History of Rome from the Earliest times down to 476 AD
by Robert F. Pennell
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One year followed without any king, and then NUMA POMPILIUS(716-673), a Sabine from Cures, was chosen. He was a good man, and a great lawgiver. Many sacred rites were instituted by him to civilize his barbarous subjects. He reformed the calendar, and built a temple to the god Janus. TULLUS HOSTILIUS(673-641) succeeded him. His reign was noted for the fall of Alba Longa. Then came ANCUS MARCIUS (640-616), the grandson of Numa. He was a good ruler and popular. He conquered the Latins, enlarged the city, and built new walls around it. He was the first to build a prison, and to bridge the Tiber. (Footnote: This bridge was called the pons sublicius i. e. a bridge resting on piles.) He also founded a city at its mouth, which he called OSTIA.

The next three kings were of Etruscan origin. LUCIUS TARQUINIUS PRISCUS (616-578) went to Rome first during the reign of Ancus, and, becoming a favorite of his, was appointed guardian of his sons. After the death of Ancus, he wrested the government from them, and became king himself. He increased the Senators to two hundred, carried on many wars successfully, and thus enlarged the territory of the city. He built the CLOACA MAXIMA, or great sewer, which is used to-day. Tarquin also began the temple of JUPITER CAPITOLINUS, on the Capitoline Hill. He was killed in the thirty-eighth year of his reign by the sons of Ancus, from whom he had snatched the kingdom.

His successor was his son-in-law, SERVIUS TULLIUS (578-534), who enlarged the city still more, built a temple to Diana, and took a census of the people. It was found that the city and suburbs contained 83,000 souls. Servius was killed by his daughter, Tullia, and her husband, Tarquinius Superbus, son of Priscus.

TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS succeeded to the throne (534-510). He was energetic in war, and conquered many neighboring places, among which was Ardea, a city of the Rutuli. He finished the temple of Jupiter, begun by his father. He also obtained the SIBYLLINE BOOKS. A woman from Cumae, a Greek colony, came to him, and offered for sale nine books of oracles and prophecies; but the price seemed exorbitant, and he refused to purchase them. The sibyl then burned three, and, returning, asked the same price for the remaining six. The king again refused. She burned three more, and obtained from the monarch for her last three the original price. These books were preserved in the Capitol, and held in great respect. They were destroyed with the temple by fire, on July 6, 83. Two men had charge of them, who were called duoviri sacrorum. The worship of the Greek deities, Apollo and Latona, among others, was introduced through these books.

In 510 a conspiracy was formed against Tarquin by BRUTUS, COLLATINUS, and others, and the gates of the city were closed against him. (Footnote: The cause of the conspiracy was the violence offered by Sextus, Tarquin's son, to Lucretia, wife of Collatinus. Unable to bear the humiliation, she killed herself in the presence of her family, having first appealed to them to avenge her wrongs) A Republic was then formed, with two Consuls at the head of the government.

Tarquin made three attempts to recover his power at Rome, all unsuccessful. (Footnote: The victory of Lake Regillus, which has been painted by Macaulay in glowing colors, was gained over Tarquin in 509.) In the last attempt (508), he was assisted by PORSENA, king of the Etruscans. They advanced against the city from the north. HORATIUS COCLES, a brave young man, alone defended the bridge (pans sublicius) over the Tiber until it was torn down behind him. He then swam the river in safety to his friends. (Footnote: See Macaulay's "Lays of Ancient Rome.")

During the siege of the city, QUINTUS MUCIUS SCAEVOLA, a courageous youth, stole into the camp of the enemy with the intention of killing King Porsena, but by mistake killed his secretary instead. He was seized and carried to Porsena, who tried to frighten him by threats of burning. Instead of replying, Scaevola held his right hand on the burning altar until it was consumed. The king, admiring this heroic act, pardoned him. Out of gratitude, Scaevola told the king that three hundred other men as brave as himself had sworn to kill him. Porsena was so alarmed, that he made peace, and withdrew from the city. Mucius received his name Scaevola (left-handed) on account of this loss of his right hand.

Tarquin went to Tusculum, where he spent the rest of his days in retirement.

In 494 the plebeians at Rome rebelled, because they were exhausted by taxes and military service. A large part of them left the city, and crossed the Anio to a mountain (Mons Sacer) near by. The Senate sent MENENIUS AGRIPPA to treat with them. By his exertions (Footnote: Menenius is said to have related for them the famous fable of the belly and members.) the people were induced to return to the city, and for the first time were allowed to have officers chosen from their own ranks to represent their interests. These officers were called Tribuni Plebis.

Two years later (492) Gaius Marcius, one of the patricians, met and defeated the Volsci, a neighboring tribe, at CORIOLI. For this he received the name of CORIOLANUS. During a famine, he advised that grain should not be distributed to the plebeians unless they relinquished their right to choose the Tribuni Plebis. For this he was banished. Having obtained command of a Volscian army, he marched against Rome, and came within five miles of the city. Here he was met by a deputation of his own citizens, who begged him to spare the city. He refused; but, when his wife and mother added their tears, he was induced to withdraw the army. He was afterwards killed by the Volscians as a traitor. (Footnote: See Shakespeare's "Coriolanus.")

After the expulsion of Tarquin, the FABII were among the most distinguished men at Rome. There were three brothers, and for seven consecutive years one of them was Consul. It looked as if the Fabian gens would get control of the government. The state took alarm, and the whole gens, numbering 306 males and 4,000 dependents, was driven from Rome. For two years they carried on war alone against the Veientes, but finally were surprised and slain (477). One boy, Quintus Fabius Vibulanus, alone survived to preserve the name and gens of the Fabii.

In 458 the Romans were hard pressed by the Aequi. Their territory had been overrun, and their Consuls, cut off in some defiles, were in imminent danger of destruction. LUCIUS QUINCTUS CINCINNATUS was appointed Dictator. He was one of the most noted Roman warriors of this period. The ambassadors sent to inform him of his appointment found him working with bare arms in his field. Cincinnatus told his wife to throw over him his mantle, that he might receive the messengers of the state with proper respect. Such was the simplicity of his character, and yet so deeply did he reverence authority. The Aequi could not withstand his vigorous campaign, but were obliged soon to surrender, and made to pass under the yoke as a sign of humiliation. The Dictator enjoyed a well earned triumph.

In 451 one of the Decemviri, APPIUS CLAUDIUS, was captivated by the beauty of a patrician maiden, VIRGINIA, (Footnote: See Macaulay's "Lays of Ancient Rome.") a daughter of Lucius Virginius, and the betrothed of Lucius Icilius. He formed, with one of his tools, an infamous plot to obtain possession of Virginia, under pretence that she was a slave. When, in spite of all the efforts of the girl's father and lover, the Decemvir had, in his official capacity, adjudged her to be the slave of his tool, Virginius plunged a knife into his daughter's bosom, in presence of the people in the Forum. The enraged populace compelled the Decemviri to resign, and Appius, to escape worse punishment, put an end to his own life.

MARCUS FURIUS CAMILLUS was a famous man of a little later period. He was called a second Romulus for his distinguished services. In 396 he captured Veii, after a siege of ten years. On his return he celebrated the most magnificent triumph yet seen at Rome. He was afterwards impeached for not having fairly divided the spoils obtained at Veii, and went into exile at Ardea. When Rome was besieged by the Gauls under Brennus, in 390, Camillus was recalled and made Dictator. At the head of forty thousand men he hastened to the city, raised the siege, and in the battle which followed annihilated the Gauls. He was Dictator five times, Interrex three times, Military Tribune twice, and enjoyed four triumphs. He died at the advanced age of eighty-eight.

BRENNUS was the famous leader of the Senones, a tribe of Gauls, who invaded Italy about 390. He defeated the Romans at the River Allia (July 18, 390), and captured the city, except the Capitol, which he besieged for six months.

During the siege he tried to surprise the garrison, but was repulsed by Manlius, who was awakened by the cackling of some geese. Peace was finally purchased by the Romans by the payment of a thousand pounds of gold. To increase the weight, Brennus is said to have thrown his sword on the scales. At this juncture, as the story runs, Camillus appeared with his troops, ordered the gold to be removed, saying that Rome must be ransomed with steel, and not gold. In the battle which followed, the Gauls were defeated.


(The dates previous to 389 B.C. are uncertain.)

B.C. 753. Foundation of Rome by Romulus. 753-510. REGAL PERIOD. 753-716. Romulus. 716-673. Numa Pompilius. 673-641. Tullus Hostilius. 640-616. Ancus Marcius. 616-578. Tarquinius Priscus. 578-534. Servius Tullius. 534-510. Tarquinius Superbus. 510-30. THE REPUBLIC. 509. Battle of Lake Regillus. 508. Porsena. Horatius Codes. 494. Tribuni Plebis. Menenius Agrippa. 492. Corioli. Coriolanus. 477. Destruction of the Fabian Gens. 458. War with the Aequians. Cincinnatus. 451. The Decemviri. Appius Claudius. Virginia. 396. Capture of Veil. Camillus. 390. Siege of Rome by Brennus. Battle at the Allia river (July 18). 387. The planting of the first military or Latin colonies. 367. The Licinian Rogations. 353. Caere: the first Municipium. 343-341. First Samnite War. 340-338. The Latin War. 338. Antium, the first Roman or maritime colony. 326-304, The Second Samnite War. 321. The Caudine Forks. 298-290. The Third Samnite War. 295. Sentinum. 283. Lake Vadimonis. 281-272. Pyrrhus. 280. Heraclea. Cineas. 279. Asculum. 274. Beneventum. 272. Rome mistress of Italy; morality at its height. 264. Period of foreign conquest begins. 264-241. First Punic War. 260. Lipara; Mylae. 257. Tyndaris. 256. Ecnomus. Regulus at Clupea. 249. Drepana. 241. Aegates Insulae. Catulus. Hamilcar Barca. 237. Sardinia and Corsica acquired, and provincial system established. 229. Illyrican War. Important results. 222. Gallia Cisalpina acquired by battle of Telamon. 220. Hannibal in Spain. 219. Saguntum. 218-202. Second Punic War. 218. Ticinus. Trebia. 217. Trasimenus. Casilinum. 216. Cannae. 212. Capture of Syracuse. Archimedes. 207. Baecula. Metaurus. 202. Zama. 214-205. First Macedonian War. 200-197. Second Macedonian War. 198. Cynoscephalae. 190. Magnesia. 183. Death of Africanus, Hannibal, and Philopoemen. 171-168. Third Macedonian War. 168. Pydna. 149-146. Third Punic War. 149., Death of Cato the elder. 146. Destruction of Carthage and Corinth. 143-133. The Numantine War. 134-132. The Servile War. 133. Tiberius Gracchus. 129. Death of Africanus the younger. 123-121. Gaius Gracchus. 118-104. The Jugurthine War. Metellus. Marius. Sulla. 102. Aquae Sextiae. 101. Vercellae. 90-89. The Italian or Social War. 86. Death of Marius. 86-84. Sulla's campaign against Mithradates. 84. Death of Cinna. 80. Reforms of Sulla. 78. Death of Sulla. 80-72. Sertorius in Spain. 73-71. Spartacus. 72-67. Campaign of Lucullus against Mithradates. 67. Pompey conquers the pirates. 67-61. Pompey in the East. 63. Cicero Consul. Catiline. 59. First Triumvirate formed. Caesar's first Consulship. 59. The Leges Juliae. Clodius. Cicero's banishment. Cato sent to Cyprus. 58-49. Caesar in Gaul. 57. Recall of Cicero. Return of Cato. 53. Death of Crassus. Murder of Clodius. Pompey's consulship and 52 separation from Caesar. 49. Caesar crosses the Rubicon. 49. Siege and capture of Ilerda. 48 (Jan. 4). Caesar sails from Brundisium. 48. Victory of Pompey near the sea-board. 48 (Aug. 9). Pharsalia. (Sept 28) Murder of Pompey. Caesar establishes Cleopatra on the throne of Egypt. 47. Battle of Zela. 47 (Sept.). Caesar returns to Rome. 46 (Apr. 4). Thapsus. Death of Cato the younger. 45 (Mar. 17). Munda. 44 (Mar. 15). Murder of Caesar. 43 (Nov. 27). The Second Triumvirate. 43 (Dec.) Murder of Cicero. 42 (Nov.). Philippi. 36. Naulochus. 31 (Sept. 2). Actium.


B.C. / A.D. 30-41. THE JULIAN EMPERORS. 30-14. Augustus.

A.D. 14-37. Tiberius. 37-41. Caligula. 41-68. THE CLAUDIAN EMPERORS. 41-54. Claudius. 54-68. Nero. 68-69. Galba. 69. Otho. 69-96. THE FLAVIAN EMPERORS. 69-79. Vespasian. 79. Destruction of Jerusalem. 79-81. Titus. 80. Destruction of Herculaneum and Pompeii. 81-96. Domitian. 96-180. THE FIVE GOOD EMPERORS. 96-98. Nerva. 98-117. Trajan. Limit of Empire reached. 117-138. Hadrian. 138-161. Antoninus Pius. 161-180. Marcus Aurelius. 180-192. Commodus. 192-284. From Pertinax to Diocletian. 284-305. Diocletian. 306-337. Constantine the Great. 312. Edict of Milan. 325. Council of Nice. 337-476. From Constantine to Romulus Augustulus.



JUNE, 1889.

1. Place or explain the following: Capua; Numidia; Veii; Pharsalus; Comitia Centuriata; Decemvir; law of Majestas. With what important events was each connected? (Omit one; answer very briefly.)

2. The campaigns of Pyrrhus in Italy.

3. The causes and results of the Samnite Wars.

4. Cato's efforts to reform the government of Rome.

5. (a) Education in Rome. (b) Amusements at Rome. (Take one)


1. Basilica; Lex Publilia; Patrician; Triumvir; Tribune; Roman citizen,—what were they? (Take four.)

2. (a) How did Augustus obtain his power? (b) The reign of Hadrian; (c) The first Punic war. (Take one.)

3. (a) The Roman religion; (b) Decay of the Empire, (Take one)

4. Sulla's rule in Rome.

5. The tribes at the time of the Second Punic War. (4 and 5 are for "additional readings.")


(a) (Take five.) The Allia, Agrigentum, Lilybaeum, Placentia, Cannae, Numantia, Massilia,-where? Mention (with dates) historical events connected with four of these places. (Take any two.)

1. How were the members of the Roman Senate chosen at different times?

2. The origin of the Praetorship. What were the duties of the Praetor?

3. Describe or explain any five: Pater Patratus, Feriae Latinae, Curia, Equites, Flamines, the Licinian Laws, the law of Majestas.

Questions on the "additional reading."

(Candidates who have read the books recommended for additional reading may substitute one of the following questions for one of the first three in this group.)

4. (TIGHE.) How did the practical powers of the Roman Senate differ from its theoretical powers?

5. (BEESLEY.) What can be said in defence of the Lex Frumentaria of Gaius Gracchus?

September, 1886.

1. Give an account of the races which inhabited Italy before the founding of Rome.

2. What were the principal Greek colonies on the shores of the Mediterranean? For what were three of them celebrated?

3. Describe the three forms of the Roman comitia, and trace the development of the comitia tributa.

4. What were some causes of the victory of Rome in the Punic wars? The effect of this victory upon Italy?

5. Explain patria potestas, princeps senatus, municipium, ager Romanus, equites.



June, 1889.

1. The Patricians and Plebeians: first causes of strife between them. Steps in the political progress of the Plebeians. Censors. Tribunes. Licinian Laws.

2. Greek influences on Roman life: what were they? In what ways and at what times introduced?

3. The Second Punic War: its causes. Hannibal's great march. Battles in Italy. Hasdrubal. Transference of the war. The result. Why did Hannibal fail?

4. Give some account of the members of the First Triumvirate.

5. Arrange in chronological order, with dates: Actium. The Gracchi. First Samnite War. Pharsalus Regulus. Teutones and Cimbri. Numantia. Capture of Rome by the Gauls. Cicero's first oration against Catiline.


(Time allowed, 30 minutes.)

1. What powers did Octavianus Augustus take to himself? What change did he make in the government of Rome? What changes did Constantine make?

2. The gradual extension of the right of Roman citizenship, the causes of each extension, and dates.

3. What were the possessions of Rome at the beginning of the Christian era? How were they acquired, and when?

4. Explain praetorian guards; provincia; colonia; tribunus plebis; comitia centuriata.

5. Allia, Beneventum, Saguntum, Metaurus, Pharsalia; where were they? what happened there, and when?


1. Describe the circumstances under which the tribunate was established.

2. When and where did the principal military events in the war between the Caesarians and Pompeians occur?

3. Sketch briefly the career of Pompeius.

4. What persons composed the Second Triumvirate? In what essential points did the Second Triumvirate differ from the First?

5. When and for what reasons was the right of citizenship given to the provinces?

6. What radical changes in the government were made by Diocletian?

June, 1885.

1. Give an account of the Second Punic War (with dates).

2. Explain tribunus plebis, censor, dictator, imperator.

3. How were the provinces governed under the Republic, and how under the Empire?

4. What were the causes of the Social War, and what the results?

5. When and where did the following events take place: the defeat of Varus; the first Roman naval victory; the decisive victory over Pyrrhus; the death of Brutus and Cassius; the conquest of the first Roman province?


35TH ACADEMIC EXAMINATION November 22, 1889.—Time, 9.30 A.M. to 12 M., only. 48 credits; necessary to pass, 36.

1. Mention two prominent characteristics of the Roman people. (2)

2. Mention one element which Rome has contributed to the civilization of the world. (1)

3. Mention two foreign enemies that fought Rome on Italian soil; state the result in each contest. (4)

4. Describe the situation of any two of the following places, and state an important historical event connected with each: Caudine Forks; Pharsalia; Pompeii; Cannae. (4)

5. Which occurred first: (1) Fall of Carthage, or captivity of Jugurtha; (2) Battle of Actium, or battle of Philippi; (3) Death of Antony, or death of Cicero? (3)

6. What do you understand by a "proscription"? Mention the two which occur in Roman history. (3)

7. What were gladiators? who was their leader when they rebelled? (2)

8. What notable service was rendered to his country by Camillus; Tiberius Gracchus; Marius; Cicero? (4)

9. Mention two laws that are landmarks in Roman history. (2)

10. Give the boundaries of the Roman Empire at the beginning of the Christian era. (3)

11. Briefly describe the system of slavery as it existed in Rome.(2)

12. What was the Haruspex? how did he determine future events? (2)

13. Was the Roman government usually tolerant of religion? on what ground were the Christians punished? (2)

14. Describe the way in which the Romans attacked fortified towns. Describe two engines used by them for this purpose.(3)

15. Whence did Rome derive literature and art? (2)


16. To which of the two great parties in Rome did Sulla belong? (1)

17. Tell something of the reforms which he instituted. (2)

18. Mention two wars in which Sulla was engaged. (2)

19. Briefly describe his dictatorship and how it came to an end. (2)

20. Give a sketch of the character of Sulla. (2)


June 14, 1889.—Time, 9 30 A.M. to 12 M., only.

48 credits; necessary to pass, 36.

1. Give a brief account of any two races which inhabited Italy before the founding of Rome.(2)

2. On how many hills was Rome built? Give the names of three of them. (4)

3. Narrate the circumstances under which the Tribunes were first elected. (1)

4. What were the "public lands"? what political question arose in connection with them? (2)

5. What king of Epirus made war on the Romans? Why? What grounds had he for hoping to succeed? (3)

6. Mention two reasons why Hannibal hoped to overcome Rome. Why did he fail? (3)

7. What importance in Roman history is attached to the following dates: B.C. 55, 44, 42? (3)

8. Briefly describe the political situation when Caesar crossed the Rubicon. What were the chief consequences of his act? what was "the Rubicon"? (3)

9. What power was intrusted to a Roman Dictator? Mention two instances of this. (3)

10. Give the names of the Flavian Emperors, with some account of one of them. (4)

11. What radical change in the Roman government was made by Diocletian? (1)

12. Give a brief description of Julian the Apostate; tell why he was so called. (2)

13. Mention three objects which a Roman would be sure to point out to a stranger visiting Rome at the time of the Emperor Titus.(3)

14. Mention any three writers of the Augustan age, and the character of the writings of each. (6)

15. Mention two principal causes which contributed to the downfall of Rome. (2)


16. To what class of the people did Marius belong? (1)

17. In what war did he first gain great distinction? (1)

18. By the defeat of what peoples did he gain the title of "Saviour of his Country"? (1)

19. How many times was Marius elected Consul? (1)

20. What prolonged struggle had its beginning in the quarrels of Marius and Sulla? what was the result to the Republic? (2)


March 8, 1889.—Time, 9.30 A M. to 12 M., only.

44 credits; necessary to pass, 33.

1. What was the early form of government in Rome? (1)

2. Tell what you know about the (a) Patricians, (b) Plebeians, (c) Tribune, (d) Consul. (4)

3. Give a brief account of the origin of the Comitia Tributa. (2)

4. What was meant by an Agrarian law? who secured the first one? (2)

5. Who compiled the laws of the Twelve Tables? (2)

6. Tell briefly the story of Cincinnatus. (2)

7. Describe the system of Roman roads, and tell something of their effect upon the Republic. (2)

8. Give the immediate cause of the First Punic War. What was its result? (2)

9. Give the name of Rome's first province. (1)

10. In what battle did the Romans finally overthrow Macedonia? What Roman general commanded in this battle? (2)

11. Briefly describe the siege of Numantia. (2)

12. What was the effect of their great conquests upon the character of the Roman people? (2)

13. What was the cause of the Social War? Give the result of this war. (2)

14. Describe the campaign of Pompey against the pirates, giving the cause of the campaign, its length, and the result. (3)

15. What great religious event occurred during the reign of the Emperor Augustus? (1)

16. For what were the following men noted: (a) Juvenal, (b) Seneca, (c) Cato the Censor, (d) Fabius, (e) Caligula? (5)

THE GRACCHI. 17. Of what great movement did the agitations of the Gracchi form a part? (1)

18. What measure was proposed by Tiberius Gracchus? what measure by Caius Gracchus? (2)

19. Briefly describe the death of each of the Gracchi. (2)

20. With which order of the Roman people were the Gracchi allied by birth? with which, by sympathy? (2)

21. Why was the failure of the agitation of the Gracchi of very great significance? (2)

31st Advanced Academic Examination,

June 15, 1888.—Time, 9.30 A. M. to 12 M., only.

48 credits; necessary to pass, 36.

1. Into what three principal classes (or races) may the inhabitants of Italy be divided? To what great race did they belong? (4)

2. Who established the comitia centuriata? How did it differ from the comitia curiata? (2)

3. Who made the first code of Roman law? (1)

4. What king aided the Greek colonies in their war with Rome? What was the result of the war? (2)

5. In what war was Syracuse taken by the Romans? What was the cause of the siege? Give the name of a famous man who was slain, and state the circumstances of his death. (4)

6. Mention five provinces gained by Rome during the period of conquest, 266-133 B.C. (5)

7. Give the effects upon Rome of the Eastern conquests, in regard to literature and morals. (2)

8. What political parties did Marius and Sulla represent? (2)

9. What two foreign wars were conducted by Marius. (2)

10. What was the decisive battle in the civil war between Pompey and Caesar? (1)

11. Who formed the Second Triumvirate? What illustrious man was slain in their proscription? (4)

12. To what one of the Caesars was Seneca tutor? (1)

13. In whose reign occurred the last great persecution of the Christians? (1)

14. Give a brief sketch of the life and character of Constantine? (3)

15. Who was the last Western Roman Emperor? (1)


16. What caused Rome to bring the First Samnite War to an end? (1)

17. Give a brief account of the battle of the Caudine Forks, and of the treaty made there. (4)

18. What was the result of the battle of Sentinum? Give the terms of the final peace between the Romans and the Samnites. (3)

19. In the Roman State what three rights did Rome reserve for herself? (3)

20. Distinguish between Roman citizens and subjects (or Latins) (2)


March 2, 1888.—Time, 9.30 A.M. to 12 M., only.

48 credits; necessary to pass, 36.

1. Draw an outline map of Italy, and upon it indicate the location of Rome and sketch the river Tiber and the outline of Latium (6)

2. When was the Republic established, and who were the first Consuls? (3)

3. What was the cause of the first Secession, and what were the two conditions of the return? (3)

4. Give an account of the appointment of the Decemvirs and the powers intrusted to them. (2)

5. Mention two provisions of the Licinian laws or rogations. (2)

6. What part of Italy did the Samnites possess, and what was the cause of the First Samnite War? (2)

7. Give the name of one of the Roman military roads, tell in which direction it led, and what towns were at its extremities. (3)

8. In what locality were most of the contests of the First Punic War? (1)


9. Mention one Roman and one Carthaginian general noted in the conduct of the First Punic War. (2)

10. Describe the battle of Cannae, and tell the result of the battle.(2)

11. Mention two reforms or measures favored by the Gracchi.(2)

12. Compare the character of Marius with that of Sulla.(2)

13. Who formed the First Triumvirate, and what element of strength did each contribute to it? (3)

14. What cause was assigned for the assassination of Caesar? (1)

15. Describe in a sentence the character of each of the following: Nero; Trajan. (2)


16. Into what two principal branches were the early Italians divided, and what part of Italy did they occupy? (3)

17. Tell briefly the traditional story of the founding of Rome. (2)

18. What was the first form of government at Rome, and after what was it modelled? (2)

19. How did the Senate differ from the Comitia Curiata in its membership? (2)

20. What authority did the king have, and what duties did the Senate perform? (2)

21. Describe the religion of the early Romans. (1)

29th Advanced Academic Examination.

November 18, 1887.—Time, 9.30 A.M. to 12 M., only.

48 credits; necessary to pass, 36.

1. When was Rome founded? (1)

2. Under what king was the constitution remodelled, and what was the basis of the new constitution? (2)

3. Who was the last king? By whom was the government by kings overturned, and to whom was the power then intrusted? (3)

4. What caused the struggle between the patricians and plebeians, how long did it continue, and how did it result? (3)

5. Give briefly the story of Coriolanus (2)

6. What induced the Gauls to invade Italy 390 B.C., where did they contend with the Roman army, and with what result? (3)

7. Where was Carthage, by what means did it attain its power and wealth, and when did the Romans and Carthaginians first contend in arms? (3)

8. Under what circumstances was Fabius sent against Hannibal, what policy did he pursue, and with what result? (3)

9. Compare Publius Scipio Africanus with Marcus Cato in character and habits. (2)

10. What was the object of Catiline's conspiracy, by what Consul was it defeated, and in what manner? (3)

11. What causes led to the formation of the First Triumvirate? (1)

12. What was the cause of the battle of Actium, and what was its result? (2)

13. Describe the manner in which Octavius Augustus became Emperor, and the character of his reign. (2)

14. By what Emperor was Jerusalem captured, and in what year? (2)

15. Describe the customs of the Romans at meals, and mention some articles used by them for food. (2)


16. Draw a map of Italy, and upon it sketch the Apennine mountains, and the rivers Tiber and Arno. (4)

17. Upon the map indicate the location of the following: Rome, Naples, Tarentum. (3)

18. What three races occupied Italy in the earliest known times, what part of Italy did each occupy, and from which of these were the Latins descended? (7)


Achaeans Achaia Acroceraunia Actium Adherbal Aduatuci Aediles Aedui Aegates Islands Aegyptus Aemilian Way Aemilius Aeneas Aequians Aesis, R. Aetius Aetna Aetolians Afranius Africa Africanus Agendicum Ager occupatus Ager privatus Ager publicus Ager Romanus Agrarian Laws Agricola Agrigentum Agrippa Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa Agrippina, sister of Caligula Alae Alans Alaric Alba Longa Alban Lake Alban Mts. Alesia Alexander the Great Alexandria Allia Allies Alsium Ambiorix Amphitheatres Amulius Anchises Ancona Ancus Marcius Andes Andriscus Anio, R. Anthemius Antiochus III. Antiochus IV. Antium Antonia Antonius Antoninus, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Pius Antony Aous, R. Apennines Apollo, worship of Apollonia Apollonius Appeal, right of Appian Way Appius Claudius, Decemvir Appius Claudius, father-in-law of Gracchus Appius Claudius Caecus Appuleian Laws Apsus, R. Apulia Aqua Claudia Aquae Sextiae Aqueducts Aquileia Aquinum Aquitani Arabia Arabia Petraea Arcadius Archelaus Arches Archimedes Ardea Argos Aricia Ariminum Ariobarzanes Ariovistus Aristobulus Armenia Arminius Armor Army Arnus Arpi Arpinum Arretium Arsanias, R. Aryan Race Ascanius Asculum in Apulia Asia Assyria Aternus Athens Athesis Atrium Attalus II. Attalus III. Attila Aufidus, R. Augurs Augustan Age Augusta Taurinorum Augusti Augustus Aulerci Aurelia Aurelian Aurelian Way Aurelius, M. Antoninus Avaricum Averni Avernus, Lake

Baeculae Baetis, R. Baiae Basilicae Basilica Julia Bathing Baths Bellovaci Beneventum Bibracte Bibulus Bithynia Bocchus Boian Gauls Bononia Books Bovillae Brennus Bridge, Rhine Bridge, Tiber Britain Britannia Britannicus Brittany Brundisium Bruttium Brutus, nephew of Tarquin Brutus Brutus, Decimus Junius Brutus, Marcus Burgundians Burrhus Byzantium

Cabira Caecina Caepio Caere Caesar, Gaius Julius Caesar, Lucius Julius Caesars Caicus Calabria Calceus Caledonians Calendar Caligula Calpurnia Calpurnian Law Camarina Camerinum Camillus Campania Campus Martius Candles Cannae Canuleian Law Canuleius Canusium Capena Capitoline Hill Capitolium Cappadocia Capreae Capua Caracalla Carrhae Carthage Carthaginians Carthago Nova Carus Casca Casilinum Cassius. Cassivelaunus Catalonia Catana Catiline Cato, the elder Cato, the younger Catullus Catulus, father of the Senate Catulus, Gaius Lutatius Caudine Forks Caudium Celtiberi Celts Cenomani Censors Centuries Centurions Ceres Cerialia Cethegus Chaeronea Chalcedon Chalons Christians Cicero, Marcus Tullius Cicero, Quintus Tullius Cilicia Cimber Cimbri Cincinnatus Cineas Cinna Circeii Circeium, Promontory Circus Circus Maximus Citizenship City walls Claudian Emperors Claudius, Emperor Claudius, Publius Cleopatra Clients Cloaca Maxima Clodion Clodius Clupea Clusium Coena Cohors Praetoria Collatinus Colonies, Latin Colonies, Maritime Colonies, Military. Comitia Centuriata Comitia Curiata Comitia Tributa Comitium Colosseum Colossus Column of Trajan Columna Milliaria Columns Commodus Constans Constantine the Great Constantine II. Constantinople Constantius I. Constantius II. Conscripti, Patres Consuls Consus Cora Corcyra Corduba Corfinium Corinth Coriolanus Corioli Corn laws Cornelia, daughter of Cinna Cornelia, daughter of Metellus Scipio Cornelia, daughter of Scipio Africanus Corsica Cotta Council of Nice Court-houses Courts Crassus, the Triumvir Crassus, son of the Triumvir Cremona Crete Croton Cumae Cures Curia Curiae Curio. Curtius Curule Aedile Curule chair Curule offices Cynoscephalae Cyprus Cyrenaica

Dacia Damophilus Deal Debts, Debtors Decemvirs Decius, Emperor Decius, Publius Decree of the Senate Deiotarus Dentatus Dependent Communities Dictator Diocletian Dolabella Domitian Domitius. Drepana Dress Drusus, Germanicus Drusus, Marcus Livius Duilius Duoviri Sacrorum Dyrrachium

Eburones Ecnomus Edict of Milan Editor. Education Egesta Egnatius Egypt Elba Elections Enipeus, R. Enna Ennius Epidamnus Epiphanes Epirus Equites Eryx Etruria Etruscans Eudoxia Eugenius Eunus Euphrates Examination Papers

Fabii Fabius, Cunctator Fabius Quintus Fabius Vibulanus Fabricius Faesulae Farming the revenues Fauces Faustulus Festivals Fetiales Five Good Emperors Flamen Dialis Flamines Flaminian Way Flamininus Flaminius Flavian Emperors Floors Florentia Foreigners resident at Rome Formiae Forum Forum Boarium Forum Caesaris Forum Holitorium Forum Julii, in Gaul Forum Julii, in Venetia Forum Suarium Forum of Trajan Forum of Vespasian Franks Freedmen Fundi Funerals Furniture

Gabii Gabinius Gabinus Gades Galatia Galba, Emperor Galba, Servius Galerius Gallia Cisalpina Gallia Narbonensis Gaul Gauls Games Gela Genabum Gens, Gentes Genseric Genua Genucius Gergovia Germanicus, Drusus Germanicus, son of Drusus Germ. Germans Glabrio Gladiators Glass Glaucia Golden House of Nero Good Emperors Gordian Goths Gracchi Gracchus, Gains Gracchus, Tiberius (senior) Gracchus, Tiberius Gratian Greece Greek Empire

Hadrian Hadrumetum Hamilcar Barca Hannibal, son of Gisco Hannibal, son of Hamilcar Hanno Hasdrubal, son-in-law of Hamilcar Hasdrubal, brother of Hannibal Hasdrubal, son of Gisco Helena Heliogabalus Helvetii Heraclea Herculaneum Hermean Promontory Hiempsal Hiero II. Hieronymus Hirtius Hispania Citerior Hispania Ulterior Honorius Horace Horatius Codes Hortensius, Quintus Hortensius, the Orator Homesteads Houses Huns Hyrcanus

Iapygia Iapygians Iberus, R. Icilius Igilium Ilerda Illyrican War Illyricum Ilva Imperator Imperium Intermarriage Interest Interrex Isara, R. Isauria Isthmian Games Italians Italy Iulus

Janiculum Janus Jentaculum Jerusalem Jews Josephus Jovian Juba Judaea Jugurtha Julia, daughter of Caesar Julia, daughter of Augustus Julian Emperors Julian the Apostate Julian Law Julianus Juno Jupiter Juries Justin Martyr Juvenal

Kaeso, Quinctius King of Rome Knights.

Labienus Lacerna Lacinian Promontory Laevinus Laevinus, Marcus Lamps Land-owners, classes of Lanistae Lanuvium Lares Last of the Romans Latin Confederacy Latinus Latium Latona Laurentum Lavinia Lavinium Legati Leges Juliae Legion Lentulus Leontini Lepidus, Consul Lepidus, Triumvir Leptis Lesbos Letter-writing Lex de Repetundis Licinian Rogations Licinius Liger Lights Liguria Lilybaeum Lipara Islands Liris, R. Literature Livia Livilla Livius Locri Longinus Luca Lucan Lucania Luceres Luceria Lucilius Lucretia Lucretius Lucullus Lupercalia Luperci Lupercus Lupus Lycia

Macedonia Macedonian War Macrinus Maecenas Maenius Magister Equitum Magna Graecia Magnesia Mago Majestas Majorian Mamertines Mancinus Manilian Law Manilius Manlius, Marcus Manlius Capitolinus Mantua Marcellus Marcellus, nephew of Augustus Marius, Marriage Mars Martial Masinissa. Massilia Mauretania Mausoleum of Augustus Mausoleum of Hadrian Maximian Maximin Maximus I. Maximus II. Meals Mediolanum Memmius Menenius Agrippa Mesopotamia Messalina Messana Metapontum Metaurus, R. Metellus Macedonicus Metellus Nepos Metellus Numidicus Metellus Pius Micipsa Milan, Edict of Miletus Military Tribunes Milliarium Aureum Milo Minerva Minturnae Minucius Mithradates Mitylene Moesia Money brokers Mons Sacer Moors Mucra, R. Mummius Munda Municipia Muthul Mutina Mylae Mysia

Names Naples Naulochus Navy Nepos Nero, Consul Nero, Emperor Nerva Nervii Nicaea Nicomedes Nobles Nola Noricum Novus Homo Numantia Numantian War Numa Pompilius Numidia Numitor Nursia

Octavia, sister of Augustus Octavia, wife of Nero Octavius Odoacer Offices and officers Ops Orchomenos Osca Ostia Ostium Ostrogoths Otho Ovation Ovid

Padua (Patavium) Palatine Pales, Palilia Palmyra Pannonia Panormus Pantheon Parma Parthia, Parthians Pater-familias Patres Patrician Patricians Patrons Paullus Pelusium Penates Pergamum Peristylium Perperna Perseus Persius Pertinax Petreius Phaedrus Pharnaces Pharsalia, Pharsalus Philip, Emperor Philip of Macedonia Philippi Philippics Philopoemen Phoenicia Picenum Picts' Pirates Pisae Pisaurum Piso Placentia Plautian-Papirian Law Plautus Plebeians Plebiscita Pliny, the elder Pliny, the younger Pollio Polybius Polycarp Pomoerium Pompeia Pompeii Pompeius, Gnaeus Pompeius, Sextus Pompey the Great Pomptine Marshes Pontifices Pontius Pontus Poppaea Sabina Porsena Postumius Potestas Praefect Praefecturae Praeneste Praetor Praetorian Guard Praetorium Prandium Private Lands Private Rights Probus Proconsul Propertius Propraetor Provinces Provincial System Prusias Ptolemy, brother of Cleopatra Ptolemy of Cyprus Ptolemy V., Epiphanes Ptolemy Alexander Publicani Public Lands Public Rights Publilian Law, Publilius Punic Wars Puteoli Pydna Pyrrhus

Quaestors Quinctius Cincinnatus Quinctius, Kaeso Quintilian Quirinal Quirinalia

Radagaisus Ramnes Ravenna Reate Reforms of Caesar Reforms of Sulla Regillus, Lake Regulus Remi Remus Rents Republic Rhaetia Rhea Silvia Rhegium Rhodes Ricimer Roads Roman Empire Romans Rome Rome, Hills of Romulus Roscius Rostra Rubicon Rutilius

Sabines Sabis, R. Sacred Mount Sacredness of Officials Sagum Saguntum Salernum Salii Sallust Samnites Samnite Wars Samnium Samos Sardinia Sardis Saturn Saturnalia Saturninus Scaevola Scarpheia Scipio, Gnaeus Scipio, Consul 218 B. C. Scipio Africanus, the elder Scipio Africanus, the younger Scipio Asiaticus Scipio, Metellus Scipio Nasica Scribonia Segesta Sejanus Seleucia Selinus Sempronia Sempronius Sena Gallica Senate Senones Sentinum Sequani Sertorius Servian Reform Servile War Servilius Servius Tullius Setia Severus, Alexander Severus, Septimius Severus III. Sewers Sextus Lateranus Sextus, son of Tarquin Ships Sibylline Books Sicily Silver Age Silvius Procas Sinuessa Slaves. Social War Soleae Solon Sophonisba Soracte, Mt. Sosigenes Spain Sparta Spartacus Spoletium Spurius Cassius Standards Statius Stilicho Stola Strongyle Islands Suessiones Sueves, Suevi Sulla Sulmo Sulpicius Galba Sulpicius Rufus Sutrium Sybaris Syphax Syracuse Syria

Tablinum Tacitus, Emperor Tacitus, Historian Tarentum. Tarquinii Tarquinius Priscus Tarquinius Superbus Tarracina Tarragona Tauromenium Tax-gatherers Teanum Telamon Tellilia, Tellus Temple of Aesculapius Temple of Apollo Palatinus Temple of Ceres Temple of Concordia Temple of Diana Temple of Janus Temple of Juno Temple of Jupiter Temple of Mars Temple of Peace Tenth Legion, revolt of Terence Terentilius, Terentilian Rogations Teutoberger Forest Teutones Thala Thapsus Theatre Theatre of Balbus Theatre of Marcellus Theatre of Pompey Theodosius Thermae Thermus Thessaly Thirty Tyrants Thurii Tibullus Tibur Tiberius Ticinus, R. Tigellinus Tigranes Time, mode of reckoning Tities Titus Tivoli Toga Torquatus Trajan Trasimenus, Lake Trebia, R. Trebonius Tribes Tribunes Tribuni Militum Tributum Triclinium Triganum Trinacria Triumphal Arches Triumphal Procession Triumvirate, First Triumvirate, Second, Tullia, daughter of Servius Tullius Tullus Hostilius Tunica Tunis Tusculum Twelve Caesars Twelve Tables Tyndaris

Umbria, Umbrians Utica

Vadimonis, Lake Valens Valentinian I. Valentinian II. Valentinian III. Valerius, Valerio-Horatian Laws Valerius, Caesar's Lieutenant Valero Publilius Vandals Varro, Consul at Cannae Varro, Pompey's Lieutenant Varus Veii, Veientes Velitrae Veneti Venetia Venice Venusia Vercellae Vercingetorix Verginius Verona Verres Verus, Annius Verus, Lucius Vespasian Vesta. Vestal Virgins Vestibulum Vesuvius, Mt. Veto Veturius Via Aemilia Via Appia Via Aurelia Via Flaminia Via Latina Via Sacra Vienna Villius Virgil Virginia, Virginius Viriathus Visigoths Vitellius Volaterrae Volsci Volsinii Volturnus Voting Vulso

Windows Writing Written Code of Laws


Zama Zela Zeno Zenobia Zeugma Zeugma


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