Game and Playe of the Chesse - A Verbatim Reprint Of The First Edition, 1474
by Caxton
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Incidentally his book is a monument in the history of chess, but it was never intended to make its primary object that of teaching the game. The author's aim was almost exclusively ethical. It was to win men to a sober life and to the due performance of individual and social duties, that the preacher exhausted his stores of learning, and invoked alike the reproofs of the fathers of the Church, the history and legend of chroniclers, pagan and Christian, and the words of prophets and poets. As a memorial of the literature and learning of the middle ages, it must always possess a permanent value. From it we may learn, and always with interest, what was the literary taste and social ideal of the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries. There is, doubtless, ample room for dissatisfaction with that ideal, but it is not without some bright aspects. Possibly there are modern realms that are not any happier now than they would be if governed in strict accordance with the rules laid down by the earnest author of the game and play of the chess.

* * * * *

It only remains for the editor to thank the friends who have interested themselves in his work. Mr. J.E. Bailey, F.S.A., has shown his usual scholarly courtesy and liberality in the communication of books and references. To Mr. R.C. Christie, the Chancellor of the Diocese of Manchester, a similar acknowledgment is due. Mr. C.W. Sutton, and Mr. W.R. Credland, of the Manchester Free Library, on this, as on many other occasions, have not only given the editor many facilities for his work, but some suggestions by which he trusts he has profited. The index is chiefly the work of the editor's eldest daughter.


[42] To the right noble/ right excellent & vertuous prince George duc of Clarence Erle of warwyck and of salifburye/ grete chamberlayn of Englond & leutenant of Irelond oldest broder of kynge Edward by the grace of god kynge of England and of france/ your most humble servant william Caxton amonge other of your seruantes sendes unto yow peas. helthe. Joye and victorye upon your Enemyes/ Right highe puyssant and redoubted prynce/. For as moche as I haue understand and knowe/ that y'e are enclined unto the comyn wele of the kynge our sayd saueryn lord. his nobles lordes and comyn peple of his noble royame of Englond/ and that y'e sawe gladly the Inhabitants of y'e same enformed in good. vertuous. prouffitable and honeste maners. In whiche your noble persone wyth guydyng of your hows haboundeth/ gyuyng light and ensample unto all other/ Therfore I haue put me in deuour to translate a lityll book late comen in to myn handes out of frensh in to englisshe/ In which I fynde thauctorites. dictees. and stories of auncient Doctours philosophes poetes and of other wyse men whiche been recounted & applied unto the moralite of the publique wele as well of the nobles as of the comyn peple after the game and playe of the chesse/ whiche booke right puyssant and redoubtid lord I haue made in the name and under the shadewe of your noble protection/ not presumyng to correcte or enpoigne ony thynge ayenst your noblesse/. For god be thankyd your excellent renome shyneth as well in strange regions as with in the royame of england gloriously unto your honour and lande/ which god multeplye and encrece But to thentent that other of what estate or degre he or they stande in may see in this sayd lityll book/ yf they gouerned themself as they ought to doo/ wherfor my right dere redoubted lord I requyre & supplye your good grace not to desdaygne to resseyue this lityll sayd book in gree and thanke/ as well of me your humble and unknowen seruant as of a better and gretter man than I am/. For the right good wylle that I haue had to make this lityll werk in the best wyse I can/ ought to be reputed for the fayte and dede/ And for more clerely to procede in this sayd book I haue ordeyned that the chapitres ben sette in the begynnynge to thende that y'e may see more playnly the mater wherof the book treteth &c.


The holy appostle and doctour of the peple saynt Poule sayth in his epystle. Alle that is wryten is wryten unto our doctryne and for our lernyng. Wherfore many noble clerkes haue endeuoyred them to wryte and compyle many notable werkys and historyes to the ende that it myght come to the knowlege and vnderstondyng of suche as ben ygnoraunt. Of which the nombre is infenyte/ And accordyng to the same saith Salamon. that the nombre of foles. is infenyte/ And emong alle other good werkys. It is a werke of ryght special recomendacion to enforme and to late vnderstonde wysedom and vertue vnto them that be not lernyd ne can not dyscerne wysedom fro folye. Thēne emonge whom there was an excellent doctour of dyuynyte in the royame of fraunce of the ordre of thospytal of Saynt Johns of Jherusalem which entended the fame and hath made a book of the chesse moralysed. which at suche tyme as J was resident in brudgys in the counte of Flaundres cam in to my handes/ which whan J had redde and ouerseen/ ne semed ful necessarye for to be had in englisshe/ And in eschewyng of ydlenes And to thende that sōme which haue not seen it/ ne understonde frenssh ne latyn I delybered in my self to translate it in to our maternal tongue/ And whan I so had achyeued the sayd translacion/ I dyde doo sette in enprynte a certeyn nombre of theym/ Whiche anone were depesshed and folde. wherfore by cause thys sayd book is ful of holsom wysedom and requysyte unto every astate and degree/ J haue purposed to enprynte it/ shewyng therin the figures of suche persons as longen to the playe. Jn whom al astates and degrees ben comprysed/ besechyng al them that this litel werke shal see/ here/ or rede to have me for excused for the rude & symple makyng and reducyn in to our englisshe/ And where as is defaute to correcte and amende/ and in so doyng they shal deserve meryte and thanke/ and I shal pray for them/ that god of his grete mercy shal rewarde them in his everlastyng blisse in heven/ to the whiche he brynge us/ that wyth his precious blood redemed us Amen


This booke conteyneth .iiii. traytees/

The first traytee is of the Invencion of this playe of the chesse,/ and conteyneth .iii. chapitres

The first chapitre is under what kynge this play was founden

The .ii. chapitre/ who fonde this playe

The .iii. chapitre/ treteth of .iii. causes why hit was made and founden

The second traytee treteth of the chesse men/ and conteyneth .v. chapitres

The first chapitre treteth of the form of a kynge and of suche thinges as apperteyn to a kynge

The .ii. chapitre treteth of y'e quene & her forme & maners

The .iii. chapitre of the forme of the alphins and her offices and maners

The .iiii. chapitre is of the knyght and of his offices

The .v. is of the rooks and of their maners and offices

The thirde traytee is of the offices of the comyn peple And hath .viii. chapitres

The first chapitre is of the labourers & tilinge of the erthe

The .ii. of fmythis and other werkes in yron & metall

[43] The .iii. is of drapers and makers of cloth & notaries

The .iiii. is of marchantes and chaungers

[44] The .v. is of phisicyens and cirugiens and apotecaries

[45] The .vi. is of tauerners and hostelers

[46] The .vii. is of y'e gardes of the citees & tollers & cuftomers

[47] The .viii. is of ribauldes disepleyars and currours The .iiii. traytee is of the meuyng and yssue of them And hath .viii. chapitres

The first is of the eschequer

The seconde of the yssue and progression of the kynge

The thirde of the yssue of the quene

The fourth is of the yssue of the alphyns

The fifth is of the yssue of the knyghtes

The sixty chapitre of the yssue of the rooks

The seuenth is of the meuynge & yssue of the comyn peple

And the eyght and laste chapitre is of the epilegacion.

And of the recapitulacion of all these forsaid chapitres.


This first chapiter of the first tractate sheweth under what kynge the play of the chesse was founden and maad.:.

Amonge all the euyll condicions and signes that may be in a man the first and y'e grettest is whan he feereth not/ ne dredeth to displese and make wroth god by synne/ and the peple by lyuyng disordynatly/ whan he reccheth not/ ner taketh hede unto them that repreue hym and his vices/ but fleeth them/ In suche wyse as dide the emperour Nero/ whiche dide do slee his maister seneque For as moche as he might not suffre to be repreuid and taught of hym In lyke wyse was somtyme a kynge in babiloine that was named Evilmerodach a Jolye man with oute Justice and so cruell that he dyde do hewe his faders body in thre honderd pieces/ And gaf hit to ete and deuour to thre honderd birdes that men calle wultres And was of suche condicion as was Nero/ And right well resemblid and was lyke unto his fader Nabogodonosor/ whiche on a tyme wold do flee alle the sage and wyse men of babylonye/ For as moche as they coude not telle hym his dreme that he had dremed on a nyght and had forgoten hit lyke as it is wreton in the bible in the book of danyell/ Under this kynge than Evilmerodach was this game and playe of the chesse founden/ Trewe it is that some men wene/ that this playe was founden in the tyme of the bataylles & siege of troye But that is not soo For this playe cam to the playes of the caldees as dyomedes the greek sayth and reherceth That amonge the philosophrs was the most renomed playe amonge all other playes/ And after that/ cam this playe in the tyme of Alixandre the grete in to Egipte And so unto alle the parties toward the south/ And the cause wherfore thys playe was so renomed shall be sayd in the thirde chapitre.

This second chapitre of the first tra3tate sheweth who fonde first the playe of the chesse.

Thys playe fonde a phylosopher of Thoryent whiche was named in Caldee Exerses or in greke philometor/ which is as moche to saye in english as he that loveth Justice and mesure/ And this philosopher was renomed gretly amonge the grekes and them of Athenes whiche were good clerkys and philosophers also renomed of theyr connynge. This philosopher was so Juste and trewe that he had leuyr dye/ than to lyue longe and be a fals flaterer wyth the sayd kynge. For whan he behelde the foull and synfull lyf of the kynge/ And that no man durst blame hym. For by his grete cruelte he putte them alle to deth that displesid hym/ he put hym self in paryll of deth/ And louyd and chees rather to dye than lenger to lyue: The euyll lyf and diffamed of a kynge is the lyf of a cruell beste/ And ought not longe to be susteyned/ For he destroyeth hym that displesith hym/ And therfore reherceth valerius/ that ther was a wise man named theodore cerem whom his kynge dyde do hange on the crosse for as moche as he repreuyd hym of his euyll & fowll lyf And all way as he was in the torment he said to y'e kynge/ upon thy counceyllours & them that ben cladd in thy clothynge & robes were more reson that this torment shold come/ For as moche as they dar not saye to the The trouthe for to do Justice right wysly/ of my self I make no force whether I dye on the lande or on the water or otherwyse &c as who sayth he recched not to dye for Justice/ In lyke wyse as democreon the philosophre put out his owen eyen be cause he wold not see that no good myght come to the euyll and vicyous peple wyth out right And also defortes the philosophre as he went toward his deth/ his wyf that folowed after hym saide that he was dampned to deth wrongfully/ than he answerd and sayd to her/ holde thy peas and be styll/ hit is better and more merytorye to dye by a wronge and unrightfull Jugement/ than that I had deseruyd to dye.

The thirde chapitre of the first tractate treteth wherfore the playe was founden and maad.

The causes wherfore this playe was founden ben thre/ the first was for to correcte and repreue the kynge .For whan this kynge Evilmerodach sawe this playe And the barons knyghtes and gentillmen of his court playe wyth the philosopher/ he meruaylled gretly of the beaulte and nouelte of the playe/ And desired to playe agaynst y'e philosopher/ The philosopher answerd and sayd to hym that hit myght not be doon. But yf he first lerned the playe/ The kynge said hit was reson and that he wold put him to the payne to lerne hit Than the philosopher began to teche hym and to shewe hym the maner of the table of the chesse borde and the chesse meyne/ And also the maners and condicions of a kynge of the nobles and of the comun peple and of theyr offices and how they shold be touchid and drawen. And how he shold amende hymself & become vertuous And whan this kynge herde that he repreuyd hym/ He demanded hym upon payne of deth to tell hym wherfore he had founden and made this playe/ And he answerd my ryght dere lord and kynge/ the grettest and most thinge that I desire is that thou haue in thy self a gloryous and vertuous lyf And that may I not see/ but yf thou be endoctrined and well manerd and that had/ so mayst thou be belouyd of thy peple Thus than I desire y't thou haue other gouernement than thou hast had/ And that thou haue upon thy self first seygnorye and maistrye suche as thou hast upon other by force and not by right Certaynly hit is not ryght that a man be mayster ouer other and comandour/ whan he can not rewle ner may rewle himself and that his vertues domyne aboue his vices/. For seygnourye by force and wylle may not longe endure/ Than thus may thou see oon of the causes why and wherfore I haue founden and maad thys playe/ whyche is for to correcte and repent the of thy tyrannye and vicyous lyuynge/ .For alle kynges specyally ought to here her corrygeours or correctours and her corrections to hold and kepe in mynde/ In lyke wyse as Valerius reherceth that the kynge Alixandre had a noble and renomed knyght that sayd in repreuynge of Alixandre that he was to moche couetous and in especyall of the honours of the world/ And sayd to hym yf the goddes had maad thy body as greet as is thy herte Alle the world coude not holde the/. For thou holdest in thy right hand alle the Oryent/ And in thy lyfte hande the occident/ syn than hit is so/ or thou art a god or a man or nought/ yf thou be god doo than well and good to the peple as god doth/ And take not from them that they ought to haue and is theyres. yf thou be a man/ thinke that thou shalt dye/ And than thou shalt doo noon euyll/ yf thou be nought forgete thy self/ ther is no thynge so stronge and ferme/ but that somtyme a feble thinge casteth doun and ouerthrowe hit How well that the lyon be the strengest beste/ yet somtyme a lityll birde eteth hym/ The seconde cause wherfore this playe was founden and maad/ was for to kepe hym from ydlenesse/ whereof senecque saith unto lucylle ydlenes wyth oute ony ocupacion is sepulture of a man lyuyng/ and varro saith in his sentences that in lyke wise as men goo not for to goo/ the same wyse the lyf is not gyuen for to lyue but for to doo well and good/ And therfore secondly the philosopher fonde this playe for to kepe the peple from ydlenes/. For there is moche peple. Whan so is that they be fortunat in worldly goodes that they drawe them to ease and ydlenes wherof cometh ofte tymes many euyllys and grete synnes And by this ydlenes the herte is quenchid wherof cometh desperacion/ The thirde cause is that euery man naturelly desireth to knowe and to here noueltees and tydynges. For this cause they of atthenes studyed as we rede/ and for as the corporall or bodyly fight enpessheth and letteth otherwhyle the knowleche of subtyll thinges/ therfore we rede that [48] democrion the phylosopher put oute his owen eyen/ for as moche as he myght haue the better entendement and understondynge/ Many haue ben made blynde that were grete clerkis in lyke wyse as was dydymus bisshop of Alixandrye/ that how well that he sawe not yet he was so grete a clerk/ that gregore nazan & saynt Ierome that were clerkes and maystres to other/ came for to be his scolers & lerned of hym And saynt Anthonie The grete heremyte cam for to see hym on a tyme/ and amonge all other thynges/ he demanded hym yf he were not gretly displesid that he was blynde and sawe not. And he answerd that he was gretly abasshid for that he supposid not that he was not displesid in that he had lost his sight/ And saynt Anthonye answerd to hym I meruayle moche that hit displesith the that thou hast lost that thynge whiche is comyn betwene the and bestes. And thou knowest well that thou hast not loste that thynge that is comyn bitwene the and the angellis And for thise causes forsayd the philosopher entended to put away alle pensisnes and thoughtes/ and to thinke only on this playe as shall be said & appere in this book after.


The seconde tractate/ the first chapiter treteth of the forme of a kynge of his maners and of his estate.

The kynge must be thus maad. For he must sitte in a chayer clothed in purpure/ crowned on his heed in his ryght hand a ceptre and in the lyfte hande an apple of gold/. For he is the most grettest and hyest in dignyte aboue alle other and most worthy. And that is signefyed by the corone/. For the glorye of the peple is the dignite of the kynge/ And aboue all other the kynge ought to be replenysshid with vertues and of grace/ and thys signefieth the purpure. For in lyke wyse as the robes of purpure maketh fayr & enbelysshith the body/ the same wise vertues maketh the sowle/ he ought alleway thenke on the gouernement of the Royame and who hath thadmynystracion of Justice/ And thys shuld be by hym self pryncipally. This signefieth the appell of gold that he holdeth in his lyfte honde/ And for as moche as hit apperteyneth unto hym to punysshe the rebelles hath he y'e sceptre in his right hand And for as moche as mysericorde and trouthe conserue and kepe the kynge in his trone/ Therfore ought a kynge to be mercyfull and debonayr For whan a kynge or prynce desired or will be belouyd of his peple late hym be gouerned by debonarite And valerius saith that debonairte percyth the hertes of straungers and amolisshith and maketh softe the hertes of his enemyes/ wherof he reherceth that philostratus that was due of athenes had a doughter/ whom a man louyd so ardantly/ that on a tyme as he sawe her wyth her moder/ sodaynly he cam and kyssed her/ wherof the moder was so angry and soroufull that she wente and requyred of her lord the duc/ that his heed myght be smyten of/ The prynce answerd to her and sayde/ yf we shold slee them that loue us/ what shall we doo to our enemyes that hate us/ Certaynly this was thanswer of a noble & debonair prynce That suffred that villonye don to his doughter and to hymself yet more This prince had also a frende that was named Arispe that sayd on a tyme as moche villonye unto the prynce as ony man miht saye And that might not suffise hym/ but he scracchid hym in the visage/ The prynce suffryd hym paciently in suche wyse as thowh he had doon to hym no vilonye but curtoysye And whan his sones wold haue auengid this vilonye/ he comanded them that they shold not be so hardy so to do The next day folowyng arispe remembrid of the right grete vilonye that he had don to his frende and lord wythoute cause. He fyll in dispayr and wold haue slayn hym self/ whan the duc knewe and understode that/ he cam to hym and sayd ne doubte the nothynge And swore to hym by his fayth/ that also well he was and shold be his frende fro than forthon as euery he had ben to fore yf he wold And thus he respited hym of his deth by his debonairte. And in lyke wyse rede we of the kynge pirre to whom was reported that they of tarente had said grete vilonye of hym. For whiche cause he maad alle them to come to fore hym And demanded of them yf they had so sayd. Than oon of them answerd and sayd/ yf the wyn and the candellys had not fayllyd/ thys langage had ben but a Iape/ In regarde of that we had thought to haue doon/ Than the kynge began to lawhe/ for they had confessid that suche langage as was sayd and spoken was by dronkenship/ And for this cause of debonairte the peple of tarante toke for a custome that the dronken men shold be puuysshyd/ And the sobre men preyfed. The kynge than thus ought to loue humylyte and hate falsite after the holy scripture that speketh of euery man generally/ For the kynge in his royame representeth god/ And god is verite/ And therfore hym ought to saye no thynge but yf hit were veritable and stable. Valerius reherceth that Alixandre wyth alle his ooste rood for to destroye a cyte whyche was named lapsare/ whan than a phylosophre whiche had to name Anaximenes which had ben to fore maistre & gouernour of Alixandre herd and understood of his comyng Cam agayn Alixandre for to desire and requyre of hym. And whan he sawe Alixandre he supposid to haue axid his requefte/ Alixandre brake his demande to fore and swore to hym to fore he axid ony thynge by his goddes. That suche thynge as he axid or requyryd of hym/ he wold in no wyse doon/ Than the philosopher requyred hym to destroye the cyte/ whan Alixandre understood his desire/ and the oth that he had maad/ he suffrid the cyte to stande and not to be destroyed For he had leuer doo his wyll than to be periured and forsworn and doo agaynst his oth/ Quyntilian saith that no grete man ne lord shold not swere/ but where as is grete nede/ And that the symple parole or worde of a prynce ought to be more stable than the oth of a marchaūt/ Alas how kepe the prynces their promisses in thise dayes/ not only her promises but their othes her fealis and wrytynges & signes of their propre handes/ alle faylleth god amende hit &c. A kynge also ought to hate alle cruelte/ For we rede that neuer yet dyed ony pietous persone of euyll deth ne cruell persone of good deth Therfore recounteth valerius that ther was a man named theryle a werke-man in metall/ that made a boole of coppre and a lityll wyket on the side/ wherby men myght put in them that shuld be brent therin/ And hit was maad in suche manere/ that they that shold be put and enclosid therin shold crye nothinge lyke to the wys of a man but of an oxe. And this made he be cause men shold haue the lasse pite of them. Whan he had made this hole of copper/ he presented hit unto a kynge which was callyd philarde that was so cruell a tyrant that he delited in no thinge but in cruelte And he told hym the condicion of the bole/ Whan philarde herde and understode this/ he alowed and preysed moche the werke/ And after sayde to hym/ thou that art more cruell than I am/ thou shalt assaye & prove first thy sente and yeft/ And so made hym to goo in to the boole and dye an euyll deth/ Therfore faith Ouide ther is no thinge more raisonable than that a man dye of suche deth as he purchaseth unto other Also the kynge ought souerainly kepe Iustice/ who maketh or kepeth a royame with oute Iustice/ of verray force ther muste be grete robberye and thefte Therfor reherceth saint Augustyn in a book which is intituled the cyte of god/ that there was a theef of the see named diomedes that was a grete rouar and dide so moche harme that the complaintes cam to fore Alixander whiche dide hym to be taken & brought to fore hym/ and he demanded hym wherfore he was so noyous & cruell in the see And he answerd to hym agayn/ for as moche as thou art oon a lande in the world/ so am I another in y'e see/ but for as moche as the euyll y't I doo is in oon galeye or tweyne therfore I am callyd a theef/ but for as moche as thou dost in many shippis and with grete puyssance and power/ therfore art thou callyd an emperour/ but yf fortune were for me in suche wyse/ I wold be come a good man and better than I now am/ but thou/ the more richer and fortunat that thou art/ the more worse art thou/ Alixander sayd to hym I shall change thy fortune in suche wyse as thou ne saye/ that thou shalt doo hit by pouerte/ but for euyll and mauaiste/ And so he made hym ryche/ And thys was he that afterward was a good prynce and a good Iusticyer/ The kynge ought to be soueraynly chaste/ And this signefyeth a quene that is only on his ryght syde For hit is to be beleuyd and credible that whan the kynge is a good man Iuste. trewe & of good maners and condicions/ that his children shall folowe gladly the same/ for a good sone & a trewe ought not to forsake & goo fro y'e good condicions of his fader. For certes hit is agaynst god and nature in partie whan a man taketh other than his propre wyf/ And that see we by birdes/ of whom the male and female haue to gyder the charge in kepynge and norisshinge of their yonge fowlis and birdis/. For some maner of fowlis kepen them to theyr femeles only/ As hit appereth by storkes dowues and turtils/ But tho fowles that norisshith not their birdes haue many wyues and femelles/ As the cock that no thynge norisshith his chekens/ And therfore amonge alle the bestes that been/ Man and woman putteth most theyr entente and haue moste cure & charge in norisshyng of their children/ And therfore doon they agaynst nature in partye whan they leue theyr wyues for other women/ Of this chastete reherceth valerius an example and faith that ther was a man of rome which was named scipio affrican. For as moche as he had conquerd affricque how well that he was of rome born. Whan he was of .xxxiiii. yer of age he conquerd cartage And toke moche peple in Ostage/ Amonge whom he was presented wyth a right fair mayde for his solas and playsir whiche was assurid and handfast unto a noble yong gentillman of cartage whiche was named Indiuicible/ And anon as this gentill scipio knewe that Notwythstandyng that he was a prynce noble & lusty Dyde do calle anon the parents and kynnesmen of them And deliuerid to them their doughter wyth oute doyng of ony vilonye to her/ and y'e raensom or gold that they had ordeyned for their doughter/ gaf hit euery dele In dowaire to her And the yong man that was her husbonde sawe the fraunchise and gentilnes of hym/ torned hymself and the hertes of the noble peple unto the loue & alliance of the romayns/ And this suffiseth as towchynge the kynge &c.

The seconde chapitre of the seconde book treteth of the forme and maners of the Quene.

Thus ought the Quene be maad/ she ought to be a fair lady sittynge in a chayer and crowned wyth a corone on her heed and cladd wyth a cloth of gold & a mantyll aboue furrid wyth ermynes And she shold sytte on the lyfte syde of the kinge for the amplections and enbrasynge of her husbonde/ lyke as it is sayd in scripture in the canticles/ her lyfte arme shall be under my heed And her ryght arme fhall[49] be clyppe and enbrace me/ In that she is sette on his lyfte syde is by grace gyuen to the kynge by nature and of ryght. For better is to haue a kynge by succession than by election/ For oftentymes the electours and chosers can not ne wyll not accorde/ And so is the election left/ And otherwhyle they chese not the beste and most able and conuenyent/ but hym that they best loue/ or is for them most proffytable/ But whan the kynge is by lignage and by trewe succession/ he is taught enseygned and nourrishid in his yongth in alle good & vertuous tacches and maners of hys fader/ And also the prynces of the royame dar not so hardily mene warre agaynst a kynge hauynge a sone for to regne after hym And so a Quene ought to be chaste. wyse. of honest peple/ well manerd and not curyous in nourisshynge of her children/ her wyfedom ought not only tappere in feet and werkes but also in spekynge that is to wete that she be secrete and telle not suche thynges as ought to be holden secrete/ Wherfore it is a comyn prouerbe that women can kepe no counceyle And accordyng therto Macrobe reherceth in the book of the dremes of Scipio. That ther was a child of rome that was named papirus that on a tyme went with his fader whiche was a senatour into the chambre where as they helde their counceyll And that tyme they spak of suche maters as was comanded and agreed shold be kept secrete upon payn of their heedes And so departed And whan he was comen home from the senatoire and fro the counceyll with his fader/ his moder demanded of hym what was the counceyll and wherof they spack and had taryed so longe there And the childe answerd to her and sayd he durst not telle ner saye hit for so moche as hit was defended upon payn of deth Than was the moder more desirous to knowe than she was to fore/ And began to flatere hym one tyme And afterward to menace hym that he shold saye and telle to her what hit was And whan the childe sawe that he might haue no reste of his moder in no wife He made her first promise that she shold kepe hit secrete And to telle hit to none of the world/ And that doon/ he fayned a lesing or a lye and sayd to her/ that the senatours had in counceyll a grete question and difference whiche was this/ whether hit were better and more for the comyn wele of rome/ that a man shold have two wyuys/ or a wyf to haue two husbondes/ And whan she had understonde this/ he defended her that she shold telle hit to none other body And after this she wente to her gossyb and told to her this counceyll secretly/ And she told to an other/ And thus euery wyf tolde hit to other in secrete And thus hit happend anone after that alle the wyues of rome cam to the senatorye where the senatours were assemblid/ And cryed wyth an hye voys/ that they had leuer/ and also hit were better for the comyn wele that a wyf shold haue two husbondes than a man two wyues/ The senatours heerynge this. were gretly abasshid and wist not what to saye/ ner how to answere/ tyll at laste that the child papire reherced to them all the caas and feet how hit was happend And whan the senatours herd & understood the mater they were gretly abasshid/ and comended gretly y'e Ingenye & wytte of the child that so wisely contriued the lye rather than he wolde discouere their coūceyll/ And forthwith made hym a senatour/ and establisshid & ordeyned fro than forthon that no childe in ony wise sholl entre in to y'e counceyll hous amonge them with their faders exept papirus/ whome they wold y't he shold alwey be among them/ also a quene ought to be chaste/ for as she is aboue all other in astate & reuerēce so shold she be ensample to all other in her liuyng honestly/ wherof Ierome reherceth agaynst Ionynyan/ that ther was a gentilman of rome named duele/ and this man was he y't first fond y'e maner to fight on y'e water/ and had first victorie/ this duele had to his wif one of the best women & so chaste/ that euery woman might take ensample of her/ And at y't tyme the synne of the flesshe was the grettest synne y't ony might doo agaynst nature/ And this sayd good woman was named ylye/ and so it happend that this duele becam so olde that he stowped & quaqued for age And on a tyme one of his aduersaries repreuyd & reprochid hym sayng that he had a stynkynge breth/ And forthwyth he wente home to his wyf alle angry and abasshid and axid her why and wherfore she had not told his defaulte to hym that he myght haue founden remedye to haue ben purgid therof/ And she answerd that as for as moche as she supposid that euery man had that same faute as well as he. For she kyst neuer ony mannes mouth but her husbondes/ O moche was this woman to be preysed & haue a singuler lawde wenynge that this defaulte had not ben only in her husbonde/ wherfore she suffrid hit paciently in suche wyse that her husbonde knewe his defaute sonner by other than by her/ Also we rede that ther was a wedowe named anna/ whiche had a frende that counceyllid her to marye/ For she was yong fayr and riche/ to whom she answerd that she wold not so doo in no wise For yf I shold haue an husbond as I haue had and that he were as good as he was/ I shold euer ben a ferd to lose hym/ lyke as I lost that other/ And than shold I lyue all wey in fere & drede/ whiche I wyll not And yf hit happend me to haue awors/ what shold hyt prouffite me to haue an euyll husbond after a good. And so she concluded that she wold kepe her chastete. Saynt Austyn reherceth in the book de Civitate dei that in rome was a noble lady gentill of maners & of hyghe kynrede named lucrecia/ And had an husbonde named colatyne/ whiche desired on a tyme the Emours sone named Torquyne thorguyllous or the proude and he was callid sixte for to come dyne and sporte hym in his castell or manoir And whan he was entrid amonge many noble ladyes he sawe lucrecia/ And whan this Emours sone had seen & aduertised her deportes. her contenance. her manere. and her beaulte/ he was all rauysshid and esprised wyth her loue forthwyth And espyed a tyme whan her husbonde collatyn wente unto the ooste of themour/ and camm to the place where as lucresse was with her felawship/ whom she receyuyd honorably/ and whan tyme came to goo to bedde and slepe she made redy a bedde ryally for hym as hit apperteyned to the emperours sone And this sixtus espyed where lucresia laye. And whan he supposyd & knewe that euery body was in his first sleep/ he cam to the bedde of lucresse and that oon hand sette on her breste and in that other hand a naked swerd/ and sayd to her/ lucresse holde thy pees and crye not/ For I am sixte tarquynus sone/ for yf y'u speke ony worde thou shalt be dede/ And for fere she held her pees/ Than he began to praye and promise many thinges And after he menaced & thretenyd her that she shold enclyne to hym to do his wyll/ And whan he sawe he coude ner might haue his entent he sayd to her yf thou do not my wyll/ I shall slee the and oōn of thy seruantes and shall leye hym all ded by thy syde And than I shall saye that I haue slayn yow for your rybawdrye/ And lucresse that than doubted more the shame of the world than the deth consentid to hym/ And anone after as the Emours sone was departid/ the ladye sente l*res to her husbond her fader her brethern & to her frendes/ and to a man callid brute conceyllour & neuewe to tarquyn/ And sayd to them/ that yesterday sixte the emp*ours sone cam in to myn hous as an enemye in likenes of a frende/ & hath oppressid me And knowe y'u colatyn that he hath dishonorid thy bedde And how well y't he hath fowled & dishonored my body/ yet myn herte is not/ wherfore I beseche the of pardon foryfnes & absolucion of the trespas but not of the payne/ and he y't hath doon this synne to me hit shall ben to his meschance yf y'e doo your deuoir/ And be cause no woman take ensample of lucresse and lyue after the trespaas/ but that she in lyke wyse take ensample also of the payne And forthwyth wyth a swerd that she helde under her gowen or robe/ she roof her self unto the herte And deyde forthwyth to fore them/ And than brute the counseillr And her husbond collatyn and alle her other frendes swore by the blood of lucresse that they wold neuer reste vnto the tyme that they had put out of rome tarquyn and and alle his lignee/ And that neuer after none of them shold come to dignite/ And alle this was doon. For they bare the dede corps thurgh the cyte and meuyd the peple in suche wyse/ that tarquyn was put in exyle And fixte his sone was slayn/ A Quene ought to be well manerd & amonge alle she ought to be tumerous and shamefast/ For whan a woman hath loste shamefastnes/ she may ner can not well be chaast/ Wherfore saith symachus that they that ben not shamefast haue no conscience of luxurye/ And saynt Ambrose saith that oon of the best parements and maketh a woman most fayr in her persone/ is to be shamefast/ Senecque reherceth that ther was oon named Archezille whiche was so shamefast That she put in a pelow of fethers a certain some of money/ and put hit vnder y'e heed of a pour frende of heeris/ whiche dissimyled his pouerte and wold not ner durst not be a knowen of his pouerte For for shame she durst not gyue hit openly/ but had leuer that he shold fynde hit/ than that she had gyuen hit hym/ Wherfore otherwhile men shold gyue & helpe her frendes so secretly That they knowe not whens hit come/ For whan we kepe hit secret and make no boost therof/ our deedes and werkes shall plese god and them also/ A Quene ought to be chosen whan she shall be wedded of the most honest kynrede and peple/ For oftentymes the doughters folowen the tacches and maners of them that they ben discended from/ Wherof Valerius maximus sayth that ther was one that wold marye/ whiche cam to a philosopher and axid counceyll what wif he might best take He answerd that he shold take her that thou knowe certaynly that her moder and her grauntdame haue ben chaast and well condicioned/ For suche moder/ suche doughter comunely/ Alfo a quene ought to teche her childern to ben contynent and kepe chastite entyerly/ as hit is wreton in ecclesiastes/ yf thou haue sones enseigne and teche them/ And yf thou haue doughters kepe well them in chastite/ For helemonde reherceth that euery kynge & prynce ought to be a clerke for to comande to other to studye and rede the lawe of our lord god/ And therfore wrote themperour to the kynge of france that he shold doo lerne hys children sones the seuen sciences lyberall/ And saide amonge other thynges that a kynge not lettryd resembleth an asse coroned/ Themperour Octauian maad his sones to be taught and lerne to swyme. to sprynge and lepe. to Iufte. to playe wyth the axe and swerde/ And alle maner thynge that apperteyneth to a knyght/ And his doughters he made hem to lerne. to sewe. to spynne. to laboure as well in wolle as in lynnen cloth/ And alle other werkis longynge to women And whan his frendes demanded wherfore he dyde so/ he answerd how well that he was lord & syre of alle the world/ yet wyste he not what shold befalle of his children and whether they shold falle or come to pouerte or noo/ and therfore yf they conne a good crafte they maye alleway lyue honestly/ The Quene ought to kepe her doughters in alle chastyte/ For we rede of many maydens that for theyr virginite haue ben made quenes/ For poule the historiagraph of the lombardes reherceth y't ther was a duchesse named remonde whiche had .iii. sones & two doughters And hit happend that the kynge of hongrye cantanus assaylled a castell where she behelde her enemyes And amonge all other she sawe the kynge that he was a well faryng and goodly man/ Anone she was esprised and taken wyth his loue/ And that so sore/ that forthwith she sent to hym that she wold deliuere ouer the castell to hym yf he wold take her to his wyf and wedde her And he agreed therto/ and sware that he wold haue her to his wyf on that condicion/ whan than the kynge was in the castell/ his peple toke men and women and alle that they fonde/ her sones fledde from her/ of whom one was named Ermoaldus and was yongest/ and after was duc of boneuentan/ And syn kynge of the lumbardis. And the two susters toke chikens And put hem vnder her armes next the flessh and bytwene her pappes/ that of the heete & chaffyng the flessh of the chikens stanke. And whan so was that they of hongrye wold haue enforcid & defowled hem anone they felte the stenche and fledde away and so lefte hem sayng/ fy how these lombardes stynke/ and so they kept their virginite/ wherfore that one of them afterward was Quene of france And that other Quene of Aleman/ And hit happend than that the kynge Catanus toke acordynge to his promyse the duchesse/ and laye with her one night for to saue his oth And on the morn he made her comune unto alle the hongres/ And the thirde day after he dyde doo put a staf of tre fro the nether part of her/ thurgh her body vnto her throte or mouthe/ for be cause of the lust of her flessh she betrayed her cyte and sayd suche husbond/ suche wyf &c And this sufficeth of the Quene.

The thirde chapitre of the seconde tractate treteth of the alphyns her offices and maners.

The Alphyns ought to be made and formed in manere of Iuges syttynge in a chayer wyth a book open to fore their eyen/ And that is be cause that some causes ben crymynell/ And some ben cyuyle as aboute possessyons and other temporell thynges and trespaces/ And therfore ought to be two Iuges in the royame/ one in the black for the first cause/ And that other in whyte as for the seconde/ Theyr office is for to counceyll the kynge/ And to make by his comandements good lawes And to enforme alle the royame in good and vertuous maners/ And to Iuge and gyue sentence well and truly after the caas is had/ And to counceyll well and Iustely alle them that are counceyll of hem/ wyth oute hauynge of ony eye opene to ony persone/ And to estudye diligently in suche wyse and to ordeygne alle that/ that ought to be kept be obseruyd be faste and stable/ So that they be not founde corrupt for yeft for favour ne for lignage ne for enuye variable And as touchynge the first poynt Seneque sayth in the book of benefetes that the poure Dyogenes was more stronge than Alixandre/ For Alixandre coude not gyue fo moche as Diogenes wold reffuse.

Marcus cursus a romayn of grete renome sayth thus. That whan he had besiegid & assayllyd them of amente And boneuentans whiche herde that he was poure/ they toke a grete masse and wegghe of gold and ended hit to hym prayng hym that he wold resseyue hyt and leue his assault and siege/ And whan they cam with the present to hym they fonde hym sittynge on the erthe and ete his mete oute of platers and disshes of tree and of wode and dyde than her message/ to whom he answerd and sayde that they shold goo hoome and saye to them that sente hem that marcus cursus loueth better to be lord and wynne richesses than richesses shold wynne hym/ For by bataylle he shall not be ouercome and vaynquysshid Nor be gold ne siluer he shal not be corrupt ne corompid Often tymes that thynge taketh an euyll ende that is vntrewe for gold and siluer/ And that a man is subgett vnto money may not be lord therof/ helimond reherceth that [50] demoncene demanded of aristodone how moche he had wonne for pletynge of a cause for his clyent/ And he answerd a marck of gold. [51] Demoscenes answerd to hym agayn that he had wonne as moche for to hold his pees and speke not Thus the tonges of aduocates and men of lawe ben yllous and domegeable/yet they must be had yf thou wylt wynne thy cause for wyth money and yeft thou shall wynne And oftetymes they selle as welle theyr scilence/ as theyr vtterance/ Valerius reherceth that the senatours of rome toke counceyll to geder of two persones that one was poure/ And that other riche and couetous/ whiche of hem bothe were moft apte for to sende to gouerne and Iuge the contre of spayne/ and scipion of affricque sayd that none of them bothe were good ner prouffitable to be sente theder/ For that one hath no thynge And to that other may nothynge suffise And despised in his saynge alle pouerte and auerice in a Iuge/ For a couetous man hath nede of an halfpeny For he is seruant & bonde vnto money/ and not lord therof. But pouerte of herte & of wylle ought to be gretly alowed in a Iuge Therfore we rede that as longe as the romayns louyd pouerte they were lordes of all the world For many ther were that exposed alle their goodes for the comyn wele and for that was most prouffitable for the comynaulte that they were so poure that whan they were dede they were buryed & brought to erthe with the comyn good/ And theyr doughters were maryed by the comandement of the senatours/ But syn that they despised pouerte/ And begonne to gadre rychesses/ And haue maad grete bataylles/ they haue vsed many synnes And so the comyn wele perysshid/ For there is no synne but that it regneth there/ Ther is none that is so [52] synfull as he that hath alle the world in despyte/ For he is in pees that dredeth no man/ And he is ryche that coueyteth no thynge/ Valere reherceth that he is not ryche that moche hath/ But he is ryche that hath lytyll and coueyteth no thynge/ Than thus late the Iuges take hede that they enclyne not for loue or for hate in ony Iugement/ For theophrast saith that alle loue is blynde ther loue is/ ther can not ryght Iugement by guyen/ For alle loue is blynde And therfore loue is none euyn Iuge For ofte tymes loue Iugeth a fowll & lothly woman to be fayr And so reherceth quynte curse in his first book that the grete Godaches sayth the same to Alixandre men may saye in this caas that nature is euyll For euery man is lasse auysed and worse in is owne feet and cause than in an other mans/ And therfore the Iuges ought to kepe hem well from yre in Iugement/ Tullius sayth that an angry & yrous sone weneth that for to doo euyll/ is good counceyll/ and socrates saith y't .ii. thinges ben contraryous to coūceyll/ and they ben haftynes & wrath/ and Galeren sayth in Alexandrye/ yf yre or wrath ouercome the whan thou sholdest gyue Iugement/ weye all thinge in y'e balance so that thy Iugement be not enclyned by loue ne by yeste/ ne fauour of persone torne not thy corage. Helemond reherceth that Cambyses kynge of perse whiche was a rightwys kynge had an vnrightwys Iuge/ whiche for enuye and euyll will had dampned a man wrongfully and agaynst right/ wherfore he dide hym to be flain all quyk/ and made the chayer or fiege of Iugement to be couerid wyth his skyn/ And made his sone Iuge and to sitte in the chayer on the skyn of his fader/ to thende that the sone shold Iuge rightwysly/ And abhorre the Iugement & payne of his fader/ Iuges ought to punysshe the defaultes egally And fullfille the lawe that they ordeyne/ Caton sayth accomplisshe and do the lawe in suche wyse as thou hast ordeyned and gyuen. Valerius reherceth that calengius a consull had a sone whiche was taken in adwultrye. And therfore after the lawe at that tyme he was dampned to lose bothe his eyen The fader wold y't the lawe shold be accōplisshid in his sone with out fauour/ but all the cyte was meuyd herewyth And wold not suffre hit/ but in the ende his fader was vaynquysshid by theyr prayers/ And ordeyned that his sone shold lese oon eye whiche was put oute And he hymself lost an other eye/ And thus was the lawe obserued and kept/ And the prayer of the peple was accomplisshid We rede y't ther was a counceyllour of rome that had gyen counceill to make a statute/ that who some euer that entrid in to the senatoire/ & a swerd gyrt aboute hym shold be ded/ Than hit happend on a tyme that he cam from with out and entrid in to the senatoyre & his swerd gyrt aboute hym/ wherof he took nōn heede/ and ōn of the senatours told hym of hit/ and whan he knewe hit & remembrid the statute/ he drewe oute his swerd & slewe hymself to fore them/ rather to dye than to breke the lawe/ for whos deth all the senatours made grete sorowe/ but alas we fynde not many in thise dayes that soo doo/ but they doo lyke as anastasius saith that the lawes of some ben lyke vnto the nettis of spyncoppis that take no grete bestes & fowles but lete goo & flee thurgh. But they take flyes & gnattes & suche smale thynges/ In lyke wise the lawes now a dayes ben not executed but vpon the poure peple/ the grete and riche breke hit & goo thurgh with all And for this cause sourden bataylles & discordes/ and make y'e grete & riche men to take by force and strengthe lordshippis & seignouries vpon the smale & poure peple/ And this doon they specially that ben gentill of lignage & poure of goodes And causeth them to robbe and reue And yet constrayned them by force to serue them And this is no meruayll/ for they that drede not to angre god/ ner to breke the lawe and to false hit/ Falle often tymes by force in moche cursednes and wikkidnes/ but whan the grete peple doo acordinge to the lawe/ and punysh the trānsgressours sharply The comyn peple abstayne and withdrawe hem fro dooyng of euyll/ and chastiseth hem self by theyr example/ And the Iuges ought to entende for to studie/ for y't yf smythes the carpēntiers y'e vignours and other craftymen saye that it is most necessarye to studye for the comyn prouffit And gloryfye them in their connyng and saye that they ben prouffitable Than shold the Iuges studie and contemplaire moche more than they in that/ that shold be for the comyn wele/ wherfore sayth seneke beleue me that they seme that they do no thynge they doo more than they that laboure For they doo spirytuell and also corporall werkis/ and therfore amonge Artificers ther is no plesant reste/ But that reson of the Iuges hath maad and ordeyned hit/ And therfore angelius in libro actiui atticatorum de socrate sayth That socrates was on a tyme so pensyf that in an hole naturell daye/ He helde one estate that he ne meuyd mouth ne eye ne foote ne hand but was as he had ben ded rauyshyd. And whan one demanded hym wherfore he was fo pensyf/ he answerd in alle worldly thynges and labours of the fame And helde hym bourgoys and cytezeyn of the world And valerius reherceth that carnardes a knyght was so age wye and laborous in pensifnes of the comyn wele/ that whan he was sette at table for to ete/ he forgate to put his hande vnto the mete to fede hymself. And therfore his wys y't was named mellye whom he had taken more to haue her companye & felawship than for ony other thynge/ Fedde hym to thende that he shold not dye for honger in his pensifnes/ Dydymus sayd to Alix-andrie we ben not deynseyns in the world but straūgers/ ner we ben not born in the world for to dwell and abyde allway therein/ but for to goo and passe thurgh hit/ we haue doon noon euy dede/ but that it is worthy to be punysshid and we to suffre payne therfore And than we may goon with opon face and good conscience And so may we goo lightly and appertly the way that we hope and purpose to goo This suffiseth as for the Alphyns.

The fourth chapitre of the seconde book treteth of the ordre of cheualerye and knyghthode and of her offices and maners.

The knyght ought to be made alle armed upon an hors in suche wyse that he haue an helme on his heed and a spere in his ryght hande/ and coueryd wyth his sheld/ a swerde and a mace on his lyft syde/ Cladd wyth an hawberk and plates to fore his breste/ legge harnoys on his legges/ Spores on his heelis on his handes his gauntelettes/ his hors well broken and taught and apte to bataylle and couerid with his armes/ whan the knyghtes ben maad they ben bayned or bathed/ that is the signe that they shold lede a newe lyf and newe maners/ also they wake alle the nyght in prayers and orysons vnto god that he wylle gyue hem grace that they may gete that thynge that they may not gete by nature/ The kynge or prynce gyrdeth a boute them a swerde in signe/ that they shold abyde and kepe hym of whom they take theyr dispenses and dignyte. Also a knyght ought to be wise, liberall, trewe, stronge and full of mercy and pite and kepar of the peple and of the lawe/ And ryght as cheualrye passeth other in vertu in dignite in honour and in reuērece/ right so ought he to surmounte alle other in vertu/ For honour is no thing ellis but to do reuerēce to an other sone for y'e good & vertuo'9 disposicion y't is in hym/ A noble knyght ought to be wyse and preuyd to fore he be made knyght/ hit behoued hym that he had longe tyme vsid the warre and armes/ that he may be expert and wyse for to gouerne the other For syn that a knyght is capitayn of a batayll The lyf of them that shall be vnder hym lyeth in his hand And therfore behoueth hym to be wyse and well aduysed/ for some tyme arte craft and engyue is more worth than strengthe or hardynes of a man that is not proued in Armes/ For otherwhyle hit happeth that whan the prynce of the batayll affieth and trusteth in his hardynes and strength And wole not vse wysedom and engyne for to renne vpon his enemyes/ he is vaynquysshid and his peple slayn/ Therfore saith the philosopher that no man shold chese yong peple to be captayns & gouernours For as moche as ther is no certainte in her wysedom. Alexandra of macedone vaynquysshid and conquerid Egypte Iude Caldee Affricque/ and Affirye vnto the marches of bragmans more by the counceyll of olde men than by the strength of the yong men/ we rede in the historye of rome y't ther was a knyght whiche had to name malechete that was so wyse and trewe that whan the Emour Theodosius was dede/ he made mortall warre ayenst his broder germain whiche was named Gildo or Guye For as moche as this said guye wold be lorde of affricque with oute leue and wyll of the senatours. And this sayd guye had slayn the two sones of his broder malechete/ And dide moche torment vnto the cristen peple And afore that he shold come in to the felde ayenst his broder Emyon/ he wente in to an yle of capayre And ladde with hym alle the cristen men that had ben sente theder in Exyle And made hem alle to praye wyth hym by the space of thre dayes & thre nyghtis/ For he had grete truste in the prayers of good folk/ & specially that noman myght counceyll ne helpe but god/ and .iii. dayes to fore he shold fight saynt Ambrofe whiche was ded a lityl to fore apperid to hym/ and shewde hym by reuelacion the tyme & our that he shold haue victorie/ and for as moche as he had ben .iii. dayes and .iii nyghtes in his prayers & that he was assewrid for to haue victorie/ He faught with .v. thousand men ayenst his broder y't had in his companye .xxiiii. thousand men And by goddes helpe he had victorie And whan the barbaryns y't were comen to helpe guion fawe y'e disconfiture they fledde away/ and guion fledd also in to affricque by shiipp/ and whan he was ther arryued he was sone after stranglid/ These .ii. knyghtes of whom I speke were two bredern germayns/ whiche were sent to affricque for to defende the comyn weele/ In likewise Iudas machabe'9 Ionathas & symon his bredern put hem self in the mercy and garde of our lord god And agayn the enemyes of the lawe of god with lityll peple in regard of the multitude that were agayn them/ and had also victorye/ The knights ought to ben trewe to theyr princes/ for he that is not trewe leseth y'e name of a knight Vnto a prince trouth is the grettest precious stone whan it is medlid with Iuftice/ Paule the historiagraph of the lombardes reherceth that ther was a knight named enulphus and was of the cyte of papye that was so trewe to his kynge named patharich/ that he put hym in parill of deth for hym/ For hit happend that Grymald Due of [53] buuentayns of whom we haue touched to fore in the chapitre of the Quene/ Dyde do flee Godebert whiche was kynge of the lombardes by the hande of Goribert duc of Tauryn/ whiche was discended of the crowne of lombardis And this grimald was maad kynge of lombardis in his place/ and after this put & bannysshid out of the contrey this patharych whiche was broder vnto the kynge Godebert/ that for fere and drede fledd in to hongrye/ And than this knyght Enulphus dide so moche that he gate the peas agayn of his lord patharich agaynft the kynge grymalde/ and that he had licence to come out of hongrye where he was all wey in paryll. and so he cam and cryed hym mercy And the kynge grymalde gaf hym leue to dwelle and to lyue honestly in his contree/ allway forseen that he toke not vpon hym and named hymself kynge/ how well he was kynge by right This doon a litill while after/ the kynge that beleuyd euyll tonges/ thought in hymself how he myght brynge this patharich vnto the deth And alle this knewe well the knyght enulphus/ whiche cam the same nyght with his squyer for to visite his lord And made his squyer to vnclothe hym & to lye in the bedde of his lord And made his lord to ryse and clothe hym wyth the clothis of his squyer/ And in this wyse brought hym oute/ brawlynge and betynge hym as his seruant by them that were assigned to kepe the hows of patharik y't he shold not escape Whiche supposid that hit had ben his squyer that he entretid so outragiously/ & so he brought hym to his hous whiche Ioyned with the walles of the toun/ And at mydnyght whan alle men were asleepe/ he lete a doun his maistre by a corde/ whiche toke an hors oute of the pasture And fled vnto the cyte of Aast and ther cam to the kynge of fraunce/ And whan hit cam vnto the morn. Hit was founden that Arnolphus and his squyer had deceyvyd the kynge and the wacchemen/ whom the kyng comanded shold be brought to fore hym And demanded of them the maner how he was escaped And they told hym the trouthe/ Than the kynge demanded his counceyll of what deth they had deseruyd to dye that had so doon and wrought agayn the wylle of hym/ Some sayde that they shold ben honged/ and some sayd they shold ben slayn And other sayd that they shold be beheedid. Than sayd the kynge by that lord that made me/ they ben not worthy to dye/ but for to haue moche worship and honour/ For they haue ben trewe to theyr lord/ wherfore the kynge gaf hem a grete lawde and honour for their feet And after hit happend that the propre squyer and seruant of godeberd slewe the traytre Goribalde that by trayson had slayn his lord at a feste of seynt Iohn in his Cyte of Tauryn wherof he was lord and duc/ Thus ought the knyghtes to love to gyder/ And eche to put his lyf in aventure for other/ For so ben they the strenger And the more doubted/ Lyke as were the noble knyghtes Ioab and Abysay that fought agaynst the syryens and Amonytes/ And were so trewe that oon to that other that they vaynquysshid theyr enemies And were so Ioyned to gyder that yf the siryens were strenger than that one of them/ that other helpe hym/ we rede that damon and phisias were so ryght parfyt frendes to gyder that whan Dionisius whiche was kynge of cecylle had Iuged one to deth for his trespaas in the cyte of syracusane whom he wold haue executed/ he desired grace and leue to goo in to hys contre for to dispose and ordonne his testament/ And his felawe pleggid hym and was sewrte for hym vpon his heed that he shold come agayn. Wherof they that sawe & herd this/ helde hym for a fool and blamed hym/ And he said all way that he repentid hym nothynge at all/ For he knewe well the trouth of his felawe And whan the day cam and the oure that execusion shold be doon/ his felawe cam and presented hymself to fore the Iuge/ And dischargid his felawe that was plegge for hym/ wherof the kynge was gretly abasshid And for the grete trouthe that was founden in hym He pardonyd hym and prayd hem bothe that they wold resseyue hym as their grete frende and felawe/ Lo here the vertues of loue that a man ought nought to doubte the deth for his frende/ Lo what it is to doo for a frende/ And to lede a lyf debonayr And to be wyth out cruelte/ to loue and not to hate/ whiche causeth to doo good ayenst euyll And to torne payne into benefete and to quenche cruelte Anthonyus sayth that Julius Cesar/ lefte not lightly frenshippe and Amytye/ But whan he had hit he reteyned hit faste and maynteyned hit alleway/ Scipion of Affricque sayth that ther is no thynge so stronge/ as for to mayntene loue vnto the deth The loue of concupiscence and of lecherye is sone dissoluyd and broken/ But the verray true loue of the comyn wele and prouffit now a dayes is selde founden/ where shall thou fynde a man in thyse dayes that wyll expose hymself for the worshippe and honour of his frende/ or for the comyn wele/ selde or neuer shall he be founden/ Also the knyghtes shold be large & liberall For whan a knyght hath regarde vnto his singuler prouffit by his couetyse/ he dispoylleth his peple For whan the souldyours see that they putte hem in paryll. And theyr mayster wyll not paye hem theyr wages liberally/ but entendeth to his owne propre gayn and proussryt/ than whan the Enemyes come they torne sone her backes and flee oftentymes/ And thus hit happeth by hym that entendeth more to gete money than victorye that his auaryce is ofte tymes cause of his confusion Than late euery knyght take heede to be liberall in suche wyse that he wene not ne suppose that his scarcete be to hym a grete wynnynge or gayn/ And for thys cause he be the lasse louyd of his peple/ And that his aduersarye wythdrawe to hym them by large gyuynge/ For oftetyme bataylle is auaunced more for getynge of siluer. Than by the force and strengthe of men/ For men see alle daye that suche thynges as may not be achieuyd by force of nature/ ben goten and achieuyd by force of money/ And for so moche hit behoueth to see well to that whan the tyme of the bataylle cometh/ that he borowe not ne make no tayllage/ For noman may be ryche that leuyth his owne/ hopyng to gete and take of other/ Than all waye all her gayn and wynnynge ought to be comyn amonge them exept theyr Armes. For in lyke wyse as the victorie is comune/ so shold the dispoyll and botye be comune vnto them And therfore Dauid that gentyll knyght in the fyrst book of kynges in the last chapitre made a lawe/ that he that abode behynde by maladye or sekenes in the tentes shold haue as moche parte of the butyn as he that had be in the bataylle/ And for the loue of thys lawe he was made afterward kynge of Israell/ Alexander of Macedone cam on a tyme lyke a symple knyght vnto the court of Porus kynge of Inde for to espye thestate of the kynge and of the knyghtes of the court/ And the kynge resseyuyd hym ryght worshipfully/ And demanded of hym many thynges of Alexander and of his constance and strengthe/ nothynge wenynge that he had ben Alexander But antygone one of his knyghtis and after he had hym to dyner And whan they had feruyd Alexander in vayssell of gold and siluer with dyuerce metes &c. After that he had eten suche as plesid hym he voyded the mete and toke the vayssell and helde hit to hymself and put hit in his bosom or sleuys/ wherof he was accusid vnto the kynge After dyner than the kynge callid hym and demanded hym wherfore he had taken his vayssell And he answerd/ Syre kynge my lord I pray the to vnderstande and take heede thy self and also thy knyghtes/ I haue herd moche of thy grete hyenes And y't thou art more myghty and puyssant in cheualrye & in dispensis than is Alexander/ and therfore I am come to the a pour knyght whiche am named Antygone for to serue the/ Than hit is the custome in the Courte of Alexandre/ that what thynge a knyght is seruyd wyth all is alle his/ mete and vayssell and cuppe And therfore I had supposid that this custome had ben kept in thy court for thou art richer than he/ whan the knyghtes herd this/ anōn they lefte porus/ and wente for to serue alixandre/ and thus he drewe to hym y'e hertes of them by yeftes/ whiche afterward slewe Porus that was kynge of Inde/ And they made Alexandra kynge therof Therfore remembre knyght alleway that wyth a closid and shette purse shalt thou neuer haue victorye. Ouyde sayth that he that taketh yeftes/ he is glad therwyth/ For they wynne wyth yeftes the hertes of the goddes and of men For yf Iupiter were angrid/ wyth yestes he wold be plesid/ The knyghtes ought to be stronge not only of body but also in corage. Ther ben many stronge and grete of body/ that ben faynt and feble in the herte/ he is stronge that may not be vaynquysshid and ouercomen/ how well that he suffryth moche otherwhile/ And so we beleue that they that be not ouer grete ne ouer lityll ben most corageous & beste in batayll. We rede that cadrus duc of athenes shold haue a batayll agayn them of polipe/ And he was warned and had a reuelacion of the goddes/ that they shold haue the victorie of whom the prynce shold be slayn in the batayll/ And the prince whiche was of a grete corage and trewe herte Toke other armes of a poure man/ And put hymself in the fronte of the batayll to thende that he might be slain And so he was/ for the right trewe prince had leuer dye Than his peple shold be ouercomen/ And so they had the victorye/ Certes hyt was a noble and fayr thynge to expose hym self to the deth for to deffende his contrey. But no man wold doo so/ but yf he hopyd to haue a better thynge therfore/ Therfore the lawe sayth that they lyue in her sowles gloriously that ben slain in the warre for the comyn wele A knyght ought also to be mercifull and pyetous For ther is nothynge y't maketh a knyght so renomed as is whan he sauyth the lyf of them that he may slee/ For to shede and spylle blood is the condicion of a wylde beste and not the condicion of a good knyght Therfore we rede that scylla that was Duc of the Romayns wyth oute had many fayr victoyres agaynst the Romayns wyth Inne that were contrayre to hym/ In so moche that in the batayll of puylle he slewe .xviii. thousand men/ And in champanye .lxx. thousand. And after in the cyte he slewe thre thousand men vnarmed And whan one of his knyghtes that was named Quyntus catulus sawe this cruelte sayd to hym/ Sesse now and suffre them to lyue and be mercyfull to them wyth whom we haue ben victorious And wyth whom we ought to lyue/ For hit is the most hyest and fayr vengeance that a man may doo/ as to spare them & gyue hem her lyf whome he may slee Therfore Joab ordeyned whan absalom was slayn/ he sowned a trompette/ that his peple shold no more renne & slee theyr aduersaryes. For ther were slayn aboute .xx. thousand of them/ and in lyke wyse dide he whan he faught ayenst Abner And Abner was vaynquysshid and fledde. For where that he wente in the chaas he comanded to spare the peple The knyghtes ought to kepe the peple/ For whan the peple ben in theyr tentes or castellis/ the knyghtes ought to kepe the wacche/ For this cause the romayns callyd them legyons And they were made of dyuerce prouynces and of dyuerce nacyons to thentente to kepe the peple/ And the peple shold entende to theyre werke/ For no crafty man may bothe entende to his craft & to fighte/ how may a crafty man entende to hys werke sewrely in tyme of warre but yf he be kept And right in suche wyse as the knyghtes shold kepe y'e peple in tyme of peas in lyke wise the peple ought to pourveye for theyr dispensis/ how shold a plowman be sewre in the felde/ but yf the knyghtes made dayly wacche to kepe hem/ For lyke as the glorye of a kynge is vpon his knyghtis/ so hit is necessarye to the knyghtes that the marchantis craftymen and comyn peple be defended and kepte/ therfore late the knyghtes kepe the peple in suche wyse that they maye enioye pees and gete and gadre the costis and expensis of them bothe/ we rede that Athis sayd to dauid whiche was a knyght/ I make the my kepar and defendar alleway. Thus shold the knightes haue grete zele that the lawe be kept/ For the mageste ryall ought not only to be garnysshid wyth armes but also wyth good lawes/ And therfore shold they laboure that they shold be well kept Turgeus pompeyus reherceth of a noble knyght named Ligurgyus that had made auncyent lawes the whiche the peple wold not kepe ne obserue/ For they semed hard for them to kepe And wold constrayne hym to rapele & sette hem a part whan the noble knight sawe that He dyde the peple to vnderstande that he had not made them/ but a god that was named Apollo delphynus. had made them/ And had comanded hym that he shold do the peple kepe them/ Thise wordes auayled not/ they wold in no wyse kepe them/ And than he sayd to them that hit were good that er the said lawes shold be broken that he had gyuen to them that he shold goo and speke wyth the god Appollo/ For to gete of hym a dispensacion to breke hem/ And that the peple shold kepe & obserue them tyll that he retorned agayn/ The peple acorded therto & swore that they shold kepe them to the tyme he retorned Than the knighte wente in to grece in exyle & dwellid ther alle his lyf/ And whan he shold dye he comanded that his body shold be cast in the see/ For as moche as yf his body shold be born theder/ the people shold wene to be quyt of theyr oth/ And shold kepe no lenger his lawes that were so good & resonable/ & so the knight had leuer to forsake his owne centre & to dye so than to repele his lawes And his lawes were suche/ The first lawe was that y'e peple shold obeye & serue the princes/ And the princes shold kepe the peple & do Iustice on the malefactours The second lawe that they shold be all sobre/ For he wiste well that the labour of cheualrye is most stronge whan they lyue sobrely/ The thirde was y't noman shold bye ony thynge for money but they shold change ware for ware & one marchandyse for an other/ The fourthe was that men shold sette no more by money ner kepe hit more than they wold donge or fylthe/ The fyfthe he ordeyned for the comyn wele alle thynge by ordre/ that the prynces myght meue and make bataylle by her power, to the maistres counceillours he comysid the Iugementis. And the Annuell rentes/ to the senatours the kepynge of the lawe/ And to the comyn peple he gaf power to chese suche Iuges as they wold haue/ The sixte he ordeyned that all thinge shold be departid egally & all thinge shold be comyn And none richer than other in patry-monye/ The seuenth that euery man shold ete lyke well in comen openly/ that riches shold not be cause of luxurye whan they ete secretly/ The eygthe that the yonge peple shold not haue but on gowne or garment in the yere/ The nynth that men shold sette poure children to laboure in the felde/ to thende that they shold not enploye theyr yongthe in playes and in folye/ but in labour/ The tenthe that the maydens shold be maryed wythoute dowayre/ In suche wyfe that no man shold take a wyf for moneye/ The xi. that men shold rather take a wyf for her good maners and vertues than for her richesses/ The twelfthe that men shold worshippe the olde and auncyent men for theyr age and more for theyr wysedom than for her riches this knyght made none of thyse lawes/ but he first kepte hem.

The fyfthe chapitre of the second book of the forme and maners of the rooks.

The rooks whiche ben vicaires and legats of the kynge ought to be made lyke a knyght vpon an hors and a mantell and hood furryd with meneuyer holdynge a staf in his hande/ & for as moche as a kyng may not be in alle places of his royame/ Therfore the auctorite of hym is gyuen to the rooks/ whiche represent the kynge/ And for as moche as a royame is grete and large/ and that rebellion or nouelletes might sourdre and aryse in oon partye or other/ therfore ther ben two rooks one on the right side and that other on the lifte side They ought to haue in hem. pyte. Iuftice. humylite. wilfull pouerte. and liberalite/ Fyrst Iustice for hit is most fayr of the vertues/ For it happeth oftetyme that the ministris by theyr pryde and orgueyll subuerte Iuftice and do no ryght/ Wherfore the kynges otherwhyle lose theyr royames with out theyr culpe or gylte/ For an vntrewe Iuge or officyer maketh hys lord to be named vnIufte and euyll And contrarye wyse a trewe mynestre of the lawe and ryghtwys/ causeth the kynge to be reputed Iuste and trewe/ The Romayns therfore made good lawes/ And wolde that/ that they sholde be Iufte and trewe/ And they that establisshid them for to gouerne the peple/ wold in no wyse breke them/ but kepe them for to dye for them/ For the auncyent and wyse men sayd comynly that it was not good to make and ordeygne that lawe that is not Iuste Wherof Valerius reherceth that ther was a man that was named Themistides whiche cam to the counceyllours of athenes and sayd that he knewe a counceyll whiche was ryght prouffytable for them/ But he wolde telle hyt but to But to one of them whom that they wold/ And they asligned to hym a wyse man named Aristides/ And whan he had vnderstand hym he cam agayn to the other of the counceyll And sayd that the counceyll of Themystides was well prouffitable/ but hit was not Iuste/ how be hit y'e may reuolue hit in your mynde/ And the counceyll that he sayd was this/ that ther were comen two grete shippis fro lacedome and were arryued in theyr londe. And that hit were good to take them/ And whan the counceyll herde hym that sayde/ that hit was not Iuste ner right/ they lefte hem alle in pees And wold not haue adoo with alle/ The vicarye or Iuge of the kynge ought to be so Iuste/ that he shold employe alle his entente to saue the comyn wele And yf hit were nede to put his lyf and/ lose hit therfore/ we haue an ensample of marcus regulus wherof Tullius reherceth in the book of offices And saynt Augustyn also de ciuitate dei/ how he faught agayn them of cartage by see in shippis and was vaynquysshid and taken/ Than hit happend that they of cartage sente hymm in her message to rome for to haue theyr prisoners there/ for them y'e were taken/ and so to chaūge one for an other And made hym swere and promyse to come agayn/ And so he cam to rome And made proposicion tofore the senate And demanded them of cartage of the senatours to be chaūged as afore is sayd And than the senatours demanded hym what counceyll he gaf Certayn sayd he I coūceyll yow that y'e do hit not in no wise For as moche as the peple of rome that they of cartage holde in prison of youris ben olde men and brusid in the warre as I am my self/ But they that y'e holde in prison of their peple is alle the flour of alle their folke/ whiche counceyll they toke/ And than his frendes wolde haue holde hym and counceyllyd hym to abide there and not retorne agayn prysoner in to cartage/ but he wold neuer doo so ner abide/ but wold goo agayn and kepe his oth How well that he knewe that he went toward his deth For he had leuyr dye than to breke his oth Valeri9 reherceth in the sixth book of one Emelye duc of the romayns/ that in the tyme whan he had assieged the phalistes/ The scole maystre of the children deceyuyd the children of the gentilmen that he drewe hym a lityll and a lytyll vnto the tentys of the romayns by fayr speche. And sayd to the duc Emelie/ that by the moyan of the children that he had brought to hym/ he shold haue the cyte/ For theyr faders were lordes and gouernours. Whan Emelie had herde hym he sayd thus to hym Thou that art euyll and cruell And thou that woldest gyue a gyfte of grete felonnye and of mauuastye/ thou shalt ner hast not founden here Duc ne peple that resembleth the/ we haue also well lawes to kepe in batayll & warre As in our contres & other places/ and we wole obserue and kepe them vnto euery man as they ought to be kept And we ben armed agaynst our enemyes y't wole defende them And not ayenst them y't can not saue their lyf whan their contre is taken/ as thise lityll children/ Thou hast vaynquysshid them as moche as is in the by thy newe deceyuable falsenes and by subtilnes and not by armes/ but I that am a romayn shall vainquysshe them by craft and strengthe of armes/ And anon he comanded to take the said scole maister/ And to bynde his handes behynde hym as a traytour and lede hem to the parentis of the children And whan the faders & parentis sawe the grete courtosie that he had don to them They opend the yates and yelded them vnto hym/ we rede that hanyball had taken a prince of rome whiche vpon his oth and promyse suffrid hym to gon home/ and to sende hym his raunson/ or he shold come agayn within a certain tyme And whan he was at home in his place/ he sayde that he had deceyuyd hym by a false oth And whan the senatours knewe therof/ they constrayned hym to retorne agayn vnto hanyball/ Amos florus tellyth that the phisicien of kynge pirrus cam on a nyght to fabrice his aduersarye And promyfid hym yf he wold gyue hym for his laboure that he wold enpoysone pirrus his maister/ whan fabricius vnderstode this He dyde to take hym and bynde hym hande & foote/ and sente hym to his maistre and dyde do saye to hym word for worde lyke as the physicien had sayd and promysid hym to doo/ And whan pirrus vnderstode this he was gretly ameruaylled of the loyalte and trouth of fabrice his enemye/ and sayd certaynly that the sonne myghte lighther and sonner be enpesshid of his cours/ than fabrice shold be letted to holde loyalte and trouthe/ yf they than that were not cristen were so Iuste and trewe and louyd their contrey and their good renomee/ what shold we now doon than that ben cristen and that cure lawe is sette alle vpon loue and charyte/ But now a dayes ther is nothynge ellys in the world but barate Treson deceyte falsenes and trecherye Men kepe not theyr couenantes promyses. othes. writynges. ne trouthe/ The subgettis rebelle agayn theyr lorde/ ther is now no lawe kepte. nor fidelite/ ne oth holden/ the peple murmure and ryse agayn theyr lord and wole not be subget/ they ought to be pietous in herte/ whiche is auaillable to all thinge ther is pite in effecte by compassion/ and in worde by remission and pardon/ by almesse/ for to enclyne hymself to the poure For pite is nothynge ellis but a right grete will of a debonaire herte for to helpe alle men/ Valerius reherceth that ther was a Iuge named sangis whiche dampned a woman that had deseruyd the deth for to haue her heed smyten of or ellis that she shold dye in prison/ The Geayler that had pite on the woman put not her anone to deth but put her in the pryson/ And this woman had a doughter whiche cam for to se and conforte her moder But allway er she entryd into the pryson the Iayler serchid her that se shold bere no mete ne drynke to her moder/ but that she shold dye for honger/ Than hit happend after this that he meruaylled moche why this woman deyd not/ And began to espye the cause why she lyuyd so longe/ And fonde at laste how her doughter gaf souke to her moder/ And fedde her with her melke. whan the Iayler aawe this meruaill/ he wente & told the Iuge/ And whan the Iuge sawe this grete pite of the doughter to the moder he pardoned her and made her to be delyuerid oute of her pryson what is that/ that pite ne amolisshith/ moche peple wene that it is agaynst nature and wondre that the doughter shold gyue the moder to souke/ hit were agayn nature but the children shold be kynde to fader and moder/ Seneca sayth that the kynge of bees hath no prykke to stynge with as other bees haue. And that nature hath take hit away from hym be cause he shold haue none armes to assaylle them And this is an example vnto prynces that they shold be of the fame condicion/ Valerius reherceth in his .v. book of marchus martellus that whan he had taken the cyte of siracusane. And was sette in the hyest place of the cyte/ he behelde the grete destruction of the peple and of the cyte/ he wepte and sayde/ thou oughtest to be sorofull/ for so moche as thou woldest haue no pite of thy self/ But enioye the for thou art fallen in the hande of a right debonaire prynce. Also he recounteth whan pompeye had conqueryd the kynge of Germanye that often tymes had foughten ayenst the romayns And that he was brought to fore hym bounden/ he was so pietous that he wold not suffre hym to be longe on his knees to fore hym/ but he receyuyd hym cortoysly And sette the crowne agayn on his heed and put hym in thestate that he was to fore/ For he had oppynyon that hit was as worshipfull and fittynge to a kynge to pardone/ as to punysshe. Also he reherceth of a coūceyllour that was named poule that dide do brynge to fore hym a man that was prisonner And as he knelid to fore hym he toke hym vp fro the ground & made hym to sytte beside hym for to gyue hym good esperance and hoope And sayd to the other stondynge by/ in this wyse. yf hit be grete noblesse that we shewe our self contrarye to our enemyes/ than this fete ought to be alowed that we shew our self debonair to our caytyfs & prisonners Cesar whan he herde the deth of cathon whiche was his aduersarye sayde that he had grete enuye of his glorye. And no thinge of his patrimonye/ and therfore he lefte to his children frely all his patrimonye Thus taught vyrgyle and enseygned the gloryus prynces to rewle and gouerne the peple of rome. And saynt Augustin de ciuitate dei saith thus Thou emperour gouerne the peple pietously And make peas ouerall/ deporte and forbere thy subgets/ repreue & correcte the prowde/ for so enseyne And teche the the lawes/ And hit was wreton vnto Alexander/ that euery prynce ought to be pyetous in punysshynge/ and redy for to rewarde/ Ther is no thynge that causeth a prynce to be so belouyd of hys peple/ As whan he speketh to hem swetly/ and coūersith with hem symply/ And all this cometh of the roote of pyte/ we rede of the Emperour Traian that his frendes repreuyd hym of that he was to moche pryue and familier wyth the comyn peple more than an emperour ought to be/ And he answerd that he wold be suche an emperour as euery man desired to haue hym/ Also we rede of Alixander that on a tyme he ladde his oost forth hastely/ and in that haste he beheld where satte an olde knight that was sore acolde Whom he dide do arise and sette hym in his owne sete or siege/ what wondre was hit though y'e knightes desired to serue suche a lord that louyd better theyr helth than his dignite/ The rookes ought also to be humble & meke After the holy scripture whiche saith/ the gretter or in the hier astate that thou arte/ so moche more oughtest thou be meker & more humble Valerius reherceth in his .vii. book that ther was an emperour named publius cesar/ That dide do bete doun his hows whiche was in the middis of y'e market place for as moche as hit was heier than other houses/ for as moche as he was more glorious in astate than other/ Therfore wold he haue a lasse hous than other And scipion of affrique that was so poure of volūtarie pouerte y't whan he was dede/ he was buried at y'e dispencis of y'e comyn good/ They shold be so humble y't they shold leue theyr offices/ and suffre other to take hem whan her tyme comyth/ & doo honour to other/ for he gouerneth wel y'e royame y't may gouerne hit whan he will Valeri'9 saith In his thirde book that fabyan the grete had ben maistre counceyllour of his fader his grauntsire/ And of his grauntsirs fader & of alle his antecessours And yet dide he alle his payne and labour/ that his sone shold neuer haue that office after hym/ but for nothynge that he mystrusted his sone/ For he was noble and wise and more attemprid than other/ but he wold that the office shold not all way reste in the familye and hows of the fabyans Also he reherceth in his seuenth book that they wold make the sayd fabyan emour/ but he excused hym and sayd that he was blynde and myght not see for age/ but that excusacion myght not helpe hym/ Than sayd he to hem/ seke y'e and gete yow another/ For yf y'e make me your emour I may not suffre your maners/ nor y'e may not suffre myn/ Ther was a kynge of so subtyll engyne That whan men brought hym the crowne/ to fore that he toke hit/ he remembrid hym a lityll and saide/ O thou crowne that art more noble than happy For yf a kynge knewe well and parfaytly how that thou art full of paryls of thoughte and of charge/ yf thou were on the grounde/ he wolde neuer lyfte ner take the vp/ Remembre the that whan thou art most gloryous/ than haue some men moste enuye on the/ and whan thou haste moste seignourye and lordships than shalt thou haue moste care. thought and anguysshes/ Vaspasian was so humble that whan Nero was slayn alle the peple cryed for to haue hym emour/ and many of his frendes cam & prayde hym that he wold take hit vpon hym/ so at the last he was constrayned to take hit vpon hym. And sayd to his frendes Hit is better and more to preyse and alowe for a man to take thempire agaynst his wil/ than for to laboure to haue hit and to put hym self therin/ Thus ought they to be humble and meke for to resseyue worship/ Therfore sayth the bible that Ioab the sone of Saryre that was captayn of the warre of the kynge Dauid/ whan he cam to take and wynne a Cyte/ He sente to Dauid and desired hym to come to the warre/ that the victorye shold be gyuen to Dauid/ And not to hym self/ Also they ought to be ware that they chaunge not ofte tymes her officers/ Josephus reherceth that the frendes of tyberyus meruaylled moche why he helde hys offycyers so longe in theyr offices wyth oute changynge/ And they demanded of hym the cause/ to whom he answerd/ I wold chaunge them gladly/ yf I wyste that hit shold be good for the peple/ But I sawe on a tyme a man that was roynyous & full of soores/ And many flyes satte vpon the soores and souked his blood that hit was meruaylle to see/ wherfore I smote and chaced them away. And he than said to me why chacest and smytest away thyse flyes that ben full of my blood/ And now shallt thou late come other that ben hongrye whiche shall doon to me double payne more than the other dide/ for the prikke of the hongrye is more poyngnant the half/ than of y'e fulle And therfore sayde he I leue the officiers in their offices. for they ben all riche/ and doo not so moch euyl & harme As the newe shold doo & were poure yf I shold sette hem in her places/ They ought also to be pacyent in herynge of wordes & in suffrynge payne on her bodyes/ as to the first One said to alisander that he was not worthy to regne. specially whan he suffrid that lecherie and delyte to haue seignoire in hym/ he suffrid hit paciently/ And answerd none otherwyse but that he wolde corrette hym self. And take better maners and more honeste Also hit is reherced that Iulius cezar was ballyd wherof he had desplaysir so grete that he kempt his heeris that laye on the after parte of his heed forward for to hyde the bare to fore. Than sayd a knyght to him Cezar hit is lighther And sonner to be made that thou be not ballid/ than that I haue vsid ony cowardyse in the warre of rome/ or hereafter shall doo ony cowardyse/ he suffrid hit paciently and sayd not aword/ Another reproched hym by his lignage And callyd hym fornier/ he answerd that hit is better that noblesse begynne in me/ than hit shold faylle in me/ Another callid hym tyraunt/ he answerd yf I were one. thou woldest not saie soo A knight callid on a tyme scipion of affricque fowle & olde knyght in armes And that he knewe lityll good And he answerd I was born of my moder a lityll child and feble and not a man of armes. And yet he was at alle tymes one of the best and moste worthy in armes that liuyd. Another sayd to vaspasian/ And a wolf shold sonner change his skyn and heer/ than thou sholdest chaūge thy lyf For the lenger thou lyvest the more thou coueytest And he answerd of thyse wordes we ought to laughe. But we ought to amende our selfe And punysshe the trespaces. Seneque reherceth that the kynge Antygonus herde certayn peple speke and saye euyll of hym/ And therwas betwene hem nomore but a courtyne/ And than he sayde make an ende of your euyll langage leste the kynge here yow/ for the courtyne heereth yow well[54] I nowhe. Than as towchynge to the paynes that they ought to suffre paciently Valerius reherceth that a tyrant dide do tormente Anamaximenes & thretenyd hym for to cutte of his tonge. To whom he sayd hit is not in thy power to doo soo/ and forthwyth he bote of his owne tonge/ And shewed hit wyth his teth and casted hit in the visage of the Tyrant Hit is a grete vertu in a man that he forgete not to be pacyent in corrections of wronges/ Hit is better to leue a gylty man vnpunysshyd/ than to punysshe hym in a wrath or yre Valerius reherceth that archita of tarente

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