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In-Door Gardening for Every Week in the Year
by William Keane
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Azaleas.—All irregularities of growth should be corrected by pruning. We have lately seen the beneficial effects of close pruning on such plants; they had been cut in severely last season by removing strong, straggling branches of old wood, to give some a spherical and others a pyramidal form. When pruned, the ball was reduced, the plant fresh potted in a smaller-sized pot, and the peat soil rammed as hard as it was possible to make it; then watered, and introduced to heat. The plants treated in that manner are now covered with bloom, and in a high state of vigour.

Heaths.—Keep the tops pinched off, to form bushy plants.

New Holland Plants.—Some of them of weak growth, and which naturally make long, straggling shoots, are much improved by bending down the branches, and fixing them to a wire hoop, or string attached to the rim of the pot. By such means the nakedness of the plant at its base is hidden, and the check imposed on the ascent of the sap will induce an increased supply of shoots. Pick off the seed-pods as the plants go out of bloom. Cut back and arrange the shoots in the best manner, to produce compact growth.

Pelargoniums.—All that are showing bloom, unless of very gross habit, will receive benefit from a supply of a little weak manure water. For that purpose put cow, horse, or sheepdung into a tub, and to one peck add five gallons of rain or other soft water. When taking it for use draw it off clear, and give the plants a watering twice a week. Give air freely, shut up early, and syringe the plants overhead till the flowers expand, when syringing should be discontinued. As the petals are apt to drop very soon in hot weather, it is recommended to touch the centre of the flower with a camel-hair pencil, or small feather, dipped in gum water, which will stick the petals together and prolong the blooming. Such is the general practice at our metropolitan exhibitions.

STOVE AND ORCHID-HOUSE.

As the stove plants grow, allow them more space, especially such plants as are prized for the beauty of their foliage. Give frequent attention to stopping and training. Look to the climbers frequently, to regulate their growth and to prevent entanglement, and a world of trouble and confusion. Put in cuttings of such plants as Brugmansias, Clerodendrons, Eranthemums, Erythrinas, Poinsettias, and those winter-flowering plants Euphorbia jaquiniflora and the Gesnera bulbosa. Where there is only one house in which to grow Orchids, a compromise as to temperature must be made to suit the natives of the hot and moist valleys or shady woods of the East, and those which inhabit high and airy regions in the Western hemisphere. To accomplish this it is advisable to allow a free circulation of air during the early part of the day, with an abundance of atmospheric moisture, and to shut up early in the afternoon with a high degree of temperature.

Achimenes.—They delight in a moist heat, and a partially-shaded situation. More air to be given as they advance in growth. The shoots to be staked out neatly.

Gesneras to be treated similarly, with the addition of more light.

Gloxinias.—The same as Achimenes.

FORCING-HOUSES.

Cherries.—Give more air, and keep a drier atmosphere when the fruit is ripening. Give plenty of water to the trees swelling their fruit. Keep them free from insects, or the fruit will be of little value.

Figs.—Air freely, to give flavour to the fruit now ripening. Avoid wetting the fruit when it begins to soften.

Melons.—Keep up the heat of the beds by renewing or turning the linings. Slightly shade the plants when the sun is powerful, to keep the foliage in a healthy state, without which good fruit cannot be produced. When the frames are at liberty, Melons may be grown in them with a little assistance from dung heat at bottom.

Peaches.—Give a liberal supply of air, with less water, to trees, the fruit of which are ripening.

Pines.—Continue the previous instructions in the management of the plants in the different stages of growth.

Vines.—Thin and stop the shoots, and thin the berries in good time. Attend to the late crops, and set, by hand, the blossoms of Muscats, West's St. Peter's, and other shy setters. Be sure that inside borders are properly supplied with water, giving sufficient quantities to thoroughly moisten the whole mass of soil.

THIRD WEEK.

GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY.

Attend carefully to the stock of plants for summer and autumn decoration, and do not allow them to suffer for want of pot room and water.

Azaleas.—Continue to encourage all that have flowered by timely potting, syringings, and applications of weak liquid manure.

Camellias.—Introduce a gradual declension of artificial heat amongst all that have completed their growth. A curtailment in the supply of water, giving merely sufficient to keep them from flagging, will induce the production of blossom-buds.

Epacris.—Repot with a pretty large shift the early-flowering sorts that have freely commenced their growth. Use good fibrous heath soil, rejecting any of a spongy or greasy nature. Such plants, for some time after being newly shifted, require particular attention in watering, that the soil may not become soddened. Let the plants be placed in a cold pit, and be slightly shaded during bright sunshine. The stopping or pinching out the points of strong shoots must be regularly attended to during their growing season, to establish a uniformity of sturdy growth.

Heaths and New Holland Plants.—All that have flowered, and have made their season's growth, may be removed to cold pits, or frames, to allow those that remain, and are promising to flower, more air, sun and light.

STOVE AND ORCHID-HOUSE.

Keep up a liberal supply of humidity, with ventilation, at favourable opportunities. The plants here should now be growing very freely, and should, therefore, receive frequent attention as to stopping, training, &c. Keep them properly accommodated with pot room, and allow them all the sunshine they will bear without scorching; also, allow them sufficient space for the development of their foliage. Plenty of moisture is now requisite to encourage a free growth in Orchids, to get their pseudo-bulbs firm, well nourished, and ripened in good time. Free ventilation in favourable weather and a slight shading in bright sunshine are also requisites for their healthy growth.

FORCING-HOUSES.

Cherries.—When the fruit is ripening, air to be given freely, even to the drawing the lights off completely in favourable weather. Fires may be discontinued altogether, unless the nights are very cold.

Figs.—Give them plenty of water in all their stages of growth; discontinue the use of the syringe during the ripening process. They frequently require attention in stopping all long young shoots.

Melons.—If there is a sufficient depth of soil for the plants, they will not require any large supplies of water after the fruit is swelling off; but it will be necessary to sprinkle the plants overhead, and to shut up early every fine afternoon with a good heat. Lay the fruit on a tile or piece of slate.

Peaches.—When the fruit is swelling off, or beginning to ripen, admit air freely in favourable weather, even to the drawing off the lights entirely, so as to admit a free circulation and the direct influence of the sun, by which flavour and colour are best attained. Continue to stop all very-luxuriant shoots, and thin out the young wood. Some persons lay in plenty of young wood to select from in winter pruning; but fruit-bearing wood, regularly disposed all over the tree, is best attained by the judicious and successive thinning of useless shoots during their growing season. Continue to tie in the shoots of the late houses.

Pineries.—When the repotting of the plants has recently taken place it will be necessary to shade for several hours, during bright sunshine, for a few days; but for the general stock shading should be dispensed with as much as possible—as short, stiff leaves and sturdy growth are best attained by judicious airings and humidity. Do not water much at the root immediately after repotting. Maintain a brisk bottom heat to the succession plants. Admit plenty of air during favourable weather.

Vineries.—As the fruit in the early houses become coloured, it is advisable to remove all superfluous or rambling shoots; but to retain and to preserve with the greatest care the principal leaves—as the good quality of the fruit and the healthy condition of the tree for the ensuing season will depend upon the number and healthy state of the principal leaves.

FOURTH WEEK.

GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY.

As most plants here are now in active growth, they will require a liberal supply of water. If the sun shines very brightly, a slight shading would be of benefit for a few hours on very hot days.

Azaleas, Chinese.—When done blooming, they succeed best in a close pit, kept moderately moist and slightly shaded in the middle of the day. If they are too large for a pit, they will do well in a vinery, or in any other large house where they can stand at a distance from the glass without shading.

Balsams and Cockscombs.—Promote their growth by shifting them into larger pots, in rich soil, with an abundance of light near the glass, and heat.

Camellias to be treated as advised for Azaleas.

Geraniums.—If any remain after the flower-garden masses are furnished, they should be potted and treated with every attention as to watering, &c. When they have made fresh roots, and begin to grow freely, to be stopped, to make bushy plants. Calceolarias, Fuchsias, Petunias, Verbenas, &c., treated in a similar manner, will be useful as a reserve to succeed the greenhouse plants that are now in bloom, and to fill up vacancies as they occur in the beds and borders.

Heaths and New Holland Plants.—Many being now in full growth will require an abundance of water, more especially in bright weather. Many fine specimens are frequently lost through imperfect watering; for if the ball is once allowed to get thoroughly dry, all endeavours to restore the plant to health and vigour are generally unsuccessful.

STOVE AND ORCHID-HOUSE.

Ornamental stove plants—such as Brugmansias, Centradenias, Clerodendrons, Eranthemums, Euphorbias, Geissomerias, Gesneras, Justicias, Poinsettias, &c., to be supplied with clear liquid manure, and to have their rambling shoots stopped. Many of the free-growing plants will require shifting occasionally. The great object should be to get rapid growth when light abounds, and thus to secure luxuriant foliage at the right season, when there will be more time for the wood to be properly matured for winter. The syringings to be given early in the afternoon, that the plants may get dry before night.

Achimenes.—When grown in large seed-pans they produce a fine effect.

FORCING-HOUSE.

Cherries.—Give more air, and keep a drier atmosphere when the fruit is ripening. Give plenty of water to the trees now swelling their fruit. Syringe frequently, and keep the foliage and fruit free from insects.

Chrysanthemums.—Pot off as soon as rooted. If not already struck, the cuttings should be put in at once.

Cucumbers.—Stop them, and water freely. All that are intended for ridges, if hardened off, should now be planted out. See that the ball of earth is well soaked with water before planting.

Figs.—Give them plenty of air during the day in fine weather, with abundance of water. Use the syringe freely, except when fruit is ripening.

Peaches.—Although a dry atmosphere is necessary to give flavour to the ripening fruit, it is not advisable to withhold water altogether from the roots while the trees are making their growth. Water the inside borders in the morning in clear weather, so that any vapour that arises may pass off during the day. The outside borders, if dry, should also be watered as far as the roots extend, and then mulched, to prevent evaporation during hot, dry weather. If the early-forced trees have naked branches, some of the earliest-made wood may be taken from the trees, and buds inserted from it in the barren parts. Buds inserted now may start into growth in July, and be stopped when about six inches long, to get the wood well ripened.

Pines.—A bottom heat from 80 to 85 must be kept up to the plants intended for fruiting in the autumn. It is advisable, where practicable, to allow the stools from which fruit has been cut to remain in the house for some time; to supply them liberally with water, and occasionally with liquid manure; to encourage the growth of the suckers.

Vines.—In the houses where Grapes are ripening, the temperature may be allowed to rise to 90, with sun heat, and to decline to 60 at night. In the succession-houses thin the bunches, and do not be covetous to over-crop the Vines, as it is the cause of many bad effects. Stop laterals, and use the syringe freely in the afternoons.



JUNE.

FIRST WEEK.

GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY.

Azalea Indica.—Encourage free growth, as soon as possible after they have done blooming, by placing them in heat, supplying an abundance of water, and syringing freely.

Calceolarias.—Water carefully; cut down when out of bloom, and remove them to a cold frame.

Heaths and New Holland Plants.—The young stock will now succeed best in a pit, or frame, placing the lights to the north. The glass to be well washed, and the pots to be placed on tiles, or ashes, above the ground level.

Pelargoniums.—Give air freely, avoid cold draughts, and shade from scorching sun. Shift and stop the succession stock for late flowering.

Petunias.—Do not neglect to pot off from the store propagating pots some of those, as advised last week, as also Scarlet Geraniums, Verbenas, Heliotropes, &c., to afford a variety of sorts and colours for the conservatory.

STOVE AND ORCHID-HOUSE.

Let rambling shoots of ordinary stove plants have frequent stopping. The Arides, Dendrobiums, Phalnopses, Saccolabiums, Sarcanthuses, Sobralias, Vandas, and others of the eastern genera of Orchids, will now require most liberal and frequent waterings and syringings. Gongoras, Peristerias, Stanhopeas, &c., when full of roots in baskets, require a thorough soaking. Now is a good time to pot Cymbidiums, Peristerias, &c., starting into growth. Arides, Vandas, and plants of a similar habit, do best when shifted after they have done blooming.

Achimenes.—Continue to shift them, as also Begonias, Clerodendrons, Gesneras, &c., as requisite. Remove those in bloom to the greenhouse or conservatory.

Climbers.—Keep them thin and tied in, so as not to shade the rest of the plants to an injurious extent.

Succulents.—Shift Melocacti, &c., and keep them growing, and near the glass.

FORCING-HOUSES.

Cherries.—The trees in large pots or tubs, from which the crop has been lately gathered, should have abundance of air, and an occasional supply of liquid manure. Give them, also, a good washing overhead with the syringe, or engine, dashing it on with considerable force. They will also require to have their wood matured early.

Figs.—Continue the practice of stopping when the shoots are four or five eyes long. Give a liberal supply of water, and thin out the second crop where too thick.

Melons.—Keep the shoots thin, and remove all useless laterals. When the fruit is swelling, the soil should be kept in a properly moist state, and the foliage in a healthy condition. The bottom heat should not be allowed to sink below 75.

Peaches.—Keep up a growing temperature with plenty of air and moisture, and frequently syringe the trees, to keep them clean and healthy. The ripening fruit will require plenty of air.

Pines.—Repot as they may require; for if they are allowed to remain in a pot-bound state at this season they are very apt to start prematurely into fruit. It is also particularly requisite that the balls are thoroughly moist at the time of repotting. To give strength to the growing stock, it is advisable to admit abundance of air in the morning part of the day; and in the afternoon, to encourage a high degree of heat with an abundance of atmospheric moisture. The plants growing in open beds to be supplied with a steady bottom heat of from 80 to 85, and sufficient water to the roots.

Vines.—Proceed diligently with thinning the berries, as they swell rapidly at this season. The late houses in which the Vines are in bloom to be kept warmer and closer than they have been, until the fruit is set. Stop the shoots and laterals, and never allow a mass of useless wood to remain on them.

SECOND WEEK.

GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY.

The principal part of the greenhouse plants may now be removed to an out-of-door situation, open to the morning sun, and protected from high winds, and be placed on some hard bottom through which the worms cannot get into the pots. The specimen plants that remain should be turned round from time to time, that they may not get one-sided; and allow them to have plenty of room on all sides. Also, the young plants intended for specimens should have their flower-buds picked off, to encourage their growth.

Balsams.—Encourage them by frequent shifts, and keep them in bottom heat, and near the glass. The prematurely-formed flower-buds to be picked off, as the plants should attain a considerable size before they are allowed to bloom.

Calceolarias.—The most critical time is after the plants have flowered; if allowed to produce seed, they generally die off—Nature having completed her task. When the bloom begins to fall, cut the plants down, and repot into a larger size; place them in a cold frame facing the east, the lights on during the day, with air, and entirely off during the night, unless in rainy weather, as the night dews are highly beneficial. Treated thus the plants will soon produce new shoots, which must be taken off and pricked out into small pots in a very open soil, and placed in a very gentle bottom heat to strike. When rooted, to be shifted into pots of a larger size.

Cinerarias.—The plants that have bloomed through the season to be cut down, turned out of their pots, and to have at least half the old soil removed from their roots. Prepare a piece of ground, in a sheltered situation, with leaf mould or rotten dung and sand, in which the Cinerarias are to be planted, one inch below the level of the soil, in rows fifteen inches apart and one foot apart in the row. When planted, to be well watered.

Climbers.—The Passifloras, Mandevilla suaveolens, Tecoma jasminoides, and other such climbers in the conservatory, will now be growing very freely, and will therefore require frequent attention to keep them in order. The young shoots may be allowed to grow in a natural manner, merely preventing them from getting too much entangled, or growing into masses.

Fuchsias.—When in a healthy-growing state they require an abundance of water and frequent syringings. Train them in the desired form, and pinch back all weak and straggling shoots.

Heaths and New Holland Plants.—Examine them very carefully, and be sure that they are in a proper state as to moisture. The young plants which are not blooming will do best if placed in a pit where they can be exposed or not, as may appear necessary. To lay a proper foundation for a good specimen it is necessary to stop and to train the shoots into form.

Kalosanthes.—Train them neatly, increase the supply of water, and give them liquid manure occasionally.

STOVE AND ORCHID-HOUSE.

Continue to shift the young and growing stock of stove plants. To harden the wood of the early-grown plants, or autumn or winter flowering, it is advisable to remove them to some cooler place, such as the shelves of the greenhouse. The baskets, in which the Stanhopeas will now be blooming, should be carefully examined to see that the buds, as they protrude, may not be injured by contact with the side. Many stove plants and Orchids in flower, if taken to a late vinery, or such intermediate house, will thus be prepared, in a short time, for removal to the conservatory during the summer.

Climbers.—When the shrubby plants are large, the climbers hanging loosely give a sort of tropical character to the house; but, either hanging, or trained in wreaths or festoons, they require pruning and regulating, to prevent them becoming entangled, and, therefore, a confused mass of wood and foliage.

FORCING-HOUSES.

Cherries.—Give air night and day in fine weather.

Figs.—When the ripest of the fruit is gathered, give the trees a good syringing overhead, to cleanse and refresh the leaves, and to keep down insects.

Melons.—To be slightly shaded with a net, or a few pea-sticks, during bright sunshine in the middle of the day, to prevent the scorching of the leaves; for if such occurs, the fruit ripens prematurely, and is, in consequence, without flavour.

Peaches.—When the fruit is ripening, give as much air as possible during the day, and when the nights are mild and warm leave the lights open. When the fruit in the succession-house is stoned, give a good watering to the roots, and syringe the trees frequently, as previously advised.

Pines.—Apply an abundance of moisture to the pathways of the fruiting-house during bright weather. Give plenty of air, but allow at the same time the thermometer to range from 90 to 95. Shut up when the rays of the sun are getting partially off the house, and ply the syringe freely about the leaves and stems of the plants, and the surface of the plunging material. Air to be given an hour or two afterwards for the night.

Vines.—Keep thinning the berries and stopping the laterals as they advance, which, with syringing and giving air, is the principal work to be done.

THIRD WEEK.

GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY.

The stock of plants out of doors to be carefully looked over in showery weather that they may not suffer from imperfect drainage. The more delicate sorts to be returned to the houses, or protected by some means during heavy rains.

Camellias.—When they are kept in-doors give an abundance of air night and day, with an occasional application of the syringe, keeping the paths and floors damp. When they have ceased growing, and have formed their flower-buds, discontinue to syringe the plants overhead, as it sometimes starts them into a fresh growth that will be the destruction of the flower-buds.

Chrysanthemums.—Plant them out eighteen or twenty inches apart in an open piece of ground. Some to be left to grow as standards on one stem, and others to be topped, to make them bushy.

Cinerarias.—In raising seedlings it is advisable to select each parent plant, distinguished for its dwarf habit and decided colour, and to place them by themselves in a pit or frame. The seed should be carefully gathered as it ripens. It should be sown in shallow pots, or pans, well drained with crocks; then some siftings, and over that some light soil, with some finer and more sandy on the surface, covering the seeds very lightly with the same; and slightly sprinkling, or watering, through a very fine rose, and the surface covered with a little moss, to prevent evaporation. In a few days the seedlings will be up; then remove the moss, and let them remain in the pots, or pans, until they are large enough to be handled with safety; then pot them in small pots, and keep close for a day or two.

Lilium lancifolium.—Give attention to them; as also to tree Carnations, Salvia splendens, Scarlet Geraniums, &c., for autumn and early winter flowering.

Oranges.—The same as advised for Camellias.

STOVE AND ORCHID-HOUSE.

Achimenes.—Repot, as also Begonias and Gesneras, for succession of late bloom.

Luculia gratissima.—Propagate by cuttings.

Some of the Orchids will now require to be topped up a little with fresh soil. The Barkeria spectabilis, Epidendrum Skinneri, the Lycastes, Odontoglossum grande, &c., will now enjoy the temperature of the conservatory.

FORCING-HOUSE.

Figs.—Continue to stop all shoots when five or six joints long. Never allow the trees in tubs, or pots, to want water; they now require daily attention.

Melons.—Shade them during bright sunshine for a few hours in the middle of the day. If the red spider appears, rub sulphur vivum, mixed with water, on slates or tiles, and place them in the pit, or frame, where the sun's rays may fall upon them.

Peaches.—Admit plenty of air when the fruit is ripe, or nearly so. When the crop is gathered, give them a good washing with the syringe. Those changing for ripening, if the trees are young and vigorous, to have a general stopping of the strong shoots all over the higher parts of the tree. To keep down red spider, it is advisable to wash the walls, pipes, or flues, with sulphur vivum reduced to the consistency of paint; or to paint some slates, tiles, or common saucers, with the mixture, and to place them in different parts of the house, where the sun can shine upon them.

Pines.—If the pot plants in fruit are in a healthy condition, well furnished with roots, an occasional supply of clear manure water, in a warm state, may be given with advantage to them.

Strawberries.—As it is necessary, by early attention, to ensure a healthy, vigorous growth, therefore, as soon as the runners have emitted the least portion of root, take them off, and prick them out on a rich piece of ground, or on an old hotbed where Radishes or early Potatoes have been grown under hoops, where, when the weather is hot, they are more convenient to shade, and require less water.

Vines.—When the fruit is cut in the early houses, ripen the wood by exposing it night and day, except during heavy rains. Water to be gradually withheld as the growth of the plants declines, and somewhat in the proportion in which you would have vegetation stop, not all at once, but gradually. The Vines with fruit now stoning may be allowed to produce a few redundant shoots if there is sufficient room to lay them in without crowding, or overlapping the old wood, or shading the old leaves. The late Grapes to be finally thinned, their shoulders to be tied out, and every useless shoot to be removed. Keep the Vines in pots trained, and exposed to light, and apply weak liquid manure frequently.

FOURTH WEEK.

GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY.

Many of the finer kinds of hard-wooded plants—such as Boronias, Epacrises, &c.—will now be out of bloom, and will require cutting in rather closely, to form neat bushy plants. Some of the greenhouse plants will most probably require shifting, and should receive that attention now, or, at latest, by the middle of next month. Keep a sharp look out for insects of all kinds, and also for mildew; and give the plants, if the weather is dry, a sprinkling once or twice a-week from the syringe or garden engine.

New Holland Plants.—If any are retained in the house, let them be placed where they can have a sufficiency of light and fresh air, and at the same time in a place where the sun has no power on the pots; but if such cannot be avoided, place the pot containing the plant in another two sizes larger, and fill the intervening space with moss.

Pelargoniums.—When out of bloom, they should be placed in the open ground for a fortnight or three weeks to ripen the wood before they are cut down.

Scarlet Geraniums.—To prepare them for winter blooming it is advisable to place the pots during the summer on a hard bottom out of doors and in the full sun, and to pinch out the flower-stems as they appear. To be carefully attended with water.

STOVE AND ORCHID-HOUSE.

Keep up a kindly humidity by frequent syringings, and keeping the floors, paths, &c., damp. Many of the stove plants—viz., Clerodendrons, Erythrinas, Gardenias, Ixoras, Jasmines, Liliums, Pergularias, Stephanotises, &c.—may be removed to the conservatory, where the flowers will attain a deeper colour and retain it for a longer period than if they had remained in the stove.

Euphorbias.—Propagate jacquiniflora and fulgens, and grow them on a successional system of culture for furnishing the conservatory and stove throughout the autumn, winter, and spring.

Gesnera zebrina.—Keep up a succession in various stages of growth, and place another batch of tubers in a pan.

FORCING-HOUSES.

Give particular attention to the preservation of the foliage in houses where the fruit has been gathered, keeping the atmosphere cool and moist; and give the trees an occasional washing with the engine, to keep down red spider and the leaves clean and healthy.

Cherries.—When the trees are planted in the house, and the fruit has been gathered, give all the air possible by throwing it entirely open. Give them a good washing occasionally with the garden engine. When the plants are in pots, it is advisable to place them on a hard bottom on the north side of a wall or fence.

Melons.—Bottom heat is necessary for their healthy growth; without it a check would be given that would be sure to produce a most injurious effect on the swelling fruit. Water to be given to the plants overhead occasionally.

Peaches.—Continue to maintain a moist, healthy atmosphere while the fruit is swelling. Give air sufficiently early in the morning, to prevent the sun scorching the foliage. Syringe and shut up early in the afternoon.

Pines.—Continue to provide proper bottom and surface heat, and give attention to airing, watering, syringing, and shifting in due time. By such means a large amount of healthy growth may now be secured for the fruit-swelling and succession plants. The plants swelling their fruit to be also favoured with a high temperature, a moist atmosphere, and plenty of water, and occasionally manure water at the root. If worm-casts appear in any of the pots, water with lime-water in a clear state.

Vines.—As the dry atmosphere necessary for the preservation of the ripe bunches is conducive to the increase of red spider, the sulphur must be immediately applied as advised last week. Discontinue the use of the syringe as soon as the succession crops begin to ripen. Check the growth of laterals by timely pinching. Give the final thinnings to the latest Grapes; and as they are frequently required for winter use, a good thinning should be given, as crowded bunches and berries will not keep late in the season.



JULY.

FIRST WEEK.

GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY.

The plants permanently planted out in the borders of the conservatory should have a thorough soaking of weak liquid manure. Give all the air possible at this season, both night and day, and keep the house as neat and clean as possible. If it contains many tender stove plants, shut it up for an hour while the sun is on it in the evening, so as to produce a more genial atmosphere for them.

Achimenes.—Encourage them, as also Clerodendrons, &c., to grow and to prolong their beauty in the conservatory by supplying them with liquid manure, taking particular care not to give it too strong, especially at first.

Cinerarias.—Sow seed immediately. Plants for early blooming should also be potted and started at once, choosing the strongest suckers for the purpose, and placing them in a cool, shady frame until they have made fresh growth.

Chrysanthemums.—Propagate some for blooming in small pots.

Heaths.—Pluck off the flowers and seed-pods as soon as they become unsightly, and prune straggling growth. The softwooded kinds—such as the ventricosa, &c.—do best in a sheltered situation in the open air, with means to protect them during heavy rains; while the woolly-leaved—such as Masonii, &c.—and hardwooded varieties delight in cold pits where the glass can be shaded or used for protection as necessary. Examine the plants which were not shifted in the spring, and, if necessary, pot them without delay; but if they require to be cut in, to make them bushy, it will be best to let them break afresh before they are repotted.

Leschenaultias.—If they have done blooming, and are pot-bound, to be repotted and placed in a shady place to make their growth.

STOVE AND ORCHID-HOUSE.

Give abundance of air to the stove plants at all favourable times, and abundance of moisture by all means. Examine young specimens that were potted early in the season, and shift at once such as require more pot room.

Ixoras.—Encourage the young plants by giving them plenty of air both night and day, to make short, sturdy growth; and discontinue stopping them for the season.

FORCING-HOUSES.

Cherries.—When the fruit has been gathered from the trees grown in tubs, or pots, it is advisable to place them in some open, airy quarter, to make their wood for next season's bearing.

Figs.—Give liberal supplies of water to the trees now throwing up their second crop. A top dressing of old cowdung would now be useful. Pinch out the top buds, if the shoots are growing very long. It should be a practice to manage the trees during the summer that nothing more than a slight thinning out should be wanted at the winter pruning.

Melons.—Give attention to the crops now growing, in thinning out the shoots, stopping, &c.

Peaches and Nectarines.—When all the fruit is gathered, and the wood seems well ripened, it will be best to take the lights quite off, and place them under cover until wanted again. Plenty of air to be given to the trees that are swelling off their fruit. Also, stop in succession many of the strong shoots about the period the last swelling commences. Use the syringe freely over the leaves early in the morning and again in the evening.

Pines.—Give abundance of air to the fruiting and succession plants, and during dry, hot weather, saturate the paths and every open space with moisture, to prevent the leaves of the plants becoming brown. If such a practice be regularly adopted during hot, bright sunny weather, shading will seldom or never be necessary. Be at the same time particular in maintaining a mild, genial bottom heat.

Vines.—The houses containing ripe fruit will require to be kept dry and well ventilated; those swelling will still require attention to keep a regular steady temperature with regular supplies of air. Muscats very frequently require fires during the night and on wet, cold days.

SECOND WEEK.

GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY.

Achimenes.—They delight in a steady, moist heat; to be shaded in the middle of hot days, to prevent the sun from scorching the foliage; and never to be watered overhead.

Cacti.—Remove them to a dry, airy place as soon as they have finished their growth.

Cockscombs.—They can be grown with strong, short stems, and very large heads, if they are allowed to remain in small pots until the flowers are formed, then potted in large pots in a compost of one-half rich loam, one-fourth leaf mould, and one-fourth sand, and supplied with as much liquid manure and moist heat as possible.

Fuchsias.—As the plants progress in growth give them plenty of air and moisture, occasionally moistening the paths, walls, and stages with clear manure water, and syringe the plants both morning and evening overhead.

Globe Amaranthus.—To be potted into 48-sized pots, in which they will flower in a soil composed of peat, loam, and leaf mould, or rotten dung. They should be allowed to stand near the glass, and be subjected to a moist heat of not less than 75.

Heaths.—If mildew appears, dust them with flowers of sulphur. When watering, give them a good soaking, so that every part of the ball is thoroughly wet, and then withhold further supply until it is again completely dry.

Japan Lilies.—As they are succulent in growth, keep them well and liberally supplied with water. The flower-stems to be properly sticked, so as to keep them in due bounds, and also to assist in presenting a large mass of flowers to the eye at once.

Pelargoniums.—If the plants have been exposed to the open air, as advised in a previous calendar, they will now be fit to cut down. After the plants are cut down, place them in a shady place until the most forward young shoots are one inch long; then shake them out, and repot into small pots, using sandy loam and peat only, and placing them in a close, cold frame until they begin to grow again; after which freely expose them to the weather until heavy rains in autumn, or the approach of frost, renders it necessary to house them for the winter.

STOVE AND ORCHID-HOUSE.

Cleanliness is indispensable amongst the Orchids, use a sponge to remove filth from the leaves. See that no plants are neglected in standing in corners or behind large plants; arrange and re-arrange frequently, as it tends both to promote the healthy growth of the plants and a pleasing variety in the house.

FORCING-HOUSES.

Cucumbers.—Although bright hot weather may prevail, it is advisable to keep up a brisk, regular bottom as well as top heat. Strike cuttings of choice sorts for winter bearing.

Melons.—The same as advised for Cucumbers, as they both delight in plenty of heat to keep them healthy and in regular bearing. Give them good soakings of weak manure water occasionally, and shut up early on all fine days, sprinkling the sides of the pits or frames, and the plants at times overhead. When watering the plants never allow any to fall on the main stem. If gum, or canker, appears, apply lime to the parts affected. Old plants cut back should be stimulated to grow freely.

Peaches.—Any tendency to premature decay in the leaves of those from which the fruit has been all gathered to be arrested by liberal waterings at the roots and by syringings.

Pines.—Keep up the temperature from 90 to 95 by day and from 70 to 75 by night, with plenty of moisture among the growing plants and swelling fruit. Shift the successions as the roots fill the pots.

Vines.—Uncover the house, or give all the air possible night and day as soon as the Grapes are gathered, unless the wood is not fully ripened, in that case the house should be closed in the afternoon at a good heat. Stop the laterals on the later Vines, thin and tie up the bunches, and maintain a steady, moist temperature, with plenty of air, but do not syringe the bunches.

THIRD WEEK.

GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY.

If any of the stove plants, as lately recommended, have been brought into the conservatory, they will require a free admission of air at every favourable opportunity to keep the atmosphere of the house dry. The plants must be kept clear of decaying leaves and flowers. Some judgment is also required in watering recently repotted plants, that they may not be injured by saturation in cloudy weather, nor by drought in hot sunny days.

The growth of twiners should be carefully regulated, allowing them sufficient freedom to develope their natural habits as far as other considerations will permit.

Continue to shift the hardwooded plants as they require it. A turfy compost of three-parts sandy heath soil of a fibrous and rather lumpy character, and one-part loam, will suit the majority. Particular attention should be paid to the drainage, more especially to the crock at the bottom; for if that is flat, and not hollow, it matters but little how much depth of drainage material rests upon it, the soil will soon become saturated and sour. Remember that the final shift should be given in good time to those intended to flower in the autumn.

Calceolarias (Herbaceous).—Sow seeds; the compost to be equal parts of peat or leaf mould, loam, and rotten dung, with a small portion of sand. Place a layer of broken crocks two inches thick at the bottom of the pot; then fill up within half an inch of the rim with the compost, passed through a fine seive. After the pot has been gently struck on the potting-bench to settle the soil, the surface must then be made level with a flat piece of wood, or the bottom of a small garden pan or saucer. Sprinkle the seeds regularly over the surface, do not cover with soil, and water with a fine rose; then to be placed in a cold frame, and be kept shaded from the sun.

Chorozema.—The beauty of this genus for early spring display is generally appreciated, and, therefore, requires no commendation from me. They delight, like most other New Holland plants, in sandy peat containing plenty of fibre, and require plenty of air at all times, and also to be kept constantly moist, but never very wet. A large pot and frequent stopping will soon produce a fine specimen.

Chrysanthemums.—Continue to top the plants that have been planted out in the open ground.

Epacris.—The varieties of this genus are most useful for the adornment of the conservatory in early spring. They delight in fibrous peat, broken rough, mixed with fine white sand. The young plants to be frequently stopped by pinching off the points of the shoots while growing, to induce them to throw out laterals; those again to be stopped until the plants have attained a size sufficient to warrant their blooming.

Gardenias.—If any have been removed to the conservatory while in bloom they should be returned to heat as soon as the bloom is over, to encourage growth and to allow them sufficient time to mature their growth.

Eutaxia myrtifolia.—It is a profuse and early bloomer. During the summer and autumn every new shoot should be stopped as soon as it has attained two or, at most, three joints: by such treatment it can be easily formed into a neat, compact specimen.

Winter Flowers.—The Cinerarias, Chinese Primroses, Heliotropes, Perpetual, Tea, and other Roses, will require frequent and diligent attention as to watering, shifting, &c.

STOVE AND ORCHID-HOUSE.

Give immediate and regular attention to the young stock of stove plants intended for winter blooming. Keep up a moist temperature at all times; with air during the day. When a few days of gloom occur, the humidity that sometimes becomes stagnant and injurious should be dissipated by a free circulation of air when bright weather returns. Keep a free circulation of air amongst the Orchids by day; endeavour to supply an abundance of atmospheric moisture during the latter part of the day; and dispense with shading as much as possible by using it only during a few hours of the hottest part of the day.

Pay every attention to specimen plants in the stove. Keep them neatly tied to sticks, or trellises, as the case may require. Give them a plentiful supply of water, and, if not in flower, syringe them frequently overhead.

Stanhopeas.—About the end of this or the beginning of next month is the most proper time to remove and repot them. Persons who wish to grow fine specimens ought to put them in large baskets, or pots, so that they may not require to be shifted for several years, as then the plants grow much finer and flower better than when annually shifted. Now, as soon as they have done flowering they commence growing, when they should have plenty of heat and moisture until they have completed their pseudo-bulbs, when they should be reduced to a comparative state of rest by gradually withholding water until they show flower; then to be supplied with atmospheric moisture, but should have no water at the root, or at least but a small portion, until they begin to grow. As all the plants belonging to this genus push their flowers downwards, it is advisable to have them elevated, or put in baskets, where the flowers can get through and show themselves to advantage.

FORCING-HOUSES.

Figs.—Supply with plenty of water the roots of the trees that are swelling their second crop; ply the syringe frequently amongst the foliage, and sprinkle the paths, &c., to keep the atmosphere moist. Shut up early in the afternoon. As the fruit of the first crop ripens, curtail the supply of atmospheric moisture—otherwise before they reach maturity they are apt to turn mouldy. The roots to be regularly supplied with water, and some liquid manure added about once a week to assist the second crop. Keep down red spider by the application of sulphur in the manner so frequently advised of late. Give the fruit that is ripening the benefit of the sun, by fastening on one side the leaves that shade it.

Peaches.—The fruit will be all the more delicious for a comparatively cool temperature while ripening. Examine the fruit daily, and gather before it is overripe and loses its flavour.

Pines.—Maintain a good bottom heat, and encourage the growth of the advancing crop by kindly humidity and allowing them plenty of air and sufficient space from plant to plant. Give air, also, freely to the young stock in dungpits, to secure strong stocky growth; but a circulation should not be allowed by giving back and front air at the same time during hot drying winds. Attend to former directions to afford the plants swelling their fruit a moist atmosphere by frequent syringings and by sprinkling the paths and every other available surface until the fruit begins to change colour, when the atmosphere and soil should be kept rather dry, to improve the fruit's flavour. See to the stools from which fruit have been cut. Earth them up, so as to cause suckers to strike root. Give them a brisk bottom heat, and proper supplies of water. You will thus gain time and assistance for the suckers from the declining strength of the parent plant as long as possible. It is now a good time to start a lot into fruit, as they will have two or three most favourable months for swelling, and will come in at a season when they are in very general request. Keep the bark-bed moderately moist, as in that state it will retain its heat much longer than if it is allowed to get dry.

Vines.—Keep up a brisk heat to the late Grapes during the day, as it is advisable to get them well ripened before the season gets too far advanced. By such means they will be of better quality and keep longer than if the ripening process be delayed to a later period. Do not allow plants in pots to remain in the house to cause damp, which, despite every care in ventilating, is apt to settle on the berries and spoil them. The outside borders of the late houses should be watered and mulched, if the weather continue dry.

FOURTH WEEK.

GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY.

The conservatory should now be gay with Balsams, Cockscombs, Fuchsias, Globe Amaranths, Heliotropes, and the varieties of Japan Lilies. Strict attention must be paid to all plants in these structures that they do not suffer from the want of water. Continue to stop over-luxuriant growth, to obtain compact, sturdy specimens. On the evenings of hot, dry days, after the plants have been watered, give them a slight syringing, or sprinkling, over the leaves, and also the ground upon which they are standing.

Aotus gracillimus.—When done blooming, to be cut down close to the pot.

Aphelexis and Helichrysums.—When past their best state, cut the flower-stems close into the old wood; to be set in a cool shady place until they begin to grow, when any that require it may be repotted.

Chrysanthemums.—Propagate by cuttings, or layers, to obtain dwarf stocky plants. Continue to top the plants that have been planted out in rows in the open ground, as advised some time ago.

Cinerarias.—Pot off the first batch of seedlings and offsets. Sow seed.

Fuchsias.—Shift in the last batch, and put in cuttings.

Leschenaultias.—When they are going out of bloom, or past their best, remove the flowers and flower-buds, and put them in a cool place to start again.

Kalosanthes.—When done blooming, the flower-stems and all straggling growth to be cut in closely, to form compact specimens for another season.

Pelargoniums.—Cut back the principal stock, and treat them as advised lately.

Pimelea spectabilis.—When that and the other kinds have done blooming, to be freely cut in, and to be set in a cool shady place to break.

Polygalas to be treated in the same manner as the Pimeleas.

STOVE AND ORCHID-HOUSE.

Look out for insects in the stove, and destroy them as soon as visible. The Gishurst Compound is worthy of a trial. Follow former instructions as to moisture and air.

Ixoras.—When done blooming to be cut in rather closely, to be started in a gentle heat to make fresh growth. The Orchids suspended on baskets, or on blocks of wood, require a soaking of water at the roots, and frequent, but slight, syringings overhead. A little fire-heat applied in the afternoon will be of service to them.

FORCING-HOUSES.

Figs.—If the second crop on the earliest trees is advancing towards maturity, as soon as the fruit begins to ripen the atmosphere should be kept dry and rather cool, giving air freely every fine day. Keep the foliage clean and healthy, and clear from insects, and do not allow the young shoots to get crowded.

Melons.—Keep up a good bottom heat when the fruit is setting. Keep the plants on which the fruit is ripening rather dry at the root, with an abundance of air in fine weather.

Pines.—Air to be admitted freely during hot weather to fruiting and succession plants. Particular care will be necessary in the application of water that they may not suffer for want of it, or by saturation. The walls, paths, and surface of the bed to be kept constantly moist, and frequent syringings to be given to the young stock. Continue all other routine operations according to former directions.

Strawberries.—Some lay the runners at once into pots of strong, rich loam, cutting them away from the parent plants when they have made roots enough for their own support. Some prefer to lay them in small pots, to be shifted into larger by-and-by, and others prefer to lay them in their fruiting-pots. The principal object should be, to attain plants of a moderate growth, well matured and rested before forcing time.

Vines.—The early houses, when they have been cleared of their fruit, and the wood is properly ripened may have the sashes removed and repaired, if required; indeed, every house is purified by free exposure to the atmosphere for some time. The late crops to be encouraged to swell by giving the borders good soakings of manure water, and by being carefully thinned, more especially if they are wanted to keep late. A little fire-heat will be necessary in unfavourable weather, with an abundance of air day and night.



AUGUST.

FIRST WEEK.

GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY.

The conservatory borders will now require liberal supplies of water. Faded blossoms to be constantly removed; straggling growth and exhausted stock to be cut previous to making a new growth. As the autumn is fast approaching, the sooner the new growths are encouraged the better, that they may have sufficient time to mature them. All greenhouse plants will now be benefited by exposure to the natural atmosphere: the dews are more refreshing and invigorating than artificial moisture or the application of the syringe.

Finish potting all specimen plants; for if left until later in the season they will not have sufficient time to fill their pots with roots, and, therefore, will be liable to suffer from stagnation of water at the roots. No position can be worse for a plant than that of surrounding it with fresh soil for months when the roots should be in a comparatively dormant state.

Pelargoniums.—Continue to head them down, and to propagate the cuttings, which will now strike freely in a sunny situation in the open ground.

STOVE AND ORCHID-HOUSE.

Much moisture and free ventilation will be necessary here during warm weather. The young plants of Euphorbias, Ixoras, Poinsettias, and other such stove plants, to be rendered bushy by stopping them betimes. The schynanthus grandiflorus, Aphelandra cristata, Eranthemum pulchellum, Justicias, and any others that are intended for the decoration of the conservatory in the autumn and early part of winter, should be carefully looked over, and shifted without delay if they want more pot-room; the shoots to be tied out thinly, and to be exposed to as much sun as they will bear without scorching the foliage, to induce stocky growth. Nothing is more injurious to stove plants than to keep them growing late in the season, and thus to prevent the ripening of the wood, which will render them more liable to injuries in winter and more unproductive of flowers the following season.

FORCING-HOUSES.

Melons.—The plants on which the fruit is ripening to be kept rather dry at the roots, with free exposure to the air in favourable weather. A steady bottom heat to be kept up to the late crops.

Peaches.—If the lights have not been taken off the early-forced houses, it would be advisable to remove them as soon as possible, that the air, rain, and dews may have free access to act both beneficially on the trees and to keep down red spider. In those houses which have been treated as advised in former Calendars, the principal object now should be to get the wood properly ripened. The late houses to be treated in a similar manner when the fruit is gathered. Where the trees in peach-houses have been recently planted, and are not yet in a bearing state, the shoots will require to be trained carefully, and insects to be kept down.

Pines.—The plants growing in beds of soil to be carefully attended to with water, giving at each application sufficient to penetrate the whole body of soil, as it frequently happens that the surface is moist while the bottom is quite dry. Pot a portion of the strongest successions for early forcing next season.

Strawberries.—Continue to lay the runners of the kinds you wish to force in pots until you have a sufficient number.

Vines.—Muscats, now beginning to ripen, will generally require a little fire heat to push them on; when ripened in good time they are better flavoured and keep longer than when the ripening process is delayed to a late period of the season. Continue to remove the stray laterals that begin to shade the larger leaves; to be done a little at a time, as disbudding on an extensive scale is prejudicial to fruit trees. The young Vines in pots to have every attention, to secure as much growth and healthy vigour as possible while the growing season lasts. Allow all young planted Vines to ramble freely without stopping them so closely, as is frequently practised. Before wasps and flies do much mischief to ripe Grapes, coarse canvass should be fixed over the top lights and front lights that are opened for the admission of air. Remove decayed berries as soon as observed, and keep the house containing ripe fruit dry and free from dust.

SECOND WEEK.

GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY.

Bulbs.—The selections for winter and spring flowering to be made as soon as possible, choosing the most suitable varieties for each season; to be potted at two or three intervals for succession. To be potted in light fibrous turfy loam of a sandy quality, and placed in a dry situation; to be covered with three or four inches of old tan or coal ashes.

Camellias.—The large, old specimens that have set their flower-buds to be carefully supplied with water; for if they are allowed to get too dry at the roots they are apt to drop their buds. Young vigorous plants, on the contrary, will require to be watered rather sparingly, to prevent them making a second growth.

Cinerarias.—Shift as they require it, and let no neglect as to watering, &c., cause a check to their growth.

Climbers.—To have a succession late in the season when flowers become scarce, it is advisable to cut them back for that purpose, more especially the climbers on rafters or ornamental trellises.

New Holland Plants.—If any have been standing out of doors for some time, it is advisable to remove the best and most tender varieties to the cold pits, or other secure situations, to avoid the danger and risk of exposure to wet or windy weather.

Soils.—Now is a favourable time to collect soils of different sorts for future use. The advantages of forethought for such matters will become evident when the time for use arrives. Leaf mould, decomposed sheep, deer, and cowdung, road and river sand, old Cucumber, Melon, and other such soils, to be put in separate heaps in a shed, or any other dry place, protected from drenching rains. Each sort to be numbered, or named, that no mistake may occur when wanted.

STOVE AND ORCHID-HOUSE.

All plants intended to flower this autumn to be regularly supplied with water and occasionally with liquid manure; but all the other stove plants to be watered more sparingly after this time, and the water to be given early in the morning. The house to be shut up early in the afternoon with a strong sun heat. Slight fires to be made in the daytime, if the weather is dull, so that plenty of air may be given to the plants.

FORCING-HOUSES.

Figs.—If the nights are cold, the house or pit should be closed early, for the benefit of the second crop of fruit.

Melons.—Withhold water when the fruit is ripening, as a sudden supply at that time very frequently causes the fruit to crack and become worthless. Keep the shoots so thin that every leaf may receive the benefit of the light. Do not expose the fruit to the sun's rays till it is fully swelled. Give a supply of manure water to the late crops, and thin out useless laterals. It is advisable to paint the interior of the frame, or pit, with sulphur: this, with slight syringings and shutting up early while the sun shines upon it, will keep down insects.

Mushrooms.—Collect some very short stable-litter and horse-droppings, and turn them over frequently with the addition of a small portion of turfy loam until they are well incorporated. When moderately dry, to be packed on shelves or in boxes, and be well-beaten down in layers four or five inches thick, till the bed is the required thickness—from a foot to eighteen inches; for success will depend in a great measure upon the solidity of the bed. To be spawned when there is a brisk heat.

Pines.—If a strong body of fresh materials have recently been added, the watch-sticks should be frequently examined, and any approach to a burning heat to be counteracted by lifting the pots, &c. Fruit recently started and swelling off to have every encouragement for the next two months. Shut up early, to secure a strong amount of solar heat. Keep all the growing stock warm and moist, syringing them lightly twice a-day.

Vines.—The early-forced houses, where the wood is nearly ripe, would be benefited by free exposure to the air; but if the lights are required to remain on, cleanliness should be observed, and all laterals kept down. When the fruit is swelling or colouring, and when the weather is wet or cloudy, a gentle fire, if then applied, will expel damps, and be in other respects very beneficial to them. Stop all useless growths in the late houses; do not remove the leaves to expose the fruit to the sun, unless they are very thick indeed, as they are the principal agents by which nutriment is carried to the berries.

Vines in Pots.—When the leaves begin to fade, to be removed to the north side of a wall, and the pots to be laid on their sides, to keep the roots dry. A little litter thrown over the pots will protect them from sudden changes.

THIRD WEEK.

GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY.

As the majority of greenhouse plants are out in the open air, or in pits, where they have either set, or are setting, their blooms, preparations should be made for their return, by scrubbing and washing all the shelves of the greenhouse, and clearing out all crevices and corners, to banish all insects that may be secreting there. When by scrubbing, brushing, &c., you have brought everything to the ground, let no time be lost in clearing the insects, rubbish, &c., off the ground, and also out of the house. If painting and glazing are necessary, the sooner they are done the better, leaving the house entirely open for three weeks or a month, that the effluvium from white lead, which is prejudicial to plants, may pass off before the lights are put on again.

STOVE AND ORCHID-HOUSE.

Shift into pots a size larger any small plants, or indeed any plants that you are desirous to grow fast, or to make specimen plants, as soon as they have filled their pots with roots.

Cuttings inserted in pots of light, sandy soil, well drained at the bottom, will readily strike when plunged in the tan-bed, where there is a little bottom heat, and covered with bell-glasses, that will allow of the edge being pressed into the soil inside the pot.

Henceforward a certain degree of care and consideration will be necessary to have the summer growth of plants generally—and especially that of all those whose period of excitement is continued over a certain portion of the autumn—so arranged and circumstanced as to secure its perfect maturity, or, in gardening terms, to have it "well ripened." For that purpose it is necessary to avoid the application of moisture beyond what is necessary to prevent a decided check in the growth of the plants, to expose them to the influence of light, by not suffering them to crowd or overhang each other, and to prevent from what cause soever the too sudden declension of the average temperature to which they are exposed.

The Orchidaceous Plants that are growing to have plenty of moisture and heat, it will be easily seen when their growth is completed, and then it is proper to let them go to rest by gradually lessening the supply of water, and removing them to a cooler part of the house.

Any Orchids that you are desirous of increasing may be separated or potted into small pots, or fastened to blocks, or placed in baskets. Fill pots with pieces of turfy peat the size of Walnuts, and peg them altogether until they form a cone above the pot. On the summit place your plant, which is, in fact, a piece cut off another plant, and with four pegs or wires make it fast. Let the roots go where they please in the pot, or outside it. Orchids depend more for sustenance upon the atmosphere and moisture, than upon the soil.

FORCING-HOUSES.

Peaches.—It is advisable, when practicable, to get the lights off the early houses, presuming that the trees are fast advancing towards a state of rest. The practice is certainly not absolutely indispensable, but it is of much benefit to the trees. Whether the lights are off or on, attention may now be given to the repairs of glass or woodwork where necessary, and to finish with a coat of paint and whitewashing, if possible.

Pines.—The plants swelling their fruit to be carefully looked over in hot weather that they may receive no check for want of water. Continue to pot or plant suckers as soon as they are taken off the parent plants, as they are apt to shrivel much at this season, if left out of the ground. Attend to the state of the linings to dung pits, as all Pine plants, in whatever situation, will require a lively bottom heat of 90.

Vines.—The houses containing late Grapes to be shut up warm and rather early (about four o'clock), in order to dispense, if possible, with fires, giving air by seven o'clock in the morning, and increasing it abundantly towards noon, and to be then diminished at intervals, in accordance with the state of the weather.

FOURTH WEEK.

GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY.

The plants in these houses should receive particular attention that they do not suffer from want of water or fresh potting; the water to be given in the morning or forenoon, that the plants and houses may be dry towards night, to prevent the ill effects arising from damps.

Camellias.—Look over them, and disbud where too many are set in a cluster. Resurface the soil, and see that the drainage is efficient.

New Holland Plants.—Heaths and other such hardwooded plants that have been placed out of doors will now do best in a cold pit or frame, where they can be protected from heavy rains.

Pelargoniums.—When the shoots of the plants that have been cut down are about an inch long, the old soil must be shaken away, the roots slightly trimmed, and then repotted into small pots, &c., as advised early in July. Some of the cuttings may now be fit for potting off; when potted, to be placed in a pit or frame, kept close, and shaded until they have made fresh roots, when they should be placed out in an open situation to grow firm and stocky, pinching out the leading shoots; and to be placed on coal ashes, slates, or boards, to prevent the admission of worms. Sow the seed immediately it is gathered, and also that of Fuchsias, or of any other perennial plant, if ripe before the middle of September.

STOVE AND ORCHID-HOUSE.

The stove plants of strong and early growth may be allowed a gradual increase of ventilation and more sunlight. Plenty of moisture is still essential for the general stock. Shading may now be dispensed with, except during bright sunbursts. Careful attention to be given to the Allamandas, Echites, Euphorbias, Luculias, Stephanotises, Dipladenias, and other such valuable stove plants. The surface soil of large specimens to be stirred, and weeds and moss removed.

Gesnera zebrina.—Shift them for winter flowering; they delight in a mixture composed of equal parts of fibrous loam, heath soil, and leaf mould. All plants after shifting do best when placed in a gentle bottom heat; to be syringed occasionally, and shaded during bright sunshine.

Shift on all Orchids that now require it, and are making their growth. Top dress others, if they require it. All that are growing freely in pots or baskets, or on blocks, to be syringed with clear, tepid, soft water in the afternoons of fine days, and to be shut up early.

FORCING-HOUSES.

Figs.—If any are growing against the back wall of a vinery, or other such structure, it may be advisable to give them a good soaking of water, and but very little, if any, after—as a dry atmosphere is necessary to ripen the fruit.

Melons.—Continue to supply them with bottom heat. If they are growing in pits or frames, keep the linings well topped up or renewed, to produce a comfortable heat inside; for without it canker is apt to set in and destroy the plants.

Mushrooms.—In making beds for these on shelves, or in boxes, as recommended a fortnight ago, or on the floor, let the whole mass be made very firm by well-beating it as it is put on in layers. It is advisable when the spawn is put in to cover it with good, strong, fresh loam at least from two to three inches thick, and to make it as firm as possible. The Mushrooms will come stronger and of much better quality than if partly-exhausted soil is used.

Pines.—If the winter fruit have finished blossoming, supply them occasionally with clear liquid manure when they want water. The growth of the crown to be checked, and all useless suckers, gills, &c., to be removed. When a house or pit is devoted to late Pines alone, an abundance of moisture should be supplied. Give abundance of air to the young stock in dungpits, and increase the dryness of the atmosphere, to induce maturity of growth and a hardy constitution against winter. Shift, if not already done, succession plants into larger pots. Any plants recently potted to be shaded during bright sunshine, sprinkled overhead every afternoon, and the house closed early. The sprinkling will be sufficient without watering at the root until the plants begin to grow.

Vineries.—Continue to secure a dry state of the atmosphere when the ripe fruit is intended to hang for any length of time, using a little fire heat when necessary to dispel damp. To ripen the fruit in late vineries, it is frequently necessary to use fire heat, but more especially when the external temperature ranges below 50.



SEPTEMBER.

FIRST WEEK.

GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY.

Balsams.—Give them a good watering when they show indications of drooping; but be cautious in watering when the least stagnation appears, as saturation will be death to them.

Bulbs.—Pot Hyacinths and other such bulbs for forcing. When potted, to be placed in a dry, cool situation, as advised in the early part of the month, and covered with some porous material—such as coal ashes, old spent tanner's bark, coarse sand, or any other material that will serve to keep the roots not only cool and un-acted on by atmospheric changes, but which, from being moderately damp, will not abstract moisture from the roots, but keep them uniformly and evenly moistened. The Cape bulbs, if obtained now, may be had in flower at various periods throughout the winter and early spring. Amaryllis Johnsoni, vittata, and many other varieties, are splendid. Ornithogalum, both the white and orange-flowered species, the free-growing species of Ixia, and the varieties of Sparaxis tricolor, are desirable plants that may be easily bloomed by gentle forcing.

Calceolarias (Herbaceous).—Pot off seedlings into small pots, and keep them close in a frame for some days. Put in cuttings of the best kinds; they will strike readily in a common frame.

Chrysanthemums.—They should now be stopped for the last time, to produce a late succession of bloom.

Climbers.—Be careful to train the shoots, that the trellis or stakes may be furnished and clothed with foliage and flowers from the rim of the pot upwards.

Fuchsias.—To have a late bloom, cut back about half of the young wood, trimming the plants to handsome shapes. If placed or plunged in a little bottom heat they will break again, and continue blooming till Christmas.

Lilium lancifolium.—Supply them cautiously with water, as advised for Balsams, and shade the flowers from bright sunshine, to prolong their beauty. When they have done blooming, to be removed to the foot of a south wall or fence to ripen their growth. Water to be given sparingly until their tops show signs of decay, when they may be laid on their sides till potting time. The same treatment is recommended for Gladioli and plants of like habit.

STOVE AND ORCHID-HOUSE.

Some judgment will now be necessary to arrange the plants that are finishing or have completed their season's growth in the coolest part of the house, where they should be freely supplied with air, and rather cautiously and sparingly with water. While others in free growth should be encouraged with warmth and moisture by giving but very little air and a liberal supply of water during very fine sunshiny weather.

FORCING-HOUSES.

When the fruit in the early houses is gathered, the great object should be to ripen the wood. A certain degree of attention is necessary to be given by exposing them to light and air, and preserving the leaves from injury, as it is upon their healthy action that the future crop depends.

Cherries.—Trees in tubs, or large pots, if intended for early forcing, to be removed to a cool, and plunged in an open airy, situation, to continue the regular root action, upon which much of their future success will depend.

Figs.—Withhold water from the borders where the second crop of fruit is ripening. Trees in tubs, or large pots, intended for early forcing, to be treated as advised for Cherries.

Peaches.—If mildew attack the trees before the leaves have performed their necessary functions, dust the affected shoots with sulphur. Trees in pots to be treated as recommended for Cherries.

Pines.—Take advantage of fine weather to encourage free growth where it is desirable. Plants swelling their fruit to be supplied occasionally with clear liquid manure. The succession plants to be supplied with water at the roots, as inattention to that particular during hot weather is very likely to cause some of the plants to fruit prematurely.

Strawberries.—The stock intended for forcing to be carefully attended to; to be kept free from runners and weeds; and, when necessary, to be liberally watered. Free exposure to sun and air, and a little weak liquid manure, will assist to produce stout healthy plants for forcing.

Vines.—When the fruit is ripe, give air freely, and keep the house as cool and dry as possible. Stop laterals in the late houses, and expose the foliage to light, to make it as healthy and vigorous as possible. Vines in pots to be treated as advised for Cherries.

SECOND WEEK.

GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY.

As boisterous winds, heavy rains, and other atmospheric changes occur about this time, it is advisable to draft the choicest out-door greenhouse plants to their winter quarters. Each plant to be carefully examined, dead leaves removed, and any defects in the soil or drainage of the pots to be remedied. If worm-casts, or other indications of the presence of worms, appear on the surface of the soil, by carefully turning the ball of soil out of the pot they can generally be picked out. If they are not visible on the outside of the ball, a small peg stuck in will direct particular attention to it until the intruder is removed. When staging the plants, a pleasing variety may be introduced by placing a few on inverted pots. Sufficient space to be given to each plant to allow the air to circulate freely around. If there is not sufficient room for all, the oldest or mis-shapen plants may be rejected, or wintered in a pit or vinery. When housed, all the air possible should be given in fine weather by the entire withdrawal of the lights, and only reducing the ventilation when unfavourable changes in the weather take place.

Heliotropes.—Pay attention to keep them in a growing, healthy state for winter flowering.

Mignonette.—Sow now and a month hence, for winter and spring blooming.

Pinks.—Pot Anne Boleyne and other sorts, to be well established before they are wanted for forcing.

Roses.—Some of the Tea-scented and China kinds, being placed under glass, and to be repotted if requisite, will promote immediate growth and early blooming.

Violets.—Take up with good balls, to be potted in rotten turf, or leaf mould and road-scrapings, in 48 or 32-sized pots, placed in a pit or frame near the glass, for flowers in the winter and early spring.

STOVE AND ORCHID-HOUSE.

As the season of active growth is now getting to a close, it is advisable to ripen off gradually the pseudo-bulbs and strong healthy shoots by keeping up a genial atmosphere, ranging from 70 to 80, with abundance of air in favourable weather. Cattleyas, Epidendrum Skinneri, Llias, Lycaste Skinneri, and Odontoglossum grande, to be kept rather cool, and to be slightly syringed occasionally. Water to be given more sparingly to all the plants except such as are growing freely. Shading to be now dispensed with as much as possible, that the plants may have the benefit of the ripening influence of the sun.

FORCING-HOUSES.

Figs.—Continue to pay strict attention to the state of the atmosphere. Where the fruit is still swelling and ripening, slight fires will be useful in dull, cold weather, to assist in ripening the fruit; and but little syringing and watering will be required from this time forward.

Melons.—Take advantage of fine weather by giving plenty of air, shutting up early, and keeping the shoots regularly thinned. In whatever structure they may be growing, it is advisable to keep up the bottom heat by a gentle fire, or by linings.

Peaches.—We will suppose the trees to be now fully exposed to the air night and day, and will, therefore, require but little attention, except an occasional washing with the engine, to remove insects and to allow the foliage to perform its functions to a natural decay. If a blank in the house is to be filled up, it may be done as soon as the crop is gathered from the open wall; and the crop to be expected from the same tree next season will depend upon the care with which it is removed, as there will be sufficient time for the wood to be ripened and the tree to make fresh roots, and to get sufficiently established before winter.

Pines.—Where young stock is grown in dung-pits, care to be taken by giving air freely in favourable weather, to avoid growing the plants weakly in a close and warm temperature, and by a sufficient command of heat from the linings to allow a little air to be given at night and on cloudy days.

Vines.—All long growths, whether bearing or not, to be stopped, as it is getting too late for them to be benefited by the foliage made after this period of the year. A gentle fire in damp weather is useful to keep the atmosphere dry when the fruit is ripe. The bunches to be frequently and carefully looked over and all tainted berries removed, and the foliage kept free from insects. Fire heat is also necessary where the fruit is not yet ripe, and where the fruit is cut it is sometimes necessary to keep the atmosphere dry and rather warm, to ripen the wood.

THIRD WEEK.

GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY.

Finish housing the greenhouse plants, and give them as much air as possible; for if air is too sparingly admitted at this season, when many of the plants have not finished their growth, it will cause them to produce weak and tender shoots, which will be very liable to damp off at a more advanced period when the inclemency of the external air will cause them to be kept close. Water to be liberally supplied when they are first taken into the house, as the dry boards on which they may stand, or the elevated situation and free circulation of air will occasion a more frequent want of that element than when they stood on the moist earth. However, by no means go to the extreme, but give it only when evidently necessary.

Azaleas.—Plants that have set their blooms to be removed to the greenhouse; but the late kinds to remain in heat until their growth is matured and the bloom set. If a few are required to bloom at Christmas, or a little after, they should be kept in heat until the bloom-buds have swelled to a good size, when they will require but very little forcing to start them into bloom.

Bulbs.—Procure and pot them as soon as possible, as much of the success of early forcing depends upon early potting.

Camellias.—Treat them as advised for Azaleas.

Heaths.—Look sharply after mildew, as plants that have been growing freely in a shady situation in the open air, and are in a rather succulent state when taken indoors, are liable to be attacked by this pest, which should be removed on its first appearance by an application of sulphur.

STOVE AND ORCHID-HOUSE.

Commence a gradual reduction of the temperature in correspondence with the decline of external heat; by such means the plants will be better prepared to withstand the gloom and other vicissitudes of the winter season.

Begonias.—Encourage the different kinds for winter flowering by shifting them, if necessary, into larger pots. They succeed best in a compost of half leaf mould and half loam. They grow luxuriantly in a soil composed entirely of decayed vegetable matter; but in that they are liable to rot off at the base of the stem.

FORCING-HOUSES.

Figs.—Trees in tubs or pots still bearing to be assisted with a little liquid manure when dry. Withhold water gradually from the borders, to induce an early, but not a too premature, ripeness of the wood and an early rest.

Peaches.—The flues of the early house may now be cleaned, and, if not yet done, the lights washed and painted, if necessary.

Pines.—If there are some of the spring fruiting plants still remaining in the fruiting-house, they should either be placed at one end of the pit, or removed to a small house by themselves; the house should then be prepared for the best of the succession plants for the second crop next summer. Plants showing fruit after this time, although they cannot be expected to produce as fine fruit as if earlier in the season, will, nevertheless, be found very useful, and should have every attention given to them while the season continues favourable. To be placed in the warmest corner of the house, and to be supplied when dry with a little liquid manure. Continue to grow on the young stock while the weather continues favourable; for fine sunny days and moist growing nights are all that we can desire. A good portion of solar heat to be secured by shutting up early. On cold nights gentle fires will be necessary to keep up the temperature to 70 towards morning.

Vines.—The Vines that are to be forced early, if the wood is well ripened and all the leaves nearly off, may be pruned without much fear of bleeding, keeping the house as cool as possible; but if, from appearances, the sap is not considered to be sufficiently at rest, the pruning should be postponed. Continue to forward the Grapes not yet ripe by giving a little fire heat during the day. Air to be given to the house as soon as the sun shines upon it, as the vapour that ascends, if not allowed to pass off by ventilation, will cause the Grapes to become mouldy and worthless.

FOURTH WEEK.

GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY.

The plants that have been in the open borders during the summer to be taken up, the roots carefully cut back, and repotted; to be placed in a gentle bottom heat, or in some close place, until they have made fresh roots, the better to resist the vicissitudes of the dull, dreary months of the approaching winter.

American Plants.—If a rich display of bloom is desired in early spring, the plants should be now potted in rather small pots, to be plunged in the warmest part of the garden, and introduced to the forcing-house from November until February, as they may be required. The most suitable for such a purpose are the Azaleas of the nudiflora class with various hybrids, Andromeda pulverulenta, Daphne cneorum, Kalmias, of sorts, Ledum latifolium and L. thymifolium, Polygala Chamoebuxus, Rhododendrons, and Rhodora Canadense.

Calceolarias (Herbaceous).—Remove them to a shelf as near the glass as possible, with plenty of air at all favourable opportunities. To be duly supplied with water.

Camellias.—Water to be given carefully, to prevent the dropping of the buds. The late-flowering plants to be thinned of their buds, leaving not more than two buds on each shoot, and retaining the largest and smallest to get a long succession of bloom. The leaves, if necessary, to be washed clean.

Chinese Primroses.—Place them as advised for Calceolarias.

Cinerarias.—Protect them from the ravages of green fly by the application of the Gishurst infallible compound.

Fuchsias.—Continue to encourage the late stock for bloom. Seeds may be sown at once, where there is a greenhouse or other means of sheltering them from frost and damp; but if you have no such convenience, it is advisable to postpone the sowing until spring. The seed is separated most easily from the pulp by bruising the berries amongst dry sand, and allowing it to stand in the sun, or in a warm place, until the moisture has evaporated, when the seed and sand will be intermixed, and in a fit state to be sown.

Heaths.—On fine mornings syringe them, and Epacrises and Pimeleas, and give all possible ventilation, both night and day, while the weather continues favourable.

New Holland Plants.—Place them in situations to enjoy a considerable share of air and light. All luxuriant shoots to be stopped, to maintain symmetry and uniformity of growth. A vigilant eye should be kept upon them almost daily, to see that neither mildew, green fly, nor other such enemies be allowed to injure them.

Orange Trees.—If they have been standing out during the summer, the sooner they are returned to their winter quarters the better. Clean the leaves, if necessary, and fresh surface the soil in which they are growing.

Succulents.—Cacti, Euphorbi, and other such plants to be gradually curtailed in the supply of water as they approach the winter and their season of rest.

Tropolums.—If any of this beautiful tribe, particularly T. tricolorum or T. Brachyseras that have flowered early in the season, begin to grow, they should not be checked, but allowed to grow slowly through the winter; but if there is no appearance of growth—which is best for their future success—the roots should be kept dormant, in a cool place, with the soil about them quite dry, and protected from mice.

STOVE AND ORCHID-HOUSE.

Stove plants cannot be too cautiously watered late in the autumn. Nothing is now wanted but to keep the soil from getting quite dry. Slight fires to be made in the forenoons of dull and rainy days, not so much for the purpose of raising the temperature as for drying the house. Air to be given at all favourable opportunities, to maintain a healthy atmosphere. Several of the Orchids—viz., Arides, Dendrobiums, Saccolabiums, Vandas, &c., may be encouraged by the application of a high temperature, with much moisture and less shading, to make further and sometimes considerable growth.

Cattleyas.—Young plants may also be encouraged to grow for some time longer; but older specimens should be reduced to a comparatively dormant state by a gradual diminution in the supply of water, and a decrease in temperature, with less shading.

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