Immortal Memories
by Clement Shorter
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{237d} Mozley, James Bowling (1813-1878). A Church of England divine; born at Gainsborough, educated at Oriel College, Oxford; became Vicar of Old Shoreham, Canon of Worcester, and, in 1871, Regius Professor of Divinity at Oxford. His Oxford University Sermons appeared in 1876.

{238a} Schneckenburger, Matthias (1804-1848). A Protestant theologian; born at Thalheim and died in Berne, where he was for a time Professor of Theology at the newly founded University. His Vergleichende Darstellung des lutherischen und reformierten Lehrbegriffs was published in Stuttgart in 2 volumes in 1855.

{238b} Hundeshagen, Karl Bernhard (1810-1872). A Protestant theologian who held a professorship in Berne, later in Heidelberg and finally in Bonn, where he died. His many works included one upon the Conflict between the Lutheran, the Calvinistic, and the Zwinglian Churches. His Beitrage zur Kirchenverfassungsgeschichte und Kirchenpolitik insbesondere des Protestantismus was published at Wiesbaden in 1864 in 1 volume.

{238c} Schweizer, Alexander (1808-1888). A theologian and preacher who studied in Zurich and Berlin. He wrote his Autobiography which was published in Zurich the year after his death. His book, Die protestantischen Centraldogmen innerhalb der reformierten Kirche, appeared in Zurich in 2 volumes in 1854 and 1856.

{238d} Gass, Wilhelm (1813-1889). A Protestant theologian; born at Breslau and died in Heidelberg, where he held a theological chair. His best-known book is his Geschichte der protestantischen Dogmatik, published in Berlin between 1854 and 1867 in 4 volumes, and to this Lord Acton doubtless refers.

{238e} Cart, Jacques Louis (1826- probably still living). A Swiss pastor; born in Geneva; the author of many books, of which the one named by Lord Acton is fully entitled, Histoire du mouvement religieux et ecclesiastique dans le canton de Vaud pendant la premiere moitie du XIXe siecle. It appeared between 1871 and 1880 in 6 volumes.

{239a} Blondel, David (1590-1655). Born at Chalons-sur-Marne in France; a learned theologian and historian who defended the Protestant position against the Catholics. Was Professor of History at Amsterdam. His De la primaute de l'Eglise appeared in 1641.

{239b} Le Blanc de Beaulieu, Louis (1614-1675). A French Protestant theologian who enjoyed the consideration of both parties and was approached by Turenne with a view to a reunion of the churches. His position was sustained before the Protestant Academy at Sedan with certain theses published under the title of Theses Sedanenzes in 1683.

{239c} Thiersch, Heinrich Wilhelm Josias (1817-1885). Born in Munich and died in Basle; held for a time a Professorship of Theology in Marburg, then became the principal pastor of the Irvingite Church in Germany, preaching in many cities. He wrote many books. His Vorlesungen uber Katholizismus und Protestantismus appeared first in 1846.

{239d} Mohler, Johann Adam (1796-1838). Born in Igersheim and died in Munich. A Catholic theologian and Professor of Theology at Tubingen. His Neue Untersuchungen der Lehrgegensatze zwischen den Katholiken und Protestanten was first published in Mainz in 1834.

{240a} Scherer, Edmond (1815-1889). A French theologian; born in Paris, died at Versailles. Was for a time in England, then Professor of Exegesis in Geneva. Was for many years a leader of the French Protestant Church. His Melanges de critique religieuse appeared in Paris in 1860.

{240b} Hooker, Richard (1554-1600). Born in Exeter. In 1584 was Rector of Drayton-Beauchamp, near Tring, and the following year became Master of the Temple. In 1591 became Vicar of Boscombe and sub-Dean of Salisbury. His Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity was published in 1594. In 1595 he removed to Bishopsbourne, near Canterbury, where he died.

{240c} Weingarten, Hermann (1834-1892). Protestant ecclesiastical historian, born in Berlin, where in 1868 he became a professor, later held chairs successively at Marberg and Breslau. His book Die Revolutionskirchen Englands appeared in 1868.

{240d} Kliefoth, Theodor Friedrich (1810-1895). A Lutheran theologian; born at Kirchow in Mecklenburg, and died at Schwerin, where he was for a time instructor to the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and held various offices in connexion with that state. He wrote many theological works. His Acht Bucher von der Kirche was published at Schwerin in 1 volume in 1854.

{240e} Laurent, Francois (1810-1887). Born in Luxemburg and died in Gent, where he long held a professorship. His principal work, Etudes sur l'histoire de l'humanite, Histoire du droit des gens was published in Brussels in 18 volumes between 1860 and 1870.

{241a} Ferrari, Guiseppe (1812-1876) was born in Milan, and died in Rome. Achieved fame as a philosophical historian. Held a chair at Turin and afterwards at Milan. As member of the Parliament of Piedmont he was an opponent of Cavour's policy of a United Italy. His principal book is entitled Histoire des revolutions de l'Italie, ou Guelfes et Gibelins, published in Paris in four volumes between 1856 and 1858.

{241b} Lange, Friedrich Albert (1828-1875). Philosopher and economic writer, born at Wald bei Solingen, died at Marburg. Held a professorial chair at Zurich and later at Marburg. His most famous book, the Geschichte des Materialismus und Kritik seiner Bedentung in der Gegenwart, first appeared in 1866. It was published in England in 1878- 81 by Trubner in three volumes.

{241c} Guicciardini, Francesco (1483-1540), the Italian historian and statesman, was born at Florence. Undertook in 1512 an embassy from Florence to the Court of Ferdinand the Catholic, and learned diplomacy in Spain. In 1515 he entered the service of Pope Leo X. His principal book is his History of Italy. The Istoria d'Italia appeared in Florence in ten volumes between 1561 and 1564. His Recordi Politici consists of some 400 aphorisms on political and social topics and has been described by an Italian critic as "Italian corruption codified and elevated to a rule of life."

{241d} Duperron, Jacques Davy (1556-1618), a Cardinal of the Church, born at Saint Lo. He was a Court preacher under Henry III of France and denounced Elizabeth of England in a funeral sermon on Mary Stuart. It is told of him that he once demonstrated before the king the existence of God, and being complimented upon his irrefutable arguments, replied that he was prepared to bring equally good arguments to prove that God did not exist. He became Bishop of Evreux in 1591.

{242a} Richelieu, Cardinal—(Armand-Jean Du Plessis)—(1585-1642). The famous minister of Louis XIII; born in Paris, of a noble family of Poitou. Was made Bishop of Lucon by Henry IV at the age of twenty-two. Became Almoner to Marie de Medici, the Regent of France. Was elected a Cardinal in 1622. He wrote many books, including theological works, tragedies, and his own Memoirs. The authenticity of his Testament politique was disputed by Voltaire.

{242b} Harrington, James (1611-1677) was born at Upton, Northamptonshire; was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. He travelled on the Continent, but was back in England at the time of the Civil War, in which, however, he took no part. He published his Oceana in 1656. He is buried in St. Margaret's Church, Westminster, next to the tomb of Sir Walter Raleigh. His Writings in an edition issued in 1737 by Millar contained twenty separate treatises in addition to Oceana, but concerned with that book.

{242c} Mignet, Francois Auguste Marie (1796-1884). The historian; was born at Aix and died in Paris. Published his History of the French Revolution in 1824. His Negociations relatives a la succession d'Espagne appeared in 4 volumes between 1836 and 1842. He also wrote a Life of Franklin, a History of Mary Stuart, and many other works.

{243a} Rousseau, Jean Jacques (1712-1778), the famous writer, was born in Geneva and died at Ermenonville. Much of his life story has been told in his incomparable Confessions. In 1759 he published Nouvelle Heloise; in 1762, L'Emile ou de l'Education. His Considerations sur la Pologne was written by Rousseau in 1769 in response to an application to apply his own theories to a scheme for the renovation of the government of Poland, in which land anarchy was then at its height. Mr. John Morley (Rousseau, Vol. II) dismisses the pamphlet with a contemptuous line.

{243b} Foncin, Pierre (1841- still living). A French Professor of History; born at Limoges, and has long held important official positions in connexion with education. He has written many books, including an Atlas Historique. His Essai sur le ministere Turgot appeared in 1876, and obtained a prize from the French Academy.

{243c} Burke, Edmund (1729-1797), the famous statesman, was born in Dublin and died at Beaconsfield, Bucks, where he was buried. His Vindication of Natural Society appeared in 1756. Burke entered Parliament for Wendover in 1765, sat for Bristol, 1774-80, and Malton, 1780-94. His Collected Works first appeared in 1792-1827 in 8 volumes, the first three of which were issued in his lifetime; his Collected Works and Correspondence was published in 8 volumes in 1852, but the Correspondence had appeared separately in 4 volumes in 1844.

{243d} Las Cases, Emmanuel Augustine Dieudonne Marir Joseph (1766-1842). Educated at the Military School in Paris but entered the French navy; emigrated at the Revolution; fought at Quiberon; taught French in London; published in 1802 his Atlas historique et geographique under the pseudonym of "Le Sage." On his return to France he came under the notice of Napoleon, who made him a Count of the Empire and sent him upon several important missions. During the Emperor's exile in Elba he again went to England. He returned during the Hundred Days and accompanied Napoleon to St. Helena. Here he recorded day by day the conversations of the great exile. At the end of eighteen months he was exiled by Sir Hudson Lowe to the Cape of Good Hope. He returned to France after the death of Napoleon and became a Deputy under Louis Philippe. His Memorial de Sainte-Helene, published in 1823-1824, secured a great success.

{244a} Holtzendorff, Franz von (1829-1889), was Professor of Jurisprudence first at Berlin and afterwards at Munich, where he died. He wrote many books concerned with crime and its punishment, with the prison systems of the world, etc. His Enzyklopadie der Rechtswissenschaft in systematischer und alphabetischer Bearbeitung was first published at Leipzig in 1870 and 1871.

{244b} Jhering, Rudolph von (1818-1892), was for a time professor at Basle, Rostock, Kiel and Vienna. His Geist des romischen Rechts auf den verschiedenen Stufen seiner Entwickelung appeared in Leipzig between 1852 and 1865, and is counted a classic in jurisprudence.

{244c} Geib, Karl Gustav (1808-1864). An eminent criminologist. Was a Professor of Zurich and afterwards of Tubingen, where he died. Wrote many books, of which the most important was his Geschichte des romischen Kriminalprozesses bis zum Tode Justinians in 1842. His Lehrbuch des deutschen Strafrechts appeared in 1861 and 1862, but was never completed.

{245a} Maine, Sir Henry James Sumner (1822-1888). Jurist; born in Kelso, Scotland; educated at Christ's Hospital, London, and at Pembroke College, Cambridge; was Regius Professor of Civil Law at Cambridge, 1847- 54. In 1862 he became a legal member of Council in India and held the office for seven years. In 1871 he became a K.C.S.I. and had a seat on the Indian Council. In 1877 he was elected Master of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and in 1887 became Whewell Professor of International Law at Cambridge. He died at Cannes. His principal work is his Ancient Law: its Connexion with the Early History of Society and its Relation to Modern Ideas, first published in 1861.

{245b} Gierke, Otto Friedrich (1841- still living), was born in Stettin; was Professor of Law in Breslau, Heidelberg and Berlin successively. Served in the Franco-German War of 1870. His principal work, Das deutsche Genossenschaftsrecht, appeared in 3 volumes in Berlin, the first in 1868, the third in 1881.

{245c} Stahl, Friedrich Julius (1802-1861), was born in Munich of Jewish parents, died in Bruckenau. Held chairs of law and jurisprudence in Berlin and other cities, and wrote many books. His Die Philosophie des Rechts und geschichtlicher Ansicht appeared at Heidelberg in 2 volumes in 1830 and 1837.

{246a} Gentz, Friedrich von (1764-1832). A distinguished publicist and statesman; born in Breslau, died at Weinhaus, near Vienna; studied Jurisprudence in Konigsberg. One of his earliest literary efforts was a translation of Burke's Reflections upon the French Revolution. Played a very considerable part in the combination of the powers of Europe against Napoleon in 1809-15. He was the author of many books. His Briefewechsel mit Adam Muller was published in Stuttgart in 1857—long after his death.

{246b} Vollgraff, Karl Friedrich (1794-1863), was for a time Professor of Jurisprudence at Marburg, where he died. His two most important books were: (1) Der Systeme der praktischen Politik im Abendlande; (2) Erster Versuch einer Begrundung der allgemeinen Ethnologie durch die Anthropologie und der Staats und Rechts Philosophie durch die Ethnologie oder Nationalitat der Volker, published in 4 volumes in 1851 to 1855. It is in this last volume that a section is devoted to Polignosie.

{246c} Frantz, Konstantin (1817-1891). Distinguished publicist; born at Halberstadt and died at Blasewitz, near Dresden, where he made his home for many years. Was for a time German Consul in Spain. His great doctrine laid down in his Die Weltpolitik, 1883, was the union of Central Europe against the growing power of Russia and the United States of America. His Kritik aller Parteien was published in Berlin in 1862.

{246d} Maistre, Joseph Marie Comte de (1753-1821). A distinguished French publicist; born at Chambery; studied at the University of Turin. Lived for some years at Lausanne, where he published in 1796 his Considerations sur la Revolution francaise.

{247a} Donoso Cortes, Jean Francois (1809-1853). A famous Spanish publicist; born in Estremadura; played a considerable part in Spanish affairs under Marie-Christine and Queen Isabella. Was for a time Spanish Ambassador to Berlin, and later to France, where he died in Paris. He wrote much upon such questions as the Catholic Church and Socialism.

{247b} Perin, Henri Charles Xavier (1815- ), a Belgium economist, born at Mons; became an advocate at Brussels and also Professor of Political Economy in that city. His book De la Richesse dans les Societes Chretiennes appeared in Paris in 2 volumes in 1861.

{247c} Le Play, Pierre Guillaume Frederic (1806-1882). Born at Honfleur. He directed the organization of the Paris International Exhibitions of 1855 and 1867. He wrote many books. His La reforme sociale en France deduite de l'observation comparee des peuples Europeens was published in two volumes in 1864.

{247d} Riehl, Wilhelm Heinrich (1823-1897). A well-known author; born at Biebrich-am-Rhein, died in Munich. He was associated with several German newspapers, and edited from 1848 to 1851 the Nassauische Allgemeine Zeitung, from 1851 to 1853 the Augsburger Allgemeine Zeitung, and afterwards became a Professor of Literature at Munich. In 1885 he became the director of the Bavarian National Museum. He wrote many books, the one referred to by Lord Acton having been published in 1851 under the title of Die burgerliche Gesellschaft.

{248a} Sismondi, Jean Charles Leonard Sismonde de (1773-1842), the distinguished historian of the Italian republics, was born at Geneva of an Italian family originally from Pisa. He resided for a time in England. His famous book the Histoire des Republiques Italiennes de Moyen-Age appeared between 1807 and 1818 in 16 volumes. His Etudes sur les Constitutions des Peuples Libres, was one of many other books.

{248b} Rossi, Pellegrino Luigi Odoardo (1787-1848). An Italian publicist; born at Carrara. Keenly sympathized with the French Revolution and served under Murat in the Hundred Days, after which he fled to Geneva. In later years he became a nationalized Frenchman, occupied a Chair of Constitutional Law, and finally became a peer. As Comte Rossi he went on a special embassy to Rome. He was assassinated in that city during the troubles of 1848. His Traite du Droit Constitutionnel appeared in 2 volumes.

{248c} Barante, Aimable Guillaume Prosper Brugiere, baron de (1782-1868), historian and politician, was born at Riom. He was made a Counciller of State by Louis XVIII in 1815, and a peer of France in 1819. He was elected a member of the French Academy in 1828. Under Louis Philippe he became Ambassador first at Turin and afterwards at St. Petersburg. After the revolution of 1848 he devoted himself entirely to literature. He wrote many historical and literary studies, and translated the works of Schiller into French. His Vie politique de Royer-Collard has several times been reprinted.

{249a} Duvergier de Hauranne, Prosper (1798-1881), was a distinguished French publicist, born at Rouen. He was parliamentary deputy for Sancerre in 1831 and took part in most of the political struggles of the following twenty years. He was exiled from France at the time of the Coup d'Etat, but returned during the reign of Napoleon III. Henceforth he devoted himself exclusively to historical studies. His Histoire du gouvernement parlementaire en France, published in 1870, secured his election to the French Academy.

{249b} Madison, James (1751-1836). The fourth President of the United States; born at Port Conway, Virginia. Acted with Jay and Hamilton in the Convention which framed the Constitution and wrote with them The Federalist. He had two terms of office—between 1809 and 1817—as President. He died at Montpelier, Virginia. His Debates of the Congress of Confederation was published in Elliot's "Debates on the State Conventions," 4 vols., Philadelphia, 1861.

{249c} Hamilton, Alexander (1757-1804). A great American statesman, who served in Washington's army, and after the war became eminent as a lawyer in New York. He wrote fifty-one out of the eighty-five essays of The Federalist. He was appointed Secretary of the Treasury to the United States in 1789. He was mortally wounded in a duel by Aaron Burr in 1804. His influence upon the American Constitution gives him a great place in the annals of the Republic.

{249d} Calhoun, John Campbell (1782-1850). An American statesman; born in Abbeville County, South Carolina and studied at Yale. As a Member of Congress he supported the war with Great Britain in 1812-15. He was twice Vice-President of the United States. He died at Washington. A Disquisition on Government and a Discourse on the Constitution and Government of the United States were written in the last months of his life. His Collected Works appeared in 1853-4.

{250a} Dumont, Pierre Etienne Louis (1759-1829). A great publicist; born in Geneva, and principally known in England by his association with Bentham, to whom he acted as an editor and interpreter. Lived much in Paris, St. Petersburg, and, above all, in London, where he knew Fox, Sheridan, and other famous men, and taught the children of Lord Shelburne. Dumont's Sophismes Anarchiques appears in Bentham's Collected Works as Anarchical Fallacies.

{250b} Quinet, Edgar (1803-1875). French historian and philosopher; born at Borg and died in Paris. His epic poem of Ahasuerus was placed upon the Index. Of his many books his La Revolution Francaise is the best known. It was written in Switzerland, where he was an exile during the reign of Napoleon III. He returned to France in 1870.

{250c} Stein, Lorenz von (1815-1890). Writer on economics, studied in Kiel and in Jena. In 1855 he became Professor of International Law in Vienna. He wrote books on statecraft and international law. His work entitled Der Sozialismus und Kommunismus des heutigen Frankreich appeared in Leipzig in 1843.

{251a} Lassalle, Ferdinand (1825-1864), the famous social democrat, was of Jewish birth; born at Breslau. He took part in the revolution of 1848 and received six months' imprisonment. He was wounded in a duel at Geneva over a love affair and died two days later. His System der Erworbenen Rechte appeared in 1861.

{251b} Thonissen, Jean Joseph (1817-1891). A distinguished jurist; born in Belgium. He studied at Liege and in Paris; became a Professor of the Catholic University of Louvain; afterwards became a Minister of State. Of his many works his Socialisme depuis l'antiquite jusqu'a la constitution francaise de 1852 is best known.

{251c} Considerant, Victor (1808-1894). Born at Salins, and, after the Revolution of 1848, entered the Chamber of Deputies. He crossed to America to found a colony in Texas, but ruined himself by the experiment. He returned to France in 1869. He was the author of many socialistic treatises.

{251d} Roscher, Wilhelm (1817-1894), economist, was born in Hanover. Held a chair first in Gottingen and afterwards in Leipzig, where he died. His Geschichte der Nationalokonomik in Deutschland appeared in Munich in 1874.

{251e} Mill, John Stuart (1806-1873), the famous publicist and author, was born in London, and educated by his father, James Mill (1773-1836). He served in the India Office, 1823-58; he was M.P. for Westminster, 1865- 68. His works include the Principles of Political Economy, 1848; the Essay on Liberty, 1859, and the System of Logic, which first appeared in 1843.

{252a} Coleridge, Samuel Taylor (1772-1834), poet and critic, was born at Ottery St. Mary, Devonshire; educated at Christ's Hospital, London, and at Jesus College, Cambridge. In the volume of Lyrical Ballads by Wordsworth of 1798 Coleridge contributed the Ancient Mariner, and he was to make his greatest reputation by this and other poems. His best prose work was his Biographia Literaria (1817). His Aids to Reflection was first published in 1825.

{252b} Radowitz, Joseph Maria von (1797-1853). A Prussian general and statesman; born in Blankenberg and died in Berlin. Fought in the Napoleonic wars and was wounded at the battle of Leipzig. Afterwards served as Ambassador to various German Courts. He wrote several treatises bearing upon current affairs, and his Fragments form Vols. IV and V of his Collected Works in 5 volumes, which were issued in Berlin in 1852-53.

{252c} Gioberti, Vincent (1801-1852). An Italian statesman and philosopher; born in Turin, where he afterwards became Professor of Theology. Was for a time Court Chaplain, but his liberal views led to exile, and he retired first to Paris, then to Brussels. Afterwards became famous as a neo-Catholic with his attempt to combine faith with science and art, and urged the independence and the unity of Italy. His Jesuite moderne, published in 1847, created a sensation. After some years of home politics he was appointed by King Victor Emmanuel as Ambassador to Paris. It is noteworthy in the light of Lord Acton's recommendation of his Pensieri that his works have been placed on the Index.

{253a} Humboldt, Friedrich Heinrich Alexander Baron von (1769-1859), the great naturalist, was born and died in Berlin, and studied at Frankfort- on-the-Oder, Berlin and Gottingen; he spent five years (1799-1804) in exploring South America, and in 1829 travelled through Central Asia. His Kosmos appeared between 1845 and 1858 in 4 volumes.

{253b} De Candolle, Alphonse de (1806-1893). The son of the celebrated botanist, Augustin Pyramus de Candolle, and was himself a professor of that science at Geneva. His Histoire des sciences et des savants depuis deux siecles appeared in 1873.

{253c} Darwin, Charles Robert (1809-1882), the great naturalist and discoverer of natural selection, was born at Shrewsbury, where he was educated at the Grammar School, at Edinburgh University, and at Christ's College, Cambridge. His most famous book, The Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection, was first published in 1859.

{253d} Littre, Maximilien Paul Emile (1801-1884), the famous lexicographer whose Dictionnaire de la langue francaise gave him a world-wide reputation. He was born in Paris. He associated himself with Auguste Comte and the Positive Philosophy, and contributed many volumes in support of Comte's standpoint.

{253e} Cournot, Antoine Augustin (1801-1877). Born at Gray in Savoy; wrote many mathematical treatises. His Traite de l'enchainement des idees fondamentales dans les sciences et dans l'histoire was published in 2 volumes.

{254} This was a most comprehensive addition, and fully makes up for the abrupt termination of the list of the hundred best books with two omissions. The omission of the book numbered 88 will also have been remarked. There are probably a hundred "Monatschriften der Wissenschaftlichen Vereine" or magazines of scientific societies issued in Germany. Sperling's Zeitschriften-Adressbuch gives more than two columns of these.

{260a} The Bible can be best read in paragraph form from the Eversley edition, published by the Macmillans, or from the Temple Bible, issued by J. M. Dent—the latter an edition for the pocket. The translation of 1610 is literature and has made literature. The revised translation of our own day has neither characteristic. Something can be said for the Douay Bible in this connexion. It was published in Douay in the same year as the Protestant version appeared—1610. Certain words from it, such as "Threnes" for "Lamentations" as the Threnes of Jeremiah, have a poetical quality that deserved survival.

{260b} The Iliad may be read in a hundred verse translations of which those by Pope and Cowper are the best known. Both these may be found in Bohn's Libraries (G. Bell & Sons); but the prose translation for which Mr. Lang and his friends are responsible (Macmillan) is for our generation far and away the best introduction to Homer for the non-Grecian.

{261a} Under the title of "The Athenian Drama," George Allen has published three fine volumes of the works of the Greek dramatists.

{261b} Dryden's translation of Virgil has been followed by many others both in prose and verse. There was one good prose version by C. Davidson recently issued in Laurie's Classical Library. An interesting translation of Virgil's Georgics into English verse was recently made by Lord Burghclere and published by John Murray. The young student, however, will do well to approach Virgil through Dryden. He will find the book in the Chandos Classics, or superbly printed in Professor Saintsbury's edition of Dryden's Works, Vol. XIV.

{261c} There have been many translations of Catullus. One, by Sir Richard Burton, was issued by Leonard Smithers in 1894. In Bohn's Library there is a prose translation by Walter K. Kelly. Professor Robinson Ellis made a verse translation that has been widely praised. Grant Allen translated the Attis in 1892. On the whole, the English verse translation by Sir Theodore Martin made in 1861 (Blackwood & Son) is far and away the best suited for a first acquaintance with this the 'tenderest of Roman Poets.'

{261d} Horace has been made the subject of many translations. Perhaps there are fifty now available. John Conington's edition of his complete works, two volumes (Bell), is well known. The best introduction to Horace for the young student is in Sir Theodore Martin's translation, two volumes (Blackwood), and a volume by the same author entitled Horace in "Ancient Classics for English Readers" (Blackwood) is a charming little book.

{262a} Dante's Divine Comedy as translated by Henry Francis Cary (1772- 1844) has been described by Mr. Ruskin as better reading than Milton's "Paradise Lost." James Russell Lowell, with true patriotism, declared that his countrymen Longfellow's translation (Routledge) was the best. Something may be said for the prose translation by Dr. John Carlyle of the Inferno (Bell) and for Mr. A. J. Butler's prose translation of the whole of the Divine Comedy in three volumes (Macmillan). Other translations which have had a great vogue are by Wright and Dean Plumptre. The best books on Dante are those by Dr. Edward Moore (Clarendon Press). Cary's translation can be obtained in one volume in Bohn's Library (Bell) or in the Chandos Classics (Warne).

{262b} I contend that while most of the poets are self-contained in a single volume, Shakspere's plays are best enjoyed as separate entities. Certainly each of them has a library attached to it, and it is quite profitable to read Hamlet in Mr. Horace Howard Furness's edition (Lippincott) with a multitude of criticisms of the play bound up with the text of Hamlet. But Hamlet should be read first in the Temple Shakspere (Dent) or in the Arden Shakspere (Methuen). To this last there is an admirable introduction by Professor Dowden.

{262c} Chaucer's Canterbury Tales should be read in Mr. Alfred W. Pollard's edition, which forms two volumes of the "Eversley Library" (Macmillan). The "Tales" may be obtained in cheaper form in the Chaucer of the Aldine Poets (Bell), of which I have grateful memories, having first read "Chaucer" in these little volumes. The enthusiast will obtain the Complete Works of Chaucer edited for the Clarendon Press by Professor W. W. Skeat.

{263a} FitzGerald's Omar Khayyam can be obtained in its four versions, each of which has its merits, only from the Macmillans, who publish it in many forms. The edition in the Golden Treasury Series may be particularly commended. The present writer has written an introduction to a sixpenny edition of the first version. It is published by William Heinemann.

{263b} Goethe's Faust has been translated in many forms. Certainly Anster's version (Sampson Low) is the most vivacious. Anna Swanwick, Sir Theodore Martin and Bayard Taylor's translations have about equal merit.

{263c} Shelley's Poetical Works should be read in the one volume issued in green cloth by the Macmillans, with an introduction by Edward Dowden, or in the Oxford Poets (Henry Froude), with an introduction by H. Buxton Forman, but perhaps the best edition is that of the Clarendon Press with an introduction by Thomas Hutchinson. Mr. Forman's library edition of Shelley's Complete Works is the desire of all collectors.

{263d} Byron's Poetical Works, edited by Ernest Coleridge, form seven volumes of John Murray's edition of Byron's Works in thirteen volumes. There is not a good one-volume Byron. I particularly commend the three- volume edition (George Newnes).

{264a} Wordsworth may be read in his entirety in the sixteen volumes of Prose and Poetry edited by William Knight in the Eversley Library (Macmillan). The same publisher issues an admirable Wordsworth in one volume, edited, with an introduction by John Morley. But the first approach to Wordsworth's verse should be made through Matthew Arnold's Select Poems in the Golden Treasury Series (Macmillan).

{264b} Keats's Works are issued in one volume in the Oxford Poets (Froude), and in five shilling volumes by Gowans and Gray of Glasgow. Mr. Buxton Forman's annotations to this cheap edition exceed in value those attached to his more expensive "Library Edition," which, however, as with the Shelley, in eight volumes, is out of print.

{264c} The four volumes of Burns, with an introduction by W. E. Henley, are pleasant to read. They are published by Jack, of Edinburgh. The best single-volume Burns is that in the Globe Library (Macmillan), with an introduction by Alexander Smith.

{264d} There is no rival to the one-volume edition of Coleridge's Poems, with an introduction by J. Dykes Campbell, published by Macmillan. Mr. Dykes Campbell's biography of Coleridge should also be read. The prose works of Coleridge are obtainable in Bohn's Library. The fortunate book lover has many in Pickering editions.

{264e} Cowper's Complete Works are acquired for a modest sum of the second-hand bookseller in Southey's sixteen-volume edition. The two best one-volume issues of the Poems are the Globe Library Edition with an introduction by Canon Benham (Macmillan), and Cowper's Complete Poems with an introduction by J. C. Bailey (Methuen). The best of the letters are contained in a volume in the Golden Treasury Series, with an introduction by Mrs. Oliphant. The Complete Letters of Cowper, edited by Thomas Wright, have been published by Hodder & Stoughton in four volumes.

{265a} Crabbe's Works, in eight volumes, with biography by his son, may be obtained very cheaply from the second-hand book seller. With all the merits of both Works and Life they have not been reprinted satisfactorily. The only good modern edition of Crabbe's Poems is in three volumes published by the Cambridge University Press, edited by A. W. Ward.

{265b} The best one-volume Tennyson is issued by the Macmillans, who still hold certain copyrights. The Library Edition of Tennyson, with the Biography included in the twelve volumes, is a desirable acquisition.

{265c} Not all the sixteen volumes of the Library Edition of Browning pay for perusal. The most convenient form is that of the two-volume edition (Smith, Elder & Co.), with notes by Augustine Birrell.

{265d} Milton's Poetical Works as annotated by David Masson (Macmillan) make the standard library edition, and the same publishers have given us the best one-volume Milton in the Globe Library, with an introduction by Professor Masson, Milton's one effective biographer.

{266a} The Arabian Nights' Entertainments is first introduced to us all as a children's story-book. Tennyson has placed on record his own early memories:—

"In sooth it was a goodly time, For it was in the golden prime Of good Haroun Alraschid."

But the collector of the hundred best books will do well to read the Arabian Nights in the translation by Edward William Lane, edited by Stanley Lane Poole, in 4 volumes, for George Bell & Sons.

{266b} The most satisfactory translation of Cervantes's great romance is that made by John Ormesby, revised and edited by James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, published by Gowans & Gray in 4 shilling volumes.

{266c} The Pilgrim's Progress is presented in a hundred forms. The present writer first read it in a penny edition. It should be possessed by the book-lover in a volume of the Cambridge English Classics, in which Grace Abounding and The Pilgrim's Progress are given together, edited by Dr. John Brown, and published by the Cambridge University Press.

{266d} Schoolboys, notwithstanding Macaulay, usually know but few good books, but every schoolboy knows Defoe's Robinson Crusoe in one form or another. The maker of a library will prefer it as a Volume of Defoe's Works (J. M. Dent), or as Volume VII of Defoe's Novels and Miscellaneous Works (Bell & Sons). There are many good shilling editions of the book by itself, but Defoe should be read in many of his works and particularly in Moll Flanders.

{267a} As with Robinson Crusoe, Gulliver's Travels can be obtained in many cheap forms, but it is well that it should be obtained as Volume VIII of Swift's Prose Works, published in Bohn's Libraries by George Bell & Sons. There has not been a really good edition of Swift's works since Scott's monumental book.

{267b} Clarissa should be read in nine of the twenty volumes of Richardson's Novels, published by Chapman & Hall—a very dainty well-printed book. "I love these large, still books," said Lord Tennyson.

{267c} The greatest of all novels, Tom Jones, is obtainable in several Library Editions of Fielding's Works. A cheap well-printed form is that of the Works of Henry Fielding in 12 volumes, published by Gay & Bird. Here The Story of Tom Jones a Foundling is in 4 volumes. The book is in 2 volumes in Bohn's Library—an excellent edition.

{267d} Johnson's Rasselas has frequently been reprinted, but there is no edition for a book-lover at present in the bookshops. It is included in Classic Tales in a volume of Bohn's Standard Library. The wise course is to look out for one of the earlier editions with copper plates that are constantly to be found on second-hand bookstalls. But Johnson's Works should be bought in a fine octavo edition.

{268a} Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefield should be possessed in the edition which Mr. Hugh Thomson has illustrated and Mr. Austin Dobson has edited for the Macmillans. There is a good edition of Goldsmith's Works in Bohn's Library.

{268b} Sterne's Sentimental Journey is also a volume for the second- hand bookstall, although that and the equally fine Tristram Shandy may be obtained in many pretty forms. I have two editions of Sterne's books, but they are both fine old copies.

{268c} There are two very good editions of Peacock's delightful romances. Nightmare Abbey forms a volume of J. M. Dent's edition in 9 volumes, edited by Dr. Garnett; and the whole of Peacock's remarkable stories are contained in a single volume of Newnes' "Thin Paper Classics."

{268d} Sir Walter Scott's novels are available in many forms equally worthy of a good library. The best is the edition published by Jack of Edinburgh. The Temple Library of Scott (J. M. Dent) may be commended for those who desire pocket volumes, while Mr. Andrew Lang's Introductions give an added value to an edition published by the Macmillans, Scott's twenty-eight novels are indispensable to every good library, and every reader will have his own favourite.

{268e} Balzac's novels are obtainable in a good translation by Ellen Marriage, edited by George Saintsbury, published in New York by the Macmillan Company and in London by J. M. Dent.

{269a} A translation of Dumas' novels in 48 volumes is published by Dent. The Three Musketeers is in 2 volumes. There are many cheap one volume editions.

{269b} Thackeray's Vanity Fair is pleasantly read in the edition of his novels published by J. M. Dent. His original publishers, Smith, Elder & Co., issue his works in many forms.

{269c} The best edition of Charlotte Bronte's Villette is that in the "Haworth Edition," published by Smith, Elder & Co., with an Introduction by Mrs. Humphry Ward.

{269d} Charles Dickens' novels, of which David Copperfield is generally pronounced to be the best, should be obtained in the "Oxford India Paper Dickens" (Chapman & Hall and Henry Frowde). A serviceable edition is that published by the Macmillans, with Introductions by Charles Dickens's son, but that edition still fails of Our Mutual Friend and The Mystery of Edwin Drood, of which the copyright is not yet exhausted.

{269e} Anthony Trollope's novels are being reissued, in England by John Lane and George Bell & Sons, and in America in a most attractive form by Dodd, Mead & Co. All three publishers have a good edition of Barchester Towers, Trollope's best novel.

{269f} Boccaccio's Decameron is in my library in many forms—in 3 volumes of the Villon Society's publications, translated by John Payne; in 2 handsome volumes issued by Laurence & Bullen; and in the Extra Volumes of Bohn's Library. There is a pretty edition available published by Gibbons in 3 volumes.

{270a} Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights forms a volume of the Haworth Edition of the Bronte novels, published by Smith, Elder & Co. It has an introduction by Mrs. Humphry Ward.

{270b} Charles Reade's Cloister and the Hearth is available in many forms. The pleasantest is in 4 volumes issued by Chatto & Windus, with an Introduction by Sir Walter Besant. There is a remarkable shilling edition issued by Collins of Glasgow.

{270c} Victor Hugo's Les Miserables may be most pleasantly read in the 10 volumes, translated by M. Jules Gray, published by J. M. Dent & Co.

{270d} Mrs. Gaskell's Cranford can be obtained in the six volume edition of that writer's works published by Smith, Elder & Co., with Introductions by Dr. A. W. Ward; in a volume illustrated by Hugh Thomson, with an Introduction by Mrs. Ritchie, published by the Macmillans, or in the World's Classics (Henry Frowde), where there is an additional chapter entitled, "The Cage at Cranford."

{270e} The translation of George Sand's Consuelo in my library is by Frank H. Potter, 4 volumes, Dodd, Mead & Co., New York.

{270f} Lever's Charles O'Malley I have as volumes of the Complete Works published by Downey. There is a pleasant edition in Nelson's "Pocket Library."

{271a} Macaulay's History of England is available in many attractive forms from the original publishers, the Longmans. There is a neat thin paper edition for the pocket in 5 volumes issued by Chatto & Windus.

{271b} For Carlyle's Past and Present I recommend the Centenary Edition of Carlyle's Works, published by Chapman & Hall. There is an annotated edition of Sartor Resartus by J. A. S. Barrett (A. & C. Black), two annotated editions of The French-Revolution, one by Dr. Holland Rose (G. Bell & Sons), and an other by C. R. L. Fletcher, 3 volumes (Methuen), and an annotated edition of The Cromwell Letters, edited by S. C. Lomax, 3 volumes (Methuen). No publisher has yet attempted an annotated edition of Past and Present, but Sir Ernest Clarke's translation of Jocelyn of Bragelond (Chatto & Windus) may be commended as supplemental to Carlyle's most delightful book.

{271c} Motley's Works are available in 9 volumes of a Library Edition published by John Murray. A cheaper issue of the Dutch Republic is that in 3 volumes of the World's Classics, to which I have contributed a biographical introduction.

{271d} For many years the one standard edition of Gibbon was that published by John Murray, in 8 volumes, with notes by Dean Milman and others. It has been superseded by Professor Bury's annotated edition in 7 volumes (Methuen).

{272a} Plutarch's Lives, translated by A. Stewart and George Long, form 4 volumes of Bohn's Standard Library. There is a handy volume for the pocket in Dent's Temple Classics in 10 volumes, translated by Sir Thomas North.

{272b} Montaigne's Essays I have in three forms; in the Tudor Translations (David Nutt), where there is an Introduction to the 6 volumes of Sir Thomas North's translation by the Rt. Hon. George Wyndham; in Dent's Temple Classics, where John Florio's translation is given in 5 volumes. A much valued edition is that in 3 volumes, the translation by Charles Cotton, published by Reeves & Turner in 1877.

{272c} Steele's essays were written for the Tatler and the Spectator side by side with those of Addison. The best edition of The Spectator is that published in 8 volumes, edited by George A. Aitken for Nimmo, and of The Tatler that published in 4 volumes, edited also by Mr. Aitken for Duckworth & Co.

{272d} Lamb's Essays of Elia can be read in a volume of the Eversley Library (Macmillan), edited by Canon Ainger. The standard edition of Lamb's Works is that edited by Mr. E. V. Lucas, in 7 volumes, for Methuen. Mr. Lucas's biography of Lamb has superseded all others.

{272e} Thomas de Quincey's Opium Eater may be obtained as a volume of Newnes's Thin Paper Classics, in the World's Classics, or in Dent's Everyman's Library. But the Complete Works of De Quincey, in 16 volumes, edited by David Mason and published by A. & C. Black, should be in every library.

{273a} William Hazlitt never received the treatment he deserved until Mr. J. M. Dent issued in 1903 his Collected Works, in 13 volumes, edited by A. R. Waller and Arnold Glover. Of cheap reprints of Hazlitt I commend The Spirit of the Age, Winterslow and Sketches and Essays, three separate volumes of the World's Classics (Frowde).

{273b} George Borrow's Lavengro should only be read in Mr. John Murray's edition, as it there contains certain additional and valuable matter gathered from the original manuscript by William I. Knapp. The Library Edition of Borrow, in 6 volumes (Murray), may be particularly commended.

{273c} Emerson's Complete Works are published by the Routledges in 4 volumes, in which Representative Men may be found in Vol. II. Some may prefer the Eversley Library Emerson, which has an Introduction by John Morley. There are many cheap editions of about equal value.

{273d} Lander's Imaginary Conversations form six volumes of the complete Landor, edited by Charles G. Crump, and published in 10 volumes by J. M. Dent.

{273e} Matthew Arnold's Essays in Criticism is published by Macmillan. It also forms Vol. III of the Library Edition of his Works in 15 volumes. A "Second Series" has less significance.

{273f} The Works of Herodotus, published by the Macmillans, translated by George C. Macaulay, is the best edition for the general reader. Canon Rawlinson's Herodotus, published by John Murray, has had a longer life, but is now only published in an abridged form.

{274a} James Howell's Familiar Letters, or Epistolae Ho Elianae, should be read in the edition published in 2 volumes by David Nutt, with an Introduction by Joseph Jacobs.

{274b} The History of Civilization, by Henry Thomas Buckle, is in my library in the original 2 volumes published by Parker in 1857. It is now issued in 3 volumes in Longman's Silver Library, and in 3 volumes in the World's Classics.

{274c} The History of Tacitus should be read in the translation by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodripp. It is published by the Macmillans.

{274d} Our Village, by Mary Russell Mitford, is a collection of essays which in their completest form may be obtained in two volumes of Bohn's Library (Bell). The essential essays should be possessed in the edition published by the Macmillans—Our Village, by Mary Russell Mitford, with an Introduction by Anne Thackeray Ritchie, and one hundred illustrations by Hugh Thomson.

{274e} Green's Short History of the English People is published by the Macmillans in 1 volume, or illustrated in 4 volumes. The book was enlarged, but disimproved, under the title of A History of the English People, in 4 volumes, uniform with the Conquest of England and the Making of England by the same author.

{275a} Taine's Ancient Regime is a good introduction to the conditions which made the French Revolution. It forms the first volume of Les Origines de la France Contemporaine, and may be read in a translation by John Durand, published by Dalby, Isbister & Co. in 1877.

{275b} The Life of Napoleon has been written by many pens, in our own day most competently by Dr. Holland Rose (2 vols. Bell); but a good account of the Emperor, indispensable for some particulars and an undoubted classic, is that by de Bourrienne, Napoleon's private secretary, published in an English translation, in 4 volumes, by Bentley in 1836.

{275c} Democracy in America, by Alexis de Tocqueville, may be had in a translation by Henry Reeve, published in 2 volumes by the Longmans. Read also A History of the United States by C. Benjamin Andrews, 2 volumes (Smith, Elder), and above all the American Commonwealth, by James Bryce, 2 volumes (Macmillan).

{275d} The Compleat Angler of Isaac Walton may be purchased in many forms. I have a fine library edition edited by that prince of living anglers, Mr. R. B. Marston, called The Lea and Dove Edition, this being the 100th edition of the book (Sampson Low, 1888). I have also an edition edited by George A. B. Dewar, with an Introduction by Sir Edward Grey and Etchings by William Strang and D. Y. Cameron, 2 volumes (Freemantle), and a 1 volume edition published by Ingram & Cooke in the Illustrated Library.

{276a} There are many editions of Gilbert White's Natural History of Selbourne to be commended. Three that are in my library are (1) edited with an Introduction and Notes by L. C. Miall and W. Warde Fowler (Methuen); (2) edited with Notes by Grant Allen, illustrated by Edmund H. New (John Lane); (3) rearranged and classified under subjects by Charles Mosley (Elliot Stock).

{276b} Of Boswell's Life of Johnson there are innumerable editions. The special enthusiast will not be happy until he possesses Dr. Birkbeck Hill's edition in 6 volumes (Clarendon Press). The most satisfactory 1 volume edition is that published on thin paper by Henry Frowde. I have in my library also a copy of the first edition of Boswell in 2 volumes. It was published by Henry Baldwin in 1791.

{276c} The best edition of Lockhart's Life of Scott is that published in 10 volumes by Jack of Edinburgh. Readers should beware of abridgments, although one of these was made by Lockhart himself. The whole eighty-five chapters are worth reading, even in the 1 volume edition published by A. & C. Black.

{276d} Pepys's Diary can be obtained in Bohn's Library or in Newnes' Thin Paper Classics, but Pepys should only be read under Mr. H. B. Wheatley's guidance. A cheap edition of his book, in 8 volumes, has recently been published by George Bell & Sons. I have No. 2 of the large paper edition of this book, No. 1 having gone to Pepys's own college of Brazenose, where the Pepys cypher is preserved.

{277a} Until recently one knew Walpole's Letters only through Peter Cunningham's edition, in 9 volumes (Bentley), and this has still exclusive matter for the enthusiast, Cunningham's Introduction to wit; but the Clarendon Press has now published Walpole's Letters, edited by Mrs. Paget Toynbee, in 16 volumes, or in 8. Here are to be found more letters than in any previous edition.

{277b} The Memoirs of Count de Gramont, by Anthony, Count Hamilton, can be obtained in splendid type, unannotated, in an edition published by Arthur L. Humphreys. A well-illustrated and well-edited edition is that published by Bickers of London and Scribner of New York, edited by Allan Fea.

{277c} Gray's Letters, with poems and life, form 4 volumes in Macmillan's Eversley Library, edited by Edmund Gosse.

{277d} You can obtain Southey's Nelson, originally written for Murray's Pocket Library as a publisher's commission, in one well-printed volume, with Introduction by David Hannay, published by William Heinemann. It should, however, be supplemented in the Life by Captain Mahan (2 volumes, Sampson Low & Co.), or by Professor Laughton's Nelson and His Companion in Arms (George Allen).

{277e} Moore's Life and Letters of Byron is published by John Murray in 6 volumes. It is best purchased second-hand in an old set. Moore's book must be supplemented by the 6 volumes of Correspondence edited by Rowland Prothero for Mr. Murray.

{278a} Sir George Trevelyan says in his Early History of Charles James Fox that Hogg's Life of Shelley is "perhaps the most interesting book in our language that has never been republished." The reproach has been in some slight measure removed by a cheap reprint in small type issued by the Routledges in 1906. The reader should, however, secure a copy of the first edition, 2 volumes, 1857. Professor Dowden, in his Life of Shelley, 1886, uses the book freely.

{278b} "What is the best book you have ever read?" Emerson is said to have asked George Eliot when she was about twenty-two years of age and residing, unknown, near Coventry. "Rousseau's Confessions," was the reply. "I agree with you," Emerson answered. But the book should not be read in a translation. The completest translation is one in 2 volumes published by Nicholls. There is a more abridged translation by Gibbons in 4 volumes.

{278c} The Life of Carlyle, by James Anthony Froude, which created so much controversy upon its publication, is worthy of a cheap edition, which does not, however, seem to be forthcoming. The book appeared in 4 volumes, The First Forty Years in 1882 and Life in London in 1884. It had been preceded by Reminiscences in 1881. Every one should read the Letters and Memorials of Jane Welsh Carlyle, 3 volumes, 1883. All the 9 volumes are published by the Longmans.

{279a} Samuel Rogers' Table Talk has been given us in two forms, first as Recollections of the Table Talk of Samuel Rogers, edited by Alexander Dyce, 1856, and second as Reminiscences of Samuel Rogers, 1859. The Recollections were reprinted in handsome form by H. A. Rogers, of New Southgate, in 1887, and the material was combined in a single volume in 1903 by G. H. Powell (R. Brimley Johnson). I have the four books, and delight in the many good stories they contain.

{279b} The Confessions of St. Augustine may be commended in many small and handy editions. One, with an Introduction by Alice Meynell, was published in 1900. The most beautifully printed modern edition is that issued by Arthur Humphreys in his Classical Series.

{279c} Amiel's Journal is a fine piece of introspection. A translation by Mrs. Humphry Ward is published in 2 volumes by the Macmillans. De Senancour's Obermann, translated by A. E. Waite (Wellby), should be read in this connexion.

{279d} The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius, translated by George Long, appears as a volume of Bohn's Library, and more beautifully printed in the Library of Arthur Humphreys. There are many other good translations—one by John Jackson, issued in 1906 by the Clarendon Press, has great merit.

{279e} George Henry Lewes's Life of Goethe has gone through many editions and remains a fascinating book, although it may be supplemented by the translation of Duntzer's Life of Goethe, 2 volumes, Macmillan, and Bielschowsky's Life of Goethe, Vols. I and II (Putnams).

{280a} The Life of Lessing, by James Sime, is not a great biography, but it is an interesting and most profitable study of a noble man. Lessing will be an inspiration greater almost than any other of the moderns for those who are brought in contact with his fine personality. The book is in 2 volumes, published by the Trubners.

{280b} You can read Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography in 1 volume (Dent), or in his Collected Works—Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Benjamin Franklin, edited by his grandson, William Temple Franklin, 6 volumes (Colburn), 1819. There have been at least two expensive reprints of his Works of late years.

{280c} The Greville Memoirs were published in large octavo form in the first place. Much scandal was omitted from the second edition. They are now obtainable in 8 volumes of Longmans' Silver Library. They form an interesting glimpse into the Court life of the later Guelphs.

{280d} It has been complained of John Forster's Life of Charles Dickens that there is too much Forster and not enough Dickens. Yet it is the only guide to the life-story of the greatest of the Victorian novelists. Is most pleasant to read in the 2 volumes of the Gadshill Edition, published by Chapman & Hall.

{280e} The Early Diary of Frances Burney, afterwards Madame D'Arblay, edited by Annie Raine Ellis, has just been reprinted in two volumes of Bohn's Library (Bell). We owe also to Mr. Austen Dobson a fine reprint of the later and more important Diaries, which he has edited in 6 volumes for the Macmillans.

{281a} The Apologia pro Vita Sua of John Henry Newman is one of the volumes of Cardinal Newman's Collected Works issued by the Longmans. It is the most interesting, and is perhaps the most destined to survive, of all the books of theological controversy of the nineteenth century.

{281b} There is practically but one edition of the Paston Letters, that edited by James Gairdner, of the Public Record Office, and published by the firm of Archibald Constable. The luxurious Library Edition issued by Chatto & Windus in 6 volumes should be acquired if possible.

{281c} The Autobiography of Benvenuto Cellini is best known in the translation of Thomas Roscoe in Bohn's Library. Mr. J. Addington Symonds, however, made a new translation, issued in two fine volumes by Nimmo.

{281d} The Religio Medici of Sir Thomas Browne can be obtained in many forms, although the well-to-do collector will be satisfied only with the edition edited by Simon Wilkin. The book is admirably edited by W. A. Greenhill for the "Golden Treasury Series."


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