Heath's Modern Language Series: Mariucha
by Benito Perez Galdos
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817. las [bromas] que yo gasto, what my jokes are like.


108-109. si fuera un coco de fea, if she were as homely as a hedge fence.

116. ella es grande; one cannot be quite sure whether this phrase means she is of high station, or she is a grandee. It has not been previously stated that the family of Alto-Rey enjoys the privileges of grandeeship. A grandee of Spain is allowed to keep his hat on in the king's presence, if a man; if a woman, to be seated before the queen (tomar la almohada).

141. Ya, para lo que falta..., To be sure, there's no need of saying more.

157-158. que no pueda yo...! to think I can't!

253-254. =por agregarse notas= = porque se agregan notas. In Spanish, a noun may be the subject of an infinitive introduced by a preposition.

478-479. que sacrifique su inclinacin; the change to third person is probably to be explained by Filomena's turning to speak to Don Rafael.

533-534. Cesreo, que vela por la familia; the son is jointly responsible with the father for the maintenance of the family and for the conduct and honor of the individual members. When the father is incapacitated, the son naturally assumes the entire burden.

548. a vivir por m misma, to live my own life. The phrase sounds like Ibsen. For example, Nora's words, "I have just as sacred duties toward myself." (A Doll's House, last scene.)


21-23. queran... valiranse; this combination of tenses is unusual. We do not have here a contrary to fact condition, as might at first appear. If that were the case, the imperfect indicative could not be employed in the if-clause. This is a simple condition in past time, the irregularity being in the use of valiranse, an archaic way of expressing a sort of imperative,—debieron valerse, or vlganse. Translate, since they wished... they should have employed.

23. valiranse de otros de mi oficio; earlier in his life Galds was inclined to deal harshly with members of the priesthood of the type to which he alludes here, but the agreeable figure of Don Rafael reveals the writer's growing sympathy for the clergy.

88-89. la que se le viene encima, what he's in for; la is the neuter feminine; see note to II, 86.

265. que, and. See Ramsey, Text-book of Modern Spanish, 1421.

314. Yo soy estoico, y no temo ningn castigo. The philosophy of stoicism is especially attractive to Galds, and he plays with it in several of his works. Thus, Orozco, of Realidad, strives to attain stoic perfection; and the chief characters of other plays sometimes act like stoics (Paternoy, Los condenados, II, 14; Pantoja, Electra, IV, 10; Berenguer, La fiera, III, 5). That the stoicism of Seneca (a Spaniard) is the fundamental trait of Spanish character, is the contention brilliantly set forth by ngel Ganivet in the first dozen pages of his Idearium espaol.

325. un arma; the feminine indefinite article is by some writers changed to un under the same conditions in which la becomes el. Cf. un hacha in line 333.

338. la razn que me asiste, the right which is on my side.


The vocabulary is intended to include the infinitives of all verbs found in the text, the masculine singular of adjectives, and the singular of nouns. Adverbs regularly formed from adjectives of corresponding meaning are omitted when those adjectives are present. Articles, personal pronouns, numerals up to twelve, and words identical in meaning and spelling with the English are also omitted.

The following abbreviations are used:

adj. adjective adv. adverb cf. compare dim. diminutive f. feminine intrans. intransitive m. masculine n. noun pl. plural p.p. past participle prep. preposition pron. pronoun refl. reflexive rel. relative trans. transitive


a to, at, in, on; by, of, from; with, for; before; —— que what will you bet that...; A qu? Wherefore? —— los diez minutos within ten minutes

abajo down, below, downstairs

abandonar abandon, yield

abatimiento m. dejection

aberracin f. error, mistake

abismo m. abyss

ablandar soften

abnegacin f. self-denial, spirit of sacrifice

abogado m. lawyer

abolir abolish

abonar credit with; —se subscribe, take a season ticket

abovedado, -a arched, vaulted

abrasar burn, consume

abrazar embrace

abrazo m. embrace

abrigar cover, wrap

abrigo m. cover, shelter; overcoat, coat, wrap

abrir open

abrumador, -a oppressive

abrumar oppress, weigh down, crush

absoluto, -a absolute, utter

absolver absolve, acquit

absorto, -a absorbed

abstrado, -a distracted, absent-minded

absurdo, -a absurd, unreasonable

abuela f. grandmother; —— de padre father's mother

abuelo m. grandfather; —— de madre mother's father

abur good-bye

abyeccin f. abjectness, abject poverty

ac here

acabar finish, end; run out; acabo de hacerlo I have just done it (this idiom is used only with the present and imperfect of acabar); acaba por rendirse in the end yields

acariciar caress

acaso perhaps, perchance; por —— by chance; por si —— in case of emergency, as a precaution

accesorio m. accessory

accin f. act, action; en —— de as an act of

acechar peep, spy, watch

acelerar hasten

acento m. accent

aceptacin f. acceptance, sale

aceptar accept

acerca de about, concerning

acercarse a approach, come near

acero m. steel

acertar succeed; guess right, speak truly; happen

aciago, -a gloomy, ill-fated

aclarar clear up

acobardarse lose courage, quail

acoger receive

aclito m. acolyte, assistant in church service

acometer attack

acomodar arrange, place; —se settle; adapt oneself; p.p. well off, well to do

acompaamiento m. accompaniment

acompaar accompany

aconsejar advise

acontecer happen

acontecimiento m. event

acopiar gather, heap together

acordar agree upon, arrange; —se de remember

acostarse go to bed

acostumbrar accustom, have the custom, be wont; —se accustom oneself, get used to; p.p. accustomed

actitud f. attitude; en —— de starting to

acto m. act

actual present, of present-day interest

acudir have recourse, respond; arrive, come up

adefesio m. ridiculous get-up, togs

adelantarse come forward

adelante forward, ahead, on; ——! come in! go on! en —— thenceforward

adelanto m. progress, state of advancement

ademn m. gesture

adems besides; —— de beside, in addition to

adis good-bye, farewell

adivinar guess

adjetivo m. adjective

admiracin f. admiration

admirador m. admirer

admirar admire

admitir admit

adoptar adopt

adoracin f. adoration

adorar adore

adornar adorn

adorno m. ornament

adquirir acquire

adulacin f. flattery

adular flatter

adusto, -a gloomy, sullen

adversidad f. adversity

advertencia f. warning

advertir warn, inform; observe, notice

afn m. anxiety, eagerness; trial

afectacin f. affectation, ostentation

afectar affect; feign

afecto m. affection

afectuoso, -a affectionate

afirmar assert

afirmativo, -a affirmative

afliccin f. distress, sorrow

afligir afflict; cause sorrow; —se worry

afrenta f. shame, disgrace

afrentoso, -a ignominious, disgraceful

afrontar face

agitar agitate; wave

agobiar oppress, crush, overwork

agona f. suffering

agradar please

agradecer be grateful for, thank; p.p. grateful

agradecimiento m. gratitude

Agramante fictitious town in Spain

agramantino, -a of Agramante

agregar add; —se join

agrcola farming

agricultura f. agriculture

agua f. water; pl. waterworks

aguardar(se) wait, wait for, await

agudeza f. shrewdness

agudo, -a keen, sharp; (of sound) high

ah there; por —— around here, around there, something like that

ahogar stifle

ahogo m. oppression, anguish

ahora now; —— bien well, then; —— mismo this very minute

ahorcar hang

ahorrillos m. pl. small savings

ahorros m. pl. savings

airado, -a angry, wrathful

aire m. air, breeze, draft; pl. climate

ajeno, -a of others, another's

ajustar adjust, settle

Aladino m. Aladdin

alargar extend, hand over

alarmante alarming

alarmar alarm

alberca f. pond, reservoir

alborada f. singing in the open air at dawn, carol

alcalde m. mayor

alcaldesa f. mayor's wife

alcanzar attain to, obtain, comprehend; no se me alcanza I don't understand

aldeana f. village girl, country woman

aleccionar teach, give a lesson to

alegar allege, declare the existence of

alegrar gladden; —se rejoice, be glad

alegre gay, light-hearted, bright

alegra f. joy, happiness

alejar drive away; —se go away

alelado, -a stupid, stupefied

aleluya m. and f. Mother Goose rimes

Alemania f. Germany

=Alemaas= = =Alemania= (a confusion with alimaa animal)

alentar draw breath, come to life; encourage

alfarera f. pottery

algo something; somewhat

alguien some one

alguno, -a some, a few, any (after a singular noun in a negative sentence = =ninguno=)

alimentacin f. food, nourishment

alimentar feed; —se feed, live on

alma f. soul; con —— with all my heart and soul; de mi —— my dear

almacn m. storeroom, warehouse, yard

alojarse lodge

alquilador m. renter

alquilar rent, hire

alquiler m. (also pl.) rent

altanero, -a, proud

alternativamente alternately

alto, -a tall, high; important; upper; —o, en voz —a aloud

alto! halt! stop!

Alto-Rey Alto-Rey

altura f. height; en las —s on high

alucinarse delude oneself

alumno, -a m. and f. pupil

alza f. advance, rise in price; en —— rising, going up

alzar raise; —se rise

all there; —— usted that's your own business; ms —— beyond, further

allegadora f. collector, gatherer of odds and ends

all there

amabilidad f. amiability

amable amiable, kind, delightful

amago m. symptom

amansar tame

amar love

amargo, -a bitter

amargura f. bitterness

amasar knead

amasijo m. kneaded dough; mass, quantity

ambos, -as both

amenaza f. threat

americano, -a American

amigo, -a m. and f. friend; adj. friendly, fond of

amiguita f. dear friend

amistad f. friendship

amo m. master; pl. master and mistress

amor m. love; sweetheart; pl. love affair

amoroso, -a loving

amparo m. protection

anciano, -a old

ancho, -a wide; ample; a sus -as with complete freedom

andar go, go on, walk; be; n.m. going, progress

anemia f. anemia

anfitrionisa f. hostess

ngel m. angel, darling

angelico m. little angel, cherub

ngulo m. angle, corner

angustia f. anguish, affliction

angustiado, -a distressed

angustioso, -a full of anguish, painful

anhelar desire

anhelo m. desire, longing

anillo m. ring

animacin f. animation

animar encourage; —se take heart, grow excited

nimo m. courage, spirit, intention

animoso, -a spirited

aniquilar annihilate

anonadar annihilate, stun

ansiedad f. anxiety

ansioso, -a anxious

antao long ago

ante before, in the face of

antecedentes m. pl. past history

antes first, before, previously, formerly; — de, — que before; — bien rather, on the other hand; — de (las veinticuatro horas) within

anticipar tell first; —se take the lead, be the first, get ahead of

anticuado, -a out of date, old-fashioned

antiguo, -a ancient, former; de -o, of old

antipata f. dislike

antiptico, -a displeasing, disagreeable

antojarse (a uno) desire, feel a whim for

Antonio m. Anthony

anunciar announce, relate

aadir add

ao m. year

apacible pleasant

apaadico, -a dim. of apaado

apaar dress

aparecer appear

aparentar put on airs of, make a false show of

apartar push aside; —se go to one side; leave

aparte aside; separate; — de distinct from

apelar appeal

apenas scarcely, barely; no sooner

apetito m. appetite

apilar pile up

aplastar crush

aplicado, -a studious, industrious

aplicar apply; — el odo listen intently

aplomado, -a self-possessed

apodado, -a nicknamed, alias

apoyar support, rest; —se lean

apoyo m. support

apreciar judge; esteem

aprender learn

aprestarse make ready

apretar squeeze, press tight, clench

aprobar approve

aprovechamiento m. using up, employing

aprovechar make use of, profit by, do good to

aproximarse approach

aptitud f. capability

apuesta f. bet, wager

apuntacin f. taking notes; memorandum

apunte m. memorandum

aquel, -lla that, the former; aqul, aqulla, aquello that one that; the former; I, 13 el aqul that matter

aqu here

arbitrio m. scheme

rbol m. tree

arbusto m. shrub

arca f. chest

arder burn

ardid m. stratagem

aristocracia f. aristocracy

arma f. weapon

armario m. wardrobe

armnico, -a harmonious

armonizar harmonize

arranque m. start, first steps; outburst, impulsiveness

arrasar raze, level to the ground

arrastrar drag

arre! get up! (said to horses, etc.)

arrebatar snatch

arrebato m. attack, rush, impulse

arreglar arrange, set in order; I, 539 make over; —se get along, find a way

arreglo m. making over, remodeling; setting in order

arrendar rent

arriba above, up; monte — uphill

arriesgarse run the risk

arrimar put close; join, fasten oneself to; —se lean against, get close

arrimo m. support, protector

arrogante arrogant

arrojar cast, cast out, drive out; throw, throw away

arruinar ruin

arte m. and f. art

artesonado m. ceiling of carved wooden rafters

artculo m. article

artificio m. trick, device

asaltar assail

ascendente rising, sloping up

ascua f. hot coal

asedio m. siege; attentions

asegurar assure; declare

asentir acquiesce, agree

asesinar murder

asesinato m. murder

as thus, in that way, so, just so; II, 442 of this kind; —, — a little that way

asiento m. seat

asistir be present at; assist

asociarse form a partnership

asolacin f. devastation

asomar appear; put forth; present; —se look out, peep in

asombrado, -a amazed

asombrarse be amazed

asombro m. amazement

aspaviento m. exaggerated wonder, display

aspecto m. aspect, appearance

spero, -a rough

aspiracin f. aspiration

asunto m. business, affair

asustadizo, -a timid

asustar frighten, terrify; —se be afraid, frightened, shocked

atacar attack, rush at

ataque m. attack

atar tie, bind

atavo m. attire

atencin f. attention

atender attend, heed

atento, -a attentive, intent, thoughtful

atenuar attenuate, condone

aterrado, -a filled with terror

tomo m. atom

atnito, -a amazed

atormentarse torment oneself, worry

atrs backward

atravesar cross, stick (cross-wise)

atreverse a dare

atrevido, -a bold

atrevimiento m. boldness, audacity

atribulado, -a in trouble

atropelladamente confusedly, all at the same time

atropello m. crushing, outraging

aturdimiento m. bewilderment

aumentar(se) increase

aun even

an yet, still

aunque although

ausencia f. absence

autoridad f. authority

autoritario, -a authoritative

autorizar authorize, make lawful

auxiliar m. assistant

auxilio m. aid

avanzar advance

ave f. bird, fowl

avenirse (a) agree (to), be willing; —— (con) correspond (to)

aventurar risk; —se venture, make bold; p.p. venturesome

avergonzarse be ashamed

avisar send word, warn, notify

aviso m. notification, warning; mandar — send word

ay ah! alas! — de! alas for..., woe to...

ayer yesterday

ayuda f. aid

ayudar aid, help

ayuntamiento m. city hall, city government

azaroso, -a checkered; unfortunate

azulejo m. glazed tile


bailar dance

baile m. dance

baj m. pasha

bajar descend, go down, come down, sink, drop; lower

bajo, -a short, low, lower, lowest; of low station; piso —o first floor; —o, en voz —a, por lo —o in an undertone; —o comercio petty trade

bajo under, beneath

balcn m. balcony

banco m. bank; bench

bandurria f. a sort of small guitar

banqueta f. stool

baar bathe

bao m. bath

barato, -a cheap

Brbara f. Barbara

brbaro, -a barbarous; stupid

Barcelona f. the capital city of Catalonia, and the chief manufacturing city of Spain; on the Mediterranean; more than 1,000,000 inhabitants

barnizar varnish

barredera f. dragnet

barrer sweep

barriga f. belly

base f. basis

bastante enough, plenty, much, no little, a good deal

bastar be enough, suffice

bastn m. cane

basura f. garbage, rubbish

batalla f. battle, struggle

batirse fight (a duel)

bautismal baptismal

beatfico, -a beatific

beber drink, drink up

belleza f. beauty

bello, -a beautiful, fair

bendecir bless

bendicin f. blessing

bendito, -a blessed

benevolencia f. kindness

benigno, -a mild

berza f. cabbage

besar kiss

beso m. kiss

bblico, -a Biblical

bien well, very well, all right; indeed; very; o — or else; no — no sooner

bien m. good; blessing, dear; —es, —es de fortuna property, estate; —es races real estate

billete m. ticket; bill, bank-note

blanco, -a white

blanquear whiten, cleanse

blasfemia f. blasphemy

bobita f. silly girl

boda f. wedding

Bohemia f. the crystal glass manufactured in the neighborhood of Haida and Steinschnau, Bohemia, is world-famous

bola f. ball

bolsillo m. pocket

bolsn m. big purse

bondad f. goodness, kindness

bonito, -a pretty

bordar embroider

borrar erase, wipe out

borrico m. donkey

bosque m. wood

Brasil, el m. Brazil

bravsimo splendid! fine!

bravo, -a wild; courageous

brazo m. arm

breve short, brief

bribn m., -ona f. rascal, scoundrel, wretch

brillante brilliant, bright; n.m. diamond

brillar shine

brillo m. show, appearance, brilliancy

bro m. spirit, energy

broma, bromita f. jest, joke

bronce m. bronze

brotar bud, burst forth

brusco, -a sudden

brutalidad f. brutality

bruto, -a stupid, ill-mannered; n.m. brute, beast, stupid

bcaro m. earthen jar

bueno, -a good, kind, good-hearted; fine, nice; estar — be well; —o very well, all right; —o est this is fine

buffet m. (French) refreshments

bulla f. racket, shouting

burla f. joke, trick; mockery, sneer

burlarse (de) make fun (of), jeer (at)

burln, -ona mocking

buscar seek, hunt, look for

butaca f. armchair; orchestra seat (in a theater)


cabal complete, perfect

caballero m. gentleman; sir

caballo m. horse; a — on horseback

cabello m. (a single) hair; pl. hair (of the head)

caber be contained in; be room for; be possible

cabeza f. head; mind; un mala — a scapegrace, wild fellow

cabizbajo, -a dejected

cacicn m. super-boss

cacique m. (political) boss

cada each, every; — cual each one

cadver m. corpse

cadena f. chain

cadete m. cadet, schoolboy

Cdiz Cadiz (the southernmost large city of Spain; an important Atlantic seaport with 70,000 inhabitants)

caer fall; suit; — en notice, think of; II, 485 no haba cado ... I hadn't thought of that

cafetn m. small caf

caja f. box; wrapping

cajn m. drawer; box

calavera m. rake, scapegrace

calcular calculate

calificacin f. description, judgment

calma f. calm

calmar calm

calmoso, -a calm, slow

calor m. heat, warmth; hace — it is hot

calvario m. Calvary, place of torment

calzada f. highway, avenue

calzado m. footwear

callar be silent, keep still; omit to mention, conceal

calle f. street

cambiar change, exchange

cambio m. change, exchange; en — on the other hand

caminata f. trip, journey

camino m. way, road

camisoln m. ruffle (on the neck or bosom)

campana f. bell

campaneo m. sound of bells

campesino, -a m. and f. countryman, countrywoman

campo m. field; country

canalla f. mob, rabble; m. scoundrel

cancelar cancel

candelero m. candlestick

candoroso, -a nave

cangrejo m. crab, crayfish

cansar weary, tire; —se grow tired; trouble oneself

cantar sing; crow; n.m. song

cntaro m. jug, jar

cantidad f. quantity, sum

canto m. song

capa f. cape, cloak

capilla f. chapel

capital m. capital, wealth; f. capital (city)

capitalito m. neat little capital

capricho m. caprice, whim

cara f. face

carantoas wheedling, caressing

carbn m. coal

carbonero m. coal

carbonfero, -a carboniferous, coal-bearing

crcel f. jail, prison

carecer de lack, be without

carga f. burden, load

cargamento m. load

cargar load

cargazn f. cargo, loading on

cargo m. burden, duty; care, charge; hacerse — de consider, regard

carguita f. small load

caridad f. charity

carilla f. page

cario m. affection, caress

carioso, -a affectionate

Carlsbad a city in Bohemia with famous hot springs

carne f. meat, flesh

caro, -a dear

carretero m. carter, cart driver, truckman

carro m. cart, coach

carta f. letter

cartera f. wallet, pocketbook

casa f. house; family; firm; a — home; en — at home

casamiento m. marriage

casar marry (trans. and intrans.); —se con marry

casco m. frame, crown (of a hat)

casern m. great old house

casi almost

caso m. case; fact; al — to the point; hacer — de or a pay attention to; I, 445 estar en el — de be the sort of person to

casorio m. (hasty) marriage

casta f. race, family

castaeteo m. clack

castao m. chestnut tree

castigar punish

castigo m. punishment

castillo m. castle

casual casual, result of chance; I, 678 de lo ms — pure chance

casualidad f. chance

catedral f. cathedral

catequizar catechize

caterva f. crowd, mob

catorce fourteen

caudal m. sum, estate, fortune, property

causa f. cause; (law) case; formar — bring suit

causar cause

cauteloso, -a cautious

caverna f. cavern

caviloso, -a distrustful

cebolla f. onion

ceder yield, make over, grant the use of

cegar blind; —se lose control of oneself

celestial heavenly

centella f. lightning; spark; al modo de — very suddenly

cntimo m. centime (1/100 of a peseta, or 1/5 of a cent)

centinela m. and f. sentinel

centro m. center

cermica f. ceramics (the art of pottery)

cerca near, close; — de near, nearby

cercano, -a nearby, close at hand

cerradura f. lock

cerrajera f. locksmith's work or trade

cerrar close, shut, seal

cesta f. (large) basket, hamper

cestilla f. small basket

ciego, -a blind

cielo m. heaven; sky; — mo my darling; el dinero del — charity money

ciencia f. science; knowledge

ciento, cien one hundred; por — per cent

ciertamente certainly

cierto, -a true, certain; a certain; de —o for certain; estar en lo —o be right; por —o to be sure; ser —o be true

cincuenta fifty

cnico m. cynic

cinismo m. cynicism

cintura f. waist

circunstancia f. circumstance

ciudad f. city

civil civil; guardia — rural police

civilmente according to the common law

claridad f. light; clearness

clarito perfectly plain

claro, -a clear, evident; plain-spoken; bright; —o of course

clase f. kind, class, rank

claustrado, -a cloistered, (of a patio) having an arcaded walk about the sides

claustro m. cloister

clave f. key

clavel m. pink, carnation

clero m. clergy

cobarde cowardly

cobarda f. cowardice

cobrar collect

cocina f. kitchen; cooking, cuisine

cocinero, -a m. and f. cook

coco m. bugaboo, bogy man

coche m. coach, carriage; stage

cochinito m. little pig

coger catch, seize, take; pick

coincidencia f. coincidence

cola f. train (of a gown)

colegio m. college (corresponding in grade to our boarding school)

clera f. anger

coliseo m. theater, playhouse

colocacin f. investment

colocar place, find a position for, invest

colosal tremendous

comanditario: negocio — silent partnership (in which one party furnishes capital but has no share in the management)

combate m. combat

combatir oppose

combinacin f. combination

comedia f. comedy, play

comedimiento m. decency

comer eat; devour; gnaw; dine

comercial commercial

comercianta f. business woman

comerciante m. merchant, dealer

comercio m. commerce, business

cometer commit

comida f. food; dinner

comisin f. commission

como as, like; as if, if; about; — que since; why! to such an extent that

cmo how, how much, what, why; like what; A — dais? For what do you sell...?

comodidad f. comfort

cmodo, -a comfortable, convenient

compadecer, —se de pity, feel sorry for; p.p. pitying

compaero, -a m. and f. companion

compaa f. company

compartir share

compasin f. pity; tener — pity

compasivo, -a pitying, of pity

complacer please, satisfy

completo, -a complete; por —o completely

complicidad f. complicity

comprar buy

compra-y-vende III, 167 going into business

comprender understand

compromiso m. obligation

compungido, -a sorrowful

comn common; por lo — usually

comunicacin f. communication

comunicar communicate

con with, by; — que and so

conceder grant; yield

concepto m. conception, idea, opinion

conciencia f. conscience, consciousness; a toda — very conscientiously

concierto m. concert

concluir finish, conclude; casa concluida a ruined house

concordia f. harmony

condenado m. wretch

condenar, condemn; p.p. confounded

condicin f. condition; disposition; en —es ventajosas at a high rate of interest

conducir conduct, escort, convey

conducta f. conduct

conducto m. channel; por — mo through my hands

conferenciar hold a conference

confesar confess, confess to

confesonario m. confession

confesor m. confessor

confianza f. confidence

confiar (en) trust, hope; p.p. trustful, confident

confirmacin f. confirmation

confirmar confirm, make good

conflicto m. conflict, conflicting emotions, plight

conformarse con agree to

conforme (a) corresponding to, agreeing with; adv. agreed

conformid = conformidad f. agreement

confundir confuse, confound, mingle

confuso, -a confused

conjunto m. union

conmigo with me

conmover affect, stir the feelings of

conocer know, be acquainted with; se conoce it is evident

conocimiento m. acquaintance, knowledge

conquistador m. conqueror (applied chiefly to the Spanish explorers of America)

consagrar devote

conseguir obtain, accomplish; succeed

consentir consent, consent to

conservar keep, still have, preserve; —se be preserved

considerable important, large

consideracin f. consideration, considerateness; importance; de — important

considerar consider; p.p. considerate

consistir consist

consolar console

constante constant, unchanging

consternacin f. consternation

consternado, -a in consternation

consuelo m. consolation

consumar consummate, put into effect, bring about

contar tell, relate; consider; count; — con count upon, rely upon, expect; possess, call one's own

contemplar watch, observe

contener restrain; hold back; contain

contenido m. contents

contentarse be satisfied with

contento, -a satisfied, pleased, happy; n.m. contentedness, happiness

contestacin f. answer

contestar answer, reply

continuar continue

continuo, -a continuous, constant

contra against; en — ma against me

contraer contract

contrariar vex, oppose

contrario, -a opposite, contrary; al —o on the contrary

contratiempo m. setback, disappointment

contratista m. contractor

convencer convince

conveniencia f. convenience

conveniente expedient, desirable

convenio m. agreement

convenir (en) agree (to); be fitting, proper, necessary; suit

convento m. convent

convertir convert

conviccin f. conviction

convidar invite

coquetear coquette

corazn m. heart, affection, courage

cordial cordial

Corinto m. Corinth (an ancient Grecian city); pasa de — currant (the name currant is derived from Corinth whence the fruit is said to have come first)

corona f. crown

coronel m. colonel

corpulento, -a thick, of great girth

corral m. yard, corral

corregir correct, make a correction

correo m. mail

correr run; spread

corresponder correspond; respond, belong

correspondiente corresponding

corretaje m. commission

corriente current, ordinary; — de zurcidos y arreglos all darned and in order

corro m. group, circle

corromper spoil, corrupt; p.p. corrupt

corrupcin f. corruption

corruptela f. abuse

cortadura f. cut, notch

cortar cut, cut short, interrupt; — el paso block the path

corte m. cut; dar un — a put a stop to

corte f. court, capital; hacer la — a court, woo

corts courteous

cortesa f. courtesy

corteza f. bark

cortito, -a very short

corto, -a short, small; —a edad early age; — de entendimiento ignorant, stupid

cosa f. thing, something; poca — not much; pl. whims, ideas; affairs; — de about; era — de arrastrarla she deserves to be dragged by the hair

cosecha f. crop, harvest

coser sew

cosilla f. trifle

costar cost

coste m. cost

costumbre f. habit, custom; de — usual

cotizable quotable, quoted (on the stock exchange)

creador m. creator

crear create

crecer grow, increase; p.p. large, great

crdito m. credit; documento de — commercial paper

creer believe, think

crescendo m. growing louder

criada f. (maid) servant

criado m. servant

criar nurse, bring up

criatura f. creature; child

crimen m. crime

criminal m. criminal

crisis f. crisis, attack

cristal m. glass, window; de —es glassed in

cristalera f. glasswork, glass, glassware

cristiano, -a Christian

Cristo m. Christ; I, 59 — con ella! bless her heart! — con todos! bless my soul! etc. (but in Spanish these are more drastic oaths)

crtica f. criticism

crucifijo m. crucifix

crudeza f. plainness, crudeness

cruel cruel

crueldad f. cruelty

cruja f. row or suite of adjoining rooms

cruz f. cross

cruzar cross, fold

cual which; el, la, lo —, etc., rel. pron. which; cada — each one; — si as if; tal o — such and such a

cul what, which, of what sort

cualidad f. quality

cualquiera, cualquier any, of an ordinary kind; whatever; pron. whoever, any one; often used ironically as V, 18 — la rinde no one can subdue her; n.m. commonplace fellow, anybody

cun how

cuando when; de vez en — from time to time

cuanto, -a as much, as much as, all, all that, whatever; tanto o —o a certain sum; pl. all who; unos —os a few; en —o as soon as; en —o a as for

cunto, -a how much, how many

cuarenta forty

cuarto, -a fourth; a la ——a va la vencida the fourth time cannot fail

cuarto m. quarter; room; copper coin worth four maraveds (i.e., 2/17 of a real or about 2/3 of a cent)

cuatro four; las — four o'clock

cuatrocientos, -as four hundred

cubrir cover

cuchillo m. knife

cuello m. neck

cuenta f. account; bill; sacar — reckon; hacerse — de consider; tener en — consider, take into account

cuentecita f. little account

cuento m. story, tale

cuerda f. rope, string; I, 608 se le acab la — she's at the end of her string; V, 25 de esa — of that sort

cuerpo m. body; mass; waist

cuesta f. slope; a —s on one's back

cuestin f. problem, question, dispute

cueva f. cave, den

cuidado m. care, attention; fear; estar al — watch

cuidadosamente carefully

cuidar (de) take care (of), keep; I, 993 do my best; —se pay attention (to)

culpa f. fault, blame, guilt

culpable guilty

cultivar cultivate, foster

cultivo m. cultivation, farming methods

culto, -a cultured; n.m. worship; cult, religion

cumplimiento m. compliment; accomplishment, fulfilment

cumplir fulfil, keep, perform, carry out; complete

cura m. priest

curia f. bar, legal profession

curial legal

curiosear pry around, eavesdrop

curiosidad f. curiosity

curioso, -a curious, strange; inquisitive

curiosn, -ona inquisitive

curita dim. of cura

cursi m. and f. snob, aspirant to high society, newly rich person; one of bad taste

cuyo, -a whose, of which, of whom


Chabls a French city about 100 miles southeast of Paris. In the district near it a famous white wine is produced

charlar gossip, chat

Charlottenbrunn a village in Prussia near Breslau, with alkaline waters

chico, -a little, small; n.m. boy, little fellow; youth, young fellow; pl. children

chiquilla f. child, girl

chiquillo m. child, boy

chopo m. poplar

choque m. shock


dama f. lady

damasco m. damask

dar give; — a open on; me da por I have a liking to; — de s afford; — la mano a help; —se por consider oneself; le ha dado la ventolera she has taken it into her head; lo mismo da it's the same thing

de of, from; in; with; by; than; as

deber owe; ought, should; debe de he must or is to

deber m. duty; en — a owing

dbil weak

debilidad f. weakness

decadencia f. decadence, decay

decidir decide, resolve; (also refl.)

decir say, speak, tell; call; mean; diz it is said; p.p. dicho aforesaid

declaracin f. declaration

declarar declare, make a statement

decoracin f. decoration

decoro m. honor, reputation

decoroso, -a decent, proper

dedo m. finger

defecto m. defect, failing

defender defend, protect

degradar degrade

dehesa f. pasture

dejar leave; let, allow; let alone; give up; —— de fail to; cease to; I, 727 — mal disoblige

delantal m. apron

delante in front (of one); por —— to the fore

delatar report, make known

delicado, -a delicate

delirar be delirious, get foolish

delirio m. madness

delito m. crime

dems remaining; lo —, los — the rest, other; por lo — otherwise

demonio m. devil, demon, deuce; tener los —s en el cuerpo be very sharp

dentro within; — de, por — de within; V, 145 me sale de — it comes natural

deparar grant

depender depend

depravado, -a depraved

derecha f. right hand, right side

derecho, -a right; straight; n.m. right; law

derramar shed

desabrochar unhook, unbutton

desagradable unpleasant

desairar rebuff, repulse

desalentado, -a discouraged; breathless

desaliento m. discouragement

desalojar dispossess, turn out

desaparecer disappear

desarmado, -a unarmed

desarrollarse develop, grow

desarrollo m. development

desastre m. disaster

desatinado, -a foolish, crazy

desazn f. displeasure, worry

descalzo, -a barefoot

descanso m. rest

descarado, -a impudent, impertinent

descarnado, -a undisguised

descasar unmarry

descender descend, alight

desconcertar disconcert, confound; —se become confused

desconfianza f. lack of confidence, distrust

desconfiar distrust, fear that ... not; p.p. distrustful

desconocer be ignorant of; not to recognize; p.p. unknown

desconsolado, -a disconsolate

desconsuelo m. affliction

descontar discount, deduct

descrdito m. discredit

describir describe

descripcin f. description

descriptivo, -a descriptive

=descubierto, -a=uncovered, bare

descubrimiento m. discovery

descubrir discover, find out; reveal, disclose; give away, tell on; uncover; —se take off one's hat

descuidar be easy, not to worry; —se neglect, be careless or slothful

desde from; since; — los diez aos since I was ten years old; — luego at once; of course; — que since

desdn m. disdain

desdicha f. misfortune

desdichado, -a unfortunate, poor

desdoblar unfold

desear wish, desire

desechar put aside

desencantar disenchant, destroy the illusions of

desengao m. disappointment, disillusionment

desenmascarar unmask

desentenderse de pretend not to notice, avoid responsibility for

desenterrar disinter, unearth

deseo m. desire

deseoso, -a desirous

desesperacin f. despair

desfachatado, -a impudent, shameless

desfogar vent, free, relieve

desgracia f. misfortune; por — unfortunately

desgraciado, -a unfortunate

deshonra f. dishonor

deshonrar dishonor

designar indicate, specify

desistir desist

deslumbrar dazzle

desmandado, -a disobedient

desmayo m. fainting

desmedido, -a unusual, excessive

desmentir give the lie to

desmerecer lose merit, decline

desnudo, -a naked, destitute, bare

desobedecer disobey

desolado, -a in despair

desorden m. disorder

despacio m. slowly; at leisure

despechar enrage

despedir dismiss; accompany on departure; —se de take leave of

despejar clear away, clear out; —se clear up, grow bright

despensa f. pantry

despertar(se) wake up

despierto, -a awake

desplegar display

despojar strip, change one's clothes

despotricar (familiar) talk wildly, fly off the handle

despreciar despise

despreciativo, -a scornful

desprecio m. scorn, disdain

desprenderse de take off

despus afterward, later; — de after

destapar uncover, open

destierro m. exile

destino m. destination; position, job (especially in the government service); fate

destrozar lacerate

desvanecerse faint away; p.p. giddy

desvanecimiento m. faintness

desvaro m. extravagance, derangement

desvelado, -a wakeful, watchful

desventura f. misfortune, trial

desvergenza f. impudence

desvivirse por make every effort to

detener arrest, stop; —se stop

determinacin f. resolve

determinar find out, determine, fix, define, decide; —se a make up one's mind to; p.p. specific, certain

detrs (de) behind

deuda f. debt

devocin f. devotion; a su — devoted to him

devolver return, give back, restore

devorar devour, take in silence

da m. day; de — by day, by daylight, daytime; buenos —s good morning

diablo m. devil, the deuce

diablura f. prank, mischief, deviltry

diablico, -a diabolic

diamante m. diamond

dicha f. happiness, good luck

dicho, -a aforesaid

dichoso, -a happy, fortunate; el — arreglo that blessed remodeling

Diego m. James

difunto, -a dead, deceased

dignarse deign, be so good as to

dignidad f. dignity

digno, -a worthy

dilacin f. delay

dilema m. dilemma

diligencia f. diligence

dimonio = demonio

dineral m. mint of money, vast sum

dinerito m. small sum

dinero m. money

Dios m. God; — mo! I declare! oh dear! vaya usted con — good-bye

diputado m. deputy (representative elected to the Congreso)

directamente directly

dirigir direct; —se go toward, go to, address

discpula f. pupil

discrecin f. discretion

discreto, -a discreet, sensible, intelligent

discurrir conceive the idea, think up

disgustar displease, annoy

disgusto m. disappointment, disgust; sorrow, annoyance

disimular dissimilate, disguise

disipacin f. dissipation

disparar fire (a gun); —se burst out; p.p. uncontrolled

dispensar excuse, pardon

displicente surly, cross

disponer dispose, arrange, prepare; — de dispose of, have at one's disposal; —se get ready; p.p. disposed, ready

disposicin f. intention, frame of mind

disputa f. dispute

disputar dispute

distancia f. distance; a — from a distance

distincin f. distinction

distinguir distinguish, favor; p.p. distinguished, of high social station

distinto, -a different

distraer distract, amuse

distribucin f. distribution

distribuir distribute

divagar wander

divertir amuse; p.p. amusing

dividir divide

divino, -a divine

diz see decir

documento m. document; — de crdito commercial paper

dolor m. sorrow, grief

dolorido, -a pained

doloroso, -a painful, full of grief

domar tame, conquer

dominar master, dominate

don don, Mr. (gentleman's title, used only before the Christian name)

donde where; in which, upon which; — quiera wherever

dnde where; por —? which way?

dormir sleep

dos two; a las — at two o'clock

doscientos, -as two hundred

duda f. doubt; sin — surely

dudar doubt, hesitate

duelo m. duel; grief

dueo m. master, owner

dulce soft, sweet; sweets, candy

duplicar double

duque m. duke

duquesa f. duchess

durante during

durar last, remain

dureza f. harshness

duro, -a hard, severe; n.m. dollar (five pesetas)


e and (used only before i or hi)

ea! come on! well!

eclesistico, -a ecclesiastic, of the church

echar put forth; drive out; put, put on; throw, cast; — sangre bleed; — a, —se a start to; —se lie down

edad f. age; de — aged

edificar build

edificio m. building, structure

educacin f. education

educar educate

efecto m. effect; fact; en — that is so, in truth, really

eficaz efficacious, efficient

efusin f. effusion

egosmo m. selfishness

egosta selfish

eh! eh! pshaw!

ejemplo m. example, instance; sin — unparalleled

eleccin f. choice, election

electricidad f. electricity

elctrico, -a electric

elegancia f. elegance

elegante elegant

elemento m. element

elevar raise; p.p. high

elogiar praise

elogio m. praise

ello neut. pron. it; — es the fact is

embajada f. embassy

embajador m. embassy

embarcar put aboard a vessel; —se embark

embargo: sin — nevertheless

embarullarse become mixed or confused

embestida f. attack

emblema m. emblem

emocin f. emotion

empalagoso, -a sweet to satiety, insipid

empalizada f. fence

emperatriz f. empress

empezar begin

emplear employ

emplomado, -a leaded (with leaden ribs)

empobrecer impoverish

emprender undertake, begin

empresa f. enterprise

en in, into, on, over, at, to; with; as, like; — esto meanwhile

enamorado, -a (de) in love (with); n.m. lover

enamorarse de fall in love with

enardecerse grow bold

encadenar chain, bind

encaje m. lace

encajera f. III, 106 (assortment of) laces

encantador, -ra enchanting

encantar enchant; fascinate

encanto m. enchantment, charm, delight

encarcelar imprison

encargar charge, order; commission; —se de look after

encargo m. commission, order

encastillarse shut oneself up (as in a castle)

encender light, kindle

encerrar shut up

encima (de) above, on; por — above

encoger shorten, shrink; p.p. timid

encontradizo: hacerse el — pretend to meet by chance

encontrar find, meet; consider; —se be; meet

encubrir conceal

encuentro m. meeting; al — de to meet

enemigo, -a hostile; n.m. enemy

energa f. energy; con — energetically

enfadoso, -a annoying

nfasis m. emphasis

enfermedad f. sickness, disease

enfermo, -a sick

enfrente in front, opposite

engaar deceive, fool

engao m. deception

engordar fatten

engrandecimiento m. betterment

enhorabuena f. congratulation

enigma m. enigma, riddle

enjalma f. light packsaddle

enjundia f. fat, richness

enlazar put one's arm around

enloquecer render insane, bewitch

enmienda f. correction, amendment

enmudecer grow dumb, be silent

ennegrecer blacken

enorgullecer make proud

enredadera f. vine

enredo m. entanglement

enrejado m. trellis

enriquecerse grow rich

ensancharse expand

ensanche m. expansion, enlargement

ensear teach; show

ensueo m. dream, imagination

entender understand; se entiende of course; I, 794 entendido I see

entendimiento m. understanding, mind

enterar inform; —se de learn, find out, inquire into; take note of

entereza f. firmness

entero, -a whole, entire, all

entierro m. burial

entonacin f. intonation

entonces then, at that time; por —, por aquel — at that time

entrada f. entrance

entrar (en) enter, go in, advance; come upon; trans. lead in

entre between, among; — tanto meanwhile

entreabrir half open, push ajar

entrega f. delivery

entregar give over, hand, deliver

entremetido, -a meddlesome

entretener entertain; detain; —se kill time; take pleasure; delay; p.p. diverting; amused

entretenidito, -a (dim. of entretenido) very much absorbed

entrevista f. interview

entrometido, -a meddlesome

entusiasmar rouse to enthusiasm

entusiasmo m. enthusiasm

envenenar poison

enviar send

envidioso, -a envious

envilecer debase

envolver wrap

equipaje m. (also pl.) baggage, luggage

equivocarse be mistaken

ermita f. hermitage

error m. mistake, error

escalera f. stairs, stairway

escalerilla f. small stairway

escandalizarse be scandalized

escndalo m. scandal, rumpus, outrage; armar or dar un — make trouble

escapar escape

escarmiento m. chastisement, merited lesson

escasez f. need, scarcity

escena f. scene, stage

escenario m. stage

escptico, -a sceptical

esclavina f. priest's collar

esclavitud f. slavery

escoger choose, select

esconder hide, conceal; —se lurk, hide, be hidden

Escorial, El m. the Escurial (the enormous monastery erected by Philip II on the east slope of the Guadarrama mountains, thirty miles north-west of Madrid. It is said to contain 16 patios, 2673 windows, 1200 doors, 86 staircases, and 89 fountains.)

escribir write; por escrito in writing

escuchar listen to

escuela f. school

ese, esa that; se, sa, eso that one, that; eso es just so; eso s to be sure, indeed; a eso de at about; por eso on that account

esfera f. sphere

esfuerzo m. effort

esmeralda f. emerald

espacio m. period, space

espalda f. (also pl.) back

espantoso, -a terrific, terrible

Espaa f. Spain

espaol, -la Spanish; el Espaol = el Teatro Espaol the foremost theater of Madrid

esparcir scatter

espectculo m. sight

esperanza f. hope

esperar expect, await, wait (for), hope (for)

espeso, -a thick

espesura f. thicket, dense wood or brush

espritu m. mind, spirit

esplndido, -a splendid

esposo, -a m. and f. husband, wife; —os husband and wife

espuma f. froth, foam

esquela f. note

establecer fix, bring about

establecimiento m. establishment

estacin f. station

estado m. state, condition

estallar burst forth

estancia f. room

estante m. shelves, bookcase, stand

estar be (temporary condition; location)

este, -a this; the latter; ste, sta, esto this one, this; the latter; en esto during this time

Esteban m. Stephen; San — de Gormaz an ancient village on the river Duero, in the province of Soria

estepa f. steppe, barren plain

estimacin f. esteem

estimar value, regard

estimular stimulate, quicken

estipular stipulate

estoico, -a stoic

estola f. stole

estorbar trouble, prevent, be a hindrance, be in the way

estrechar press, grasp, clasp

estrella f. star

estrellar dash against

estrenar play or wear for the first time

estrepitoso, -a loud, noisy

estrujar crush, squeeze

estudiar study, prepare

estpido, -a stupid

estupor m. amazement

eterno, -a eternal

etiqueta f. etiquette, form

evitar avoid

exacto, -a exact

exaltacin f. excitement, passion

exaltado, -a excited

examinar examine

exasperado, -a exasperated

exasperarse become excited

excelente excellent

excepcin f. exception

excesivamente excessively

exceso m. excess

excitado, -a excited

exclamacin f. exclamation

excluir exclude

exhortar exhort

exhorto m. letters requisitorial (request sent by one judge to another)

exigencia f. demand

exigente exacting

exigir require, demand

existencia f. existence, life; pl. stock

existir exist

expansin f. expansiveness

expectacin f. expectation, period of waiting; con — expectantly

expediente m. proceedings, action; procedure

expiacin f. expiation

expiar expiate

expirar expire, die away

explanada f. esplanade, level piece of ground

explicacin f. explanation

explicar explain

exponer expose

expresar express

expresin f. expression

expresivo, -a expressive

exquisito, -a exquisite; extreme

xtasis m. ecstasy

extender extend, stretch, spread

extensin f. expanse

exterior m. exterior

extinguir extinguish; —se die out

extraer extract

extraordinario, -a extraordinary

extraviarse go astray, become lost

extremo, -a extreme; n.m. end, extreme; por — extremely


fbrica f. factory

fabuloso, -a fabulous

faccin f. feature

fcil easy

factura f. bill, invoice

facha f. appearance, look; show, "sight"

fachada f. faade, front

falda f. skirt

falso, -a false

falta f. fault, mistake; omission, failure, lack; hace —— it is necessary or needed; sin —— without fail

faltar go back on, fail, not be present; be lacking, be missing; poco le faltaba he came near

fama f. reputation

familia f. family

familiaridad f. familiarity

fantasa f. imagination

fantstico, -a fantastic

fantasmn m. conceited ass

farolito m. Chinese lantern

farsante m. hypocrite, bluffer

fascinar fascinate, hypnotize

fatalidad f. fatality

fatiga f. weariness; trouble

fatigar fatigue, tire

favor m. favor; por — please

favorecer favor, aid

fe f. faith; buena — good faith

febril feverish

felicidad f. happiness; I, 749 pl. good-bye

feliz happy; fortunate

fenomenal tremendous

feo, -a homely, ugly

feria f. fair, market, holiday

ferial m. market, fair

ferstico, -a capricious, wayward

ferrocarril m. railway

ferviente fervent

fervoroso, -a ardent

festejo m. feast, entertainment

feudalismo m. feudalism

fiar (de, en), fiarse (de) trust (to)

fidelidad f. fidelity

fiera f. wild beast

fierecilla f. little savage

fiero, -a fierce, savage

fiesta f. fte, celebration, holiday; hacer —s a caress, play with

figura f. figure, form, appearance

figurar figure, appear; —se imagine, fancy, suppose

fijamente fixedly

fijar fix; —se become fixed; —se en notice

fijo, -a fixed, unchanging; de — surely

Filomena f. Philomena

fin m. end, object; al — finally, at last; en — in short, anyhow; por — finally; a — de, a — de que in order that

finca f. country house

fingir dissemble, pretend; imagine, make up; p.p. feigned

fino, -a courteous, thoughtful; delicate; particular; fine, of good quality

firma f. signature, signing

firmar sign

firme firm, solid; en — solidly

firmeza f. firmness

fisgn, -ona m. and f. prier, questioner

fisgonear pry

fisonoma f. face

flaquear weaken, fail

fleje m. strip of iron, hoop

flojo, -a small, weak

flor f. flower; (fig.) cream

foco m. focus; cluster (of lights)

fogoso, -a impetuous

foie-gras m. (French) fat goose-liver (used for a rich paste)

follaje m. foliage

fomento m. stimulation, fostering; Ministro de — title of one of the cabinet officers in Spain; his duties correspond somewhat to those of our Secretaries of the Interior, Commerce, and Agriculture

fondo m. depth; background; rear of stage

forma f. form; en — in due form

formal formal; serious, conscientious

formalidadf. formality, punctuality

formar form; — causa or proceso bring suit

frmula f. formula, form

formular formulate, draw up

foro m. back (of the stage); rear

fortalecer strengthen

fortaleza f. strength of mind; resistance, endurance; fortress

fortificar strengthen, fortify

fortuna f. fortune; hacer — make one's fortune; bring big money

forzosamente necessarily

fricas = fbricas

Francisco m. Frank

frase f. phrase, sentence

fraude m. fraud

frentico, -a in a frenzy

frente f. forehead; m. and f. front; — a opposite, facing, face to face with; en — de in front of

fresco, -a fresh, brand-new; cool, cold

fro, -a cold; n.m. cold; hacer — be cold (of the weather)

frondoso, -a leafy, shady

fruta f., fruto m. fruit

fuego m. fire

fuente f. spring, fountain; running water

fuera outside; — de outside; — de lo comn unusual

fuerte strong, powerful, vigorous; harsh

fuerza f. strength, force; dint

fugaz fleeting, passing

fundamentar explain, give a reason for

fundamento m. foundation

fundar m. foundation

furia f. fury

furioso, -a furious, raving

furor m. fury

futuro, -a future


gaceta f. gazette, newspaper

galanteo m. intrigue, flirtation, gallantry

galantera f. gallantry

galera f. gallery; veranda

gallarda f. elegance, courage

gallardo, -a, gallant, handsome, confident

gana f. (also pl.) desire; de buena — willingly; de mala — unwillingly; III, 36 es — de they go out of their way to

ganancia f. gain, profit

ganar gain, get, earn; — a win, beat

ganguita f. (dim. of ganga) bit of luck

garanta f. security

garganta f. throat

garra f. claw, clutch

gastar waste, spend, wear, use, keep

gasto m. expense

gaznpiro m. simpleton, booby

generacin f. generation

gnero m. kind, sort; race; cloth, material, goods

generosidad f. generosity

generoso, -a generous, noble; (of wines) rich, heady

gente f. people, folk, persons

gestin f. exertion, effort

gesto m. face, gesture, manner

gigante giant, gigantic; n.m. giant

giorno (Italian, day); a — as bright as day

girar turn, revolve, whirl about; — sobre s turn around

giro m. turn, course

gloria f. glory, heavenly bliss

glorieta f. arbor, bower

gobernacin f. government; Ministro de la — one of the cabinet officers, having in charge local administration, mail and telegraphs, public health, etc.

gobernar govern, manage

gobierno m. government

golpe m. blow, stroke, bang; dar — create a sensation

gordo, -a fat, huge

gota f. drop

gozar (de), (con) enjoy, take delight

gozo m. joy

gozoso, -a joyful

gracejo m. wit

gracia f. attraction, grace, cleverness, wittiness; favor; pl. thanks

gracioso, -a amusing, funny

grande, gran great, large; n. grandee (cf. note to IV, 116)

grandeza f. greatness

grandioso, -a imposing

granjera f. profit, profitable trade

grano m. grain

gratificacin f. tip, gratuity

gratitud f. gratitude

grato, -a pleasing, acceptable

gratuitamente gratis, free

grave serious; low

gravedad f. gravity

gritar shout, shriek, call out

grito m. cry, shout, shriek

grupo m. group

guante m. glove

guapo m. bold fellow

guardar keep, observe; watch, guard; (also refl.) put away, keep

guardarropa m. wardrobe

guardia m. policeman; f. guard; la — civil the rural police

gelo, gela = abuelo, abuela

guerra f. war

guisar cook

guitarra f. guitar

gustar please; no me gusta I don't like

gusto m. pleasure; taste; pl. likes and dislikes; mucho — pleased to meet you; tener — en be glad to


ha = hay; III, 38 — lugar? can I come in?

haber have; impersonal hay, etc. there is, there are; hay que one must; — de hacer have to do, must do, will do, be about to do; dos meses ha two months ago

habitacin f. room, apartment

habituar accustom

habladuras f. pl. gossip

hablar speak, talk; — mal scold

hacer make, do, create, cause; hace ... ago; hace tiempo a long time ago; qu tiempo hace? what is the weather like? —se be made, take place, occur; hace cuatro meses que estoy pidiendo for four months I have been asking; —la buena make a break, get into trouble (cf. note to II, 86)

hacia toward

hacienda f. estate, property; farm, farm lands

hacha f. hatchet

hada f. fairy

hale!: — con ellas go at them

hallar find; —se be

hambre f. hunger; tener — be hungry

harapiento, -a ragged, in rags

hasta up to, as far as; until; even; — que until

hectrea f. hectare (about 2-1/2 acres)

hecho m. fact; deed

hechura f. workmanship; —s de casa homemade model

heredar inherit

herencia f. inheritance

herir wound, strike

hermana f. sister

hermanito m. little brother

hermano m. brother; —s brother and sister, brothers and sisters

hermoso, -a beautiful

hermosura f. beauty

herona f. heroine

herramienta f. tool, instrument

hierro m. iron

hija f. daughter, child

hijita f. little daughter

hijo m. son, child; offspring, result; pl. children

himno m. hymn

hiperblico, -a hyperbolical, exaggerated

hipcrita hypocritical

hipotecario, -a of a mortgage; con garanta —a with collateral security

historia f. story; history

hogaza f. large loaf of bread

holganza f. idleness, leisure

hombre m. man; — de bien honorable man; — de Dios! man alive!

hombro m. shoulder

hondo, -a deep, profound

honra f. honor

honradez f. honesty, fair dealing

honrado, -a honorable, honest

honrar honor; p.p. honest, honorable

honroso, -a honorable

hora f. hour; time; es primera — de la noche it is early evening

horizonte m. horizon

hormigueo m. swarming, movement

horrendo, -a dreadful, hideous

horroroso, -a fearful

hortalizas green vegetables

hospitalario, -a hospitable

hostil hostile

hoy to-day

hueco m. hollow, opening

huir (a), (de) flee, run away escape (from); IV, 398 — el cuerpo dodge, avoid conflict

hulla f. soft coal, bituminous coal

humanidad f. humanity

humano, -a human

humilde humble

humillacin f. humiliation

humillante humiliating

humillar humiliate

humo m. smoke; pl. conceit, presumption

hundir sink, crush, plunge; —se sink, be ruined

huracn m. storm


dem (Latin) the same (as that just mentioned), ditto

identificarse con (una idea) seize, catch (an idea)

iglesia f. church

ignominia f. infamy, ignominy

ignorancia f. ignorance

ignorar not to know

igual equal, like, the same; — que just as

igualar equal

iluminar light up, illuminate

ilusin f. illusion

iluso, -a deluded, impractical

ilustre illustrious, noble

imagen f. image

imaginar imagine; intend, think of

imaginativo, -a imaginative, of vivid imagination

imitar imitate

impaciencia f. impatience

impaciente impatient

impvido, -a undaunted, bold

impedir prevent

imperioso, -a imperious

impertinencia f. impertinence

impetuoso, -a impetuous

imponer impose

importancia f. importance

importante important

importar matter

importunar bore, trouble

imposible IV, 74 hopeless

mprobo, -a painful, laborious

impropio, -a (de) unsuited (to)

improvisar improvise

imprudencia f. imprudence

imprudente imprudent

impulsar impel

impulsivo, -a impulsive

impulso m. impulse; dar — set in motion

impune unpunished

in aeternum (Latin) forever

inaudito, -a unheard of, extraordinary

inauguracin f. inauguration

inaugurar inaugurate

incandescente incandescent

incapaz unfit, incompetent

incierto, -a uncertain

incitar urge

inclinacin f. inclination

incluso, -a included, including

incoar begin (a lawsuit)

incomodarse object, take offense; p.p. disturbed, irritated

incontrastable irresistible

inconveniente I, 560 unfortunate; n.m. drawback, objection

incredulidad f. incredulity

incurrir en incur, bring upon oneself

indecente rotten

indecible unspeakable; gozo lo — I take unspeakable pleasure

indicacin f. sign

indicar indicate, suggest, point to; p.p. (medical) indicated

indiferente indifferent

indignacin f. indignation

indignado, -a indignant

indignarse get indignant

indiscrecin f. indiscretion

ndole f. nature, character

indudable undoubted, clear

indulgente indulgent

indulto m. pardon

industria f. industry, business

industrioso, -a industrious

inefable ineffable

inerme defenseless

inesperado, -a unexpected

inexpugnable impregnable

infalible infallible

infamante defaming, dishonoring

infame infamous; n.m. wretch

infantil childish

infeliz wretched, poor, unhappy, unlucky

inferior inferior

infierno m. hades, hell; del quinto — see note to III, 76

infinito, -a infinite; adv. —o infinitely

inflamar inflame

influencia f. influence, political power

influir en influence

informalidad f. unreliability, breach of faith

informar inform

infortunio m. ill luck, misfortune

infundir instil

ingenioso, -a ingenious

ingenuo, -a ingenuous, candid

ingerencia f. interference, meddling

Inglaterra f. England

ingratitud f. ingratitude, act of ingratitude

ingrato, -a ungrateful, disagreeable

ingreso m. money received, amount to one's credit; entrance, admission

iniciar begin, initiate

inicuo, -a iniquitous, wicked

injurioso, -a insulting

injusticia f. injustice

injusto, -a unjust

inmediatamente immediately

inmenso, -a immense

inmvil motionless

inquebrantable unconquerable

inquietar worry

inquieto, -a anxious, restless

inquietud f. restlessness, anxiety

inquilino, -a m. and f. tenant

insano, -a insane

inscribir inscribe, record

inseguro, -a uncertain

insistir insist

insolencia f. insolence

insolente insolent

inspiracin f. inspiration

inspirar inspire

instalar instal, settle

instancia f.: juzgado de primera — lowest court, primary court

instante m. instant, moment; al — at once; por —s every moment

instinto m. instinct

instrumento m. instrument

insuficiente insufficient

insufrible insufferable

intachable stainless

inteligencia f. intelligence, mind

intensidad f. intensity

intenso, -a intense

intentar try

intento m. intention; de — on purpose

inters m. interest

interesante interesting; hacerse el — make oneself an object of attention

interesar interest; —se por take an interest in

interior inner, interior; n.m. interior

interioridad f. private affair

internarse slip in

interrogar question

interrompir interrupt

ntimo, -a intimate

inusitado, -a unaccustomed

intil useless

invencin f. invention, conception, idea

inventar invent

inverosmil improbable

invierno m. winter

invitacin f. invitation

invitar invite

invocar invoke

ir go, be about to; sometimes replaces ser as an auxiliary; —se go away, depart; vase (in stage directions) exit; vaya I declare, well; vaya usted con Dios good-bye; Quin va? Who goes there? I, 364 vaya que ponerte a hablar to think that you should start talking; see also under vaya

ira f. wrath, anger

iracundo, -a angry

irascibilidad f. irritability

irascible irritable

irnico, -a ironical

irreflexivo, -a thoughtless

irrisorio, -a ludicrous

irritar irritate

izquierdo, -a left; f. left hand, left


ja, ja! ha, ha!

Jacinto m. Hyacinth

jactancia f. boasting, conceit

jactancioso, -a boastful

jams never; ever

jamn m. ham

jardn m. garden

jefe m. chief, head; III, 27 chef

Jesucristo m. Christ

Jess m. Jesus; (as an exclamation) Heavens! gracious! — me valga! Heaven save us!

jornal m. day's earnings, wages

Josefita f. Josie

joven young; m. and f. young man, young woman

jovenzuela f. girl of poor appearance

jovialidad f. joviality

joya f. jewel, gem

jbilo m. joy, jubilation, rejoicing

Judas m. Judas; ms falso que — an utter fraud, utterly false

juececillo m. little judge

juego m. game, gambling

juez m. judge

jugar play

juicio m. wits, judgment, decision; tener — be sensible

julio m. July

juntar join

junto, -a near, beside; pl. together; prep. junto a near

juramento m. oath

jurar swear

jurdico, -a legal, juridical

justicia f. justice; forces of the law

justiciero, -a just, with the sternness of a judge

justo, -a just, righteous; exact; adv. -o just so; right

juventud f. youth

juzgado m. court; courthouse

juzgar judge


labio m. lip

laborioso, -a hard-working

lado m. side, direction

lago m. lake

lgrima f. tear

lamentarse complain

lamento m. complaint

lmpara f. lamp

lana f. wool

lanzar utter; —se a enter

lapis-lazuli m. lapis lazuli

largas; dar — play for time

largo, -a long

lstima f. pity; pitiful object, wreck; me da — I feel sorry for; le tengo — I feel sorry for him

lastimero, -a sorrowful, sad, regretful

lateral lateral, side

lavar wash, wash away

leccin f. lesson

leer read

legado m. legacy

legtimo, -a legitimate, lawful

lejano, -a distant

lejos far, at a distance

lengua f. tongue, language

lenguaje m. language

lentitud f. slowness

lento, -a slow

lea f. wood, firewood

len m. lion

Len m. Leon

letra f. letter, bill of exchange

levantar raise; —se get up, arise

ley f. law; loyalty; legal standard; de — genuine

leyenda f. inscription, motto

libertad f. liberty

libertar set free, free

libramiento m. order, draft

librar free, deliver

libre free, rid; aire — open air

libro m. book

liga f. garter

ligero, -a light, slight; a la —a hastily

lima f. file

limosna f. alms

limpiar clean, dust

linaje m. lineage, family

lindo, -a fair, pretty, handsome; prosperous

liquidacin f. liquidation, settlement (of an account)

liquidar settle (an account), settle up

lobo m. wolf

local m. place of business, premises

loco, -a mad, wild, foolish

locura f. madness, folly; III, 211 special weakness

lgico, -a logical

lograr succeed, obtain, gain

loquinario m. half-crazy fellow, scatterbrain, loony

lucecita f. little light

lucero m. morning star, bright star

lucir shine, grow light; display; p.p. brilliant

lucha f. struggle

luchar struggle

luego presently, later, very soon; then, therefore; muy — at once; hasta — I'll see you soon

lugar m. place, room; tener — take place

lgubre gloomy

lujo m. luxury, display

lujoso, -a luxurious

lumbre f. open fire, bonfire, kitchen fire

luminoso, -a luminous, bright

luna f. moon

lunes Monday

lustre m. brilliancy, luster, purity

luz f. light


llamamiento m. call, knocking

llamar call; knock, ring; —se be named

llamativo, -a loud

llanto m. weeping; romper en — burst into tears

llave f. key

llegar (a) arrive (at), come (to), reach; happen

llenar fill, comply with

lleno, -a full

llevar carry, bring, carry away; follow; lead, escort; experience, suffer; —se carry off, lead away

llorar cry, weep, mourn

lloroso, -a tearful


madre f. mother

Madrid the capital city of Spain, with about 1,000,000 inhabitants

Madril = Madrid

madrugar rise early; (figuratively) be on the watch

maestro, -a m. and f. teacher, master; adj. masterly

magia f. magic

magnificencia f. magnificence

magnfico, -a magnificent

majo, -a gay, fine looking

mal adv. ill, badly, wrong; n.m. evil, disease, harm; del — el menos I must make the best of it

maldad f. evil, wickedness; trouble

maldito, -a cursed

malhumorado, -a ill-humored

malicioso, -a malicious

malo, -a bad, evil, wrong; weak, wretched, petty, poor

mam f. mother

mampostera f. rubblework

mancha f. spot

manchar stain, disgrace; streak

mandar command, order, send

mandn m. man in power, boss

manera f. manner, way

maniatar handcuff

manifestacin f. declaration, explanation

manifestar declare, express, tell, show

Manila f. Manila; mantn de — see mantn

mano f. hand

manojito m. small bunch

manojo m. handful, bouquet

mansedumbre f. mildness, gentleness

manteca f. butter

mantener keep, maintain; support, pay living expenses

mantilla f. mantilla (lace scarf for the shoulders or head)

mantito m. cloak

manto m. cloak

mantn m. shawl; — de Manila embroidered silk shawl, see note to III, 215

manutencin f. support

maana f. morning; adv. to-morrow; pasado — day after to-morrow

mar m. and f. sea

maravilla f. marvel

maravilloso, -a marvelous

marcha f. march; en — come on

marchar walk, progress, march; —se go away

marfil m. ivory

Mara f. Mary; — Santsima the Holy Virgin

marido m. husband

Mariquita f. dim. of Mara

Mariucha f. (affectionate dim. of Mara) Mollie

marqus m. marquis; pl. marquis and marchioness

marquesa f. marchioness

mrtir m. martyr

martirio m. martyrdom

martirizar torment

mas but

ms more; other; plus; —— bien rather; —— que except; no —— que only; por —— que in spite of the fact that, however much

masa f. mass; I, 849 en —— general

mscara f. mask

matalotaje m. mess

matar kill

materia f. matter, material

material m. stock

matrimonio m. marriage, matrimony

mximum m. maximum

mayor greater, greatest; larger, largest; elder, eldest; head, chief

mayoral m. stage driver

mecnico, -a mechanical

mediador m. mediator, instrument

medianera f. partition wall

mediano, -a medium, moderate, ordinary

medio, -a half; n.m. midst, environment; means

medioda m. noon

medir measure, measure out

meditabundo, -a thoughtful

meditacin f. meditation

meditar ponder, meditate

mejor better, best

mejorar improve

melancola f. melancholy

melanclico, -a melancholy

meloso, -a honeyed

memoria f. memory; de — by heart

mendigar beg

mendigo m. beggar

menester m. need; employment, occupation; haber — need

Menga f. Dominica

mengua f. disgrace, shame

menguado, -a mean, cowardly

menor less, slighter

menos less, least; except; al —, a lo — at least; a — que unless

menosprecio m. contempt

mensaje m. message

mensajero, -a m. and f. messenger

mensual monthly, a month

mente f. mind

mentecato m. fool, imbecile

mentir lie

mentira f. lie; parece — it seems impossible

men m. (French) bill of fare

mercado m. market

mercanca f. merchandise, articles

mercantil commercial

merecedor, -ra deserving

merecer deserve

merienda f. afternoon tea, (light) lunch

mrito m. merit

mesa f. table, desk; — de noche night stand

mesmamente (dialect) even

mesmo = mismo

metlico, -a metallic

meter put, put in, set; —se en enter into, concern oneself with

m me; de — for my part

mi = mira

miedo m. fear

mies f. harvest

mil a thousand

milagro m. miracle

milln m. million

millonaria f. millionairess

milloncejo m. a trifle like a million

mina f. mine

minero, -a mining

ministro m. minister; secretary (in a government cabinet)

minucioso, -a minute, careful

mo, -a my, mine, of mine; el —o, etc. pron. mine; lo —o what is mine

mirada f. glance, look

mirar look, look at; regard, consider; mire usted you see, see here; — por look out for

misa f. mass; — mayor high mass

miserable wretched, in poverty

miseria f. poverty; bits, wretched trifles

misericordia f. mercy

msero, -a wretched

mismo, -a same, very, own, self; lo — the same thing; maana — no later than to-morrow

misterio m. mystery

mitad f. half, middle

mito m. myth; legendary person

mixto, -a mixed; tren — train with freight and passenger cars

mocoso, -a (literally, with running nose) dirty, too young to take care of himself

moda f. fashion

modales m. pl. manners

modelo m. model

moderno, -a modern

modestia f. modesty

modesto, -a modest, requiring little

modista f. dressmaker, modiste

modisto m. ladies' tailor, designer

modo m. way, manner; de otro — otherwise; de — que so that

molestar trouble, pester, irritate; —se put oneself out, trouble oneself

molestia f. trouble, annoyance

momentneo, -a momentary

momento m. moment; al — in a moment, at once; de un — a otro at any moment

monaguillo m. acolyte, assistant in church service

mono, -a m. and f. monkey; adj. pretty, cute

monte m. mountain, wooded hill

Montevideo the capital of Uruguay; 350,000 inhabitants

montn m. heap

morir die

moscn m. bluebottle fly; bore, nuisance, pest

mostrar show, display

mote m. nickname

mover(se) move, stir

movimiento m. movement, gesture; impulse

mozo, -a youthful; n.m. youth; porter, waiter, man of all work; n.f. girl

mozuela f. wench, (country) girl

muchacha f. girl

muchacho m. boy, youth

muchedumbre f. crowd

mucho, -a much, much of a, great; many, many a, long; adv. —o very; hard; —! good! yes indeed! por — que however much

mudar change; —se move

mudo, -a dumb, silent

mueblaje m. furnishings

muebles m. pl. furniture

muela f. molar

muerte f. death

=muesama= f. == nuestra ama, nuesama= madame, mistress

muestrario m. collection of samples, show case

mugriento, -a dirty, greasy

mujer f. woman; wife

mujercita f. III, 170 narrow woman

multiplicar multiply

multitud f. multitude

mundo m. world; todo el — everybody; the whole world

municipal city (used as adj.)

murmullo m. murmur, whisper

murmurar murmur, whisper

muro m. wall

musgoso, -a mossy

msica f. music; empty phrases, nonsense

msico m. musician

mutuo, -a mutual

muy very


nacer be born; arise

naciente growing, newborn

nacimiento m. birth

nada nothing; anything; not at all; at all; —, — never mind; — ms que only; — de carta let's not use a letter

nadie no one; any one

nariz f. nose, nostril

natural natural, native

naturaleza f. nature

navaja f. knife, razor

necedad f. folly

necesario, -a necessary

necesidad f. necessity, need

necesitar need

necio, -a foolish; m. and f. fool

negativa f. refusal

negociar trade

negocio m. business

negro, -a black; n.m. negro

nene m. baby

nervioso, -a nervous

ni neither, nor; not even; — siquiera, — tan siquiera not even

Nicols m. Nicholas

nido m. nest

ningn, ninguno, -a none, not any, not one; no one

nia f. girl, child

nio m. boy, child; pl. children; muy nio very young

nivel m. level

no no, not; — ms only

nobilsimo, -a most noble

nobleza f. nobility, generosity

nocturno, -a night (used as adv.), nocturnal

noche f. night; de — at night, nighttime

nogal m. walnut

nombrar appoint, name, mention

nombre m. name, Christian name

=noramala (= enhoramala)=: =— con= confound ...!

norte m. North; polestar, guiding star; direction

nota f. note, tone; tomar — de take account of

notar observe, notice

noticia f.(also pl.) news; tener — learn

novecientos, -as nine hundred

novedad f. novelty; de gran — the very latest style

noventa ninety

novia sweetheart, fiance, "girl"

novio m. lover, fianc

nube f. cloud

nuevecito, -a brand new

nuevo, -a new; de —o again

nmero m. number

nunca never; ever


o or; — bien or else

obedecer obey

obediencia f. obedience

obispo m. bishop

objeto m. object

obligacin f. duty; debt

obligar oblige, force, compel

obra f. work; deed

obrar act, work, operate

obscuridad f. obscurity, darkness

obscuro, -a obscure, dark

obsequiar entertain, treat

observacin f. observation

observar observe

obstculo m. obstacle

obstante: no — nevertheless

obstinarse persist

obtener obtain

ocasin f. occasion, opportunity

ocultar hide, conceal

ocupacin f. occupation

ocupar occupy, occupy one's attention; —se be occupied, pay attention; —se en look after; p.p. busy

ocurrencia f. occurrence, whim

ocurrir occur, happen

ochenta eighty

ochocientos, -as eight hundred

odio m. hatred

odioso, -a odious

oficialidad f. body of officers

oficio m. trade, profession

oficioso, -a officious

ofrecer offer

odo m. ear; hearing

or hear

ojo m. eye; —! take care!

ola f. wave

olvidar, —se de forget

omitir omit

omnipotente omnipotent

opinin f. opinion

oponer oppose; —se a oppose

oportuno, -a happy, fitting

oprimir oppress, weigh down

oprobio m. opprobrium, disgrace

opulento, -a rich

Ora pro nobis (Latin) pray for us (a response; cf. note to III, 224-225)

oracin f. prayer

orar pray

orden m. order, system; f. order, command

ordenar order

ordinario, -a ordinary, common

organizar organize

orgullo m. pride

orgulloso, -a proud

origen m. origin

originar cause

orla f. border

oro m. gold

ostentacin f. show, display

ostentar display

otro, -a another, any other, other; else; different; —a vez again


pa = para

paciencia f. patience

pacfico, -a peaceful, quiet

padecer suffer

padre m. father; pl. parents

pagar pay, repay, pay for; —se de be pleased with; p.p. pleased, tickled

pago m. payment

pas m. country, nation

paiz = parece

paja f. straw

pjaro m. bird; fellow

palabra f. word; floor (turn in speaking)

palabrera f. empty talk

palacio m. palace, mansion

palaciote m. huge house

palmadita f. pat

palo m. stick; blow with cudgel

palo-tarja m. see tarja

palpar feel, feel about

pan m. bread, loaf

pana f. corduroy

pandereta f. tambourine

pantano m. swamp, slough

pao m. cloth

pauelo m. handkerchief; kerchief

pap m. papa, father

papato m. daddy

papel m. paper; stock; part, rle; hacer mal — make a poor appearance; yo no hago —es I don't pretend what isn't so

paquete m. parcel, bundle

par equal, alike; n.m. pair, couple; peer; sin — peerless, unequaled

para to, in order to, for, toward; — m in my opinion; — que in order that; — s to himself, yourself

parlisis f. paralysis

paralizar paralyze

parar stop, stay; end, land, remain; venir a — land; parado en firme stock-still

pararrayos m. lightning rod

parsito m. parasite

parecer appear, seem; refl. resemble; al — apparently

parecido, -a like, resembling; n.m. resemblance

pared f. wall

paroxismo m. paroxysm

parque m. park

prroco m. parish; cura — parish priest

parroquia f. parish

parroquial parochial

parte f. part; place, side; en todas —s everywhere; la mayor — the majority, most

particularmente especially

particular private

partida f. game; lot

partidita f. small amount

partir start, set forth; split

pasa f. raisin; — de Corinto (dried) currant

pasacalle m. passacaglia (name of an old Spanish dance, of a slow and rather solemn nature; now applied to a quick march tune)

pasado, -a past, last; — maana day after to-morrow

pasamanera f. passementerie, lace

pasar(se) pass, come in; happen; undergo, suffer; — de be more than; —lo, —se get along; p.p. last, past

pasear(se) stroll, loiter, walk about

pasin f. passion

pasito m. short step

pasivo, -a passive

paso m. passage; step; right of way; incident; abrir el — make way, clear a path

pastor m. shepherd; — de almas spiritual guardian

paterno, -a paternal

patio m. inner court of a house

pato m. duck

patria f. country, native land

pausa f. pause

pavipollo m. young turkey

pavonearse strut about, put on airs

paz f. peace

pechera f. shirt front

pecho m. breast, chest, bosom

pedacito m. tiny piece

pedazo m. piece; — de brbaro = brbaro

pedido m. order (commercial)

pedir ask, beg, require

pedrera f. jewelry, gems

Pedro m. Peter

pegar hit; stick, glue

peignoir m. (French) wrapper, dressing gown

peine m. comb

peldao m. step

pelo m. hair

pena f. sorrow, trial

penar suffer

penetrante penetrating

penetrar penetrate

penoso, -a painful, hard

pensamiento m. thought

pensar think, intend; expect; consider, think over, think up

pensativo, -a thoughtful

pensin f. pension, board

penuria f. penury, extreme poverty

pea f. cliff, rock

peor worse, worst

pequeo, -a small

perchero m. clothes rack

perder lose; ruin, waste; p.p. wicked, dissolute; loco perdido hopelessly insane

perdicin f. perdition, evil

perdonar pardon, forgive

prfidamente treacherously

perfil m. profile

Perico m. dim. of Pedro

peridico m. newspaper

perla f. pearl

permanecer remain

permiso m. permission

permitir permit

pero but

perpetuo, -a perpetual

perro m. dog

perseguir pursue, persecute

persistir persist, continue

persona f. person

personaje m. personage, character

perspicacia f. clear-sightedness

pertenecer belong

pertenencia f. holding, property

perturbacin f. disturbance

perverso, -a perverse

pesar m. sorrow; a — de in spite of

peseta f. peseta (the unit coin of Spain; worth about 20 cents; it is divided into 100 cntimos)

pesimismo m. pessimism

pesimista pessimistic

peso m. weight; dollar

peticin f. asking, request

petitorio m. begging, constant asking

pez m. fish

picar bite, sting; vex; smart; breakup; — alto have lofty aims

picarda f. malice

picaresco, -a mischievous

pcaro, -a rascally, wretched, confounded, mischievous

pie m. foot; de — standing, able to be about, on foot; I, 80 on their feet; en — standing

piedad f. pity; piety

piedra f. stone, rock, gem

pieza f. piece; play; room

pila f. font; nombre de — Christian name

pintoresco, -a picturesque

pisada f. footstep; footprint; stepping

plceme m. congratulation, felicitation

placer m. pleasure

plano m. plane, projection

planta f. sole of the foot, foot

plantar plant; —se en take one's stand

plata f. silver

plateresco, -a plateresque (a highly ornate style of architecture combined with sculpture; it flourished in Spain in the 16th century)

plaza f. square, market place

plazo m. space or limit of time, time of payment

plebeyo m. plebeian, man of vulgar birth

pleno, -a full

pliego m. sheet, envelope

pluma f. pen; feather

pluvial: capa — cope

poblar people, fill

pobre poor, weak

pobrecillo m. poor fellow

pobrecito m. poor creature

pobreza f. poverty

poco, -a little, few, slight; adv. poco little, not very, not much; — menos que almost; n.m. a little; dentro de — soon; para — faint-hearted

pocho, -a faded, discolored

poder be able, can; no — ms can't stand it longer; no — menos de can't help; n.m. power

poderoso, -a powerful

podrido, -a decayed, rotten

potico, -a poetic

polica f. policing

poltica f. politics

poltico, -a political

polvo m. dust

pollo m. chicken

pompa f. pomp, show, splendor

poner place, put, put on; lay, fix; send; —se put on; become; —se a begin to, set out to; —se en camino start out

poqusimo, -a extremely little

poquito m. bit

por for, through, along, across, on, at, by, to, in, over, on account of; in order to; as; per; referring to; —— qu why; —— malo que however ill; —— si to see whether; in case

porcelana f. porcelain

porque because; in order that

por qu (as n. m.) reason

porquera f. filth; trifle, shabby thing

portal m. vestibule

portalada f. portico; opening

porte m. cost of carriage, freight; —— pagado prepaid

Porto m. a city in Portugal; hence Port wine

poseedor, -ra m. and f. possessor

poseer possess

posibilidad f. possibility

posible possible

posicin f. position

positivo, -a positive

potente powerful

Potos m. a province of Bolivia, famous from its earliest history for rich silver mines

pozo m. well

prctica f. practice

practicable real, capable of functioning

prctico, -a practical

precario, -a precarious

precio m. price

preciosidad f. gem, beauty

precioso, -a charming, beautiful; precious

precipicio m. precipice

precipitar hurl; hasten; —se rush

preciso, -a necessary

preferir prefer

pregonar publish, announce, cry aloud, proclaim

pregonero m. town crier

pregunta f. question

preguntar ask (a question)

premio m. reward

premioso, -a slow, with difficulty

prenda f. garment, article of value

preocupacin f. prejudice, preconception

preocupar worry, concern; —se de concern oneself with, make provision for; p.p. concerned, anxious

preparacin f. preparation

preparar prepare

presencia f. presence

presentar present, introduce; —se appear

presente present; los —s those here present

preservativo m. preservative; conservation

presidio m. fortress; military prison

prstamo m. loan

prestar lend

presteza f. speed, haste

presumir presume, suppose, imagine

presuncin f. presumption

presuntuoso, -a conceited

presuroso, -a hasty, in haste

pretender try, intend, wish

pretendiente m. suitor

pretensin f. intention, expectation; claim, pretension

pretericin f. omission

prevalecer prevail

prevenir warn, inform; provide against, foresee; p.p. ready

prever foresee

previsin f. foresight; en —— de foreseeing

primero, -a first; adv. —o first, at first

primitivo, -a original

primor m. beauty, exquisiteness, beautiful quality

principal principal, leading

prncipe m. prince

principiar begin

principio m. beginning; principle; en un —— at first

prisa f. haste; a —— quickly; dar —— urge to hasten

prisita intensified form of prisa

privacin f. privation

privar deprive

probabilidad f. probability

probar prove, try, try on, test, taste; suit

proceder proceed; n.m. procedure, behavior

procesar try (in court), bring suit against

procesin f. procession; la —— va por dentro (his) thoughts are kept to (him)self

proceso m. suit

procurar try; procure

prodigar lavish

producto m. product

profeca f. prophecy

profeta m. prophet

profetizar prophesy

profundo, -a deep

prohibir forbid

promesa f. promise

prometer promise

prontitud f. promptness

pronto, -a ready, speedy; adv. —o soon, quickly; por de ——, por lo —— provisionally, for the present

propender tend, incline

propiedad f. ownership, property, estate

propietario m. proprietor, owner

propina f. tip, gratuity

propio, -a one's own, private; proper, same; t —— you yourself; —— de befitting, suited

proponer propose

proporcin f. proportion; match

propsito m. aim, intention; a —— by the way; suitable; a —— de speaking of

prorrumpir burst out

proteger protect

protesta f. protest

protestar protest

provecho m. profit

proveer provide

provenir arise, be caused by

Providencia f. Providence

provincia f. province

provinciano, -a provincial

prximo, -a near, nearby, approaching

proyecto m. project, plan

prueba f. test, trial; proof

publicar publish

pblico, -a public; n.m. public

puchero m. pot, pan; stew; pl. pouting, whimpering

pueblo m. people, common people, nation; town

puerta f. door, gate

pues well, then, just so; why! —— no! of course! why not?

puesto p.p. of poner; —— que since; although; n.m. position, post, stand, stall

pulga f. flea

pulso m. pulse, wrist; a —— by strength of hand

puntilla f. lace edging

punto m. point; en —— precisely; al —— at once

puntualidad f. punctuality, promptness

puo m. fist

purgatorio m. purgatory

puro, -a pure; n.m. (Havana) cigar

prpura f. purple

=pus= = =pues=

putrefacto, -a putrid, rotten


que rel. pron. who, which, whom, that; conj. that, for, since, and, when, such that; adv. than, as

qu? what; what a; por ——? why?

quebradero m.: —— de cabeza worry

quedar(se) remain, be left; —— en agree to; —se con keep; por m no ha de —— it shall not remain undone through my fault

quedo, -a soft, gentle, low

quehacer m. errand; duty, occupation

queja f. complaint

quejarse (de) complain (of)

quema f. fire, conflagration; huir de la —— run away from danger, avoid serious difficulties

quemar burn; p.p. vexed

querer wish, desire, be willing; like, love; expect; —— decir mean; yo quisiera I should like; lo que quiera anything; donde quiera wherever; V, 211 quiere ser claims to be; p.p. dear, my dear

=qui= = =quiere=

quiebra f. failure, bankruptcy

quien who, whom, whoever, he who, one who, the one who

quin who; de ——? whose; —— pudiera creer! I wish I could believe!

quin III, 73 = =quieren=

quiera see querer

quinientos, -as five hundred

quinto, -a fifth

quitar take away, remove, take off; esto no quita this doesn't prevent

quiz, quizs perhaps


rabia f. rage

rabiar rage, be wild with anger or spite

Rafael m. Raphael

raz f. root; bienes races real estate

ralea f. race, breed

rama f. branch

rpido, -a rapid

rasgar tear

rasgo m. dash, stroke; trait; I, 87 display of generosity

rasguo m. scratch

raso, -a open, unobstructed, flat; hacer tabla —a de clean away

rastaquoure f. (French) rich adventuress

rastrero, -a low-flying, crawling; abject

ratito m. little while

rato m. time, short time; a —s sometimes, at short intervals

rayito m. small ray

rayo m. ray, shaft, thunder-bolt; ha sido como un —— it was a fearful shock

raza f. race

razn f. word, speech; reason; right; tener —— be right

razonable reasonable

re- (an intensifying prefix) very

real real; royal

real m. a former Spanish copper coin (real de velln) worth 25 cntimos or 5 cents

realce m. luster, relief

realidad f. reality

realizar carry out; cash, convert into cash

realmente really

reanudar renew, resume

reaparecer reappear

rebajar lower, take off, deduct

rebaar scrape

rebelarse rebel

rebelde rebellious; n.m. rebel

rebosar overflow (with)

recado m. message

recamado, -a embroidered

recapitular sum up, go over a matter again

recargar load, burden

recatar conceal

recibir receive

reciente recent

reciprocidad f. reciprocity; en su —— from both parties

recproco, -a reciprocal, mutual

reclamar demand, claim

recluir confine, keep in seclusion

recobrar recover

recoger get, pick up, receive, take charge of; p.p. in seclusion

recogimiento m. silent meditation

recomendacin f. recommendation, influence

recomendar recommend, commend

recompensar reward

reconocer recognize, acknowledge; search through; p.p. grateful

reconocimiento m. scrutiny; recognition

reconstruir reconstruct

recordar remember; remind

recorrer go back and forth on

rectitud f. rectitude, uprightness

rector m. rector, principal

recurso m. resource; pl. means, funds

rechazar reject

red f. net

redentor m. redeemer

Redfern a famous Parisian ladies' tailor

redil m. (sheep)fold

redimir redeem

reducir reduce, bring to terms, overcome one's resistance

reducto m. redoubt

referir relate; —se refer

refinado, -a refined

reflejo m. reflection; reflex, light reflected; —— metlico luster (cf. note to III, 308)

reflexionar en think of, consider

reflexivo, -a meditating

reforma f. reform

refugio m. refuge

refulgente shining, sparkling

regatear haggle

regeneracin f. regeneration

regio, -a royal, regal

registrar search

registro m. registry, record-office

regocijar make rejoice

regocijo m. mirth, hilarity

rehacerse rally, recover oneself

reina f. queen

rer(se) laugh

reja f. iron grating, bars or railing

relacin f. relation; entrar en —es con become on familiar terms with

relajar relax

relato m. narrative

religin f. religion

religioso, -a religious

reloj m. watch

relucir shine

remediar remedy, help; —se de be relieved in

remedio m. remedy; no tiene —— it can't be helped

remesa f. remittance

remoquete m. nickname

remoto, -a remote

rencoroso, -a spiteful, V, 150 capable of expressing hatred

rendir conquer, overcome; —se yield

renegar de refuse

renunciar (a) give up

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