 1896, through the mountains to Tehuantepec, returning by the high-road in common use. Zapotecs were studied at Mitla and Tehuantepec, and the Mixes, Juaves, and Chontals in various towns and villages. The season's work closed by our study, at and near Cuicatlan, of the Cuicatecs. At this town, too, we began to work upon Chinantecs. In the third field expedition, during the early months of 1900, we visited seven populations, making our regular study upon six of them. To fill a week that would otherwise have been lost, we made a pedestrian trip through the interesting indian towns on the slopes of Malintzi. Then, from Cuicatlan as a center, we made two journeys—one to San Juan Zautla and San Pedro Soochiapan, to examine Chinantecs; the other to Coixtlahuaca, for seeing Chochos. From Cuicatlan, we struck north by rail to San Antonio, and, by coach to Teotitlan del Camino and by horse beyond, penetrated to the great Mazatec town of Huauhtla. Chinantecs, Chochos, and Mazatecs are tribes of Oaxaca. Leaving that state, we traveled by rail to Tulancingo. From there, by coach and on horseback, we visited Otomi, Aztec, Tepehua and Totonac towns in the states of Puebla and Hidalgo. With the field season of 1901, our work in Indian Mexico ended. It was pursued in three separated areas. From the City of Mexico, we went by rail to Tampico. From that point, a journey by canoe and horse enabled us to see the Huaxtecs of the state of Vera Cruz. Returning to Tampico, a trip by steamer across the gulf brought us to Yucatan. Progreso and Merida were visited, and our work was done upon the Mayas living near the town of Tekax. A second trip on the gulf brought us to Coatzacoalcos, whence the railroad was used to Tehuantepec and San Geronimo. From the latter point, an ox-cart journey of ten nights, across the states of Oaxaca and Chiapas, brought us to Tuxtla Gutierrez. By horse we continued through Chiapas to El Salto, where we took steamer for Frontera. From there, by steamer to Vera Cruz and then by rail, we traveled to the City of Mexico. Zoques, Tzotzils, Tzendals, and Chols were studied in this portion of the journey.



APPENDIX

STARR IN OLD MEXICO

Oaxaca, Mexico, March 1.—Prof. Frederick Starr, of the University of Chicago, is deep in the midst of his savages. He is manipulating primitive town governments, wielding the authority of federal and state governments, county police, and that of the clergy as well. He is threatening, cajoling, clapping in jail, when necessary, and in general conquering his series of strange nations. I found him doing all this, and more, in a little native village fifty miles from the city of Oaxaca, Feb. 2nd. The fat little man was complete master of the Zapotec town of Mitla, far distant from the end of the last of the railroads, a town famous for its ruins. He bustled about like a captain in a war haste, dressed in a massive Indian sombrero, from which a white string floated picturesquely behind, a necktie of slim, dusty black, which seemed not to have been unknotted for many a day, a shirt less immaculate than the one he may wear at the entertainment shortly to be given him in London, and no coat. The professor's trousers are not Indian. They are farm trousers, of an original type, with double seat for the saddle.

The professor's blood was up. A grand native feast—in which drunken dances, bull-fights, and a state of accumulated irresponsibility are the rule—had delayed him three days. The Indians could no more be measured and "busted"—as the professor calls the making of plaster casts—than could the liquor they had drunk. After three days of pleading, threatening, and berating, in which orders from every government and church official in the country, from lowest to highest, had failed, Prof. Starr seized the black-bearded and wiry president of the town council, the chief potentate of the reeling set, called him a drunken scoundrel, threatened in deep seriousness to imprison every man in the town, and finally won his point—but not until the feast was done. When feasts are over, the people are kindly, suave, gracious.

Then the professor corralled those he wanted. He was to measure for scientific purposes 100 of the Indians, in the order in which they chanced to present themselves. After such wheedling as it must have taken infinite practice to acquire—pattings of the Zapotec back, hugging of the men, chucking the children, with elaborate explanations—the thing "took" and the people fell into the spirit of it. The jail was the only accessible building, and was strangely empty. It was of adobe, a jail of one room, with a dirt floor. There were no windows, only the single barred door.

From every cane-walled, thatched, tropical hut that helps to make the irregular cluster around the central plaza and its adjoining bull ring they came, if not to be measured, to see. They were driven by the highest of the town authorities—for every element of the population waited on the bidding of the little sugar-tongued professor from the north—one by one into the jail, and the rest curiously watched. The measuring was done without undressing, but the "busting" was the point of chief interest. Five representative specimens had been carefully selected for this purpose. They were won slowly, by the glitter of 75 cents of Mexican silver. In some towns, only 50 cents was required, and in others, $1. The smirking Indian, with his wildness hidden away, or only peeping from his eye, entered. He disrobed with no shame. He was put flat on the floor, face down, on a little piece of matting. At this stage some objected. Then the Anglo-Saxon was down on the floor, wheedling, talking such sweetness as can be spoken without silliness only in the Spanish tongue.

The victim finally consents. Then the Mexican plaster worker, who has followed the caravan from its start, goes to work. He makes a cast of the back of the head and shoulders, and the Indian is turned over, face up. Another cast of the breast and neck and chin is made, and yet another of the front half of the head and the face, with little tubes for breathing sticking through it. The Indian has grunted, snorted, laughed and squirmed, but he has been made to understand that he must be still. That great 75 cents is held always over him, and the thing is accomplished.

During all the process, the crowd of Indians about and in the jail was eager-eyed and astonished. The women wear odd woolen, blanket-like skirts of red or black, folded in two great plaits down the front. The dress does not reach the ankles, and the feet are bare. They carry the baby on the back, wound in the rebozo, with its bare legs straddling her and sticking out. The men wear a sandal quite different from the ordinary Mexican footgear.

Of the 100 that were to be measured, Jose was one. Jose was of a better family, a character in the town, and proud. He rebelled. This breach of the professor's authority could not be allowed. Jose was summoned by the president of the town, the honeyed, affable "Senor Presidente," the same who had been called the drunken scoundrel, now accommodating, a true and emotional friend. Jose sent a thousand excuses, and finally defiance.

"That man," cried the professor, showing his writ of authority from the jefe politico of the district, "I order to be arrested."

Jose did not flee. He was found next morning in the bull ring riding a bull. He was arrested by the Chicagoan's orders, and taken to jail. He was peremptorily ordered by the professor to appear for the measurement. He escaped, and again defied the powers. He was again caught, and it was explained to him by the president that this man of might from the beyond had sworn to drag Jose with him all the way across this wild country slowly to Tehuantepec, thence back to the city of Oaxaca, where the state authorities would deal most painfully with him. And this, indeed, in mighty manner and impressively, had the "man from the beyond" sworn to do. Jose came and was measured, and I afterward saw him calling to the professor to come and take a jolly drink out of the gourd he was shaking at him, in the manner of a comrade.

In the afternoon, the work being done, the civilities and sugared conduct must be continued, with a view to future visits. The professor wanted to enter the church, which, though modern, stands in the middle of one of the mysterious ruins. The church was locked, and the mayor-domo not to be found.

"But I must photograph a strange picture you have in there."

"The mayor-domo is drunk, at your service, my most excellent friend," replied the president, sympathetically. "I am sorry, but he got under the influence three days ago at the beginning of the feast, and he has slept ever since. Ah, the mayor-domo is sleeping now, my excellent friend, and he has the keys."

"You shall send a boy into the tower to ring the bell and wake the mayor-domo," cried the professor.

The crowd sat on the stone steps, the bell was pealed, and at last the church was opened, and the picture photographed.

The procession then moved to the top of an ancient pyramid, in which tombs have been opened, and bones and gold ornaments found. The professor dashed through all the tunnels, with the government after him, before mounting to the top. On top a strange conversation was held between the professor and the president and secretary. They appealed to this northern man, who seemed to have all earthly authority back of him, to grant them one longed-for boon. Would he not please speak, when he returned to the capital, to the minister of encouragement, that he send them a brass band! They wanted to welcome northern visitors to the ruins with modern music.

"You have great power. You need but to ask of those in Mexico and the band will come. Most beloved friend, oh, most excellent professor from the far north, give to us a brass band!" And the professor promised to speak to Minister Leal about it. Then, too, the beastly state government was dragging some of their precious ruins away to put in a museum. Would the professor please have the kindness to stop this? The professor promised to do what he could, and he was hugged and blessed and patted by the simple people.

Prof. Starr began his ethnological studies to westward of Oaxaca. Mitla is eastward. In the west, he visited two tribes—the Mixtecas and the Triquis. The latter are a branch of the former, but much different, living in round bamboo huts, surprisingly like those of some African tribes. He secured two excellent casts of the Triquis, and three of the Mixtecas. He intended to take five of each tribe he visited, but his plaster failed to arrive. He studies the languages, also, as he goes, and finds many varying dialects, from each of which he secures a test vocabulary of 200 words. He is now approaching the Mixes, the "cannibals." All the City of Mexico papers laugh at the idea of his encountering the slightest danger, and the professor himself scoffs at it. He believes some of the Mixes have, within forty years, eaten human flesh, but he says he is certain they are harmless now.

CHARLES F. EMBREE. [From The Chicago Record: March 24, 1899.]



THE PURPLE SPOT ON MAYA BABIES

When I was in Yucatan in 1901 the parish priest of Texax told me that it was said that every pure blood Maya Indian has a violet or purple spot on his back, in the sacral region. He stated that this spot was called by the native name, uits, "bread," and that it was vulgar or insulting to make reference to it. I at once examined three Mayas of pure blood—a boy of ten years and two adult males—but found no trace of such a spot. I concluded that the presence of the spot might be an infantile character, as it is among the Japanese, but at that time I had no opportunity to examine Maya babies.

Dr. Baelz, a German physician, who has spent many years in Japan, long ago called attention to the existence of such spots on Japanese infants. The spots described by him were of a blue or purple color, were located upon the back (especially in the sacral region), and were variable in form and size. They were temporary, disappearing at from two to eight years of age. The occurrence of these infantile color blotches was so common in Japan as to be almost characteristic of the race.

In time, other students reported similar spots on other Asiatic babies, and on non-Asiatic babies of Mongolian or Mongoloid peoples. Chinese, Annamese, Coreans, Greenland Eskimos, and some Malays are now known to have such spots. Sacral spots have also been reported among Samoans and Hawaiians.

Practically, all these people belong to the great yellow race, as defined by De Quatrefages, and are, if not pure representatives of that race, mixed bloods, in part, of it. Baelz and some other writers have, therefore, gone so far as to consider the purple sacral spot a mark peculiar to that race, and to believe its occurrence proof of Mongolian origin. They have asked whether the spot occurs among American Indians, and would consider its occurrence evidence of an Asiatic origin for our native tribes. Satisfactory observations had not been made. Baelz himself found two cases among Vancouver Island Indians.

In my recent trip to Mexico I planned to look for this spot among several Indian tribes. Out of six populations that I expected to visit I really saw but two—the Aztecs and the Mayas. I do not believe that the sacral spot exists among Aztecs. I made no search, because Aztec friends, who would be sure to know, all agreed in denying its occurrence. Among the Mayas, the case is different. In the little Maya town of Palenque I examined all the pure blood babies. The back of the first little creature bared for my inspection bore a clearly defined, dark blue-purple spot, just where it might be expected. The spot was almost two inches wide and nearly three-fourths of an inch high. The child was a boy of eight months. A brother, two years old, showed no trace of the spot, but the mother says it was formerly well defined.

Every one of the seven pure Maya babies, below ten months old, in the town was purple-spotted. A pair of boy twins, two months old, were marked in precisely the same place with pale blue-purple spots, of the same size and form. In one boy of ten months the spot seemed to be disappearing and was represented by three ill-defined and separated blotches. In the village, there were three babies of suitable age, but of mixed—Spanish-Maya—blood; no one of these showed any trace of the colored spot. We may say, then, that in Palenque every Maya baby below ten months of age was sacral spotted, and that no Mestizo baby was.

Does this prove that the Mayas are Asiatics by ancestry? The daily press asserts that I make that claim; it is mistaken. I am free to say I don't know what to do with my spotted Maya babies. I presume that Baelz will cousin them with his little Japanese.

FREDERICK STARR. From The Chicago Tribune: January 11, 1903.



INDEX

abandoned river course, 374. acacia, 97, 216. Acala, 48, 361. Agua Bendita (Chiapa), 44, 348. Agua Bendita (Mex.), 64. agua miel, 61. aguardiente, 255. Aguazotepec, 240. aje, 45: insect, 46; 79. Ajuno, 76, 84, 107. Akxotla, 191. alcaldes indios, 357. alligators, 277, 290. Ancona, Bishop, 300. antiquities, 116, 223, 230, 239, 288, 345. ant—foraging, 289; —honey, 190. apparition of the Virgin, 395. Aranza, 82. arbol huerfano, 196. arriero—tardy, 271; —unreliable, 358; —abandons us, 385. Arroyo—Jefe, 247. Atla, 245; carry-sacks, 256; costume, 256; witchcraft, 256. Atlihuitzia—Santa Maria, 195. axolotl, 64. ayate, 58, 267, 271. Ayutla, 23, 149. Aztec, 242, 279, 281, 283, 285, 397; breakfast, 196.

babies—carrying, 267; —care of, 57. bamboo, 289. band—Huauhtla, 237; —honors us, 124. bandolier, 318. Barela, Sr. and Sra., 189. bark-paper, 245, 246, 268. Baron, 293, 320. barranca, 190,191, 214, 280, 363. Barrios—Pedro, 230. basalt, 196, 249. battle of flowers, 321. begonia, 246. Belen, 194. bells—pottery, 112. Benito Juarez—steamer, 293. Bernal Diaz, 91. bishop—Merida, 300. blackflies, 343. Blanco—Juan, 303, 316. blessing—a mother's, 111. bloom—trees, 340, 364. Boca del Rio—rancho, 168. books—Mixe, 155; —Mixtec, 141; Zapotec, 165. bowls—calabash, 353. boxes—scarce, 370. boy—work of, 35, 37; —and iguana, 54. breech-clout, 344. bridge—covered, 77; —of vines, 32, 207. Brinton, 374. bromelias, 22, 27, 126, 154, 199, 207, 219, 232. bruheria, 246, 256, 376. bull met, 214. burning fields, 374, 376. bust-making, 65, 99, 104, 146, 234, 382. de Butrie—M. and Mme., 235, 236, 237.

cactus, 8, 11, 181, 182, 217, 329; —pitahaya, 96. Cahuantzi—Gov. Prospero, 85, 94, 193. caimans, 290. cairn, 218. calabashes, 314. caladium, 201, 249. calandria, 334. Calistro—Antonio, 61. camalpa, 191. camaron, 276. Camotlan, 32, 155. camp—traveller's, 178. Campeche, 306, 355; —banks, 295. canal, 291. Cancuc, 365, 366, 371, 374; —outbreak, 374; —reception, 375; —music, 376; —dress, 377. Candaleria—Maria, 374. canoes, 275, 289, 360; —Tarascan, 68; —travel, 277; —empty, 292. Canton—Gov. Francisco, 300, 301, 355. Capacuaro, 78, 80. Carapan, 104. Carizal, 342. carnival, 239, 317, 318, 321, 324. Carrera, 52. carretero, 333, 334, 342, 343; —camping, 338. carriers, 53, 54. —small, but devoted, 384,386; —trouble, 206. carry-frame, 243. carts, 95, 333. cart-road, 45, 48, 139, 342. Carvajal, 179. cascades, 262. cascarones, 239. Castle, Dr., 164, 165, 170, 328, 329. Castolo—Zapotec boy, 35, 159. cattle, among Juaves, 168; —loading, 294; driving, 348. cave, near Comitan, 50; —witch's, near Atla, 256; —near Pantepec, 269; near Tekax, 313, 314. cave formations, 315. cave—hat-makers, 224. celebration—St. Martin's eve, 62. cemetery—visits to, 165. Cempoalteca—family, 92. cempoalxochil, 257. cenotes, 297, 316. chacalacca, 334, 343. chacmool, 319. chalcedony, 38, 139. chamara, 366, 367. champurado, 196. Chamula, 45, 365, 366, 367, 371; —outbreak, 366, 396. chapapote, 288, 291, 292. chavacanes, 287. Checheb, 366. Cheran, 78, 82, 106. chert, 129. Chiapa, 45, 353, 360, 361, 364; —lacquer, 45. Chiapanecs, 361. Chiapas, 293, 340; —Indians, 44. Chicago Record, 405; —Tribune, 411. Chicahuastla, 131, 396; —an afternoon in, 133. chicha, 377. Chichen-Itza, 318. Chila, 7, 10. Chilchota, 98. child—deserted, 136; —grateful, 164. Chilon, 379. chinampas, 395. Chinantecs, 210; —land of, 212. chirimiya—Mitla, 18; —Los Reyes, 91. Chochos, 218, 226; hats, 224. Chols, 380, 389; —dress, 389; —laborers, 384; —type, 389. Cholula, 108. Chontals, 173; —type, 175. Christmas celebration, 71. church of the thieves, 63. la Cienega, 349. cincalote, 60. circus, 42. Citala, 378. Citlaltepec, 277, 279. clays, 128. cleanliness of person, 297. climate—results, 306. cloud-effects, 196; —lake, 26; —cataract, 28. coach—unreliable, 228, 229; —well-loaded, 315; —fictitious, 331. Coatlan, 34, 157. Coatzacoalcos, 293, 325, 326, 331, 351, 393. cochero—troublesome, 242. cockroaches, 378. cocoa palms, 169, 181. cocoles, 287. coffee, 155; —plantation, 387; —essence, 204. Coixtlahuaca, 220, 224, 226; —hat-making, 224; —celebration, 224. color-massing of flowers, 212. colorin tree, 268. comales, 127. Comitan, 51. comiteco, 51. condolence—visit, 174. conglomerate, 181, 182, 377. Conkal, 297. contract-labor system, 384, 388. convent-church, 140. cook-house, 88. cooking, 339. copal, 252. Cordoba woman, 217, 227. Cordova—Javier, 128, 135. corpse rejected, 189. Cortez' trail, 196. cosmopolitan group, 325. costumbre-annual,—Otomi, 250; —Totonac, 252. costume, 242; —Juave, 169; —Mazateco, 221; —Mixtec, 127; —Otomi, 58, 258; —Totonac, 252; —Tzotzil, 49; —Zapotec, 40, 177. cotones—see costume. cotton—beating, 202. counterfeiters in Tlaxcala, 94. couple—mysterious, 354. Coyotepec, 113. crabs, 326. Cristobal martyr boy, 195. crosses, 269. crucified child, 366. la Cruzada, 387, 391; —unsettled conditions, 391. Cuaquitepec, 377, 378. Cuauhtepec, 251. cuezcomate, 88, 190. Cuezcomate—the, 189. Cuicatlan, 181, 198, 215, 227. Culin—Mr., 263, 269. Cuquila, 129, 137. customs-house, 295. cycle superstition, 139. cypress, 139.

dance wands, 257. dancers, 317, 325. danza, 265, 268; —de la Conquista, 30; —de los Negros, 287; —de los mestizos, 325. date palm, 126. deaf-mutism, 48, 49, 79, 205. December, 12, 395. deer, 43. deformity, 155. Diaz—President Porfirio, ix, 396, 397. Diego—Juan, 395. disaster to plates, 365. distance marks, 309. distilleries, 51, 315. disturbance—village, 202. Dona Cecilia, 293. Dos Rios, 56. doves, 219, 288. dragon-tree, 246. drinking, 207. drunken officials, 24, 25, 29, 71, 72, 80, 144, 201; —visitor, 335. ducks, 278. dulces, 314. dynamiting streams, 251, 360.

eagle, 166, 219. earthquake, 137, 138; —Tehuantepec, 161; Papalo, 183. echo, 90. eggs, 159. Ellsworth Mr., 385, 392. Embree Mr., 410. enagua, see costume. enchiladas, 286. Esperanza mule-line, 7. Espindola, Sr., 331, 332, 333. Espinola—Macario, 120. Etla, 116. Expeditions, vii. Eurosa—Sr., 246. Eustasio, our carretero, 333, 334, 336, 340, 341, 344, 347, 348, 349, 352, 379. excitement—political, 191, 193. exorbitant charges, 8, 9; —Ixcuintepec, 33; —Xalapa, 174; —Tequixistlan, 175; —Tulancingo, etc., 241; —Huachinango, 243; —Huehuetla, 271.

faja—see costume. fans used in dance, 318. feather-work, 82. Feb. 5, celebration, 224. female beauty, 352. feria at Comitan, 51. ferns, 23, 27, 44, 154, 199, 207, 249. Fernandez—Leandro, x. Fernandez—Sr., 320, 323. fever, 151, 387. fiesta—San Marcos, 31. fishes, 317. fishing—night, 265; —handnets, 266; dynamite, 360. flight of the Virgin, 196. floats in procession, 319. flora, 201, 249, 262, 296; —contrast on two slopes, 23, 154, 199, 232; —curious assemblage, 118; —land of Mixes, 22; —tropical, 387. flowering shrubs, 22. fog, 27, 126, 132. forest fire, 34. Frank, 189, 192, 200, 209, 213, 216. Frontera, 393. frost, 245, 251. fugitive Jefe, 136. funeral—an interrupted, 125; —timely, 180; —procession, 199, 332.

Gillow—Archbishop Eulogio, 3, 6 glossary, 399. god-house, 88. Godinez—Ramon, viii, 200, 209, 272, 273, 276, 308, 313, 319, 324, 332, 335, 349, 382, 383. goitre, 48, 49, 79, 155. gold coins worn, 40, 52, 353. Gonzales—Manuel, viii, 108-111, 115, 156, 166, 171, 184, 189, 194, 198, 200, 209, 210, 241, 273, 276, 289, 290, 324, 330, 334, 348, 349. Gonzales—Gov. Martin, vii, 114. Grabic—Louis, viii, 189, 192, 198, 200, 209, 210, 241, 273, 276, 306, 313, 318, 329, 348. granary, 60, 88, 190. granite, 38. greetings—New Year, 114. grippe, 186. Guadalupe, 395. Guadalupe, our cook at Tancoco, 284, 286. guamara, 280. Guatemala, 43, 52, 340; —money, 51. Gutierrez Zamora, 281. Guvino, 41, 333. Guzman—Gamboa, 301.

hairless dog, 330. hares, 171. hats, 127, 224, 284. hauling timber, 95. hennequin, 296; —treatment, 309. Herman, 1, 5, 9. herons, 278, 291. Hidalgo—steamer, 325. high-road, 40, 173. h'men, 307, 310. honey-wine, 191. horse falls, 218; —ill, 115, 178, 179. hot springs, 96. houses—Aztec, 283; —Huaxtec, 284; —Tarascan, 97; —Totonac, 268. Hrdlicka—his work, v. Huachinango, 242. Huaclilla, 119. Huancito, 99. Huauhtla—view, 232; —town, 233; —trade, 235; —labor ideas, 235. Huautla, 218. Huaxteca verucruzana, 274; —potosina, 274. Huaxtecs, 261, 274, 279, 281; —character, 285; —type, 286. huehuetes=los viejos, 243. huehuetl, 91; —(wrongly so-called), 287, 318, 358, 376. Huehuetla, 247, 261, 263. Huejutla, 283. Huilotepec, 166, 328, 330, 331. huipil, huipili, see costume. huitzatl, 191. Huixquilucan, 56, 59, 245; —thieves, 63. Huixtan, 366. Humboldt—Alexander, at Tule, 16. husband—devoted, 186. husk-stacks, 60. Hyde, Dr. George B., 15.

idols, 253. Ignacio—boy at Chilchota, 102. iguana, 54, 327. imbecility, 48, 205. incense, 368. indian government, 49, 357. Indian Mexico, v. 396. injured carter, 336. interpreter—false, 383. irrigation, 96. Irvine, Captain, 294. Isidro—uncle, 193. Itztlis, 240. Ixcotla, 193. Ixcoyotla (bark paper), 268. Ixcuintepec, 33, 156, 157. Ixhuatlan, 338, 340. Ixtaltepec, 333. Ixtapa, 363, 373. ixtli, 58, 59. Ixtacalco, 395. Ixtapalapa, 395.

Jacona, 98. jail—San Cristobal, 367. Janicho, 74. Japanese, 41. javali, 334. jefe politico—drunk, 328; —inefficient, 182, 185, 198, 216; —his relation to his people, vii; —as peacemaker, 353; —of Tuxtla Gutierrez, 356; —of Tulancingo—natural son of, 247. Jiquipilas, 43, 349. jonote, 246, 269. Jornada, 338. Juanico, 179. Juarez—President Benito, 397. Juaves, 164, 165, 168, 331, 337, 338; —type, 169; —night-watch, 170; —singing, 171. Juchitan, 41, 161, 333, 338, 343; —trader, 170. juiles, 395. Juquila (Mixe), 29, 151. Juxtlahuaca—Jefe of, 136.

Kan—Modesto, 312. ke'esh, 305. kingfisher, 291.

labor congress, 45. laborers for Yucatan, 294. lacquer—Chiapa, 45, 361; —Uruapang. lagoons, 276, 277, 290, 336. Lake Chapala, 68; —Patzcuaro, 68, 76. landslide, 181. Lang,—Charles B., viii, 115, 179, 184. leaf-water, 193. Leal—Manuel, Fernandez, ix. Leandro, secretario Tamalin, 287. Leon—Governor Francisco, 45, 342. Leyra—Pablo, 246, 260, 263, 271. libation, 255. lightning, 183. limestone, 18, 44, 50, 52, 126, 217, 249, 262, 296, 306, 314, 363, 364, 373; —erosion, 118; —hills, 219. llano, 278, 281, 341, 363. la Llave, 277, 278. Lopez—Lieut.-Governor, 351, 381. lost at night, 167. Lumholtz—Charles, v., 79, 80, 83. Lux—Ernst, vii, 3, 10, 14, 159. lycopods, 154, 199.

macaws, 4, 340. Macuilapa, 345. Magdalena de los comales, 127. maguey, 60, 119. mai, 367. malacates, 59. Malintzi, 188, 189. mangroves, 290. mantas, 128, 148. Manuel, our arriero, 218, 219. mapa, 236, 330. mapachtli, 329. mapaho, 202, 207. Marcelo—Alejandro, 279. Maria as a female name, 56. marimba, 42, 346. Mariano, our mozo, 115, 119, 156. market—Tehuantepec, 162; —Oaxaca, 112. Martinez—Quirino, 249. Martinez—Silvano, 78, 80, 83. maskers, 71, 240, 243. Mayas, 297, 304, 396, 397; —stubbornness, 312. Mazatecs—costume, 234; —houses, 233. measuring—Mitla, 146; —Ayutla, 149. Medellin, 14. medical practice, 36. Mendieta, 195. Mercado—Governor Aristeo, 78. Merida, 295, 297, 301, 315, 355; —expensive living, 298; —carnival, 318, 321. mesquite, 97. Mexicalcingo, 395. Mexico—steamer, 393, 394. miraculous cross, 6. mist, 22, 27. Mitla—ruins, 4; —Mixes seen at, 13; —festival, 17; —fiesta, 142; —work at, 144; —ruins, 148. Mixes, 112, 398; —first veiw of, 13; —tragedy, 18; —land of, 22; —life, 23; —roads, 31. Mixtec, 115, 139; —boy, 397; —language, 140; —planter, 204. mogote, 78, 81. mole, 222. money—Guatemalan, 51. monkey's comb, 340. Montezuma, 250, 260. moon influences young, 217. moonstone, 64. Mora—Senora, 278. moral=mulberry, 246, 259. Morrison—Stanton, 389. mosquitoes, 289. moss, 273; —crimson, 214; —gray, 232, 277; yellow, 199, 214. mounds, 116. moving stone, 349. mulada, 387. mule—purchase, 15; —accident, 33; —trouble by, 44; —trouble with, 52; —gives out, 53; —reported dead, 117. muleteer—affectionate, 179. munecos, 246, 250, 258, 261, 268, 269. Murcio—Don, 369. Murcio—Guillermo, 129, 131, 136. Museo Yucateco, 301. music—of the Candelaria, 24; —at Los Reyes, 91.

Nabor—Don, 98. nacimiento, 195. nagual, 166. names of one river, 251. Negrete, 95. los negritos, 82. Nehuatzen, 84. Nenton, 49, 52. New Year—celebration, 82; —gifts, 339. night-blindness, 164. night-travel, 172. night-watch, 170. Nochixtlan, 120. norther, 21, 22, 33, 158, 294, 326, 327, 393. nublina, 232, 233, 261, 272.

Oaxaca, 4, 6, 15, 112. obsidian, 240. ocellated turkey, 318. Ocosingo, 375. Ocotopec (Mixe), 153, 154, —(Mixtec), 112. oleander, 174.

Once Pueblos, 98; —ride through, 102. operation proposed, 136. orchids, 23, 27, 44, 126, 154, 199, 201, 207, 212, 232, 248. organo cactus, 18. Orozco y Berra, 131, 245, 264. Otomis, 56, 242, 261, 397, 398; —female type, 57: —costume, 58; —male types, 62. ox-cart—travel, 334, 336, 337, 338, 340; —accident, 341. ox played out, 347. Ozuluama, 274, 278; —Jefe, of 276.

Pacheco—Anselmo, viii, 115, 168, 184. Pacific, 37, 43, 112, 132, 160, 165; —coast—yellow fever, 329. Padre—the, his story, 1; —at Chila, 10; —at Medellin, 14. paganism surviving, 254, 269, 305, 307. pahuatl, 245. Pahuatlan, 242, 244. Pahuatlan River, 242. Palacios—Conrado, 351. Palenque, 377. palms, 277, 278, 296. Pantepec, 247, 265; costume, 267; —houses, 268; —women, 267. Panuco, 283. Panuco River, 274. Papalo, 182, 198, 214. papaya, 309. parasitic fig, 340. el Parian, 118. Parracho, 81. parrots, 41, 166, 262, 334. Paso Real, 288, 289. pastores, 72. Patzcuaro, 84, 107. pea-flower, 201. Pearson Company, 326. pebbles wedged by torrent, 266. pelico, 367. pemol, 287. peonage, 45. Peru tree—belief, 194. piano, 208. Pichataro, 84, 106. pigeons, 219. pigs, 377. pilgrimage, 48. Pimentel—Governor, 351. pineapples, 361. pines, 128, 182, 371. pinguicula, 154. pinolillos, 347. los Pinos, 344, 345. pinto, 47, 332, 353, 361. pitahaya (cactus), 96, 216. pito, 287, 358, 377. plaster prepared, 135. le Plongeon—Dr. A., 301. polydactyly, 205. Ponce; Padre, 70, 71, 72, 73. population of Mexico, v. Porfiria, Aztec cook, 286. posole, 343, 379. pottery, 102, 112, 127, 137, 332, 339. pouch—netted, 367. Powell—William D., viii, 56. predictions dire, 374. presidente—sleepy, 267; —Zautla, 201. priest—drunken, 145; —ignorant, 4; active, 234; —gifts to, 123; —reception of, 124. priestess—pagan, 254. prisoners, 368; —of state, 354. private cart, 345. Progress, 295, 299, 320, 324. Puebla, 283, 300, 330. Pueblo Viejo, 274, 275. pulque, 61, 119; —country, 240. puma, 41. pumice, 128. pygmy statue, 57. pyramid, 303, 362.

quail, 306. quarrel adjusted, 354. quartz, 18. Quechol—Romualdo, 188, 189, 191, 192, 194, 196. Quezaltepec, 31, 155 quichiquemil, see costume. Quiero—Senor, 13, 17. Quiroga, 69, 70.

railroad—Yucatecan, 296, 303. rain ceremonials, 271. rain-god, 6. rattle, 318. Rau—Enrique, 385, 386, 390. rebozos (Parracho), 81. regidor perplexed, 162. resting at summit, 373. los Reyes, 90. rheumatism cure, 330. rhododendron, 22. ridge in Yucatan, 306. la Riviera, 291. road ("rio blanca"), 219; —dilapidated, 241. roads—mixe, 156; Zapotec, 177. Robinson, A.A., ix. robbery, 63. rock-impressions, 196. Rodriguez; Governor Pedro L., 247. round houses, 131. ruins (Tecomavaca), 186.

Sabina, 84, 106. sacrifice, 252, 254. salt, 373. el Salto, 381, 389, 391. San Antonio, 49. San Antonio, 228; —excitement at, 231. San Bartolo (Hacienda), 19. San Bartolo (Hidalgo), 261, 271; —market, 262. San Bartolo (Mixtec), 126. San Bartolo (Zapotec), 176; —costume, 177. San Bartolome (Tzotzil), 49, 366. San Bernardino, 232. San Blas, 164. San Carlos, 152, 177. San Cristobal (Chiapas), 364, 365, 385. San Estevan, 88. San Francisco, 191. San Geronimo (Mazatec), 232. San Geronimo (Huaxtec), 288. San Geronimo (Zapotec), 331, 332. San Gregorio, 245, 268. San Juan (Yucatan), 308, 309. San Lorenzo; 14, 18. San Lucas, 232, 235. San Mateo del Mar, 168, 334. San Miguel, 34, 157. San Miguel (Chiapas), 344, 345. San Nicolas, 260. San Nicolas Panotla, 92, 397. San Pablito, 246, 259; —witchcraft, 257; —paper, 259. San Pablo el grande, 258, 261. San Pedrito, 119. San Pedro, 190. San Pedro Soochiapan, 207; —town-house, 208; —public service, 209; houses, 212. San Sebastian, 364. Sanchez—Padre, 364. sandstone, 374, 377. sand dollars, 327. sandunga (song), 330. Santa Ana, 188. Santa Anita, 395. Santa Fe de la Laguna, 69. Santa Maria, 38, 160. Santa Maria (Totonac), 250. Santa Maria (Yucatan), 307. Santa Maria Albarradas, 20. Santa Maria Atlihuitzia, 195. Santiago Guevea, 37, 158. santocalli, 254. Santo Domingo (Chiapas), 350. Santo Domingo (Mixtec), 127. sastun, 307, 310. Sawapa, 89, 194. schistose rock, 182. school-teachers, 224. scientific results of work, viii. school at San Nicolas Panotla, 93. scorpion, 394. sea gulls, 290. las Sedas, 116. segundo of Zautla, 203, 204. selaginella, 154. Seler—Mrs., 331. semi-domestication, 343. sensitive plants, 201. September 16, San Miguel's Day, 271. shales, 377. shaly-sandstone, 374. silk, 235. singing, 171, 192. sister—loyal, 361. slate, 20. small-pox, 119, 194, 301, 321. Smith—Lucius, 4, 15. smuggling, 51. snakes, 277, 307, 358. snipe, 290. soldiers, 43. songs—Aztec, 192; —Zapotec, 330. spear-thrower, 75. spinning, 58, 202. spot-sacral—on Maya babies, 411. stalagmite, 315. Starr in Old Mexico, 405. stations—railroad, 303. stream-beds dry, 41. stubbornness, 312. subterranean streams, 373. Suchiapa, 361. sugar-making, 244, 249, 314, —mill, 307 sunset, 192. surviving paganism, 6, 395. syenite, 43. Syrian peddlers, 7.

Tamalin, 279, 281. Tampico, 274. Tanaquillo=Tanaco, 104, 105. Tanatepec, 42. Tanchitla, 251. Tancoco, 281, 284; —hats, 284; —houses, 284. Tangancicuaro, 98. Tantima, 280, 282; houses, 283, 286. Tapachula, 373. Tarascans, 68; —trading, 85. Tatarian—Bedros, viii. Tecomavaca, 185. Tecomavaca Viejo, 186. Tehuacan, 8. Tehuantepec, 39, 161, 328; —name story, 165; —yellow fever, 329. Tehuantepec River, 173. Tehuantepec women, 112; —beauty, 39; —versus Tuxtla Gutierrez, 352; —dress, 40. Tekax, 303, 305; —hermita, 304; —Jefe of, 304. temascal, 191, 192, 283. Tenango (Chiapas), 376; —pottery, 377. Tenango del Doria, 247, 260, 271. Tenejapa, 366, 367, 371; market, 372. Teotitlan del Camino, 228, 229. tepache, 148, 217. Tepanapa, 200, 213. Tepehuas, 247, 267; —costume, 264. Tepeyac, 395. teponastl, 265. Teposcolula, 139. Tequixistlan, 174. thatching, 41. theatre, 103. tiger=jaguar, or ocelotl, 307. tiger-cat, 279. Thompson—Edward, 318, 320. three-part house, 88. Tilantongo, 121. tinajas, 119. Titian—the, 73, 74. titulo, 236. Tlacolula, 142, 180. Tlacotepec, 38, 160. Tlacuilotepec, 246, 248, 249. Tlaxcala, 85, 188, 192, 283. Tlaxcalans, 397. Tlaxcalteca (song), 192. Tlaxco, 245. Tlaxiaco, 128. toro play, 324, 384. toros, 142. torrent-wash, 82. Torres—Anastasia, 362. Torres—Padre, 72. tortillas, 339. tortuga, 318, 377. las Tortugas, 272. Totolapa, 179. Totonacs, 242, 247, 251, 265, 396; —fishing, 266. toucan, 44, 340, 348. trade, 170, 235, 236. tramp—American, 50, 52. tree-ferns, 22, 54, 199, 273, 387. trees protected, 297, 309. la Trinidad, 390. Triquis, 131, 398. el Triunfo, 385, 386, 387, 388, 389. tropical forest, 22, 37, 387. troupe—comedy, 337. tsupakwa, 75. tufa, 50. tufaceous deposits, 119, 139, 263. Tulancingo, 239. Tule, 17, 142; —great tree at, 16. Tumbala, 380, 384, 385, 389; —boys delayed at, 388. Tuxtla Gutierrez, 44, 331, 333, 335, 338, 346, 347, 350, 351 et, 357, 376. Tzendals, 366, 367, 378; —dress, 372, 380; —hair-dressing, 372. Tzintzuntzan, 69, 73. Tzotzils, 45, 366, 367; —dress, 366; —industrious, 366.

ucuares, 102. ule, 269. Union Hidalgo=Guvino, 333, 334, 335, 343. United States—ideas regarding, 42. Uruapan, 78; —lacquer, 79; —goitre, 79.

Valencia—Jefe, 178, 375. Valley hot, 181. Van Antwerp—A.L., ix. Venta Colorado, 241. Vera Cruz, 394. Vice-consul (Solis), 299, 320. los Viejos, 71. view-extended, 362. village crying, 65, 153.

wasp nests, 156. watch-houses in fields, 120. water birds, 277; —doubtful, 341. wayside selling, 76, 242. wayside shrine, 28. weaving, 50, 127, 138, 202, 211, 366. wedding, 221, 236. weighing, 170. Werner, Mr., 331. wheels—hot, 349. whistles—pottery, 112. Wilson, David A., viii. wind-mills, 297. witchcraft, 246, 256, 376; —cave, 256. women difficult subjects, 89, 132, 157, 162, 185, 268, 369, 381; —easy subjects, 235, 265, 285; —of Tuxtla Gutierrez beautiful, 352; —Zapotec, 339. wool, 138. work—nature of, vi; —views regarding, 235; —methods and difficulties, 61, 86, 122, 132, 144, 149, 183, 234, 312, 356. wry-necks, 278.

xalama, 259. Xalapa, 173. Xaya, 307, 308, 309. Xochihua, Sr., 245, 260. xtoles, 317, 323. Yajalon, 379, 381. Yaqui, 396. Yautepec, 375. yellow fever, 301, 308, 316, 327, 328, 329, 393. Yodocono, 120, 396. Yucatan, 293, 294; —aspect of, 296; —dress, 297.

Zamora, 97. Zanatepec, 42. el Zapato, 219. Zapote (hacienda), 346. Zapotecs, 112, 338, 379, 397; —wounded, 19; —woman's dress, 34; —family, 34; —traders, 170; —cook, 171; —family, 176; —songs, 330; —painting, 330; —expansion, 339. Zautla—San Juan, 201. Zinacantan, 364. Ziracuaretaro, 77. Zoques, 45, 351; —beauty of women, 352; —dress, 352; —baby-carrying, 353; —houses, 357.

THE END

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