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Four Plays of Gil Vicente
by Gil Vicente
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ás partes dalem Vou me fazer cavaleiro,

and he leaves his wife imprisoned in their house, the key being entrusted to the servant (moço). Ines, singing at her work, is declaring that if ever she have to choose another husband on ne m'y prendra plus when a letter arrives from her brother announcing that her husband, as he fled from battle towards Arzila, had been killed by a Moorish shepherd. The faithful Pero Marques again presses his suit. He is accepted and is made to suffer the whims and infidelity of the emancipated Ines. The question of women's rights was a burning one in the sixteenth century.

Vicente's versatility enabled him to laugh at his critics to the end of the chapter. In Dom Duardos he gave them an elaborate and very successful dramatization of a Spanish romance of chivalry. The treatment has both unity and lyrical charm. It was so successful that the experiment was repeated in 1533 with the earlier romance of Amadis de Gaula (1508), out of which Vicente wrought an equally skilful but less fascinating play[145]. But Vicente had not given up writing farces and the sojourn of Ines Pereira's husband in town enables the author to introduce various Lisbon types in O Juiz da Beira. It indeed completely resembles the early farces, while the Auto da Festa with its peasant scene and allegorical Verdade is of the Auto da Fé type but adds the theme of the old woman in search of a husband. The Templo de Apolo, composed for a special Court occasion, shows no development, but in the Sumario we have a fuller religious play than he had hitherto written. It proves, like Dom Duardos, his power of concentration and his skill in seizing on and emphasizing essential points in a long action (the period here covered is from Adam to Christ[146]). It is closely moulded on the Bible and contains, besides an exquisite vilancete (Adorae montanhas), passages of noble poetry and soaring fervour—Eve's invocation to Adam:

Ó como os ramos do nosso pomar Ficam cubertos de celestes rosas (I. 314);

Job's lament 'Man that is born of woman' (I. 324); the paraphrase or rather translation of 'I know that my Redeemer liveth' (I. 322). Nothing here, surely, to warrant the complaints of Sá de Miranda as to the desecration of the Scriptures. This play was followed by the Dialogo sobre a Ressurreiçam by way of epilogue; it is a conversation between three Jews and is treated in the cynical manner that Browning brought to similar scenes. The Sumario or Auto da Historia de Deos was acted before the Court at Almeirim and must have won the sincere admiration of the devout João III. If the courtiers were less favourably impressed they were mollified by the splendid display of the Nao de Amores with its much music, its Prince of Normandy and its miniature ship fully rigged. Vicente was now fighting an uphill battle and in the Divisa da Cidade de Coimbra he attempted a task beyond the strength of a poet and more suitable for a sermon such as Frei Heitor Pinto preached on the same subject: the arms of the city of Coimbra. Even Vicente could not make this a living play; it is, rather, a museum of antiquities and ends with praises of Court families. It is pathetic to find the merry satirist reduced to admitting (in the argument of this play) that merely farcical farces are not very refined. Yet we would willingly give the whole play for another brief farce such as Quem tem farelos?:

Ya sabeis, senhores, Que toda a comedia começa em dolores, E inda que toque cousas lastimeiras Sabei que as farças todas chocarreiras Não sam muito finas sem outros primores (II. 108).

Fortunately he returned to the plain farce in Os Almocreves, the Auto da Feira and O Clerigo da Beira (which, however, ends with a series of Court references) with all his old wealth of satire, touches of comedy and vivid portraiture. He also returned to the pastoral play in the Serra da Estrella, while his exquisite lyrism flowers afresh in the Triunfo do Inverno, a tragicomedy which is really a medley of farces. It is not a great drama but it is a typical Vicentian piece, combining vividly sketched types with a splendid lyrical vein. Winter, that banishes the swallows and swells the voice of ocean streams, first triumphs on hills and sea and then Spring comes in singing the lovely lyric Del rosal vengo in the Serra de Sintra. The play ends on a serious and mystic note, for Spring's flowers wither but those of the holy garden of God bloom without fading:

E o santo jardim de Deos Florece sem fenecer.

The Auto da Lusitania is divided into two parts, the first of which is complete in itself and gives a description of a Jewish household at Lisbon, while the second is a medley which contains the celebrated scene of Everyman and Noman: Everyman seeks money, worldly honour, praise, life, paradise, lies and flattery; Noman is for conscience, virtue, truth. In the Romagem de Aggravados the fashionable and affected Court priest, Frei Paço, is the connecting link for a series of farcical scenes in which a peasant brings his son to become a priest, two noblemen discourse on love, two fishwives lament the excesses of the courtiers, Cerro Ventoso and Frei Narciso betray their mounting ambition, civil and ecclesiastic, the poor farmer Aparicianes implores Frei Paço to make a Court lady of his slovenly daughter, two nuns bewail their fate and two shepherdesses discuss their marriage prospects. The Auto da Mofina Mendes is especially celebrated because Mofina Mendes, personification of ill-luck, with her pot of oil is the forerunner of La Fontaine's Pierrette et son pot au lait: it was perhaps suggested to Vicente by the tale of Doña Truhana's pot of honey in El Conde Lucanor; the theme of counting one's chickens before they are hatched also forms the subject of one of the pasos, entitled Las Aceitunas, of the goldbeater of Seville, Lope de Rueda[147]. Vicente's piece consists, like some picture of El Greco, of a gloria, called, as Rueda's scenes, a passo, in which appear the Virgin and the Virtues (Prudence, Poverty, Humility and Faith) and an earthly shepherd scene. It is thus a combination of farce and religious and pastoral play. Vicente's last play, the Floresta de Enganos, is composed of scenes so disconnected that one of them is even omitted in the summary given after the first deceit: that in which a popular traditional theme, derived directly or indirectly from a French (perhaps originally Italian) source, Les Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles, is presented, akin to that so piquantly narrated by Alarcón in El Sombrero de Tres Picos in the nineteenth century, the judge playing the part of the Corregidor and the malicious and sensible servant-girl that of the miller's wife.

In these last plays we see little or no advance: there is no attempt at unity or development of plot. We cannot deny that the creator of the penniless-splendid nobleman and the mincing courtier-priest and the author of such touches as the death of Ines' husband or the sudden ignominious flight of the judge possessed a true vein of comedy, but he remained to the end not technically a great dramatist but a wonderful lyric poet and a fascinating satirical observer of life. His influence was felt throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in Portugal, by Camões and in the plays of Chiado, Prestes and a score of less celebrated dramatists, as well as in a considerable number of anonymous plays, but confined itself to the auto, which, combated by the followers of the classical drama and the Latin plays of the Jesuits, soon tended to deteriorate and lose its charm. In Spain his influence would seem to have been more widely felt, which is not surprising when we remember how many of his plays were Spanish in origin or language[148]. We may be sure that Lope de Rueda was acquainted with his plays and that several of them were known to Cervantes—the servant Benita insisting on telling her simple stories to her afflicted mistress is Sancho Panza to the life:

Benita. Diz que era un escudero....

Rubena. O quien no fuera nacida: [?]Viendome salir la vida Paraste a contar patrañas?

Benita. Pues otra sé de un carnero....

Lope de Vega was likewise certainly familiar with some of Vicente's plays. If we consider these passages in El Viaje del Alma, the representación moral contained in El Peregrino en su Patria (1604), we must be convinced that the trilogy of Barcas, the Auto da Alma, and perhaps the Nao de Amores were not unknown to him:

Alma para Dios criada Y hecha a imagen de Dios, etc.; Hoy la Nave del deleite Se quiere hacer a la mar: [?]Hay quien se quiera embarcar?; Esta es la Nave donde cabe Todo contento y placer[149].

The alleged imitation by Calderón in El Lirio y la Azucena is perhaps more doubtful. Vicente was already half forgotten in Calderon's day. In the artificial literature of the eighteenth century he suffered total eclipse although Correa Garção was able to appreciate him, nor need we see any direct influence in that of the nineteenth[150] except that on Almeida Garrett: the similar passages in Goethe's Faust and Cardinal Newman's Dream of Gerontius were no doubt purely accidental. Happily, however, we are able to point to a certain influence of the great national poet of Portugal on some of the Portuguese poets of the twentieth century. The promised edition of his plays will increase this influence and render him secure from that neglect which during three centuries practically deprived Portugal and the world of one of the most charming and inspired of the world's poets.

FOOTNOTES:

[6] Falamos do nosso Shakespeare, de Gil Vicente (A. Herculano, Historia da Inquisição em Portugal, ed. 1906, vol. I. p. 223). The references throughout are to the Hamburg 3 vol. 1834 edition.

[7] See infra Bibliography, p. 86, Nos. 42, 62, 79.

[8] Bibliography, Nos. 21, 24, 25, 26, 30, 51, 52, 59, 89.

[9] Bibliography, Nos. 29, 48, 57, 66, 83, 95.

[10] Bibliography, Nos. 53, 73, 82, 88, 97.

[11] Bibliography, Nos. 44, 84, 90, 101, 102.

[12] Guerra Junqueiro, Os Simples.

[13] Cf. André de Resende, Gillo auctor et actor. (For the accurate text of this passage see C. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Notas Vicentinas, I. p. 17.)

[14] Os livros das obras que escritas vi (Letter of G. V. to King João III).

[15] 'E assi mandou de Castella e outras partes vir muitos ouriveis para fazerem arreos e outras cousas esmaltadas.' (Garcia de Resende, Cronica del Rei D. João II, cap. 117.)

[16] Bibliography, Nos. 70, 71.

[17] He argues that Vicente was not old enough to be King Manuel's tutor, but in other passages he is clearly in favour of the date 1460 or 1452. He is born 'considerably before' 1470 (Revista de Historia, t. 21, p. 11), in 1460? (ib. p. 27), in 1452? (ib. pp. 28, 31, and t. 22, p. 155), 'about 1460' (t. 22, p. 150), he is from two to seven years younger than King Manuel, born in 1469 (t. 21, p. 35). He is nearly 80 in 1531 (ib. p. 30). His marriage is placed between 1484 and 1492, preferably in the years 1484-6 (ib. p. 35).

[18] Gil Terron in the same year is alegre y bien asombrado (I. 12).

[19] Cf. Nao de Amores (1527), Viejo, vuestro mundo es ido, and II. 478 (1529).

[20] See A. Braamcamp Freire in Revista de Historia, t. 26, p. 123.

[21] Grandes baxillas y pedraria (Canc. Geral, vol. III. (1913), p. 57).

[22] Cf. Canc. Geral, vol. I. (1910), p. 259:

Vejam huns autos Damado, Huũ judeu que foi queimado No rressyo por seu mal.

[23] There is a slight confusion. The 'second night of the birth' of the rubric may mean the night following that of the birth (June 6-7), i.e. the evening of June 7, or the second night after the birth, i.e. the evening of June 8; but the former is the more probable.

[24] Damião de Goes, Chronica do felicissimo Rey Dom Emanuel, Pt I. cap. 69.

[25] See A. Braamcamp Freire in Revista de Historia, vol. XXII. (1917), p. 124 and Critica e Historia, vol. I. (1910), p. 325; Brito Rebello, Gil Vicente (1902), p. 106-8.

[26] Antología de poetas líricos castellanos, t. 7, p. clxiii.

[27] Orígenes de la Novela, t. 3, p. cxlv.

[28] Antol. t. 7, p. clxvi.

[29] Ib. p. clxxvi.

[30] Ib. p. clxiv.

[31] Especially that of Garcia de Resende, who in one verse (185) of his Miscellanea mentions the goldsmiths and in the next verse the plays of Gil Vicente.

[32] Bibliography, No. 45.

[33] Cf. his earlier studies, in favour of identity, with his later works, maintaining cousinhood.

[34] Cf. Obras, I. 154 (Jupiter is the god of precious stones), I. 93, 286; II. 38, 46, 47, 210, 216, 367, 384, 405; III. 67, 70, 86, 296, etc. Cf. passages in the Auto da Alma and especially the Farsa dos Almocreves. Vicente evidently sympathizes with the goldsmith to whom the fidalgo is in debt, and if the poet took the part of Diabo in the Auto da Feira (1528) the following passage gains in point if we see in it an allusion to the debts of courtiers to him as goldsmith:

Eu não tenho nem ceitil E bem honrados te digo E homens de muita renda Que tem divedo comigo (I. 158).

[35] The MS. note by a sixteenth century official written above the document appointing Gil Vicente to the post of Mestre da Balança should be conclusive as to the identity of poet and goldsmith: Gil V^te trouador mestre da balança (Registos da Cancellaria de D. Manuel, vol. XLII. f. 20 v. in the Torre do Tombo, Lisbon).

[36] Garcia de Resende ([+] 1536) was of opinion that it had no rival in Europe:

nam ha outra igual na Christamdade no meu ver.

(Miscellanea, v. 281, ed. Mendes dos Remedios (1917), p. 97.)

It contained 5000 moradores (ibid.). In the days of King Duarte (1433-8) the number was 3000.

[37] Cf. the dedication of Dom Duardos (folha volante of the Bib. Municipal of Oporto, N. 8. 74) to Prince João: 'Como quiera Excelente Principe y Rey mui poderoso que las Comedias, Farças y Moralidades que he compuesto en servicio de la Reyna vuestra tia....'

[38] The date 1509 is not barred by the reference to the Sergas de Esplandian, which certainly existed in an earlier edition than the earliest we now possess (1510). A certain Vasco Abul had given a girl at Alenquer a chain of gold for dancing a ballo vylam ou mourysco and could not get it back from the gentil bayladeyra. Gil Vicente contributes but a few lines: O parecer de gil vycente neste proceso de vasco abul á rraynha dona lianor.

[39] It is absurd to argue that during the years of his chief activity as goldsmith he had not time to produce the sixteen plays that may be assigned to the years 1502-17.

[40] Gil Vicente (1912), p. 11-13.

[41] The dates in the rubrics are given in Roman figures and the alteration from MDV to MDIX is very slight.

[42] Cf. Bartolomé Villalba y Estaña, El Pelegrino Curioso y Grandezas de España [printed from MS. of last third of sixteenth century]. Bibliófilos Españoles, t. 23, 2 t. 1886, 9, t. 2, p. 37: 'Almerin, un lugar que los reyes de Portugal tienen para el ynvierno, con un bosque de muchas cabras, corzos y otros generos de caza.'

[43] See A. Braamcamp Freire in Revista de Historia, vol. XXII. p. 129.

[44] A. Braamcamp Freire in Rev. de Hist. vol. XXII. p. 133-4.

[45] Luis Anriquez in Canc. Geral, vol. III. (1913), p. 106.

[46] See Rev. de Hist. vol. XXII. p. 122; vol. XXIV. p. 290.

[47] E.g. the words ahotas and chapado and the expression en velloritas (I. 41), cf. Enzina, Egloga I.: ni estaré ya tendido en belloritas = in clover, lit. in cowslips: belloritas de jacinto (Egl. III.).

[48] A. Braamcamp Freire in Rev. de Hist. vol. XXIV. p. 290.

[49] There are, however, several such psalms in the works of Enzina.

[50] Cf. I. 85: huele de dos mil maneras with Enzina, Egloga II: y ervas de dos mil maneras. In the Auto da Alma, probably written about this time, there are imitations of Gomez Manrique (c. 1415-90). Cf. the passage in the Exhortação.

[51] That the illness of the Queen would not prevent the entertainment is proved by the fact that in the month before her death King Manuel was present at a fight between a rhinoceros and an elephant in a court in front of Lisbon's India House. We do not know if Vicente was present nor what he thought of this new thing.

[52] In December 1517 El Bachiller de la Pradilla published some verses in praise of la muy esclarecida Señora Infanta Madama Leonor, Rey[na] de Portugal (v. Menéndez y Pelayo, Antología, t. 6, p. cccxxxviii).

[53] He argues that such a form as MD & viii was never used and must be a misprint for MDxviii.

[54] Cf. also the resemblance of certain passages in the Auto da Alma and in the Auto da Barca da Gloria (1519). They must strike any reader of the two plays.

[55] Goes, Chronica, IV. 34.

[56] Garcia de Resende, Hida da Infanta Dona Beatriz pera Saboya in Chronica...del Rey Dom Ioam II, ed. 1752, f. 99 V.

[57] Gil Vicente, Á morte del Rei D. Manuel (III. 347).

[58] Gil Vicente, Romance (III. 350).

[59] Goes says generally that King Manuel foi muito inclinado a letras e letrados (Chronica, 1619 ed., f. 342. Favebat plurimum literis, says Osorio, De rebus, 1561, p. 479).

[60] II. 4: Foi feita ao muito poderoso e nobre Rei D. João III. sendo principe, era de MDXXI (rubric of Comedia de Rubena).

[61] II. 364. Although 'good wine needs no bush' the custom of hanging a branch above tavern doors still prevails.

[62] A. Braamcamp Freire in Rev. de Hist. vol. XXII. p. 162.

[63] Id. ib. vol. XXIV. p. 307. It is astonishing how slight errors in the rubrics of Vicente's plays have been permitted to survive, just as Psalm LI, of which Vicente perhaps at about this time wrote a remarkable paraphrase, still appears in all editions of his works as Ps. L.

[64] Ib. vol. XXIV. p. 312-3.

[65] Th. Braga, Historia da Litteratura Portuguesa. II. Renascença (1914), p. 85.

[66] J. I. Brito Rebello, Gil Vicente (1902), p. 64.

[67] H. Thomas, The Palmerin Romances (London, 1916), p. 10-12.

[68] M. Menéndez y Pelayo, Antología, t. 7, p. cci; Oríg. de la Novela, I. cclxvii: toda la pieza es un delicioso idilio.

[69] Rev. de Hist. vol. XXIV. p. 315.

[70] It should be noted that the lines in Dom Duardos (II. 212):

Consuelo vete de ahi No perdas tiempo conmigo

are from the song in the Comedia de Rubena (1521):

Consuelo vete con Dios (II. 53).

[71] Cf. O Clerigo da Beira: não fazem bem [na corte] senão a quem menos faz (III. 320); Auto da Festa: os homens verdadeiros não são tidos nũa palha, etc.

[72] Vejo minha morte em casa say the verses to the Conde de Vimioso; La muerte puesta a mis lados says the Templo de Apolo.

[73] Auto da Natural Invençam (Lisboa, 1917), pp. 64, 65, 68, 69, 70, 88, 89.

[74] Este nome pos-lho o vulgo (III. 4). Cf. the title Os Almocreves.

[75] Rol dos livros defesos (1551) ap. C. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Notas Vicentinas, I. p. 31. We might assume that the second part of O Clerigo da Beira (III. 250-9) was printed separately under the title Auto de Pedreanes but for the words por causa das matinas.

[76] Ib. p. 30-1.

[77] The probability is shown by the fact that the idea of their identity had occurred to me before reading the same suggestion made by Snr Braamcamp Freire in the Revista de Historia.

[78] See Notas Vicentinas, I. (1912). The Auto da Feira answers in some respects to Cardinal Aleandro's description of the Jubileu de Amores, and Rome (the Church, not the city) might conceivably have been crowned with a Cardinal's hat, but Aleandro's letter refutes this suggestion: uno principal che parlava ... fingeasi Vescovo. Rome in the Auto da Feira (I. 162) is a senhora. One can only say that the Auto da Feira may perhaps have been adapted for the occasion, with an altered title, Spanish being added, to suit the foreign audience.

[79] E como sempre isto guardasse Este mui leal autor Até que Deos enviasse O Principe nosso senhor Nam quis que outrem o gozasse (III. 276).

[80] The familiarity with which the Nuncio is treated would be more suitable if he was the Portuguese D. Martinho de Portugal, but then the date would have to be after 1527.

[81] Cf. II. 343: Salga esotra ave de pena ... Son perdices and Auto da Festa, p. 101. The latter text is corrupt (penitas for peitas, and cousas fritas has ousted the required rhyme juizes).

[82] The line nega se m'eu embeleco occurs here and in the Serra da Estrella (1527). Arguments as to date from such repetitions are not entirely groundless. Cf. com saudade suspirando (Cortes de Jupiter, 1521) and sam suspiros de saudade (Pranto de Maria Parda, 1522); Que dirá a vezinhança? III. 21 (1508-9), A vezinhança que dirá? III. 34 (1509); Ó demo que t'eu encomendo, III. 99 (1511), Ó diabo que t'eu encomendo, II. 362 (1513). The Exhortação (1513), which has passages similar to those in the Farsa de Ines Pereira (1523) and the Pranto de Maria Parda (1522), probably became a kind of national anthem and was touched up for each performance. Curiously, the mention of a pedra d'estrema in the Pranto and in the Auto da Festa might correspond to a first (1521) and second (1525) revision of the Exhortação.

[83] The very success of his plays incited emulation. A play written in Latin, Hispaniola, was acted at the Portuguese Court before his death (Gallardo, ap. Sousa Viterbo, A Litt. Hesp. em Portugal (1915), p. xxiv).

[84] See A. Braamcamp Freire in Rev. de Hist. vol. XXIV. p. 331.

[85] Francisco Alvarez arrived at the Court at Coimbra in the late summer of 1527 and he says: nam se tardou muito que el Rey nosso senhor se partisse com sua corte via dalmeirim. Verdadeira Informaçam (1540), modern reprint, p. 191.

[86] Rev. de Hist. vol. XXV. p. 89.

[87] According to Snr Braamcamp Freire this play must be assigned to the months between September 1529 and February 1530.

[88] O mandei a V. A. por escrito até lhe Deos dar descanso e contentamento... pera que por minha arte lhe diga o que aqui falece (III. 388).

[89] In this letter, written in the very year of the first Bull for the introduction of the Inquisition into Portugal, Vicente uses the expression 'May I be burnt if.'

[90] The line A quien contaré mis quejas (II. 147) is repeated from the Trovas addressed to King João in 1527. It is taken from a poem by the Marqués de Astorga printed in the Cancionero General (1511):

[?]A quien contaré mis quexas Si a ti no?

Cf. Comedia de Rubena (II. 6): [?]A quien contaré mi pena? The comical rôle of the Justiça Maior may have been taken by Garcia de Resende, who added acting to his other accomplishments. He was 66, and he died at Evora in this year.

[91] See A. Braamcamp Freire in Rev. de Hist. vol. XXVI. p. 122-3.

[92] From Gil Vicente's epitaph written by himself.

[93] Garcia de Resende (1470-1536), Miscellanea, 1752 ed., f. 113.

[94] André de Resende, Genethliacon Principis Lusitani (1532), ap. C. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Notas Vicentinas, I. (1912), p. 17.

[95] Chronica do fel. Rey Dom Emanvel, Pt IV. cap. 84 (1619 ed., f. 341): Trazia continuadamente na sua corte choquarreiros castelhanos, com os motes & ditos dos quaes folgaua, nam porque gostasse tanto do q diziam como o fazia das dissimuladas reprehensões [jocis perstringere mores] q com geitos e palauras trocadas dauam aos moradores de sua casa fazendolhes conhecer as manhas, viços & modos que tinhão, de que se muitos tirauam & emmendauam, tomando o q estes truães diziam com graças por espelho do que aviam de fazer.

[96] Auto da Cananea (1534).

[97] Auto da Lusitania.

[98] Sermão (III. 346).

[99] Carta (III. 388).

[100] Auto da Mofina Mendes (I. 120, 121).

[101] Auto da Cananea (I. 365).

[102] Sumario da Historia de Deos (I. 338).

[103] I. 69. His own knowledge of the Bible was extensive and he often follows it closely, e.g. Auto da Sibila Cassandra (I. 47, 48 = Genesis i.).

[104] III. 337, 338. His quarrel with the monks was that they did not serve the State. Cf. Fragoa de Amor (II. 345); Exhortação da Guerra (II. 367).

[105] Cf. the passage in the Sumario da Historia de Deos in which Abraham complains that men worship stocks and stones and have no knowledge of God, criador dos spiritos, eternal spirito (I. 326).

[106] III. 284. A critic upbraided Wordsworth for saying that his heart danced with the daffodils—no doubt Southey's 'my bosom bounds' was more poetical—yet Shakespeare and Vicente had used the phrase before him.

[107] Carta (III. 388).

[108] Cortes de Jupiter (II. 405).

[109] Romagem de Aggravados (II. 507).

[110] The preparation of his plays for the press was, he says, a burden in his old age. Some of the plays had been acted in more than one year, others had been composed years before they were acted, others had been printed separately. Hence the uncertainty of some of the rubric dates.

[111] Triunfo do Inverno (1529), II. 447.

[112] Romagem de Aggravados (1533), II. 524-5.

[113] Auto Pastoril Portugues (1523), I. 129.

[114] Farsa dos Almocreves (1527), III. 219.

[115] Triunfo do Inverno (1529), II. 487.

[116] Auto da Feira (1528), I. 175.

[117] See the Fragoa de Amor and the Auto da Festa.

[118] III. 289 (1532).

[119] II. 363 (as early as 1513).

[120] II. 467-75.

[121] III. 122.

[122] III. 148 (cf. I. 40, III. 41).

[123] Goes, Chronica do fel. Rey Dom Emanvel, Pt I. cap. 33 (1619 ed., f. 20).

[124] E.g. Novella 35: sotto apparenza onesta di religione ogni vizio di gola, di lussuria e degli altri, como loro appetito desidera, sanza niuno mezzo usano; Novella 36: hanno meno discrezione che gli animali irrazionali.

[125] Auto da Festa, ed. 1906, p. 115.

[126] Vicente, who could write such pure and idiomatic Portuguese, often used peculiar Spanish, not perhaps so much from ignorance as from a wish to make the best of both languages. Thus he uses the personal infinitive and makes words rhyme which he must have known could not possibly rhyme in Spanish, e.g. parezca with cabeza (Portug. pareçacabeça). So mucho rhymes with fruto, demueño with sueño.

[127] The miser, o verdadeiro avaro (III. 287), is barely mentioned. Perhaps Vicente felt that he would have been too much of an abstract type, not a living person.

[128] The boastful Spaniard appears (in Goethe's Italienische Reise) in the Rome Carnival at the end of the eighteenth century.

[129] There are abundant signs of the cosmopolitanism of Lisbon: A Basque and a Castilian tavernkeeper, a Spanish seller of vinegar and a red-faced German friar are mentioned, while Spaniards, Jews, Moors, negroes, a Frenchman, an Italian are among Vicente's dramatis personae.

[130] It is very curious to find echoes of Enzina in Vicente's apparently quite personal prose as well as in his poetry. No ay cosa que no esté dicha, says Enzina, and Vicente repeats the wise quotation and imitates the whole passage. Enzina addressing the Catholic Kings speaks of himself as muy flaca para navegar por el gran mar de vuestras alabanzas. Vicente similarly speaks of 'crowding more sail on his poor boat.' Enzina, in his dedication to Prince Juan, mentions, like Vicente, maliciosos and maldizientes.

[131] In this play the French tais-toi is written tétoi. In an age of few books such phonetic spelling must have been common. It has been suggested that the vair (grey) of early French poetry was mistaken for vert (green). The green eyes of the heroines in Portuguese literature from the Cancioneiro da Vaticana to Almeida Garrett would thus be based not on reality but, like Cinderella's glass slippers, on a confusion of homonyms (see Alfred Jeanroy, Origines de la poésie lyrique en France, p. 329).

[132] See his Arte de Poesía Castellana, ap. Menéndez y Pelayo, Antología, t. 5, p. 32.

[133] Os autos de Gil Vicente resentem-se muito dos Mysterios franceses. This was, in 1890, the opinion of Sousa Viterbo (A Litteratura Hespanhola em Portugal (1915), p. ix), but surely Menéndez y Pelayo's view is more correct.

[134] In Resende's Miscellanea the line nõ hos quer deos jũtos ver (1917 ed., p. 16) reads in the 1752 ed., f. 105 v. ja hos quer.

[135] Cf. Tratado tercero: llevandolo a la boca començó a dar en el tan fieros bocados (1897 ed., p. 50) and Quem tem farelos?: e chanta nelle bocado coma cão (i. 7).

[136] The Canc. Geral has a Pater noster grosado por Luys anrryquez, vol. III. (1913), p. 87.

[137] Antología, t. 7, pp. clxxii, clxxiv.

[138] Antología, t. 2, p. 6.

[139] I. 298. Vuelta vuelta los Franceses from the romance Domingo era de Ramos, la Pasion quieren decir.

[140] Comedia de Rubena, II. 40. The earliest known edition of the Spanish version of Jacopo Caviceo's Il Pellegrino (1508) is dated 1527 but that mentioned in Fernando Colón's catalogue (no. 4147) was no doubt earlier. In 1521 Vicente can already bracket the Spanish translation with the popular Carcel de Amor printed in 1492, and indeed it ran to many editions. Its full title was Historia de los honestos amores de Peregrino y Ginebra. Valdés (Dialogo de la Lengua) ranks El Pelegrino as a translation with Boscán's version of Il Cortegiano: estan mui bien romançados.

[141] E.g. the Nao de Amor of Juan de Dueñas.

[142] The Everyman-Noman theme in the Auto da Lusitania is, like that of Mofina Mendes, common to many countries and old as the hills.

[143] Henry Hallam, Introduction to the Literature of Europe (Paris, 1839), vol. I. p. 206.

[144] Cf. the story del mancebo que casó con una mujer muy fuerte et muy brava in Don Juan Manuel's El Conde Lucanor (c. 1535). Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew was written exactly a century after Ines Pereira; the anonymous Taming of a Shrew in 1594.

[145] The author of a sixteenth century Spanish play published in Biblióf. Esp. t. 6 (1870) declares that, in order to write it, he has 'trastornado todo Amadis y la Demanda del Sancto Grial de pe a pa.' The result, according to the colophon, is 'un deleitoso jardin de hermosas y olientes flores,' a description which would better suit a Vicente-play.

[146] Cf. the twelfth century Représentation d'Adam. The Sumario has 18 figures. The Auto da Feira has 22, but over half of these consist of a group of peasants from the hills.

[147] Obras (1908), t. 2, p. 217-24.

[148] The anonymous Tragicomedia Alegórica del Paraiso y del Inferno (Burgos, 1539) followed hard upon his death. It is not the work of Vicente, who, although in his Spanish he used allen, would not have translated nas partes de alem into an African town: en Allen.

[149] 3a impr. (Madrid, 1733), p. 35; p. 37 (the 1733 text has Oi and Ai); p. 39.

[150] As late as 1870 Dr Theophilo Braga could say 'Nobody now studies Vicente' (Vida de Gil Vicente, p. 59).



COPILACAM DE TODALAS OBRAS DE GIL VICENTE, A QVAL SE reparte em cinco Liuros. O Primeyro he de todas suas cousas de deuaçam. O segundo as Comedias. O terceyro as Tragicomedias. No quarto as Farsas. No quinto, as obras meudas. (;)

[p]Vam emmendadas polo Sancto Officio, como se manda no Cathalogo deste Regno. [p]

[p]Foy impresso em a muy nobre & sempre leal Cidade de Lixboa, por Andres Lobato. Anno de M. D. Lxxxyj

[p]Foy visto polos Deputados da Sancta Inquisiçam

COM PRIVILEGIO REAL.

[p]E la taxado em papel a reis

TITLE-PAGE OF THE SECOND (1586) EDITION OF GIL VICENTE'S WORKS



AUTO DA ALMA

L'Angel di Dio mi prese e quel d' Inferno Gridava: O tu dal Ciel, perchè mi privi? DANTE, Purg. v.

Auto da Alma.

Este auto presente foy feyto aa muyto deuota raynha dona Lianor & representado ao muyto poderoso & nobre Rey dom Emmanuel, seu yrmão, por seu mandado, na cidade de Lisboa nos paços da ribeyra em a noyte de endoenças. Era do Senhor de M.D. & viij[151].

Argvmento.

Assi como foy cousa muyto necessaria auer nos caminhos estalagens pera repouso & refeyçam dos cansados caminhantes, assi foy cousa conveniente que nesta caminhante vida ouuesse hũa estalajadeyra eterna para refeição & descanso das almas que vam caminhantes pera a morada[152] de Deos. Esta estalajadeyra das almas he a madre sancta ygreja, a mesa he o altar, os mãjares as insignias da payxã. E desta perfiguraçã[153] trata a obra seguinte.

[p] Está posta hũa mesa cõ hũa cadeyra: vẽ a madre sancta ygreja cõ seus quatro doctores, Sancto Thomas, Sam Hieronymo, Sancto Ambrosio, Sancto Agostinho, & diz Agostinho.

1 AGOST. Necessario foy, amigos, que nesta triste carreyra desta vida pera os mui perigosos perigos dos immigos ouuesse algũa maneyra de guarida. 2 Porque a humana transitoria natureza vay cansada em varias calmas nesta carreyra da gloria meritoria foi necessario pensada pera as almas. [p] Pousada com mantimentos, mesa posta em clara luz, sempre esperando, com dobrados mantimentos dos tormentos que o filho de Deos na Cruz comprou penando. 4 Sua morte foy auença, dando, por darnos parayso, a sua vida apreçada sem detença, por sentença julgada a paga em prouiso & recebida. [p] Ha sua mortal empresa foy sancta estalajadeyra ygreja madre consolar aa sua despesa nesta mesa qualquer alma caminheyra com ho padre 6 e o anjo custodio ayo. Alma que lhe he encomendada se enfraquece & lhe vay tomando rayo de desmayo se chegando a esta pousada se guarece.

[p] Vẽ o anjo custodio cõ a alma & diz.

7 ANJO. [p] Alma humana formada de nenhũa cousa feyta muy preciosa, de corrupçam separada, & esmaltada naquella fragoa perfeyta gloriosa; [p] planta neste valle posta pera dar celestes flores olorosas & pera serdes tresposta em a alta costa onde se criam primores mais que rosas; 9 planta soes & caminheyra, que ainda que estais vos his donde viestes; vossa patria verdadeyra he ser herdeyra da gloria que conseguis, anday prestes. [p] Alma bemauenturada, dos anjos tanto querida, nam durmais, hum punto nam esteis parada, que a jornada muyto em breue he fenecida se atentais.

11 ALMA. Anjo que soes minha guarda Olhay por minha fraqueza terreal: de toda a parte aja resguarda que nam arda a minha preciosa riqueza principal. [p] Cercayme sempre oo redor porque vin muy temerosa da contenda: Oo precioso defensor, meu favor, vossa espada lumiosa me defenda. [p] Tende sempre mão em mim porque ey medo de empeçar & de cayr.

ANJO. Pera isso sam & a isso vim mas em fim cumpreuos de me ajudar a resistir. 14 Nam vos occupem vaydades, riquezas nem seus debates, olhay por vos: que pompas, honrras, herdades, & vaydades sam embates & combates pera vos. [p] Vosso liure aluidrio, isento, forro, poderoso, vos he dado pollo diuinal poderio & senhorio, que possais fazer glorioso vosso estado. 16 Deuvos liure entendimento & vontade libertada & a memoria, que tenhais em vosso tento fundamento que soes por elle criada pera a gloria. [p] E vendo Deos que o metal, em que vos pos a estilar pera merecer, que era muyto fraco & mortal, & por tal me manda a vos ajudar & defender. 18 Andemos a estrada nossa, olhay nam torneis a tras que o ĩmigo aa vossa vida gloriosa pora grosa. Nam creaes a Satanas, vosso perigo. [p] Continuay ter cuydado na fim de vossa jornada & a memoria que o spirito atalayado do peccado caminha sem temer nada pera a gloria. 20 e nos laços infernaes & nas redes de tristura tenebrosas da carreyra que passaes nam cayaes: sigua vossa fermosura as gloriosas.

[p] Adiantase o Anjo e vem o diabo a ella e diz o diabo.

[p] Tam depressa, oo delicada alua pomba, pera onde his? quem vos engana, & vos leua tam cansada por estrada que soomente nam sentis se soes humana? 22 Nam cureis de vos matar que ainda estais em idade de crecer. Tempo hahi pera folgar & caminhar, Viuey aa vossa vontade & a avey prazer. [p] Gozay, gozay dos bẽs da terra, procuray por senhorios & aueres. Quẽ da vida vos desterra aa triste serra? quem vos falla em desuarios por prazeres? 24 Esta vida he descanso doce & manso, nam cureis doutro parayso: quem vos põe em vosso siso outro remanso?

25 ALMA. [p] Nam me detenhaes aqui, Deyxayme yr, q em al me fundo.

DIABO. Oo descansay neste mundo, que todos fazem assi. 26 Nam sam em balde os aueres, Nam sam em balde os deleytes & farturas*, nam sam de balde os prazeres & comeres, tudo sam puros affeytes das creaturas: 27 pera os homẽs se criarão. Dae folga a vossa possagem doje a mais, descansay, pois descansarão os que passaram por esta mesma romagem que leuais. 28 O que a vontade quiser, quanto o corpo desejar, tudo se faça: zombay de quem vos quiser reprender, querendovos marteyrar tam de graça. 29 Tornarame se a vos fora, his tam triste, atribulada que he tormenta: senhora, vos soes senhora emperadora, nam deueis a ninguem nada, sede isenta.

30 ANJO. Oo anday, quem vos detem? Como vindes pera a gloria devagar! Oo meu Deos, oo summo bem! Ja ninguem nam se preza da vitoria em se saluar. 31 Ja cansais, alma preciosa? Tão asinha desmayaes? Sede esforçada: Oo como virieis trigosa & desejosa, se visseis quanto ganhaes nesta jornada. 32 Caminhemos, caminhemos, esforçay ora, alma sancta esclarecida.

[p] Adiantase o anjo & torna Satanas.

Que vaydades & que estremos tam supremos! Pera que he essa pressa tanta? Tende vida. [p] His muy desautorizada, descalça, pobre, perdida de remate, nam leuais de vosso nada amargurada: assi passais esta vida em disparate. [p] Vesti ora este brial, metey o braço por aqui, ora esperay. Oo como vem tão real! isto tal me parece bem a mi: ora anday. 35 Hũs chapins aueis mister de Valença, muy fermosos[*], eylos aqui: Agora estais vos molher de parecer. Põde os braços presumptuosos, isso si, 36 passeayuos muy pomposa, [p] daqui pera ali & de laa por ca, & fantasiay. Agora estais vos fermosa como a rosa, tudo vos muy bem estaa: descansay.

Torna o anjo a alma dizẽdo.

37 ANJO. [p] Que andais aqui fazendo?

ALMA. Faço o q vejo fazer pollo mundo.

ANJO. Oo Alma, hisuos perdẽdo, correndo vos his meter no profundo. 38 Quanto caminhais auante tanto vos tornais a tras & a trauees, tomastes ante com ante por marcante o cossayro satanas porque querees. [p] Oo caminhay com cuydado que a Virgem gloriosa vos espera: deyxais vosso principado desherdado, engeytais a gloria vossa & patria vera. 40 Deyxay esses chapins ora & esses rabos tam sobejos, que his carregada, nam vos tome a morte agora tam senhora, nem sejais com tais desejos sepultada. 41 ALMA. [p] Anday, day me ca essa mão: anday vos, que eu yrey quanto poder.

Adiãtese o anjo & torna o diabo.

DIABO. Todas as cousas cõ rezão tem çazam. Senhora, eu vos direy meu parecer: 42 hahi tempo de folgar & idade de crecer & outra idade de mandar e triumphar, & apanhar & acquirir prosperidade a que poder. [p] Ainda he cedo pera a morte: tempo ha de arrepender e yr ao ceo. Pondevos a for da corte, desta sorte viua vosso parecer, que tal naceo. 44 O ouro pera que he? & as pedras preciosas & brocados, & as sedas pera que? Tende per fee q pera as almas mais ditosas foram dados*. [p] Vedes aqui hum colar douro muy bem esmaltado & dez aneis. Agora estais vos pera casar & namorar: neste espelho vos vereis & sabereis q nam vos ey de enganar. 46 E poreis estes pendentes, em cada orelha seu, isso si, que as pessoas diligentes sam prudentes: agora vos digo eu que you contente daqui.

47 ALMA. [p] Oo como estou preciosa, tam dina pera seruir & sancta pera adorar!

ANJO. Oo alma despiadosa, perfiosa, quem vos deuesse fugir mais que guardar! 48 Pondes terra sobre terra, que esses ouros terra sam: oo senhor, porque permites tal guerra que desterra ao reyno da confusam o teu lauor? [p] Nam hieis mais despejada & mais liure da primeyra pera andar? Agora estais carregada & embaraçada com cousas que ha derradeyra ham de ficar. 50 Tudo isso se descarrega ao porto da sepultura: alma sancta, quem vos cega, vos carrega dessa vaã desauentura?

51 ALMA. Isto nam me pesa nada mas a fraca natureza me embaraça. Ja nam posso dar passada de cansada: tanta é minha fraqueza & tam sem graça. 52 Senhor hidevos embora, que remedio em mi nam sento, ja estou tal.

ANJO. Sequer day dous passos ora atee onde mora a que tem o mantimento celestial. [p] Ireis ali repousar, comereis algũs bocados confortosos, porque a hospeda he sem par em agasalhar os que vem atribulados & chorosos.

54 ALMA. He lõge?

ANJO. Aqui muy perto. Esforçay, nam desmayeis & andemos, que ali ha todo concerto muy certo: quantas cousas querereis tudo temos*.

[p] A hospeda tem graça tanta, faruosha tantos fauores.

ALMA. Quem he ella?

ANJO. He a madre ygreja sancta, e os seus sanctos doutores i com ella. 56 Ireis di muy despejada chea do Spirito Sancto & muy fermosa: ho alma sede esforçada, outra passada, que nam tendes de andar tãto a ser esposa.

57 DIABO. [p] Esperay, onde vos his? Essa pressa tam sobeja He ja pequice. Como, vos que presumis consentis continuardes a ygreja sem velhice? 58 Dayuos, dayuos a prazer, q muytas horas ha nos annos que laa vem. Na hora que a morte vier Como xiquer se perdoão quantos dannos a alma tem. 59 Olhay por vossa fazenda: tendes hũas scripturas de hũs casais de que perdeis grande renda. He contenda que leyxarão aas escuras vossos pays; 60 he demanda muy ligeyra, litigios que sam vencidos em um riso: citay as partes terça feyra de maneyra como nam fiquem perdidos & auey siso.

61 ALMA. Calte por amor de deos leyxame, nam me persigas, bem abasta estoruares os ereos dos altos ceos, que a vida em tuas brigas se me gasta. 62 Leyxame remediar o que tu cruel danaste sem vergonha, que nam me posso abalar nem chegar ao logar onde gaste esta peçonha.

63 ANJO. [p] Vedes aqui a pousada verdadeyra & muy segura a quem quer vida.

YGREJA. Oo como vindes cansada & carregada!

ALMA. Venho por minha ventura amortecida.

64 YGREJA. Quem sois? pera onde andais?

ALMA. Nam sey pera onde vou, sou saluagem, sou hũa alma que peccou culpas mortaes contra o Deos que me criou aa sua imagem. [p] Sou a triste, sem ventura, criada resplandecente & preciosa, angelica em fermosura & per natura come rayo reluzente lumiosa. 66 E por minha triste sorte & diabolicas maldades violentas estou mais morta que a morte, sem deporte, carregada de vaydades peçonhentas. [p] Sou a triste, sem meezinha, peccadora abstinada perfiosa, pella triste culpa minha mui mesquinha a todo mal inclinada & deleytosa. 68 Desterrey da minha mente os meus perfeytos arreos naturaes, nam me prezey de prudente mas contente me gozey com os trajos feos mundanaes. [p] Cada passo me perdi em lugar de merecer, eu sou culpada: auey piedade de mi que nam me vi, perdi meu inocente ser & sou danada. 70 E por mais graueza sento nam poderme arrepender quanto queria, que meu triste pensamento sendo isento nam me quer obedecer como soya. [p] Socorrey, hospeda senhora, que a mão de Satanas me tocou, e sou ja de mi tam fora que agora nam sey se auante se a traz nem como vou. 72 Consolay minha fraqueza com sagrada yguaria, que pereço, por vossa sancta nobreza, que he franqueza, porque o que eu merecia bem conheço. [p] Conheçome por culpada & digo diante vos minha culpa. Senhora, quero pousada, day passada, pois que padeceo por nos quem nos desculpa. 74 Mandayme ora agasalhar, capa dos desamparados, ygreja madre.

YGREJA. Vindevos aqui assentar muy de vagar, que os manjares são guisados por Deos Padre. [p] Sancto Agostinho doutor, Geronimo, Ambrosio, Sã Thomas, meus pilares, serui aqui por meu amor a qual milhor, & tu, alma, gostaraas meus manjares. 76 Ide aa sancta cosinha, tornemos esta alma em si, porque mereça de chegar onde caminha & se detinha: pois que Deos a trouxe aqui nam pereça.

[p] Em quanto estas cousas passam Satanas passea fazendo muytas vascas & vem outro & diz.

[p] Como andas desasossegado.

DIABO. Arço em fogo de pesar.

OUTRO. Que ouueste?

DIABO. Ando tam desatinado de enganado que nam posso repousar que me preste. 78 Tinha hũa alma enganada ja quasi pera infernal mui acesa.

OUTRO. E quem ta levou forçada?

DIABO. O da espada.

OUTRO. Ja melle fez outra tal bulra como essa. [p] Tinha outra alma ja vencida em ponto de se enforcar de desesperada, a nos toda offerecida & eu prestes pera a levar arrastada; 80 e elle fella chorar tanto que as lagrimas corriã polla terra. Blasfemey entonces tanto que meus gritos retiniam polla serra. [p] Mas faço conta que perdi, outro dia ganharey, e ganharemos.

DIABO. Nam digo eu, yrmão, assi, mas a esta tornarey & veremos. 82 Tornala ey a affogar depois que ella sayr fora da ygreja & começar de caminhar: hei de apalpar se venceram ainda agora esta peleja.

Alma com o Anjo.

[p] ALMA. Vos nam me desampareis, senhor meu anjo custodio. Oo increos imigos, que me quereis que ja sou fora do odio de meu Deos? 84 Leyxaime ja, tentadores, neste conuite prezado do Senhor, guisado aos peccadores com as dores de Christo crucificado, Redemptor.

[p] Estas cousas estando a alma assentada à mesa & o anjo junto com ella em pee, vem os doutores com quatro bacios de cosinha cubertos cantando Vexila regis prodeunt*. E postos na mesa, Sancto Agostinho diz.

85 AGOST. Vos, senhora conuidada, nesta cea soberana celestial aueis mister ser apartada & transportada de toda a cousa mundana terreal. 86 Cerray os olhos corporaes, deytay ferros aos danados apetitos, caminheyros infernaes, pois buscaes os caminhos bem guiados dos contritos.

87 YGREJA. Benzey a mesa, senhor, & pera consolaçam da conuidada, seja a oraçam de dor sobre o tenor da gloriosa payxam consagrada. 88 E vos, alma, rezareis, contemplando as viuas dores da senhora, vos outros respondereis pois que fostes rogadores atee agora.

Oraçã pa Santo Agostinho.

[p] Alto Deos marauilhoso que o mundo visitaste em carne humana, neste valle temeroso & lacrimoso tua gloria nos mostraste soberana; 90 e teu filho delicado, mimoso da diuindade & natureza, per todas partes chagado & muy sangrado polla nossa infirmidade & vil fraqueza. [p] Oo emperador celeste, Deos alto muy poderoso essencial, que pollo homem que fizeste offereceste o teu estado glorioso a ser mortal. [p] E tua filha, madre, esposa, horta nobre, frol dos ceos, Virgem Maria, mansa pomba gloriosa o quam chorosa quando o seu Filho e Deos* padecia. 93 Oo lagrymas preciosas, de virginal coraçam estilladas, correntes das dores vossas com os olhos da perfeyçam derramadas! [p] Quem hũa soo podera ver vira claramente nella aquella dor, aquella pena & padecer com que choraueis, donzella, vosso amor. [p] E quando vos amortecida se lagrymas vos faltauam nam faltaua a vosso filho & vossa vida chorar as que lhe ficauam de quando orava. 96 Porque muyto mais sentia pollos seus padecimentos vervos tal, mais que quanto padecia lhe doya, & dobrava seus tormentos vosso mal. [p] Se se podesse dizer, se se podesse rezar tanta dor; se se podesse fazer podermos ver qual estaueis ao clauar do Redemptor. 98 Oo fermosa face bella, oo resplandor divinal, que sentistes quando a cruz se pos aa vella & posto nella o filho celestial que paristes! 99 Vendo por cima da gente assomar vosso conforto tam chagado, crauado tam cruelmente, & vos presente, vendo vos ser mãy do morto & justiçado. 100 O rainha delicada, sanctidade escurecida quem nam chora em ver morta & debruçada a auogada, a força de nossa vida *[pecadora]!

101 AMBROSIO. Isto chorou Hyeremias sobre o monte de Sion ha ja dias, porque sentio que o Messias era nossa redempçam. 102 E choraua a sem ventura triste de Jerusalem homecida, matando contra natura seu Deos nascido em Belem nesta vida.

103 GERONYMO. Quem vira o sancto cordeyro antre os lobos humildoso escarnecido, julgado pera o marteyro do madeyro, seu rosto aluo & fermoso muy cuspido!

AGOST. Bẽze a mesa.

104 A bençam do padre eternal & do filho que por nos sofreo tal dor & do spirito sancto, igual Deos immortal, conuidada, benza a vos por seu amor.

105 YGREJA. [p] Ora sus, venha agoa as mãos.

AGOST. Vos aveysuos de lavar em lagrymas da culpa vossa & bem lauada & aueisuos de chegar alimpar a hũa toalha fermosa bem laurada 106 co sirgo das veas puras da Virgem sem magoa nacido & apurado, torcido com amarguras aas escuras, com grande dor guarnecido & acabado. [p] Nam que os olhos alimpeis, que a nam consentirão os tristes laços que taes pontos achareis da face & enues, que se rompe o coração em pedaços. 108 Vereis*, triste, laurado [com rosto de fermosura]* natural, com tormentos pespontado e figurado, Deos criador, em figura de mortal.

[p] Esta toalha que aqui se falla he a varonica, a qual Sancto Agostinho tira dantre os bacios & a mostra à Alma, & a madre ygreja con os doutores lhe fazem adoração de joelhos, cantando Salue sancta facies, & acabando diz a madre ygreja.

[p] Venha a primeyra yguaria.

GERO. Esta yguaria primeyra foy, senhora, guisada sem alegria em triste dia, a crueldade cozinheyra & matadora. 110 Gostala eis com salsa & sal de choros de muyta dor, porque os costados do Messias diuinal, sancto sem mal, forão pollo vosso amor açoutados.

[p] Esta yguaria em q aqui se falla sam os açoutes, & em este passo os tirã dos bacios & os presentam a alma & todos de joelhos adoram cantãdo Aue flagellum, & despois diz Geronymo.

[p] Estoutro manjar segundo he yguaria que aueis de mastigar em contemplar a dor que o senhor do mundo padecia pera vos remediar. 112 foi hum tromento improuiso que aos miolos lhe chegou & consentio, por remediar o siso que a vosso siso faltou, e pera ganhardes parayso a sofrio.

[p] Esta yguaria segunda de que aqui se fala he a coroa de espinhos, e em este passo a tiram dos bacios & de joelhos os sanctos doutores cantam Aue corona espinearum, & acabando diz a madre ygreja.

113 Venha outra do teor.

GERO. Estoutro manjar terceyro foy guisado em tres lugares de dor, a qual maior, com a lenha do madeyro mais prezado. 114 Comese com gram tristeza* porque a virgem gloriosa o vio guisar: vio crauar com gram crueza a sua riqueza & sua perla preciosa vio furar.

[p] E a este passo tira sancto Agostinho os crauos, & todos de joelhos os adorão, cantando Dulce lignum, dulcis clauus, & acabada a adoraçam diz o anjo à alma.

[p] Leixay ora esses arreos, que estoutra nam se come assi como cuydais: pera as almas sam mui feos e sam meos con que nam andam em si os mortais.

[p] Despe a alma o vestido & joyas que lho imigo deu & diz Agostinho.

[p] Oo alma bem aconselhada, que dais o seu a cujo he, o da terra ha terra: agora yreis despejada polla estrada, porque vencestes com fee forte guerra.

117 YGREJA. [p] Venha estoutra yguaria.

GERO. A quarta yguaria he tal, tam esmerada, de tam infinda valia & contia que na mente diuinal foy guisada, 118 por mysterio preparada no sacrario virginal muy cuberta, da diuindade cercada & consagrada, despois ao padre eternal dada em oferta.

[p] Apresenta sam Geronymo à alma hum crucificio que tira dantre os pratos, & os doutores o adoram cantando Domine Jesu Christe, & acabando diz a alma.

[p] Cõ que forças, com q spirito te darey, triste, louuores que sou nada, vendote, Deos infinito, tam afflito, padecendo tu as dores & eu culpada? 120 Como estaas tam quebrantado, filho de Deos immortal! quem te matou? Senhor per cujo mandado es justiçado sendo Deos vniuersal que nos criou?

121 AGOST. [p] A fruyta deste jantar, que neste altar vos foy dado com amor, yremos todos buscar ao pomar adonde estaa sepultado o redemptor.

[p] E todos com a alma, cantando Te Deum laudamus, foram adorar ho muymento.

LAVS DEO.

NOTES:

1. pera mui p'rigosos p'rigos C. imigos C.

2. pensada A, B; pousada C. passada? cf. infra 73 and J. Ruiz Cantar de Ciegos. De los bienes deste siglo No tiuemos nos pasada.

3. Pousada com alimentos?

4. apressada C.

6. em chegando?

13. a resistir A, B, C; e resistir D.

18. atras B. imigo B.

20. trestura B. vem o Diabo e diz C.

22. E havei prazer C.

23. & auereis? B. cue da vida vos desterra B.

26. nam som em balde os deleytes B. fortunas A, B, C, D, E. criaturas C.

27. possagem A, B; passagem C.

35. Huns chapins aueis mister De Valença, eylos aqui A, B, C, D, E.

36. de la pera ca C.

38. marcante A, B; mercante C, D. querês C, D.

41. poder A; puder B, C. Todas cousas com razão Tem sazão C.

42. poder A, B; puder C.

43. naceo A, B; nasceo C (cf. infra 102 nascido A; 106 nacido A).

44. dadas A, B; dados C.

45. esmaltados B. neste espelho & sabereis B. Neste espelho bem lavrado Vos vereis? (omitting & sabereis—enganar).

46. em cada orelha o seu B.

47. despiedosa C.

49. á derradeira C.

50. van C.

52. mim C.

54. muito certo? tudo tendes A, B, C, D, E.

56. Siprito B.

58. como se quer C.

59. escripturas C.

61. estrouares B. hereos C.

62. damnaste C.

65. como o raio C.

66. violentas A. & tromentas B.

67. mezinha B. obstinada C. a todo o mal C; e todo o mal D.

68. arreos, feos C; c'os trajos C.

69. logar C. damnada C.

71. soccorey C.

74. devagar C.

75. Jeronimo, Ambrosio e Thomaz C, D. e qual D. melhor C, D.

76. troxe B. passeia C. vem outro Diabo C.

77. dessocegado C, D.

79. Tinha outra alma vencida B.

80. fê-la C, D.

81. asi B.

82. affogar A; affagar C. Entra a Alma, con o Anjo C, D.

84. Vexilla C. pro Deum A, B; prodeunt C.

88. até 'gora C, D.

90. pela nossa C, D.

91. polo homem C, E. B omits 90 and 91.

92. O quão chorosa Quando o seu Deos padecia A, B, C, D, E.

93. com os A, B; c'os olhos C, D.

94. podera ver A, B; podera haver C, D.

96. vermos B.

97. cravar C.

100. morta debruçada C. de nossa vida A, B; da nossa vida C, D. pecadora? or e senhora? or nesta hora?

101. Mesias B.

102. choraua sem B.

103. cospido B.

105. Vso aveysuos B.

105. a limpar A [but cf. 107. alimpeis (A)]; alimpar B; A alimpar C.

107. de face C.

108. Vereis seu triste laurado Natural A, B, C, D, E. Esta toalha de que C. Veronica C. a mostra A; amostra B, C. santa facias B.

110. em q se falla B. açotes B.

112. tormento C. fala A; falla B. espiniarum C. acabado B.

113. theor C.

114. gran C. tristura A, B, C, D, E.

114. clausos B. acabada a oração C.

115. inimigo C.

116. o seu a cujo he A, B; o seu cujo he C, D.

118. oferta A; offerta B crucifixo B, C.

119. spirito A, B; sprito C. tristes louvores C, D, E. dios B.

121. fruta B. a onde C. redemtor B. moymento B; moimento C.

FOOTNOTES:

[151] MDXVIII. A. Braamcamp Freire.

[152] pera eterna morada B.

[153] prefiguraçã B.

ENGLISH TRANSLATION:

The Soul's Journey.

This play was written for the very devout Queen Lianor and played before the very powerful and noble King Manuel, her brother, by his command, in the city of Lisbon at the Ribeira palace on the night of Good Friday in the year 1508.

Argument.

As it was very necessary that there should be inns upon the roads for the repose and refreshment of weary wayfarers, so it was fitting that in this transitory life there should be an innkeeper for the refreshment and rest of the souls that go journeying to the everlasting abode of God. This innkeeper of souls is the Holy Mother Church, the table is the altar, the fare the emblems of the Passion. And this allegory is the theme of the following play.

(A table laid, with a chair. The Holy Mother Church comes with her four doctors, St Thomas, St Jerome, St Ambrose and St Augustine, who says:)

1 St Aug. Friends, 'twas of necessity That upon the gloomy way Of this our life Some sure refuge there should be From the enemy And dread dangers that alway Therein are rife. 2 Since man's spirit migratory In the journey to its goal Is oft oppressed, Weary in this transitory Path to glory, An inn was needed for the soul To stay and rest. 3 An inn provided with its fare, In clear light a table spread Expectantly, And laden with a double share Of torments rare That the Son of God, His life-blood shed, Bought on the Tree. 4 Since by the covenant of His death He gave, to give us Paradise, Even His life, Unwavering He rendereth For us His breath, Paying the full required price Free from all strife. 5 His work as man was to enable Our Mother Church thus to console, Innkeeper lowly, And minister at this very table, Most serviceable, Unto every wayfaring soul, With the Father Holy 6 And its Guardian Angel's care. The soul to her protection given If, weak with sin And yielding almost to despair, It onward fare And to reach this inn have striven, Finds health within.

(The Guardian Angel comes with the Soul and says:)

7 Angel. Human soul, by God created Out of nothingness yet wrought As of great price, From corruption separated, Sublimated, To glorious perfection brought By skilled device; 8 Plant that in this valley growest Flowers celestial for to give Of fairest scent, Hence to that high hill thou goest Where thou knowest Even than roses graces thrive More excellent. 9 Plant wayfaring, since thy spirit, Scarce staying, to its first origin Must still begone, Thy true country is to inherit By thy merit That glory that thou mayest win: O hasten on. 10 Soul that art thus trebly blest By such angels' love attended, Sink not asleep, Nor one instant pause nor rest, Thou journeyest On a way that soon is ended If watch thou keep.

11 Soul. Guardian angel, o'er me still Keep thy ward that am so frail And of the earth, On all sides thy watch fulfil That nothing kill My true wealth nor e'er prevail O'er its high worth. 12 Ever encompass me and shield, For this conflict with great fear Fills all my sense, Noble protector in this field, Lest I should yield, Let thy gleaming sword be near For my defence. 13 Still uphold me and sustain For I fear lest I may stumble, Fail and fall.

Angel. Therefore came I, nor in vain, Yet amain Must thou help me too, and humble Resist all: 14 Even all the world's debate Of riches and of vanity, Seek thou for grace, Since pomp and honour, high estate Vainly elate, Are but a stumbling-block to thee, No resting-place. 15 Power uncontrolled is thine, And an independent will Unbound by fate: Even so in His might divine Did God design That thou in glory mightst fulfil Thy heavenly state. 16 He gave thee understanding pure, Imparted to thee memory, Free will is thine, That so thou mayest e'er endure With purpose sure, Knowing that He has fashioned thee To be divine. 17 And since God knew the mortal frame Wherein He placed thee to distil, (So to win His praise) Was metal weak and prone to shame, Therefore I came Thee to protect—it was His will— And to upraise. 18 Let us go forth upon our way. Turn not thou back, for then indeed The enemy Upon thy glorious life straightway Will make assay. But unto Satan pay no heed Who lurks for thee. 19 And still the goal seek thou to win Carefully at thy journey's end. And be it clear That the spirit e'er at watch within Against all sin Upon salvation's path may wend Without a fear. 20 In snares of Hell that shall waylay, Dark and awful wiles among, Thee to molest, As thou advancest on thy way Fall not nor stray, But let thy beauty join the throng Of spirits blest.

(The Angel goes forward and the Devil comes to the Soul and says:)

21 Devil. Whither so swift thy flight, Delicate dove most white? Who thus deceives thee? And weary still doth goad Along this road, Yea and of human sense, Even, bereaves thee? 22 Seek not to hasten hence Since thou hast life and youth For further growth. There is a time for haste, A time for leisure: Live at thy will and rest, Taking thy pleasure. 23 Enjoy, enjoy the goods of Earth, And great estates seek to possess And worldly treasures. Who to the hills, exiled from mirth, Thus sends thee forth? Who speaks to thee of foolishness Instead of pleasures? 24 This life is all a pleasaunce fair, Soft, debonair, Look for no other paradise: Who bids thee seek, with false advice, Refuge elsewhere?

25 Soul. Hinder me not here nor stay, For far other thoughts are mine.

Devil. To worldly ease thy thought incline Since all men incline this way. 26 And not for nothing are delights, And not in vain possessions sent And fortune's prize, And not for nought are pleasure's rites And banquet-nights: All these are for man's ornament And galliardize; 27 For mortal men is their array. So let delight thy woes assuage, Henceforth recline And rest, since rest likewise had they Who went this way, Even this very pilgrimage That now is thine. 28 And whatsoe'er thy body crave, Even as thy will desire, So let it be; And laugh thou at the censors grave, Whoso would have Thee torturèd by sufferings dire So uselessly. 29 I would not, being thou, go forth, So sad and troubled lies the way, 'Tis cruelty, And thou art of imperial worth And royal birth, To none thou needest homage pay, Then be thou free.

30 Angel. O who thus hinders thee? On, on! How loiterest thou on glory's path So slowly! O God, sole consolation! Now is there none Who of that victory honour hath That is most holy. 31 Soul, already dost thou tire Sinking so soon beneath thy burden? Nay, soul, take heart! Ah, with what a glowing fire Of desire Cam'st thou couldst thou see what guerdon Were then thy part. 32 Forward, forward let us go: Be of good cheer, O soul made holy By this thy strife.

(The Angel goes forward and Satan returns.)

Devil. But what is all this coil and woe? Why to and fro Flutterest thou in haste and folly? Nay, live thy life. 33 For very piteous is thy plight, Poor, barefoot, ruined utterly, In bitterness, Carrying nothing to delight As thine by right, And all thy life is thus to thee A thing senseless. 34 But don this dress, thy arm goes there, Put it through now, even thus, now stay Awhile. What grace, What finery! I do declare It pleases me. Now walk away A little space. 35 So: I trow shoes are now thy need With a pair from Valencia, fair to see, I thee endow. Now beautiful, as I decreed, Art thou indeed; Now fold thy arms presumptuously: Ev'n so; and now 36 Strut airily, show off thy power, This way and that and up and down Just as thou please; Fair now as fairest rose in flower Thy beauty's dower, And all becomes thee as thine own: Now take thine ease.

(The Angel returns to the Soul, saying:)

37 Angel. What is this that thou art doing?

Soul. In the world's mirror ev'n as I see I do in this.

Angel. O soul, thou compassest thy ruin And rushest forward foolishly To the abyss. 38 For every step that onward fares One step back, one step aside Thou takest still, And buyest eagerly the wares That pirate bears, Even Satan, by thee glorified Of thy free will. 39 O journey onward still with care For the Virgin with the elect Doth thee await: Thou leavest desolate and bare Thy kingdom rare, And thine own glory dost reject And true estate. 40 But cast these slippers now aside, This gaudy dress and its long train, Thou art all bowed, Lest Death come on thee unespied And in thy pride These thy desires and trappings vain Prove but thy shroud.

41 Soul. Go forward, stretch thy hand to save, Go forward, I will follow thee As best I may.

(The Angel goes forward and the Devil returns.)

Devil. All things in light of reason grave Their seasons have. And I to thee will, O lady, My counsel say: 42 There is a time here for delight And an age is given for growth, Another age To tread in lordly triumph's might In the world's despite, Gaining ease and riches both On life's full stage. 43 It is too early yet to die, Time later to repent on earth And to seek Heaven. Then cease with fashion's rule to vie, And quietly Enjoy the nature that at birth To thee was given. 44 What, think'st thou, is the use for gold And what the use for precious stones And for brocade, And all these silks so manifold? Ah surely hold That for the souls, the blessed ones, They were all made. 45 See here a necklace in its pride Of skilfully enamelled gold, Here are rings ten: Now mayst thou win the hearts of men, Fit for a bride. In this mirror thou mayst behold Thyself and see That I am not deceiving thee. 46 And here are ear-rings, put them on One in each ear duly now: Even so; For things thus diligently done Prove wisdom won, And now I may to thee avow That right well pleased I hence shall go.

47 Soul. O how lovely is my state, How is it for service meet, And for holy adoration!

Angel. Cruel soul and obstinate, Rather thereat Should I shun thee than still treat Of thy salvation. 48 Earth upon earth is this thy store, Since but earth is all this gold. O God most high, Wherefore permittest thou such war That, as of yore, To Babel's kingdom from thy fold Thy creatures hie? 49 Was it not easier journeying At first, more free than that thou hast With all this train, Hampered and bowed with many a thing That now doth cling About thee, but which at the last Must here remain? 50 All is disgorged and left behind At the entrance to the tomb. Who, holy soul, doth thee thus blind Thyself to bind With such vain misfortune's doom?

51 Soul. Nay, this doth scarcely on me weigh: It is my poor weak mortal nature That bows me down. So weary am I, I must stay Nor go my way, So void of grace, so frail a creature Am I now grown. 52 Sir, go thy way: I cannot strive Nor hope now further to advance, So fallen I.

Angel. But two steps more to where doth live She who will give To thee celestial sustenance Charitably. 53 Thither shalt thou go and rest, And shalt taste there of that fare New strength to borrow: Unrivalled is that hostess blest To give of the best To those who weeping come to her, Laden with sorrow.

54 Soul. Is it far off?

Angel. Nay, very near. Be not downcast, but now be brave, And let us go, For every remedy and cheer Is certain here. And whatsoever thou wouldst have We can bestow. 55 Such grace is hers that nought can smirch, Such favours will she show to thee, That innkeeper.

Soul. Her name?

Angel. The Holy Mother Church. And holy doctors thou shalt see Are there with her.

56 Joyful thence shall thy going be, Filled then with the Holy Spirit And beautified: O soul, take heart, courageously One step for thee, Nay, scarce one step, and thou shalt merit To be a bride.

57 Devil. Stay, whither art thou going now? Such haste is mere unseemly rage And foolishness: What, thou so puffed with pride, canst thou Thus meekly bow To go on churchward e'er old age Doth on thee press? 58 Let pleasure, pleasure rule thy ways, For many hours in years to roll To thee are given, And when death comes to end thy days, If prayer thou raise, Then all sins that can vex a soul Shall be forgiven. 59 Look to thy wealth and property: There is a group of houses should Be thine by right, Great source of income would they be, Unhappily At thy parents' death the matter stood In no clear light. 60 The case is simple, 'tis averred Such lawsuits in a trice are won At laughter's spell: Next Tuesday let the case be heard And, in a word, Finish thou well what is begun. Be sensible.

61 Soul. O silence, for the love of God, Persecute me no more: thy hate Doth it not suffice High Heaven's heirs that it hinder should From their abode? My life to thee early and late I sacrifice. 62 But leave me: so I may efface The cruel wrong that shamelessly Thou hast thus wrought; For now I have scarce breathing-space To reach that place Where for this poison there may be Some antidote.

63 Angel. See the inn: a sure retreat, Even for all those a true home Who would have life.

Church. O laden with sore toil and heat! O tired feet!

Soul. Yea, for I destined was to come Weary of strife.

64 Church. Who art thou? whither wouldst thou win?

Soul. I know not whither, outcast, fated At fortune's whim, A soul unholy, steepèd in Its mortal sin, Against the God who had created Me like to Him. 65 I am that soul ill-starred, unblest, That by nature shone in gleaming Robe of white, Of angel's beauty once possessed, Yea, loveliest, Like a ray refulgent streaming Filled with light. 66 And by my ill-omened fate, My atrocious devilries, Sins treasonous, More dead than death is now my state Bowed with this weight That nought can lighten, vanities Most poisonous. 67 I am a sinner obstinate, Perverse, that know no remedy For this my plight, Oppressed by guilt most obdurate, And profligate, Inclined to evil constantly And all delight. 68 And I banished from my lore All my perfect ornaments And natural graces, By prudence I set no store But evermore Rejoiced in all these vile vestments And worldly places. 69 At each step taken in earthly cares I further sank away from praise, Earning but blame: Have mercy upon one who fares Lost unawares: For, innocence lost, I might not raise Myself from shame. 70 And, for my greater evil, I Can no more repent me fully, Since in new mood My thoughts are mutinous and cry For liberty, Unwilling to obey me duly As once they would. 71 O help me, lady innkeeper, For Satan even now his hand Doth on me lay, And so grievously I err In my despair That I know not if I go or stand Or backward stray. 72 Succour thou my helplessness And strengthen me with holy fare, For I perish, Of thy noble saintliness Liberal to bless, For knowing my deserts I dare No hope to cherish. 73 I acknowledge all my sin And before thee meekly thus Forgiveness crave. O Lady, let me now but win Into thine inn, Since One suffered even for us, That He might save. 74 Bid me welcome, Mother holy, Shield of all who are forsaken Utterly.

Church. Enter to thy seat there lowly, Yet come slowly, For the viands thou seest were baken By God most high. 75 Lo ye my pillars, doctor, saint, Ambrose, Thomas and Jerome And Augustine, In my service wax not faint, Nor show constraint, And to thee, soul, shall be welcome This fare of mine. 76 To the holy kitchen go: Let us this frail soul restore, That she find grace To reach her journey's end and know Her path, that so By God brought hither she no more Fail in life's race.

(Meanwhile Satan goes to and fro, cutting many capers, and another devil comes and says:)

77 2nd D. You're like a lion in a cage.

1st D. I'm all afire, with anger blind.

2nd D. Why, what's the matter?

1st D. To be so taken in, my rage Can nought assuage Nor any rest be to my mind; For, as I flatter 78 Myself, I had by honeyed word Deceived a certain soul, all quick For fires of Hell.

2nd D. Who made you throw it overboard?

1st D. He of the sword.

2nd D. He played just such another trick On me as well. 79 For I had overcome a soul, Ready to hang itself, unsteady In its despair; Yes, it was given to us whole And I myself was making ready To drag't down there. 80 And lo he made it weep and weep So that the tears ran down along The very ground: You might have heard my curses deep And cries of rage echo among The hills around. 81 But I have hopes that what I've lost Some other day I shall regain, So will we all.

1st D. I, brother, cannot share your trust, But I will tempt this soul again Whate'er befall. 82 With new promises will I woo her When from the Church she shall have come Forth to the street Upon her journey: I will to her, And beshrew her If I turn not all their triumph To defeat.

(The Soul enters with the Angel.)

83 Soul. O let not thy protection fail me, Guardian angel, help thy child. O foes most base, Infidels, why would you assail me Who to my God am reconciled And in His grace? 84 Leave me, O ye tempters, leave Unto this most precious feast Of Him who died, Served to sinners for reprieve Of those who grieve For their Redeemer Lord, the Christ And crucified.

(While the Soul is seated at the table and the Angel standing by her side, the Doctors come with four covered kitchen dishes, singing Vexilla regis prodeunt, and after placing them on the table, St Augustine says:)

85 St Aug. Lady, thou that to this feast, Supper of celestial fare Nobly divine, Comest as a bidden guest, Must now divest Thyself of worldly thought and care That once were thine. 86 Thou thy body's eyes must close And in fetters sure be tied Fierce appetite, Treacherous guides, infernal foes: Thy ways are those That are a safe support and guide For the contrite.

87 Church. Sir, by thee be the table blest: In thy benedictory prayer, To bring relief And new strength to this our guest, Be there expressed The Passion's glory in despair And all its grief. 88 Thou, O soul, with orisons, The Virgin's sorrows contemplating Abide even there, And ye others make response Since for this have you been waiting Wrapped in prayer.

(St Augustine's prayer:)

89 God whose might on high appears, Who camest to this world In human guise, In this vale of many fears And sullen tears Thy great glory hast unfurled Before our eyes; 90 And thy Son most delicate By His natural majesty Of divine birth, Ah, in blood and wounds prostrate Is now his state For our vile infirmity And little worth. 91 O Thou ruler of the sky, High God of power divine, Enduring might, Who for thy creature, man, to die Didst not deny Thy Godhead, and madest Thine Our mortal plight. 92 And thy daughter, mother, bride, Noble flower of the skies, The Virgin blest, Gentle Dove, when her Son died, God crucified, Ah what tears shed by those eyes Her grief attest. 93 O most precious tears that well From that virgin heart distilled One by one, Flowing at thy sorrow's spell They those perfect eyes have filled And still flow on. 94 Who but one of them might have In it most manifestly That grief to prove, Even that woe and suffering grave Which then overwhelmèd thee For thy dear love. 95 Fainting then with grief if failed Thy tears, yet Him they might not fail, Thy Life, thy Son, Who unto the Cross was nailed, Even fresh tears that could avail, In prayer begun. 96 For far greater woe was His When He saw thee faint and languish In thy distress, More than His own agonies, And doubled is All His torture at thy anguish Measureless. 97 For no words have ever told No prayer or litany wailed Such grief and loss: Our weak thought may not enfold Nor thee behold As thou wert when He was nailed Upon the Cross. 98 For to thee, O lovely face, Wherein Heaven's beauty shone, What woe was given When the Cross on high they place And thereupon Nailèd the Son of Heaven, Even thy Son! 99 Over the crowd's heads on high He who was ever thy delight Came to thy sight, To the Cross nailèd cruelly, Thou standing by, Thou the mother of Him who died There crucified! 100 O frail Queen of Holiness, Who would not thus weep to see Thee fainting fall And lie there all motionless, Thou patroness Who dost still uphold and free The life of all!

101 St Ambrose. Thus of yore did Jeremiah On Mount Sion make lament In days long spent, For he knew that the Messiah Was for our salvation sent. 102 And he mourned the misery Of ill-starred Jerusalem, The murderess, Who should kill unnaturally Her God born in Bethlehem Our life to bless.

103 St Jerome. O the Holy Lamb to see Humble amid the wolves' despite, With mockery fraught, Condemned to suffer cruelly Upon the Tree, And that face, so fair and white, Thus set at nought!

St Augustine. (He blesses the table.)

104 The Eternal Father's blessing rest, And of the Son, who suffered thus Even for us, And of the Spirit holiest, On thee our guest: Spirit immortal, Father, Son, The Three in One.

105 Church. Come now, bring water for the hands.

St Aug. But thou must wash in tear on tear Shed for thy past sins' misery, Most thoroughly, And then to this fair towel here Thou mayst draw near, A towel that is kept for thee Worked cunningly 106 With finest silk in painlessness From out the Holy Virgin's veins That issuèd, Silk that was spun in bitterness And dark distress, And woven with increasing pains And finishèd. 107 Yet never shall thine eyes be dried: This pattern sad will ever make Thy tears downflow, Such stitches here on either side Doth it provide That one's very heart must break To see such woe. 108 Presented here thou mayest see With lovely face most natural —And seeing weep— Embroiderèd with agony, O mystery! God fashioned, who created all, In human shape.

(The towel here described is the veronica, which St Augustine takes from among the dishes and shows to the Soul, and the Mother Church and the Doctors adore it on their knees, singing Salve sancta Facies, and the Mother Church then says:)

109 Church. Let the first viand be brought.

St Jerome. It was preparèd joylessly On a sad day, With no pleasure was it fraught, With suffering bought, And its cook was Cruelty, Eager to slay. 110 With seasoning of tears and shame Must this course by thee be eaten, Sorrowfully, Since the Messiah's holy frame, Pure, free from blame, Cruelly was scourged and beaten For love of thee.

(The viand so described consists of the scourge which at this stage is taken from the dishes and presented to the Soul and all kneel and adore, singing Ave flagellum; and Jerome then says:)

111 St Jerome. This second viand of noble worth, This delicacy, Must be slowly eaten by thee In contemplation Of what the Lord of all the earth In agony Sufferèd for thy salvation. 112 This new torture suddenly He allowed to reach His brain, That so thy wit And sense might be restored to thee, That perished from thee utterly, Yea that thou Paradise mightst gain Endured He it.

(This second viand so described is the crown of thorns, and at this stage they take it from the plates, and kneeling the holy Doctors sing Ave corona spinarum and afterwards the Mother Church says:)

113 Church. Another bring in the same strain.

St Jerome. This third viand that is brought to thee Was prepared thrice In places three, in each with gain Of subtler pain, With the wood of the Holy Tree, Wood of great price. 114 It must be eaten sorrowfully, Since the Virgin glorious Saw it garnished, Her treasure nailèd cruelly Then did she see, And her pearl most precious Pierced and tarnished.

(At this station St Augustine brings the nails and all kneel and adore them, singing Dulce lignum, dulcis clavus, and when the adoration is ended the Angel says to the Soul:)

115 Angel. These trappings must thou lay aside, This new fare cannot, thou must know, Be eaten thus: By them are men's souls vilified And in their pride Puffed up with overweening show Presumptuous.

(The Soul casts off the dress and jewels that the enemy gave her.)

116 St Augustine. O soul, well counselled! well bestowed To each what is of each by right, And earth to earth: Now shalt thou speed along thy road, Free of this load, Faring by faith from this stern fight Victorious forth.

117 Church. To the last course I thee invite.

St Jerome. This fourth viand is of a kind So seasonèd, It is of value infinite, Most exquisite, Prepared by the Divine mind And perfected: 118 Entrusted first in mystery To a holy virgin came from Heaven This secret thing, Encompassed by divinity And sanctity, Then to the Eternal Father given As offering.

(St Jerome presents to the Soul a Crucifix, which he takes from among the dishes, and the Doctors adore it, singing Domine Jesu Christe, and afterwards the Soul says:)

119 Soul. With what heart and mind contrite May I praise Thee sadly now Who am nought, Seeing Thee, God infinite, To such plight Of suffering and sorrow bow, By my sin brought! 120 Lord, how art Thou crushed and broken, Thou, the Son of God, to die! And Thy death By whom ordered, by what token The word spoken Thee to judge and crucify, Who gav'st us breath?

121 St Aug. For the fruit to end this feast, On the altar given thee thus Lovingly, To the orchard go we all in quest, Where lies at rest The Redeemer, He who died for us And set us free.

(And all with the Soul, singing Te deum laudamus, went to adore the tomb.)

LAVS DEO.



EXHORTAÇÃO DA GUERRA

Exhortação da Guerra[154].

Interlocutores: [p] Nigromante, ZEBRON, DANOR, Diabos, POLICENA, PANTASILEA, ARCHILES, ANIBAL, EYTOR, CEPIAM.

A Tragicomedia seguinte seu nome he Exortação da guerra. Foi representada ao muyto alto & nobre Rey dom Manoel o primeyro em Portugal deste nome na sua cidade de Lixboa na partida pera Azamor do illustre & muy magnifico senhor dõ Gemes Duque de Bargança & de Guimarães, &c. Era de M.D.xiiij annos.

[p] Entra primeyramente hum clerigo nigromante & diz:

CL. Famosos & esclarecidos principes mui preciosos, na terra vitoriosos & no ceo muyto queridos, 5 sou clerigo natural de Portugal, venho da coua Sebila onde se esmera & estila a sotileza infernal. 10 E venho muy copioso magico & nigromante, feyticeyro muy galante, astrologo bem auondoso. Tantas artes diabris 15 saber quis que o mais forte diabo darey preso polo rabo ao iffante Dom Luis. Sey modos dencantamentos 20 quaes nunca soube ninguem, artes para querer bem, remedios a pensamentos. Farey de hum coraçam duro mais que muro 25 como brando leytoayro, e farei polo contrayro que seja sempre seguro. Sou muy grande encantador, faço grandes marauilhas, 30 as diabolicas sillas sam todas em meu favor: farey cousas impossiveis muy terribeis, milagres muy euidentes 35 que he pera pasmar as gentes, visiueis & invisiueis. Farey que hũa dama esquiua por mais çafara que seja quando o galante a veja 40 que ella folgue de ser viua; farey a dous namorados mui penados questem cada hum per si, & cousas farey aqui 45 que estareis marauilhados. Farey por meo vintem que hũa dama muito fea que de noyte sem candea nam pareça mal nem bem; 50 e outra fermosa & bella como estrella farey por sino forçado que qualquer homem hõrrado nam lhe pesasse um ella. 55 Faruos ey mais pera verdes, por esconjuro perfeyto, que caseis todos a eyto o milhor que vos poderdes; e farey da noite dia 60 per pura nigromanciia se o sol alumear, & farey yr polo ar toda a van fantesia. Faruos ey todos dormir 65 em quanto o sono vos durar & faruos ey acordar sem a terra vos sentir; e farey hum namorado bem penado 70 se amar bem de verdade que lhe dure essa vontade atee ter outro cuydado. Faruos ey que desejeis cousas que estão por fazer, 75 e faruos ey receber na hora que vos desposeis, e farey que esta cidade estee pedra sobre pedra, e farey que quem nam medra 80 nunca tẽ prosperidade. Farey per magicas rasas chuuas tam desatinadas que estem as telhas deytadas pelos telhados das casas; 85 e farey a torre da See, assi grande como he, per graça da sua clima que tenha o alicesse ao pee & as ameas em cima. 90 Nam me quero mais gabar. Nome de San Cebriam esconjurote Satam. Senhores não espantar! Zeet zeberet zerregud zebet 95 oo filui soter rehe zezegot relinzet oo filui soter oo chaues das profundezas abri os porros da terra! 100 Princepe[*] da eterna treua pareçam tuas grandezas! conjurote Satanas, onde estaas, polo bafo dos dragões, 105 pola ira dos liões, polo valle de Jurafas. Polo fumo peçonhento que sae da tua cadeyra e pola ardente fugueyra, 110 polo lago do tormento esconjurote Satam, de coraçam, zezegot seluece soter, conjurote, Lucifer, 115 que ouças minha oraçam. Polas neuoas ardentes que estam nas tuas moradas, pollas poças pouoadas de bibaras & serpentes, 120 e pello amargo tormento muy sem tento que daas aos encacerados, pollos grytos dos danados que nunca cessam momento: 125 conjurote, Berzebu, pola ceguidade Hebrayca e polla malicia Judayca, com a qual te alegras tu, rezeegut Linteser 130 zamzorep tisal siroofee nafezeri.

Vêm os diabos Zebron & Danor & diz Zebron:

Z. Que has tu, escomungado?

C. Oo yrmãos, venhaes embora!

D. Que nos queres tu agora?

135 C. Que me façaes hum mandado.

Z. Polo altar de Satam, dom vilam.

D. Tomoo por essas gadelhas & cortemoslhe as orelhas, 140 que este clerigo he ladram.

C. Manos, nam me façaes mal, Compadres, primos, amigos!

Z. Não te temos em dous figos.

C. Como vay a Belial? 145 sua corte estaa em paz?

D. Dalhe aramaa hum bofete, crismemos este rapaz & chamemoslhe Zopete.

C. Ora fallemos de siso: 150 estais todos de saude?

Z. Fideputa, meo almude, que tẽs tu de ver com isso?

C. Minhas potencias relaxo & me abaxo, 155 falayme doutra maneyra.

D. Sois bispo vos da Landeyra ou vigayro no Cartaxo?

Z. He Cura do Lumear, sochantre da Mealhada, 160 acipreste de canada, bebe sem desfolegar.

D. É capelão terrantees, bom Ingres, patriarca em Ribatejo 165 beberaa sobre hum cangrejo as guelas dũ Frances.

Z. Danor, dime, he Cardeal Darruda ou de Caparica?

D. Nenhũa cousa lhe fica 170 senam sempre o vaso tal, tem um grande Arcebispado muito honrrado junto da pedra da estrema onda põe a diadema 175 & a mitra o tal prelado. Ladram, sabes o Seyxal & Almada & pereli? Oo fideputa alfaqui albardeyro do Tojal.

180 C. Diabos, quereis fazer o que eu quiser por bem ou de outra feyçam?

D. Oo fideputa ladram auemoste dobedecer.

185 C. Ora eu vos mando & remando pollas virtudes dos ceos polla potencia de Deos, em cujo seruiço ando, conjurouos da sua parte 190 sem mais arte que façais o que eu mandar polla terra & pollo ar, aqui & em toda a parte.

Z. Como te vai com as terças? 195 É viuo aquelle alifante que foy a Roma tão galante?

D. Amargamte a ti estas verças?

C. Esconjurote, Danor, por amor de sam Paulo 200 e de sam Polo.

Z. Tu não tens nenhum miolo.

C. Eu vos farey vir a dor. Por esta madre de Deos de tão alta dinidade, 205 & polla sua humildade, com que abrio os altos ceos, polas veas virginaes emperiaes de que Christo foi humanado.

210 Z. Que queres, escomungado? Mandanos, nam digas mais.

C. Minha merce mãda & ordena que tragais logo essas horas diante destas senhoras 215 a Troyana Policena muyto bem atauiada & concertada, assi linda como era.

D. Quanta pancada te dera 220 se pudera, mas tẽsma força quebrada.

C. Venha por mar ou por terra logo muyto sem referta.

Z. E a terça da offerta 225 tambem pagas pera a guerra?

C. Trazei logo a Policena muy sem pena com sua festa diante.

Z. Inda yraa outro alifante: 230 pagaraas quarto & vintena.

Vem Policena & diz:

P. Eu que venho aqui fazer? Oo que gran pena me destes pois por força me trouxestes a um nouo padecer: 235 que quem viue sem ventura, em gram tristura ver prazeres lhee mais morte. Oo belenissima corte, senhora da fermosura! 240 Nam foy o paço Troyano dino de vosso primor: vejo hum Priamo mayor hum Cesar muy soberano, outra Ecuba mais alta, 245 mui sem falta, em poderosa, doce, humana, a quem por Febo & Diana cada vez Deos mais esmalta. E vos, Principe excelente, 250 dayme aluisaras liberais, que vossas mostras são tais que todo mundo he contente, e aos planetas dos ceos mandou Deos 255 que vos dessem tais fauores que em grandeza sejais vos prima dos antecessores. Por vos, mui fermosa flor, Iffante Dona Isabel 260 Foram juntos em torpel por mandando do senhor o ceo & sua companhia & julgou Jupiter juiz que fosseis Emperatriz 265 de Castella & Alemanha. Senhor Iffante Dom Fernãdo, vosso sino he de prudencia, Mercurio per excelencia fauorece vosso bando, 270 sereis rico & prosperado e descansado, sem cuydado & sem fadiga, & sem guerra & sem briga: isto vos estaa guardado. 275 Iffante Dona Breatiz, vos sois dos sinos julgada que aueis de ser casada nas partes de flor de lis: mais bem do que vos cuydais, 280 muyto mais, vos tem o mundo guardado. Perdey, senhores, cuydado pois com Deos tanto priuais.

C. Que dizeis vos destas rosas, 285 deste val de fermosura?

P. Tal fora minha ventura como ellas sam de fermosas! Oo que corte tam lozida & guarnecida 290 de lindezas para olhar! quem me pudera ficar nesta gloriosa vida!

D. Nesta vida! la acharaas.

P. Quem me trouxe a este fado?

295 D. Esse zote escomungado te trouxe aqui onde estaas. Perguntalhe que te quer para ver.

P. Homem, a que me trouxeste?

300 C. Quee? ainda agora vieste e has me de responder! Declara a estes senhores, pois foste damor ferida, qual achaste nesta vida 305 que é a moor dor das dores, e se as penas infernaes se sam aas do amor yguaes, ou se dam la mais tormentos dos que ca dam pensamentos 310 e as penas que nos daes.

P. Muyto triste padecer no inferno sinto eu mas a dor que o amor me deu nunca a mais pude esqueecer.

315 C. Que manhas, que gentileza ha de ter o bom galante?

P. A primeyra he ser constante, fundado todo em firmeza; nobre, secreto, calado, 320 soffrido em ser desdañado, sempre aberto o coração pera receber payxão mas nam pera ser mudado. Ha de ser mui liberal, 325 todo fundado em franqueza, esta he a mor gentileza do amante natural: porque é tam desuiada ser o escasso namorado 330 como estar fogo em geada ou hũa cousa pintada ser o mesmo encorporado. Ha de ser o seu comer dous bocados suspirando 335 & dormir meo velando sem de todo adormecer. Ha de ter muy doces modos, humano, cortessa todos, seruir sem esperar della, 340 que quem ama com cautela não segue a tẽçam dos Godos.

C. Qual he a cousa principal porque deue ser amado?

P. Que seja mui esforçado, 345 isto he o que mais lhe val. Porque hum velho dioso, feo e muyto tossegoso, se na guerra tem boa fama com a mais fermosa dama 350 merece de ser ditoso. Senhores guerreyros, guerreyros! & vos senhoras guerreyras bandeyras & não gorgueyras lauray pera os caualeyros. 355 Que assi nas guerras Troyãs eu mesma & minhas irmaãs teciamos os estandartes bordados de todas partes com diuisas mui loucaãs. 360 Com cantares e alegrias dauamos nossos colares e nossas joias a pares per essas capitanias. Renegay dos desfiados 365 & dos pontos enleuados destruase aquella terra dos perros arrenegados. Oo quem vio Pantasileea com quarenta mil donzellas, 370 armadas como as estrellas no campo de Palomea.

C. Venha aqui: trazeyma ca.

Z. Deyxanos yeramaa.

C. Ora sus, questais fazendo?

375 D. O' diabo que teu encomendo & quem tal poder te daa.

Entra Pantiselea e diz:

P. Que quereis e esta chorosa rainha Pantasilea, aa penada, triste, fea, 380 pera corte tam fermosa? Porque me quereis vos ver diante vosso poder, rey das grandes marauilhas que com pequenas quadrilhas 385 venceis quem quereis vencer? Se eu, senhor, forra me vira, do inferno solta agora, e fora de mi senhora, meu senhor, eu vos seruira, 390 empregara bem meus dias em vossas capitanias, & minha frecha dourada fora bem auenturada & nam nas guerras vazias. 395 Oo famoso Portugal conhece teu bem profundo, pois atee o Polo segundo chega o teu poder real. Auante, auante, senhores, 400 pois que com grandes favores todo o ceo vos fauorece: el Rey de Fez esmorece, & Marrocos daa clamores. Oo deixay de edificar 405 tantas camaras dobradas Muy pintadas & douradas. Que he gastar sem prestar. Alabardas, alabardas! espingardas, espingardas! 410 Nam queyrais ser Genoeses senam muyto Portugueses & morar em casas pardas. Cobray fama de ferozes, nam de ricos, que he perigosa, 415 douray a patria vossa com mais nozes que as vozes. Auante, auante Lisboa! que por todo mundo soa tua prospera fortuna: 420 pois que fortuna temfuna faze sempre de pessoa. Archiles, que foy daqui de perto desta cidade, chamay-o: diraa a verdade 425 se não quereis crer a mi.

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