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Explanation of Terms Used in Entomology
by John. B. Smith
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Praecostal spur: a false vein in costal angle at base of secondaries.

Prae-dorsum: = prophragma: q.v.

Prae-labrum: in Diptera = clypeus: q.v.

Praeocular: before the eyes.

Praeputium: the external membranous covering of penis: specifically a spherical muscular mass at base of penis in some Orthoptera.

Prae-scutellum: a sclerite, rarely present, between the meso-scutum and meso-scutellum.

Prae-scutum: the first of the four divisions of the notum of the thoracic rings.

Prae-subterminal: preceding the s.t. line in Lepidoptera.

Prae-terga: the anterior thoracic scutes in coleopterous larvae.

Prae-tornal: preceding the tornus (q.v.) in Lepidoptera.

Prasinus: grass-green [apple green].

Pratinicolous: frequenting or living in grassy meadows or bogs.

Pre-alar callus: a small swelling or projection before the root of wings, just back of outer ends of transverse suture, in Diptera.

Pre-anal: above or before the anal opening.

Pre-anal plate or lamina: = supra-anal plate; q.v.

Pre-antennal: anterior to or before the antenna.

Pre-apical: before the apex.

Pre-balancer: = pre-halter: q.v.

Pre-basilar: before the base.

Precocious stages: generally applied to all stages of development from the fertilized egg to the pupa.

Precurrent: continuous: entire: complete: said of a vein.

Predaceous: applied to insects that live by preying upon other organisms.

Predatory: = predaceous: q.v.

Pre-eruciform: before the caterpillar stage: specifically applied to the early larvae of some Proctytrypidae.

Preformation: the doctrine of growth or development from already existing rudiments; opposed to epigenesis: q.v.

Pre-furca: "the stem vein in front of a fork, that reaches back to where itself forks from another vein"; Diptera.

Pregenicular: in Orthoptera, that portion of femur proximad the knee.

Pregenicular annulus: a more or less conspicuous color ring on the caudal femora proximad the knee in Orthoptera.

Pre-halter: a membranous scale in front of the true haltere of a fly.

Prehension: structures fitted for grasping or holding.

Pre-mandibular: situated in front of the mandible: applied to a temporary segment of the embryo: = intercalary segment.

Pre-media: Ephemeridae; an apparently distinct vein between radius and media (Comst.).

Premorse: as if bitten off: with a blunt or jagged termination.

Prensor: the genital lateral clasping organ of male Lepidoptera: see clasper.

Pre-ocular: see prae-ocular.

Pre-oral: in front of the mouth: the embryonic head segments before those bearing the mouth parts.

Prepuce: =praeputium; q.v.

Pre-pupal: that stage in the larva just preceding the change to pupa.

Pre-scutellar bristles: in Diptera, are in a transverse row in front of the scutellum.

Pre-scutellar callus: = post-alar callus: q.v.

Pre-scutellar rows: in Diptera, short rows of small bristles in front of the scutellum.

Press: =filator; q.v.

Pressure plate: a structure at base of pulvillus, which exerts a pressure on the sole of the pad.

Pre-sutural bristles: in Diptera, in a trigonate depression at outer ends of transverse suture, near dorso-pleural suture.

Pre-sutural inter-alar bristle: the single bristle of the interalar series, situated before the transverse suture.

Primaries: the anterior or fore-wings.

Primitive: simple in character; of an early or ancient type.

Principal sector: in Odonata, extends from its point of separation From the median sector to the outer margin, at or just below the apex:= media 1 (Comst.).

Principal sulcus: in Orthoptera, a transverse impression of the prothorax, at or behind the middle.

Priodont: applied to those forms of male Lucanids that have the smallest mandibles: see teleodont, mesodont, amphiodont.

Prismatic: formed like a prism: a play of colors similar to that produced through a prism.

Pro-: anterior: used as a prefix to designate the parts of the first thoracic segment.

Proboscidea: an ordinal term for the Coccidae.

Proboscis: generally applied to any extended mouth structure; usually applied to the extensile mouth of the Diptera; frequently to the beak of Hemiptera; sometimes to the tongue of Lepidoptera; and rarely, to the mouth of long-tongued bees.

Procephalic: relating or belonging to the procephalon.

Procephalic lobes: in the embryo, form part of the anterior, overhanging portion of the head.

Procephalon: that segment of the head in the embryo which is formed by the coalescence of the first three primitive segments.

Procerebral: that segment of the brain containing the median protocerebrum and optic ganglia; also called optic segment.

Procerebral lobes: the central portion of the cerebrum, made up of the fused median lobes, giving rise to the mushroom bodies; q.v.

Procerebrum: the anterior part of the brain, formed by the ganglion of the first primary segment; also termed ocular lobe, froth part it innervates. Process: a prolongation of the surface, margin, or an appendage: any prominent portion of the body not otherwise definable.

Process of labrum: in bees = appendicle: q.v.

Procidentia: the narrow projecting tip of 7th dorsal segment in Nematinae.

Proclinate: directed forward; applied to hair or bristles.

Proctodaeum: the invagination of epiblast that produces the anus and intestine as far forward as and including malpighian tubes.

Proculiform or Poculiform: hollow, cylindrical, with a hemispherical base, the sides at top straight goblet-shaped.

Procumbent: trailing; prostrate; lying flat.

Produced: drawn out; prolonged; extended from.

Proeminent: said of the head when it is horizontal and does not form an angle with the thorax.

Profile: the outline as seen from the side.

Profound, Profundus: deep.

Prognathus: having the jaws directed forward.

Progoneate: with the genital opening on an anterior body segment.

Progonia: the anterior angle of the secondaries.

Proleg: any process or appendage that serves the purpose of a leg: specifically the fleshy unjointed abdominal legs of caterpillars and certain saw-fly larvae: = abdominal feet: false legs.

Proloma: the anterior margin of the secondaries.

Prolonged: extended or lengthened beyond ordinary limits.

Promeros: the first abdominal segment in Lepidoptera.

Prominent: raised or produced beyond the level or margin: standing out in relief by color or otherwise: conspicuous.

Promuscidate: with proboscis or extended mouth structure.

Promuscis: an extended mouth structure: has been applied to the long tongue of bees and to the rostrate structure in Hemiptera.

Pronotal carina: in Orthoptera, the main or median carina on pronotum.

Pronotum: the upper or dorsal surface of the prothorax.

Pronucleus: the nucleus of male and female elements, spermatozoa and ova, the union of which forms the nucleus of a fertilized ovum.

Pronymph: is that stage in certain inctabolous insects in which the larval tissues are completely broken down, and the imaginal tissues are just beginning to build up.

Proparaptera: the paraptera of the prothorax: the terms erroneously applied in this connection.

Propedes: = prolegs: q.v.

Prophragma: the anterior dividing wall of meso-thorax, which is horny and, at its upper edge, bears the connecting membrane between pro- and mesothorax.

Prop-leg: = pro-leg; q.v.

Propleura: the lateral portions of prothorax.

Propleural bristles: in Diptera, are situated immediately above the front coxa: = prothoracic bristle; q.v.

Propneustic: larval forms in which only the most anterior spiracles occur.

Propodeon: = propodeum.

Propodeum: in Hymenoptera, that part of thorax just above insertion of abdomen, and really the first abdominal segment: see median segment.

Propolis: a glue or resin-like product elaborated by bees to serve as a cement in cases where wax is not sufficiently tenacious.

Propulsatory: that which drives onward or forward.

Propupa: a semi-pupa: q.v.

Propygidium: the dorsal segment or tergite in front of the pygidilini, sometimes left exposed in Coleoptera.

Propygium: = Hypopygium: q.v.

Proscutum: the scutum of the pronotum.

Proscutellum: the scutellum of the pronotum.

Prostemmatic: = ante-ocular; q.v.

Prosternal: belonging to the prosternum.

Prosternal grooves: occur laterally in some Coleoptera. e.g. Elateridae, to receive the antennae.

Prosternal epimera: the epimera of prothorax.

Prosternal episterna: the episterna of prothorax.

Prosternal lobe: in some Coleoptera, an anterior prolongation of the prosternum which more or less conceals the mouth from below.

Prosternal spine: the curved mucro in Elateridae which extends backward into a meso-sternal cavity: the cone or tubercle between fore-legs in some Orthoptera.

Prosternal suture: that suture of pro-thorax which separates the sternum front the pleural pieces.

Prosternellum: the sternellum of the prothorax

Prosternum: the fore-breast: the sclerite between the fore-legs.

Prostheca: a mandibular sclerite set with hair, articulated to the basalis - q.v. -and equal to the lacinia of the maxilla.

Protamphibion: a name applied by P. Mayer to the hypothetical common ancestor of the Perlina, Ephemerina and Odonata.

Protandry: the appearance of males earlier in the season than females.

Protarsus: the tarsus of the anterior leg.

Proteiform: having many fortes or varieties: protean.

Protergum: in Odonata, the upper surface of prothorax.

Proterotypes: primary types, including all the material upon which the original description is based.

Prothoracic bristle: in Diptera, a strong bristle immediately above the front coxa: see propleural bristles.

Prothoracic glands: occur in Orthoptera, on the sides of prothorax in certain Phasmid genera.

Prothoracic shield: = cervical shield: q.v.

Prothoracotheca: the pupal covering of prothorax.

Pro-thorax: the first thoracic ring or segment: hears the anterior legs but no wings: when free, as in Coleoptera. is usually referred to as "thorax" merely.

Protocerebral segment: = ocular seginent; q.v.

Protocerebrum: the primitive anterior cerebral vesicle.

Protocosta: the thickened costal margin of Lepidopterous wings.

Protocranium: the posterior part of the epicranium: sometimes used as Occiput.

Protogonia: the apical angle of the primaries.

Protograph: all original description by a figure or picture made from the original type.

Proto-lepidoptera: proposed for those forms (Eriocephalidae) in which lacinia and mandibles are obvious and the spiral tongue is not developed: see neolepidoptera and paleolepidoptera.

Protolog: the original description by words.

Protoloma: the anterior margin of primaries.

Protomesal: applied to certain areolets in Hymenoptera, situated between costal cells and apical margin.

Prototergite: the foremost dorsal segment of abdomen.

Preto-thorax: = prothorax: q.v.

Prototype: a primitive form to which later forms can be traced.

Protractor: that which extends or lengthens out: applied to muscles.

Protuberance: any elevation above the surface.

Protuberant: rising or produced above the surface or general level.

Proventriculus: the posterior portion of crop: the gizzard.

Proximad: toward the proximal end.

Proximal: that part of an appendage nearest the body: see distal.

Prozona: in Orthoptera, the upper or dorsal surface of prothorax in front of the principal sulcus.

Pruinose: hoary: as if covered with a fine frost or dust.

Pruinous -us: deep blue with a reddish tinge, like a plum [French blue + purple lake].

Psammophilous: living in sandy places.

Pselaphotheca: that part of the pupa which covers the palpi.

Pseudidolum: = nymph: q.v.

Pseudimago: = sub-imago; q.v.

Pseud- or Pseudo-: as a prefix means false, spurious, or merely resembling. Pseudo-cellula: = accessory cell: q.v.

Pseudo-chrysalis: the semi-pupa.

Pseudo-coel: a false hollow; a hollow which does not form a tube.

Pseudo-cone: a soft, gelatinous cone in the compound eye of some Insects, replacing the crystalline cone of others.

Pseudo-elytra: the aborted anterior wings of Strepsiptera.

Pseudogyna fundatrix: in Aphids, is the immediate issue of a fecundated egg: a stem-mother.

Pseudogyna gemmans: in Aphids. are wingless descendants of the stem-mother (fundatrix) or of the winged migrants (migrans) which reproduce asexually through a number of generations.

Pseudogyna migrans: in Aphids, the winged descendants of the stem-mother (fundatrix) through which the species is spread.

Pseudogyna pupifera: in Aphids, the last generation of p. gemmans, which produces the true sexes.

Pseudogyna: a female that reproduces without impregnation.

Pseudo-halteres: the rudimentary primaries of Stylops.

Pseudo-neurium: a false vein formed by a chitinous thickening of a wing fold.

Pseudo-neuroptera: those net-winged insects with incomplete metamorphosis: includes the present Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera, Isoptera and Corrodentia: = Archiptera.

Pseudonychium -ia: = paronychia; q.v.

Pseudo-nymph: = semipupa; q.v.

Pseudopodia: = parapodia; q.v.

Pseudoptera: an ordinal name for the scale insects (Amyot 1847)

Pseudo-pupa: the inactive larval stage preceding the formation of the true pupa in some insccts; e.g. Meloidae: = semi-pupa; q.v.

Pseudo-pupillae: in Odonata, the black spots seen on the compound eyes of the living insects.

Pseudosessile: those petiolate Hymenoptera, in which the abdomen is so close to the thorax as to seem sessile.

Pseudo-trachea: the ringed and ridged grooves on the labella of Diptera, by means of which they scrape their food.

Pseudova: egg-like germ cells capable of development without fertilization e.g. in certain plant lice.

Pseudovary: the organ or mass of germ cells of an agamic insect.

Pseudo-vitellus: a cellular organ in Aphididae, supposed to replace the absent Malpighian tubules.

Psocoptera: = Corrodentia; q.v.

Psychogenesis: the origin and development of social and other instincts and habits.

Pterodicera: with wings and two antenna.

Pterogostia: the wing veins.

Pterogostia: referring to the wing structure.

Pteropega: wing sockets or cavities into which the wings are inserted.

Pteropleura: in Diptera, are situated below the base of the wings behind the meso-pleural suture: = the posterior lateral plate of mesothorax of Lowne; the episternum of meso-thorax of Hammond.

Pteropleural bristles: in Diptera, are inserted on the pteropleura.

Pterostigma: a thickened, opaque spot on the costal margin of a wing, near its middle or at end of the radius: = bathmis, and see stigma.

Pterotheca: that part of the pupa that covers the wings.

Pterothorax: the wing-hearing thoracic segments in Thysanoptera.

Pterygium: a lateral expansion of the snout of some Coleoptera.

Pterygodes: the patagia or tegtila: q.v.

Pterygogenea: insects that are winged in the adult stage or believed to be descended from winged ancestors: see apterogogenea.

Pterygostium: a wing vein.

Pterygote: wing bearing.

Ptilinum: in Diptera cyclorrhapha, an inflatable organ capable of being thrust out through a frontal suture just above the root of antenna.

Ptilota: winged insects.

Pubes or Pubescence: short, fine, soft, erect hair or down.

Pubescent: downy: clothed with soft, short, fine, closely set hair.

Pubis: the lateral region of the prothorax.

Pulmonarium: the membranous connection of the plates or scutes of the abdominal rings: = connexivum.

Pulsatile: having the power of pulsating or moving in a rhythmic manner: applied to special organs in the legs, which aid in circulating the blood in these appendages.

Pulverulent: powdery or dusty in appearance.

Pulvilliform: having the appearance or structure of a pulvillus.

Pulvillus -i: soft, pad-like structures between tarsal claws: the cushions of short, stiff hair or other clothing on the underside of tarsal joints; rarely fleshy lobes: see arolium.

Pulvinatus: moderately convex.

Punctate: set with impressed points or punctures.

Punctiformis: shaped like a point or dot.

Punctulatus: with small punctures.

Puncture: an impression like that made by a needle.

Punctured: marked with small, impressed dots.

Puniceus: carmine red [carmine].

Pupa: the intermediate stage between larva and adult; loosely applied for all orders, properly only for those with a complete metamorphosis: a pupa is obtect, when inclosed in a rigid case on which the members may or may not be outlined. It is liber, or free when the appendages are separately encased and there is no covering over the whole: see chrysalis.

Puparium -ia: in Diptera, the thickened larval skin within which the pupa is formed.

Pupate, Pupation: to become a pupa: the act of becoming a pupa.

Pupiferous: applied to that generation of plant lice which produces sexed individuals.

Pupigenous: =pupiparous; q.v.

Pupigerous: forming a larval pupariuni: coarctate: said of dipterous larva that contract to form an envelope for the inclosed pupa.

Pupil: the central mark of an ocellate spot.

Pupillate: spots or marks that have an eye-like centre.

Pupipara: a series of Diptera, in which the females do not extrude the young until they have reached the stage ready to pupate.

Pupiparous: bringing forth young ready to pupate.

Pupivorous: feeding upon pupa: especially applied to those Hymenoptera that are parasitic upon insects in the pupal stage.

Purpurascent: becoming purple in shade.

Purpureous -eus: purple [mauve].

Pustular a colored point of moderate circumference.

Pustulated hair: in Mallophaga those arising from unchitinized spaces.

Pygidium: the last dorsal segment of abdomen left exposed by the elytra: in Forficulidw, the last dorsal segment: in Diaspincr, the compound terminal segment.

Pygofer: the last segment of the abdomen in certain Homoptera, especially the lateral margins which appear in the ventral view; hence sometimes used in the plural - pygofers.

Pygophore: the large upper piece of the genitalia in Homoptera.

Pygotheca: the parts containing the genitalia in Homoptera.

Pyloric: referring to the posterior extremity of the chylific ventricle.

Pyloric valve: the specialized posterior portion of crop where there is no distinct gizzard.

Pyloric valvule: a circular projection of the stomach behind which is an enlargement of the intestine.

Pylorus: the chylific ventricle.

Pyriform: shaped like a pear.



Q

Quadra -ri -ro: as a prefix, means four.

Quadrate: square or nearly so.

Quadrifarium: having four rows.

Quadrilateral: four-sided: formed or bounded by four lines: in Odonata, a space on the wings of Zygoptera bounded by the lower sector of arculus, the sub-median vein, a cross-vein between these two, and the lower part of arculus.

Queen: the actively reproducing female among worker insects.

Quiescent: not active: applied to the pupae in forms with complete metamorphosis.

Quiet: subdued: not conspicuous or contrasting in color or maculation.



R

Race: a variety of a species possessing constant characters which yet are not specific; usually occurring in a different faunal region from the type and may thus be geographical: nearly synonymous with subspecies.

Racemose: like a bunch of grapes: applied to ovaries when they form bunches or sacs.

Rachis: a ridge or keel dividing the spinning canal at base, in caterpillars; the shank of an antennal joint into which the lateral spines or other processes are inserted.

Radial: pertaining to the radius or radial vein.

Radial area: in Orthoptera; the space between the mediastinal ( subcosta) and radial veins: see scapular area.

Radial cells: the wing area between the radius and media; often divided: in the plural (Comst.), are those cells anteriorly margined by the radius or its branches.

Radial cross vein: (Comst.), is that which divides cell, radius 1.

Radial sector: in general, the lower of the two primary divisions of the radius (Comst.): in Odonata, an indirect branch from the media, just below and parallel with media 2.

Radial vein: in Homoptera, the first important vein next the costa between it and ulnar: in Orthoptera, = radius (Comst.): in Diptera, = 2d longitudinal vein (Meigen), = radius 2 (Comst.).

Radiate veins: the longitudinal veins spreading fan-like in the anal field of secondaries: = anal veins; q.v.

Radiated: marked with lines proceeding from a common centre.

Radicle or Radicula: that joint of the antenna that is articulated to the head.

Radio-medial cross vein: connects the radial and medial systems and usually closes the radial cell (Comst.).

Radius: (Comst.); the third of the longitudinal veins starting from base and dividing into not more than five branches before reaching the margin: the branches are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively, beginning at the costal margin and extending outward and downward.

Radix: base of wings, and their point of insertion; see pteropega.

Rami -us: branches: a branch.

Ramification: the branching out in every direction.

Ramify: to branch out in every direction.

Rammel-kammer: = copulation chamber; q.v.

Ramose -ous: branched, or having long branches.

Rapacious: predatory; capturing and eating prey.

Raptatory: = raptorial; q.v.

Raptoria: applied to that series of Orthoptera, in which the anterior legs are fitted for grasping; Mantidae {Scanner's comment: No longer Orthoptera, but Mantodea, a suborder of the Dictyoptera.}

Raptorial: formed for seizing prey.

Rare: seldom seen or found.

Rasorial: formed for scratching; applied to leg structures.

Ravenous: greedy; voracious; hungrily.

Receptaculum seminis: a sac or pouch-like appendage at the junction of the oviducts with the vagina; it is filled during copulation and the eggs are fertilized from it as they are extruded.

Reclinate: directed backward; e.g. the bristles in Diptera.

Reclinatus: = reflexed; q.v.

Reclivate: curved into a convex, then into a concave line.

Recondite: the sting when concealed in the abdomen.

Rectal cauda: the terminal, tubular process or tail terminating the abdomen of some male Hemiptera.

Rectal glands: appendages to or thickenings of the rectum secreting a lubricating material.

Rectal tracheal gills: lamelliform structures in the rectum of the nymphs of some Odonata, supplied with trachea and tracheoles and serving as respiratory organs.

Rectangular: in the form of a right or rectangle.

Rectangulate: forming or meeting in a right angle.

Rectigrade: larvae which, having sixteen feet, walk with a rectilinear body.

Rectilinear: in the form of a straight line.

Rectum: a chamber, variable in size and form, just within the anus, in which the excretions are formed or molded for expulsion from the body:= cloaca.

Rectus: right or straight.

Recumbent: lying down; reclining.

Recurrent: running backward: applied to nerves it = stomatogastric.

Recurrent nervure: in Hymenoptera (Nort.), is the medial cross vein (Comst.), from the point of branching to the junction.

Recurrent vein: in Hemerobiidae, the first branch of the subcosta when it recurves toward the base of the wing.

Recurved: bowed backward.

Reductus: a zig-zag marking or corrugation.

Reflected or Reflexed: angularly bent backward.

Refracted: bent back as if broken.

Region: a space or area adjoining a specified point: a part of the body composed of a number of segments, as the head, the thorax, or the abdomen.

Rejuvenescence: a renewal of youth; bringing back to a condition of youth.

Remote: further removed than distant.

Reniform: kidney-shaped: applied to a macula approximating that shape, found at the end of median cell in many moths.

Repand: wavy; with alternate segments of circles and intervening angles.

Replicate: wings folded back upon the base; like the secondaries in Coleoptera.

Replicatile: capable of being folded back.

Repugnatorial: serving to repel: so offensive as to drive away: applied to glands that secrete an offensive material.

Reservoir: a case or cavity for the storage of any fluid or secretion.

Resilient: elastic; having the property of springing back.

Respiration: breathing or taking breath: union of oxygen with tissues and liberation of carbon dioxide from same.

Restricted: held back: confined to a limited area.

Resupinate: upside down; horizontally reversed.

Rete: the fatty mass of insects: also applied generally to any structureless membrane or layer.

Reticulate: like net-work.

Reticulum: a net-work; as of a cell.

Retina: that portion of the eye upon which the image is formed.

Retinaculum: in Lepidoptera, the loop into which the frenulum of the male is fitted; = hamus, q.v.: in Hymenoptera, horny, movable scales serving to move the sting or to prevent its being darted out too far: in Coleoptera, the middle, tooth-like process of the larval mandible.

Retinal pigment: the pigment layer of the compound eye just above the basilar or fenestrate membrane.

Retinophora: = retinula; q.v.

Retinula -ae: the retina of a single ocellus: the nerve fibres or cells between pigment cells and retina of the compound eye.

Retracted: drawn back; opposed to prominent.

Retractile: capable of being drawn in or retracted.

Retractor: used in drawing in or back; as a muscle.

Retroarcuate: curved backwards.

Retrocession: the going or moving backward.

Retrose: (sinuate), pointing backwards; (serrate) inversely serrated.

Retuse: ending in an obtuse sinus or broad, shallow notch, terminated by an obtuse hollow.

Reversed: turned in, an unusual or contrary direction, as upside down or inside out: said of wings when they are deflexed, the margin of secondaries projecting beyond those of primaries.

Reviviscence: coming back to life; awakening from hibernation.

Revolute: spirally rolled backward.

Rhabdites: the blade-like elements of the sting and ovipositor: a rod or bladelike process projecting from the epidermis.

Rhabdom: the rod lying in the axis of the retinula, below the crystalline cone of an eye.

Rhabdomere: the rod-like distal portion of a retinular cell.

Rhabdopoda: clasping organs of the 9th abdominal segment of male.

Rhinarium: a nostril piece or portion of the nasus: q.v.: in Odonata, the lower portion of clypeus = ante-clypeus; q.v.

Rhipiptera: = Strepsiptera q.v.

Rhomboidal: having the form of a rhomb.

Rhombus: a quadrangular figure having its four sides equal and its opposite lines parallel, with two opposite angles acute and two obtuse.

Rhopalocera: that series of Lepidoptera in which the antenna are alike in both sexes and form a club at tip.

Rhodoptera: apterous insects with sucking mouth structures.

Rhophoteira: an ordinal term for the fleas (Clairville).

Rhynchophora: that section of Coleoptera, in which the head is produced into a snout, at the end of which the mouth structures are situated; gular sutures confluent: prosternal sutures wanting: the weevils.

Rhynchota: = Rhyngota: q.v.

Rhynchus: of Fabricius, = promuscis: q.v.

Rhyngota: insects in which the mouth parts are prolonged into a beak or rostrum which serves as a protection to the piercing lancets: Hemiptera in the broad sense.

Rhythmical: occurring at regular intervals in the production of opposite conditions.

Rigid: inflexible: holding a direct course.

Rima: a crack or longitudinal opening with sharp edges.

Rimose: full of cracks.

Ring: a circle or annulus, usually margining a discolored spot.

Ringent: gaping.

Riparian: along the river or along shore.

Ripicolous: dwelling on river banks: riparian.

Rorulentum: dusty: =pulverulent: q.v.

Roseate-eous,-ens: rose colored: pale blood red [rose].

Rosette-shaped: in the form of a double rose: clustered round a centre.

Rostellum: a small beak; applied to the mouth parts of sucking lice: also used in Hemiptera, as = rostrum; q.v.

Rostral: pertaining or attached to a rostrum; specifically of Hemiptera.

Rostrate: the head, when it has a long protraction bearing the mouth parts.

Rostriform: produced like a beak or snout.

Rostrum: a snout-like prolongation of the head: in Coleoptera, applied to the rigid extension in the snout beetles: in Hemiptera, is the jointed beak covering the piercing lancets; and this is the better use of the term.

Rotate: wheel-shaped.

Rotator: used for turning; applied to muscles.

Rotatory: an articulation that permits a rotating motion, e.g. a ball and socket joint.

Rotula: a small round segment sometimes present between the joints of antenna; and palpi: = torquillus.

Rotule: the trochantine.

Rotundate: rounded: in the form of a circle or segment of a circle: without angles: said of margins when they pass gradually into each other and do not form an angle at their point of junction.

Royal jelly: the food supplied to bee larva that develop into queens.

Royal pairs or Royalties: the sexually active males and females of social insects.

Ruben: red, approaching carmine [alizar crimson].

Rubescent: reddish or becoming red.

Rubiginose: a rusty red [dragon's blood, but brighter].

Rubinous: ruby red: like the eye of a house fly.

Rudiment -any: the beginning of any structure or part before it has developed.

Rufescent: reddish.

Rufous: brick-red [chronic yellow + dragon's blood].

Ruga, Rugulae: a wrinkle; small wrinkles.

Rugose -ous: wrinkled: with irregular waved elevated lines.

Rugulose -ous; minutely wrinkled.

Runcinate: notched: cut into several transverse acute segments which point backward.

Ruptor ovi: = egg burster; q.v.

Rutilous: a shining bronze red.



S

Sabulose: sandy or gritty.

Sac: in Coccidae, the separate cottony envelope secreted by many species.

Saccate: gibbous or inflated toward one end.

Saccule: a little sac or pouch.

Saccus: a lobe of ventral plate of 9th segment in female Lepidoptera.

Saddle: the chitinous plate on the anal siphon of Culicid larvae.

Sagitta: arrow-like spots on the wings of Lepidoptera and other insects.

Sagittae: the inner pair of forceps in male genitalia of aculeate Hymenoptera: see stipites.

Sagittal: equivalent to longitudinal.

Sagittal plane: the longitudinal vertical plane which divides an animal into right and left halves.

Sagittate: shaped like an arrow head: elongate triangular.

Salient: projecting; jutting out.

Saliva: the secretion of the salivary glands that moistens and begins the digestion of the food.

Salivary glands: glands that open into the mouth or at the beginning of the alimentary canal, secreting a digestive, irritant or viscid material.

Salivary receptacle: a small cavity above the opening of the salivary duct, between labium and hypopharynx.

Salivary pump: applied to the chitinous, cup-like structure at the base of the labial stylets of piercing Diptera; e.g. mosquitoes.

Saltatoria: that series of Orthoptera in which the posterior legs are formed for jumping.

Saltatorial or Saltatory: formed for jumping or leaping: a posterior femur when much enlarged and dilated.

Saltatory appendage: in Collembola = furcula; q.v.

Sanguineous -eus: red like arterial blood [crimson lake].

Sanguinolent: bloody; in color or appearance.

Sapphyrinus: sapphire blue [French blue].

Sarcolemma: the elastic covering of the striated muscular fibres.

Sarothrum: the basal joint of posterior tarsus in pollen gatherers: see metatarsus.

Saturate: deeply or strongly marked; in a color, means intense.

Saxicolous: species that frequent rocky or stony areas.

Saws: the ovipositors of the saw flies or Tenthredinidae.

Scaber: uneven, rough.

Scabriculous: regularly and finely wrinkled.

Scabrose -ous: rough like a file, with small raised points.

Scalariform: ladder-like; applied to venation when the veinlets between two longitudinal veins are regularly arranged like the rungs of a ladder.

Scale: a general term to distinguish Coccidae: specifically the puparium of a Diaspid, comprising exuviae and excreted matter: the waxy covering of a male Lecaniid: in Diptera = alula: q.v.

Scales: broad flattened hairs, forming the wing vestiture of Lepidoptera, and present in various other insects.

Scalloped: an edge marked by segments of circles without intervening angles.

Scalpellus: a lancet-like piercing structure, as in some Diptera.

Scalpriform: chisel-shaped.

Scansorial: said of feet, when formed for climbing on hair.

Scape: the long basal joint of a geniculate antenna in Coleoptera; usually applied to the three basal joints, as in Hymenoptera.

Scaphiform: boat-shaped.

Scaphium: a ventral process of the 10th abdominal segment in male Lepidoptera below the uncus.

Scapula: in Lepidoptera the shoulder tippets, patagia or axillae; q.v.: in Hymenoptera, the side pieces of the mesonotum; also, a trochanter of the fore-leg; in Proctotrupidae the lateral lobes on each side of the parapsidal furrow.

Scapulae: in Hemiptera, the inferior lateral face of mesonotum.

Scapular: the episternum; q.v.: applied to the scapula.

Scapular area: in a wing, is that portion nearest the shoulder: in Orthoptera, = radial area.

Scapularia: a meso-episternum: see scapula.

Scapular vein: in Orthoptera, = radius.

Scapus: = scape.

Scarabidoid: applied to that stage of a meloid larva in which it resembles a white grub or Scarabid larva.

Scarified: a surface with irregular depressions, as if clawed or scratched.

Scariose -ous: dry and scaly.

Scatophagous: feeding upon dung or excrement:= merdivorous.

Scent glands, or organs: glandular structures; sometimes eversible, sometimes in the form of hair tufts or pencils for diffusing odors that may be repellant or attractive; most frequently found in males as a secondary sexual character.

Scent pores: = ostioles; q.v.

Sclerite: any piece of the body wall bounded by sutures.

Scopa: a brush: a covering of short, stiff hair of equal length: in Hymenoptera, the thick hair covering the posterior tibia of pollen-gathering forms.

Scopate: furnished with a scopa.

Scopula: a small, dense tuft of hair: the bristles or stiff hairs covering the inner side of basal joint on the tarsi of pollen-gathering Hymenoptera.

Scopulipedes: bees which have pollen gathering structures on the feet.

Scraper: the hardened portion of the inner margin of the tegmina in crickets used in producing the song.

Scriptus: lettered or marked with characters resembling letters.

Scrobes: grooves formed for the reception or concealment of an appendage specifically, in Rhynchophora, grooves at the sides of the rostrum to receive the scape of antenna 2: also applied to grooves on the sides of mandibles: in Hymenoptera, the usually circular impressions upon the frons, in which the scapes revolve: in Orthoptera, the pits in which the antenna; are situate.

Scrobiculated: having the surface covered with deep round pits.

Scrotal membrane: the envelope covering the testes in some insects.

Scrotiform: purse-shaped.

Scrotum: = scrotal membrane; q, v.

Sculpture: the markings or pattern of impression or elevation on an elytra or other body surface.

Sculptured: a surface, when marked with elevations or depressions or both, arranged in some definite manner.

Scutate-iform: shield or buckler-shaped.

Scutcheon: = scutellum; q.v.: also used by some authors (Walker) for the pronotum in Homoptera.

Scutel: = scutellum: q.v.

Scutellar angle: of elytra is next to the scutel when wing is expanded.

Scutellar bridge: in Diptera, a small ridge on either side of the Scutellum, connecting it with the mesonotum.

Scutellar space: in Mantids, an area between antennae and clypeus.

Scutellate: dish- or platter-shaped.

Scutellum: the third dorsal sclerite of the meso- and meta-thorax: in Coleoptera, the triangular piece between the elytra at base and universally referred to as the scutellum: in Heteroptera, a similar sclerite between base of hemelytra: in Diptera, a sub-hemispherical. body posteriorly cut off by an impressed line from the dorsum of the meso-thorax.

Scutes: the chitinous shields or plates on the segments of larvae.

Scutiform: = scutate; q.v.

Scutum: the second dorsal sclerite of the meso- and meta-thorax.

Seal-brown: a brilliant deep red-brown: almost like, but darker than castaneous [between dragon's blood and Indian red].

Sebaceous: fatty or oily; applied to glands secreting such substances.

Sebific: oily; sebaceous; somewhat sticky.

Sebific duct: carries the excretions of the colleterial gland to the bursa copulatrix.

Second antennal segment: the third or tritocerebral segment of head.

Secondaries: the hind wings; always attached to the meta-thorax.

Secondary sexual characters: features possessed by one sex but not the other, other than the differences of the reproductive organs themselves; e.g. color, size, shape, etc.

Second clypeus: see anteclypeus.

Second costal cell: in Hymenoptera (Pack.); is the stigma.

Second inner apical: in Hymenoptera (Nort.), = media 3 (Comst), to the junction of medial cross-vein; also called sub-marginal nervure in part.

Second lateral thoracic suture: in Odonata, extends front base of secondaries to the rear of the third coxa.

Second longitudinal vein: in Diptera:= radius 2 + 3 (Comst). Second maxilla: the labium: q.v.

Second maxillary segment: the seventh or labial segment of head.

Second median area: see median area; areola.

Second submarginal nervure: Hymenoptera (Nort.), = radius 5 (Comst.).

Secretion: any matter produced by a gland: in Coccidae, specifically, the waxy, fibrous, cottony or silky substances forming the "scales."

Secretionary supplement: that part of a Diaspid scale extending beyond or around the pellicles.

Secretory: concerned in the process of secretion.

Sectores coronis: the tearing or cutting structures used by the Lepidoptera in working out of a cocoon.

Sectors: longitudinal veins in Odonata, which strike the principal veins at an angle, and usually reach the apex or hind margin: they are radial, subnodal, principal, nodal, median, short, and upper and lower of triangle: all of which see.

Secund: pointing one way: unilateral.

Securiform: triangular-compressed; like the blade of a hatchet.

Sedentary: not active: settled or remaining in one place.

Segment: a ring or division bounded by incisions or sutures: a segment of an insect or of any articulate is a transverse portion reaching entirely across the body, originally separated on the exterior by incisions or sutures from the preceding and the succeeding segments, having attached to it not more than one pair of ventral appendages, containing internally not more than one pair of nerve ganglia which supply nerves to the pair of appendages; = somite, arthromere: fusion of segments frequently obscures, as in the head: externally the walls of one segment may be composed of a number of sclerites separated from each other by secondary sutures.

Segmentate: made up of rings or segments.

Segmentation of egg: the division of the originally single celled egg into a number of coherent cells or blastomeres; = cleavage.

Segregated: detached or scattered into groups.

Segregation: a separation or placing apart.

Sejunctus: separated.

Sellate: saddle-shaped.

Sematophore: a seminal packet, composed of the seminal fluid mixed with the excretions of the accessory glands.

Sembling: = assembling; q.v.

Semen: the fluid secreted in the testes, containing the spermatozoa.

Semi-: half.

Semicircular: like the half of a circle.

Semi-complete: in metamorphosis, = incomplete; q.v.

Semicordate: half or partly heart-shaped.

Semicoronate: partly surrounded by a margin of spines, hooks or the like.

Semicoronet: a margin of spines or hooks partly surrounding a structure or process.

Semi-cylindrical: like a groove or half a cylinder.

Semi-hyaline: hyaline in part only: not altogether transparent.

Semi-looper: a caterpillar in which one or two pairs only of the abdominal legs are wanting and where in progression, only small loops are formed: see looper.

Semi-lunar: in the form of half a crescent.

Semi-lunar valve: guards the auriculo-ventricular opening of the heart.

Seminal ducts: = vasa deferentia; q.v.

Seminal vesicles: enlarged tube or pouch-like structures which serve to store the seminal fluid of the male, and in which the later stages of its development may take place.

Seminiferous: semen-secreting.

Semipupa: that stage of the larva just preceding pupation: more specifically the interpolated stage between the active larva and the true pupa, in hyper-metamorphosis.

Semi-saggitate: like the longitudinal half of an arrow head.

Semitropical or Gulf strip: is the southern part of the Austro-riparian area extends from Texas to Southern Florida, covers a narrow strip in So. Georgia and probably follows the coastal lowlands into South Carolina.

Sensim: gradually.

Sensoria: the circular openings covered by membrane, on the antenna or legs of plant lice.

Sensory: relating to or having a sense function.

Sensory pittings: deep pits or punctures through the surface, which may or may not bear pegs, bristles or seta, and may be open or covered by a membrane; serving as organs of perception for sounds or smells.

Septa, Septula: in Odonata, the triangular area of the mesonotum before the insertion of the primaries: = calli axillary.

Septum: an internal division of a body cavity.

Sequence: the order in which things follow; e.g. species or genera.

Seriatim: placed in longitudinal rows.

Sericeous: silky: clothed with very dense minute hair which gives a silky lustre.

Sericterium -ies: the silk producing gland or glands in caterpillars: the spinning structures.

Series: a group of species, genera or families, arranged to show agreement in a common character which is not of sufficient importance to warrant the next higher division.

Serific glands: are these which produce a thick, mucous-like secretion which, on hardening, forms silk.

Serosa: the outer membrane that envelops the forming embryo, the amnion and the remainder of the egg.

Serpentinous: a dirty, dark green [Hooker's green].

Serra: a saw or saw-like part.

Serrate: saw-toothed, the teeth set toward one end.

Serrato-dentate: toothed, the edges themselves saw-toothed.

Serratulate: with little teeth or serrations.

Serricornia: that series of Coleoptera in which the antenna are serrate or saw-toothed.

Serriferous: possessing a saw-like ovipositor in the female; the saw-flies.

Serrulate: with numerous little saw teeth.

Serum: the fluid in which the blood corpuscles float or are suspended.

Sesquialter or Sesquiocellus: a large ocellus including a smaller one.

Sesquitertial: occupying a fourth part.

Sessile: closely seated: the abdomen, when it is closely attached for nearly or quite its full width to the thorax.

Sessiliventres: Hymenoptera in which the abdomen is sessile.

Seta -ae: a pointed bristle or long stiff hair: slender, hair-like appendages.

Setaceous: bristle-shaped: slender, gradually tapering to a tip.

Setarious aristate: the dipterous antenna when the arista is simple.

Setiferous: = setigercus; q.v.

Setiform: in the form of a bristle or seta: when a slender short bristle arises from a thicker basal joint.

Setigenous: the hypodermal cells that give rise to setae.

Setigerous: bearing setae or bristles; e.g. punctures.

Setiparous: producing hair or sets.

Setireme: the hairy, oar-like legs of aquatic insects.

Setose -ous: bristly or set with bristles.

Setula: a small stiff bristle or seta: in Diptera, the small thorn at the end of the sub-costa.

Setulose: clothed with fine seta or setulae.

Sex: as a number, six: the physical difference between male and female: usually indicated by the sign of Mars (?) for male, and Venus (?) for female; workers or undeveloped females have the sign of Venus without the cross line, or a combination of the two others.

Sexuparae: that generation of plant lice which produces the true sexes.

Shade: a cloudy, ill-defined streak or band.

Shagreened: a surface roughened with minute tooth-like projections.

Shank: = tibia; q.v.

Shard: a chitinous sheath or elytron.

Sharp: with a pointed tip or thin edge; opposed to blunt.

Sheath of penis: in Odonata, a median, hood-like piece between the hamules, under which the penis is folded when not in use.

Shin: = tibia; q.v.

Short sector: in Odonata, = media 4 (Comst.).

Shoulder: loosely applied to an obtuse angulation; more generally to the humeral angle of fore wings or elytra: the anterior angles of thorax in Lepidoptera; the angles of prothorax in Heteroptera: the lateral angles of metazona of pronotum in Orthoptera.

Sialisterium: a salivary gland.

Side: the lateral margin of the body.

Side piece: in genitalia of male Culicids the main lateral part of the clasping organ or basal segment of clasp.

Sides of thorax: in Odonata, includes the pleura of meso- and meta- thorax, less the meso-episterna.

Sienna: a brownish orange [brown ochre].

Sigmoid: shaped like the Greek letter sigma, or English S.

Signate -us: = with marks or spots; see notate.

Signature: a colored blotch of any size or shape.

Silaceous: = ochraceous.

Silk: the hardened salivary secretion of certain larvae, mainly of Lepidoptera. similar material is produced by anal glands of some larva in Neuroptera.

Silk-glands: a pair of modified salivary glands in certain larva, mostly of Lepidoptera that secrete a viscid fluid which, on contact with the air, hardens into a silken fibre.

Silvicolous: living in moist, shady woods.

Simple, Simplex: without process, armature, or appendage of any kind.

Simple eyes: = ocelli; q.v.

Sinciput: in Coleoptera; that part of the vertex between the eyes.

Sinistrad: toward the left.

Sinistral: extending to or at the left from the median line.

Sinistro-caudad: extending obliquely from the left toward the tail.

Sinistro-cephalad: extending obliquely from the left toward the head.

Sinuate: cut into sinuses; applied to lines and margins with an in and out curve.

Sinuated: winding: with the edge scooped into sinuses.

Sinuato-convex: sinuate and convex.

Sinuato-lobate: sinuate and lobed.

Sinuato-truncate: truncated, with the margin sinuate.

Sinuous: undulating; curved in and out.

Sinus: a curvilinear indentation more or less profound: an excavation as if scooped out: a curved break in an otherwise straight margin.

Siphon: a tube-like mouth organ in certain insects: the breathing tube of a Culicid larva: any tubular external process or structure.

Siphonaptera: an ordinal name for insects which are wingless: mouth formed for piercing and sucking; saltatorial; transformations complete: the fleas = Aphaniptera; q.v.

Siphonata: = Homoptera or, more specifically, plant lice and leaf hoppers.

Siphonets: see honey tubes.

Siphonophora: = Coccinellidae; the term is preoccupied in the Coelenterates.

Siphunculata: the sucking lice.

Siphunculus: the suctorial organ of a louse, contained within the tubule: in plant lice =honey tubes; q.v.

Situ (in): in its natural place or position.

Sixth longitudinal vein: in Diptera; = 1st anal vein (Comst.).

Skeleton: the hard chitinous parts which externally (exoskeleton) or internally (endoskeleton) form a protective covering, or serve as points of attachment, to muscles and other soft organs.

Skippers: a popular term for Hesperid butterflies: the dipterous larva sometimes found in cheese and other provisions.

Slaty: very dark blackish gray with a reddish tinge [neutral with a little Indian red].

Slug: in general, any larva that has a slimy viscid appearance, and the body closely applied to the food plant: more specifically, the larvae of certain saw-flies and of some Coleoptera.

S. M. interspace: sub-median interspace in the primaries of Lepidoptera, includes the space between the median and sub-median veins; (cubitus and 1st anal, Comst.).

Smaltinus: a dull grayish blue.

Smaragdinus: emerald green [pale green].

Smooth: a surface without elevations or indentations.

Snout: the prolongation of the head in Rhynchophora at the end of which the mouth parts are situated: see rostrum.

Social: living in communities: more especially those species in which undeveloped or worker forms occur and where the colony has a single female head.

Soldiers: in termites; forms sexually undeveloped, in which the mandibles are pincer-like and the head is much enlarged: worker majors in certain ants.

Solid: applied to an organ usually jointed, when these joints form into one mass; e.g. the capitulum of certain clavate antennae.

Solitary-arius: occurring singly or in pairs; not in colonies.

Somatic: relating to the body, or abdomen.

Somatotheca: that part of pupa covering abdominal rings:= gasterotheca.

Somite: = arthromere.

Sonifaction: the production of sound: = stridulation; q.v.

Sonoran faunal areas: see upper and lower Sonoran.

Sonorific: sound producing: applied to stridulating organs.

Sordid: dirty; dull.

Spadiceous: bay brown [dragon's blood + brown ochre].

Spado: the worker or neuter in bees and ants.

Sparse: scattered: single hairs, scales or sculptures set well apart.

Spatha: a median piece in male genitalia of aculeate Hymenoptera, covering the bases of the sagitte.

Spatula: the breast bone (q.v.) of cecidomyid larvae.

Spatulate: rounded and broad at top, attenuate at base.

Specialization: the adaptation of an organ to a definite purpose, or of an organism to fit a determinate environment.

Species: an aggregation of individuals alike in appearance and structure, mating freely and producing young that themselves mate freely and bear fertile offspring resembling each other and their parents: a species includes all its varieties and races.

Specific character: a feature common to all individuals of a species, by means of which they may be distinguished from all other individuals of other species: = essential character.

Specular: mirror-like: transparent.

Specular membrane: in male Cicada, the inner or posterior mirror-like membrane of the sound-organ: = mirror.

Speculum: a transparent area or spot on wings of some Lepidoptera; the glassy areas at base of tegmina in male Orthoptera that serve as sounding boards: a spot on the neck of some caterpillars.

Sperm: the seminal fluid: in plural form is sometimes used as = spermatozoa; q.v.

Spermatheca: = spermatotheca; q.v.

Spermatid: the final cells which are converted without further division into spermatozoa: they arise by division of the second spermatocytes (Wilson).

Spermatocytes: the cells arising from the spermatogonia. The primary spermatocyte arises by growth of one of the last generation of spermatogonia. By its division are formed two secondary spermatocytes, each of which give rise to two spermatids (Wilson).

Spermatogenesis: the development of spermatozoa.

Spermatogonia: the descendants of the primordial germ cells in the male. Each ultimate spermatogonium typically gives rise to four spermatozoa.

Spermatophora: a sac or case containing spermatozoa.

Spermatotheca: the sac or reservoir in the female, that receives the sperm during coition: = spermatheca and receptaculum seminis.

Spermatozooen-zoa: the male cell or cells which, by uniting with the ova, fertilize them.

Spherical: in the form of a sphere: a body in which all diameters are equal.

Spherule: a minute sphere or globule.

Spicula: a slender needle-like process: e.g. the sting in bees: also employed as = ovipositor: q.v.

Spiculiform: like a slender, needle-like process.

Spiculum: a small spicule or thin, pointed process.

Spinate: produced into an acuminate spine.

Spindle-shaped: cylindrical, elongate, thicker in the middle, tapering to each end: fusiform.

Spine: a sharp process: in Coccidae there are two, one each side of each segment of the pygidium.

Spiniferous: bearing, or clothed with spines.

Spiniform: in the form or shape of a spine.

Spinneret: the ligula in bombycid and some other larvae, modified for silk spinning: any organ consisting of an internal tube, terminating in a pore, spine or process, producing a silky or waxy fibre: in the plural, the organs concerned in the emission of the silky or cottony filaments of which the scales or sacs of Coccidae are produced: = fusulus.

Spinose -ous -ed: set with acute processes or spines.

Spinous-radiate: beset with spines in a circle, either concatenate, united at their bases, or setaceous, like bristles.

Spinulae: spinous processes at the apex of the tibia: also called spines, spurs or heels.

Spinulate -ose: set with little spines or spinules.

Spinules: little spines.

Spira: the coiled ovipositor of Cynipidae.

Spiracle -cula: a breathing pore: q.v.: in the plural the lateral openings on the segments of the insect body through which air enters the tracheae:= stigmata.

Spiracular area: the anterior of the three areas between lateral and pleural carinae on the metanotum of some Hymenoptera: =first pleural area.

Spiracular line: in caterpillars is that which includes the spiracles: = stigmatal.

Spiracular sulcus: on the metanotum of Hymenoptera, is a grooved linear channel extending from spiracle to apical margin.

Spiral: rolled up like a watch spring, or twisted like a cork-screw. {Scanner's comment: Nowadays it is more correct to regard the corkscrew as helical and the watch spring as spiral.}

Spiral fibre: the spiral thickening or folding of the chitinous lining of a trachea, which gives to the latter its characteristic microscopic appearance as well as its support and elasticity:= ctenidium.

Spirignath: = spiritrompe.

Spiritrompe: the spiral tongue in Lepidoptera.

Splanchnic: applied to the outer embryonic layer of the rudiment of the mid-intestine: or the inner layer of the mesoderm which, becoming applied to the walls of the alimentary canal, develops into the muscle fibres thereof.

Splendens -ent: shining: with a metallic glitter.

Splitter: one who splits or describes species or genera upon minute characters which the "Lumper" (q.v.) deems insufficient to authorize them.

Spongioplasm: the net-like structure of protoplasm in a cell.

Spongiose: a soft, elastic tissue resembling a sponge.

Spoon: = bouton; q.v.

Spring: in Collembola. = furcula: q.v.

Spur: a short, stiff, generally blunt process and usually not articulated at its base: in the plural refers to paired spiniform processes at or near the end of tibia:.

Spur formula: a numerical expression of their arrangement; as 2-3-4; two spurs on fore tibia, 3 on middle, and 4 on posterior; in Trichoptera.

Spurius: false: applied to aborted anterior legs in some diurnal Lepidoptera.

Spurious cell: in Diptera (Pack.), = 3d anal (Comst.).

Spurious veins: certain folds or thickenings in the wing surface which resemble a vein so nearly as to be readily mistaken and sufficiently constant to be useful in classification.

Squama: in Odonata, the sclerite that bears the palpus of both maxilla and labium: the scale-like first abdominal segment of some ants: a scale-like appendage covering the base of primaries in Lepidoptera, and so = patagium; q.v.: a small scale above the halteres in Diptera: in this order Packard uses squama for the lobed scale and restricts alula to the lobe-like appendage: Osten-Sacken uses squama for the posterior scale alone and antisquama for the anterior.

Squames: the flattened, fimbriated or spine-like marginal processes of the pygidium in Diaspinae, other than the lobes and true spines: = "plates," of Comst.; or "scaly hairs" of Maskell.

Squamiform: having a scale-like form.

Squamose -ous: scaly or covered with scales.

Squamula: a small corneous scale covering the base of primaries in some insects: = tegula, q.v.: in Diptera, = alula.

Squarrous: scurfy: clothed with rough scales differing in direction, standing upright, or not parallel to the surface.

Stadium -ia: the interval between the molts of larvae:= instar q.v.: any one period in the development of an insect.

Stage: refers to the period of development; e.g. larval, pupal, etc.

Stalked bodies: = gyri cerebrales; q.v.

Stellate: star-shaped; with four or five radiating lines.

Stelocyttares: social wasps in which the comb layers of the nest are supported by pillars and not connected with the envelope: see poecilocyttares and phragmocyttares.

Stemapoda: the modified filamentous anal legs of Cerura and other Notodontid larvae.

Stemmata: simple eyes or ocelli; q.v.

Stem-mother: in plant lice; that form hatching from the winter egg, which starts a series of agamic summer generations.

Stenocephalous: with a narrow, elongate head.

Stenorhynchan: narrow beaked or snouted.

Stenothorax: a supposed ring between pro- and meso-thorax.

Stercoral: relating or pertaining to excrement.

Sterile: not capable of reproducing its kind.

Sternal orifice: in Perlids; a peculiar slit on each side of the sternum, extending inward and ending blindly := furcal orifice.

Sternal spatula: = breast-bone; q.v.

Sternauli: the short and often obsolete furrows on either side of the mesosternum in Hymenoptera.

Sternellum: the second sclerite of the ventral part of each thoracic segment frequently divided into longitudinal parts which may be widely separated.

Sternite: the ventral piece in a ring or segment.

Sternopleura: in Diptera, the lower part of the pleura, below the sternopleural suture and above the front coxa.

Sternopleural bristles: in Diptera, are situated on the sternopleura below the sternopleural suture.

Sternopleural suture: in Diptera, is below and nearly parallel with dorso-pleural suture, separating the mesopleura from the sternopleura.

Sterno-rhabdite: a sternal rhabdite.

Sternorhynchi: that series of Homoptera in which the beak or rostrum apparently arises from the sternum between the anterior coxae; e.g. plant lice, etc.

Sternum -a: the breast: the middle portion of the under surface of thorax, between the coxal cavities.

Stethidium: the trunk: the entire thorax with all its appendages.

Stigma: a spiracle or breathing pore: a dense, often discolored portion of the costal margin of a wing, usually at the end of the radius; see anastomosis: in Diptera, a colored wing spot near the tip of the auxiliary vein: in Lepidoptera, the specialized patch of black scales on the primaries of Hesperidae.

Stigmata: the spiracles: also applied to the two spots, orbicular and reniform, in the cell of the primaries of certain moths.

Stigmatal line: in caterpillars, = spiracular; q.v.

Stigmatiferous: applied to processes or structures bearing spiracles or stigmata.

Stimuli: the small acute spines on some larva, especially wood-borers

Sting: the modified ovipositor in aculeate Hymenoptera.

Stipes: the foot-stalk of the maxilla; articulated partly to the head, partly to the cardo, and bearing the movable parts: modified into a piercing structure in some Diptera and into a lever for flexing the proboscis in others.

Stipitate: supported on a stalk or pedicle.

Stipites: the outer pair of forceps in male genitalia of aculeate Hymenoptera see sagittae.

S. T. line: sub-terminal line; crosses the primaries of many moths just before the outer margin.

S. T. space: the area between the t.p. line and s. t. line in moths.

Stirps: a stock or stem: a division of classification similar to super-family: not used at present.

Stoma -ata: a breathing pore or pores:= stigma; q.v.

Stomach: that portion of the alimentary canal, immediately following the gizzard and preceding the ileum, into which most of the digestive juices are poured = chylific ventricle.

Stomatodaeum: that invagination of the ectoderm that forms the mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, crop and gizzard.

Stomatogastric: that system of nerves and ganglia, lying along the dorsal and lateral surfaces of gullet and crop.

Stomatotheca: that part of the pupa covering the mouth structures.

Stramineous -eus: straw yellow [pale clay yellow].

Strangulate: constricted, as if by bands or cords.

Stratified: arranged or made up in layers.

Strepsiptera: twisted-wing: an ordinal term proposed for the parasitic Stylopidae, now ranged as a family of Coleoptera = Rhipiptera.

Stria: in Coleoptera, a longitudinal depressed line or furrow, frequently punctured, extending from base to apex of elytra: in Lepidoptera, a fine transverse line: in general, any longitudinal impressed line.

Striate -ed: marked with parallel, fine, impressed lines; or, in Lepidoptera, with numerous fine transverse lines.

Stridulate: to make a creaking noise by rubbing together two ridged or roughened surfaces.

Stridulation: a creaking sound produced by rubbing together two striated or otherwise roughened surfaces: the act of stridulating or the noise produced by it.

Striga: a narrow, transverse line or slender streak, either surface or impressed. {Scanner's note: the proper plural is strigae}

Strigate: having striga: applied to a surface on which the striga are impressed as in the elytra of some beetles, or to an ornamentation composed of fine, short lines. {Scanner's note: sic; the proper plural is strigae}

Strigile -is: maculation that consists of parallel longitudinal lines: a deep sinus near base of first joint of anterior tarsus.

Strigillate -ation: = stridulate -anon; q.v.

Strigose: clothed with rigid bristles that are thickest at base: rough, with sharp bristles: = hispid.

Strigula: a fine short transverse mark or line.

Strigulated: with numerous strigulae.

Striolate -us: with finely impressed parallel lines.

Stripe: a longitudinal streak of color different from the ground.

Style: in Aphids, the slender tubular process at the end of the abdomen: in Coccids, a long spine-like appendage at the end of the abdomen of the male; = genital spike: in Diptera, the ovipositor (Loew); the single immovable organ immediately below the forceps in male Tipulidae (O-S.) a thickened jointed arista at or near the tip of the third antennal joint in the plural form applied to small, usually pointed, exarticulate appendages, most frequently found on the terminal segments of abdomen.

Stylet: a small style or stiff process: one of the piercing mouth structures in Diptera and Hemiptera.

Styliform: in the shape of a stylus: terminating in a long slender point, like the antenna in some Diptera.

Stylopized: infested by a member of the Stylopidae.

Stylotrachealis: with a long tube bearing a stigma, from the head case; as the pupa of some Diptera.

Stylus: a small, pointed, non-articulated process.

Sub-: as a prefix, means that the main term is not entirely applicable, but must be understood as modified in some way; e.g. sub-ovate, may be either more or less than ovate and may be irregular in outline.

Sub-aduncate: somewhat hooked or curved.

Sub-anal plate: Orthoptera; = sub-genital lamina; q.v.

Sub-apical lobe: of male genitalia in Culicids is the inner sub-apical lobe of the side piece.

Sub-apterous: almost wingless; with rudimentary wings only.

Sub-clavate: somewhat thickened toward tip; but not quite club-shaped.

Sub-coriaceous: somewhat leathery.

Sub-cortical: beneath the bark; as in larval borings, etc.

Subcosta: (Comst.); that longitudinal vein extending parallel to the costa and reaching the outer margin before the apex; not branched as a rule of Packard, in Hymenoptera, = radius (Comst.).

Subcostal cell: in Diptera (Schiner), = marginal cell (Loew), = radial 1 (Comst.) in the plural (Comst.), all those cells anteriorly margined by the subcosta first s.c. cell in Hymenoptera (Pack.), = radial and first radial 1 (Comst.).

Subcostal crossveins: in Odonata, are between subcosta and media on the basal side of the first antecubital.

Subcostal fold or furrow: lies between costa and radius.

Subcostal nervule: Lepidoptera, on secondaries:= media 1 (Comst.): s.c. 1 = radius 1 (Comst.); s.c. 2:= radius 2 (Comst.) s.c. 3 = radius 3 (Comst) s.c. 4 = radius 4 (Comst.) s.c. 5 = radius 5 (Comst.).

Subcostal vein: in Diptera (Schiner), = 1st longitudinal vein (Meigen) radius 1 (Comst.): in Lepidoptera, runs from base, parallel to costa, to or beyond the middle, giving rise to branches which extend to the outer margin and thus = radius (Comst.).

Sub-cristate: with a moderately elevated ridge or keel on pronotum, in Orthoptera.

Subcutaneous: under the skin: applied to larvae that feed under the skin of animals or within the substance of a leaf.

Sub-dorsal: the space between the dorsum and the stigmata.

Sub-dorsal line: in caterpillars is to the side of the dorsal and between it and the lateral or, if there is an addorsal line, between that and the lateral.

Sub-dorsal ridge: in slug caterpillars, extends longitudinally along the sub-dorsal row of abdominal tubercles.

Sub-equal: similar, but not quite equal in size, form or other characters.

Sub-eroded: wing margins when somewhat, but irregularly, indented.

Sub-falcate: when a wing is only a little excavated below the apex.

Subfamily: a division of classification containing a group of closely allied genera; different from other allied groups, yet not so as to make a family series: opinionative, and ending in -inae.

Sub-fossorial: legs used in digging: yet not greatly modified.

Sub-frontal: close to the front; immediately behind the front margin.

Sub-fulcrum: a sclerite between mentum and palpiger: rarely present.

Sub-fusiform: somewhat spindle-shaped.

Subgalea: a maxillary sclerite or segment, attached to the stipes, and bearing the galea or outer lobe.

Sub-geniculate: applied to antennae that are articulated from a short, thick scope.

Subgenital lamina or plates: plates underlying the genital organs in Orthoptera.

Subgenus: a division within a genus, based upon a character not sufficient for generic separation; opinionative.

Subglossa: in Odonata; a sclerite between the two halves of the mentum (Graber): is really the true mentum.

Sub-imago: sometimes applied as = nymph: that stage in Ephemerida just after emergence from the pupa and before the final molt during flight: that stage in the development of insects with free pupa when the insect is fully colored but yet retains its pupal position.

Sub-labrum: =epipharynx; q.v.

Sublingual: beneath the tongue; applied to a pair of salivary glands in bees.

Submargin -al: an imaginary portion of a surface outside of the disk and within the margin: a line is submarginal when it is well within the margin but close to it.

Submarginal area: of secondaries, lies between the costal margin and the 1st strong vein.

Submarginal cells: in Hymenoptera (Norton) = radial cells (Comst.): in Diptera (Will.); = radial 3 (Comst.).

Submarginal nervure: in Hymenoptera (Nort.); the irregular line of veins extending on the whole parallel with the outer margin; composed in part of media 1, 2, 3 and 4, the medial cross vein and cubitus 1 (Comst.).

Submedian cells: in Hymenoptera (Pack.); 1st = cubital + cubital 1 (Comst.) 2d = medial 3 (Comst.); 3d = 2d medial 2 (Comst.).

Submedian vein: in Odonata, =cubitus (Comst.); in Lepidoptera, = 1st anal (Comst.), runs from base of primaries to the hind angle, close to the inner margin and is v. 1 of the numerical series.

Submental: pertaining to the sub-mentum.

Submental peduncle: in Coleoptera, the prolonged portion of the gula supporting the mentum.

Submentum: the basal sclerite of the labium, by means of which it is attached to the head.

Subnodal sector: in Odonata, = radial sector (Comst.).

Sub-nymph: applied to the resting or pupal stage of female Coccidae; also to a supernumerary stage before the formation of the pupa, and thus = pseudo-pupa.

Sub-ocellate: an ocellate spot that is blind or without a pupil.

Sub-ocular: beneath or below the eyes.

Sub-oesophageal ganglion: situated in the head below the oesophagus, formed by a union of the posterior three primitive head ganglia.

Sub-order: a division of an order higher than a family, based on a character common to a large series of species; e.g. the Homoptera and Heteroptera in the order of Hemiptera.

Sub-pedunculate: in Coleoptera, when the constriction between pro- and meso-thorax is so great as to give the appearance of a narrow waist.

Subreniform: a rounded spot or outline, below and sometimes attached to the reniform spot in Catocala and some allied Noctuids.

Sub-parallel: nearly parallel.

Sub-primary sub-ventral tubercle: on the thoracic and abdominal segments of caterpillars; sub-ventral, posterior, not present in the primitive first stage; it is VI of the abdomen, V of the thorax: constant.

Sub-sellate: nearly like or approaching the form of a saddle.

Sub-servate: denticulate.

Subspecies: a well-marked form of a species differing from the type in some character of color or maculation which is recognizable but does not prevent a fertile union: an indefinite and opinionative division.

Subspiracular line: in caterpillars, margins the spiracles inferiorly.

Substigmatal: that portion of the marginal cell below the stigma, in bees: = 1st radial 1 (Comst.): applied to a line in caterpillars = subspiracular.

Sub-teres: nearly but not quite cylindrical.

Subtile -is: slightly; feebly; small; pretty; graceful.

Subtriangular space: = internal triangle: see triangle.

Subtus: beneath; at the under surface.

Subulate: awl-shaped: linear at base, attenuate at tip.

Subulicornia: with awl-shaped antennae; applied to a combination of Odonata and Ephemerida.

Subuliform: formed like an awl: = subulate.

Sub-ventral line: in caterpillars, extends along the sides just above the base of the feet at lie edge between lateral and ventral.

Sub-ventral ridge: in slug caterpillars extends longitudinally along the sub-ventral series of abdominal tubercles.

Sub-ventral space: in slug caterpillars is the area on each side, between the lateral ridge and the lower edge of the body, and contains the spiracles.

Succincti: those chrysalids of butterflies which are held in place by a silken cord passing around the body: see suspensi.

Succineous: resembling amber in color or appearance.

Sucking pump: in sucking insects, a thick-walled muscular enlargement of the oesophagus that serves to draw up the liquid food = pharyngeal pump.

Sucking spears: the mandibles and maxillae of Hemerobiid larvae, used for puncturing prey and sucking its juices.

Sucking stomach: a thin-walled muscular pouch connected with the end of the oesophagus; serves as a food reservoir and is not commonly present except in some Lepidoptera.

Suctoria: an ordinal term proposed for fleas.

Suctorial: adapted for sucking: see haustellate.

Suctorial vesicles: bladder-like structures connected with the oesophagus in mosquitoes supposed to assist in blood-sucking; but this is disputed.

Suffused: clouded or obscured by a darker color.

Suffusion: a clouding, or a spreading of one shade over another.

Sulca: grooves, furrows or channels: plural of sulcus.

Sulcated: grooved; furrowed with broad, concave, parallel impressed lines.

Sulciform: resembling a sulcus.

Sulcus: a furrow or groove: a groove-like excavation.

Sulphureous -eus: bright, sulphur yellow [chrome lemon].

Superans: exceeding in size and length.

Superciliary: placed above the eyes.

Supercilium: an arched line over an ocellate spot.

Super-family: a division of classification less than an order, including a series of family groups more closely related to each other than to similar groups within the order: opinionative and ending in oidea: sometimes hardly different from suborder; but lower than suborder when both terms are employed.

Superficies: the upper surface.

Supericornia: those Heteroptera having the antenna inserted on the upper parts of the sides of the head; e.g. Coreidae: see infericornia.

Superior wings: the primaries; q.v.

Superlinguae: the lateral pair of organs of hypo-pharynx in Thysanura.

Superlingual segment: the fifth segment of head.

Superne: denotes all those parts belonging to the upper surface.

Supernumerary: additional or added cells, veins or other structures.

Supernumerary segment: in Cecidomyidae, between the head and first thoracic segment.

Super-order: a group of allied orders, like the Linnaean Neuroptera.

Superposed: placed one above the other, as the frontal tufts in some moths.

Supplementary sectors: interposed sectors; q.v.

Suppression: the non-development of a part normally present.

Supra-: over; above.

Supra-alar bristles: in Diptera, are situated, one on the post-alar callus, one on the alar frenum, the third on the edge of the supra-alar depression.

Supra-alar cavity: = supra-alar groove.

Supra-alar depression: in Diptera = supra-alar groove.

Supra-alar groove: in Hymenoptera, a groove or depression just above the base of wings: in Diptera, a groove on the meso-thorax just above the root of the wings.

Supra-anal: situated above the anus.

Supra-anal hook: in male of most Lepidoptera, a curved hook attached to the plate covering the genital cavity: = uncus.

Supra-anal plate: a triangular sclerite covering the anal cavity above; present in many insects, sometimes in one sex only, often in both: see anal operculum.

Supra-cerebral: applied to that pair of salivary glands situated above the brain in bees.

Supra-clypeal mark: in bees; a patch of light color above the clypeus.

Supra-clypeus: = post-clypeus; q.v.: = nasus.

Supra-Oesophageal: situated above the oesophagus: applied to two large ovoid ganglia so situated, and connected by a short, thick commissure; - the brain.

Supra-orbital: situated above the eye.

Supra-spinal: above the spine or nerve cord: applied to a cord or band of connective tissue lying above the central nervous system in adult Lepidoptera also to a sinus or vessel acting as a ventral heart.

Supra-spiracular line: in caterpillars, margins the spiracles superiorly.

Supra-stigmatal line: = supra-spiracular lines.

Supra-triangular cross-veins: in Odonata, cross the supra-triangular space.

Supra-triangular space: in Anisoptera, an area just above the triangle, occupying nearly the same position as the quadrilateral of Zygoptera: hyper-trigonal space.

Suranal: = supra-anal.

Suranal plate: the middle dorsal plate attached to the l0th abdominal segment of the male grasshoppers, above the anal opening: a supra- anal tergite of a caterpillar.

Sursum: directed upwardly.

Suspensi: the chrysalids of butterflies that are suspended by the tail only: see succincti.

Suspensoria: are those muscles or ligaments that hold the viscera and other internal structures in place.

Sustentors: the two posterior projections of a butterfly chrysalis.

Suture: a seam or impressed line indicating the division of distinct parts of body wall: the line of junction of elytra in Coleoptera.

Suturiform: an articulation soldered together so that only a slight impressed line is visible.

Swarming: the concerted departure from a hive of a large number of worker bees, accompanied by a queen; this forming the nucleus of a new colony.

Swimmerets: gill or plate-like structures in the aquatic larvae of some Neuroptera, serving as oars or organs of locomotion.

Swimming paddles: terminal appendages of mosquito pupae.

Swoked: smoky, suffused with gray or blackish.

Sylvan: species inhabiting forests or woodland areas.

Symbiogenesis: the method of origin of social symbiotic relation among ants and other insects.

Symbiosis: a life relationship existing between different kinds of animals or plants, or between animals and plants: true symbiosis is where both parties to the relation benefit: see also parasitism, commensalism. Among the ants social symbiosis exists in its most highly developed form and distinctive terms have been proposed for the various types of relations:

Calobiosis, is that association in which one species, often only the female, lives in the nest of and at the expense of another species, either for a time, = temporary - or altogether, = permanent calacobiosis. {Scanner's note: sic}

Cleptobiosis, is where one species of ant lives in or near the nest of another, preying upon its larvae or pupae or stealing the food supply.

Dulosis, is that mingling of colonies which owes its origin to the enslavement of one species by another.

Hamabiosis, is that relation where two species of any insects, one of which may be an ant, live side by side without obvious motive or known advantage to one or both.

Lestobiosis, is where the workers of one ant colony "hold up" those of another species and rob them of the food they are carrying to the nest.

Parabiosis, is where different species of ants form colonies with inosculating galleries, and have their households strangely intermingled, but not blended.

Phylacobiosis, is the relation existing between ants and Termites, the ants living in the doorways of the Termites and functioning as guards.

Synclerobiosis, is an association of two species of ants that usually inhabit independent colonies, for purposes that are not clearly understood.

Trophibiosis, is the relationship between ants on the one hand and aphids, coccids and the like on the other; these species being sought and attended by the ants for their own benefit: see myrmecophily.

Xenobiosis, is where one species of ant lives as a guest in the nest of another, maintaining its own household, and mingling freely with the host species, the two living on terms of mutual toleration.

Symbiotic: species that live together in a state of symbiosis.

Symmetrical: evenly developed on both sides.

Symmetry: that regular arrangement of organs or parts which is capable of division into similar halves or similar radii.

Sympathetic nervous system: applied to the nerves and ganglia of the alimentary canal and sonic other viscera which they innervate; = vagus; visceral nervous system.

Symphily: the relation borne to ants by the true guests which inhabit their nests and are fed and tended: rendering in return some substance or service desired by the ants: see metochy and synechtry.

Symphyla: a group name for apterous species resembling myriapods in appearance, with functional abdominal legs and the genital openings on the last abdominal segment: regarded by some as connecting forms between insects and myriapods, e.g. Scolopendrella.

Symphysis: where two sclerites are joined together by a soft membrane, permitting a slight motion.

Synaptera: originally wingless insects without metamorphosis; the Thysanura.

Synarthrosis: an articulation without motion.

Syncerebrum: the compound brain of insects.

Synchronous: happening at the same time.

Synciput: that portion of the vertex lying between the eyes.

Syncitium: masses of protoplasm with nuclei, found in ovarian tubes; giving rise to ova, nutritive cells or both.

Syndesis: that method of articulation where two parts are connected by a membrane which permits of considerable motion between them.

Synechtry: the relation borne to ants by insects inhabiting their nests in spite of the efforts of the ants to destroy them: see symphily and metochy.

Synista or Synistata: those Neuropterous insects in which the mouth structures are undeveloped, forming an imperfect tubular structure: see elinguata.

Synoecy: the relation that exists between ants and those guests that are indifferent to and tolerated by them:= metochy, and see symphily and synecthry.

Synonym: a name applied to a species or genus that has been previously named and described.

Synonymous: words of different derivation applied to the same conception.

Synthlipsis: the basal constriction of the notocephalon in Notonectids.

Syntype: = co-type; q.v.

Syringe: in Hemiptera, a chamber into which the salivary ducts open and by means of which the secretion is forced forward between the seta or lancets.

System: an order of arrangement.

Systematic: in definite order, or arranged according to a system.

Systole: that regular contraction of the heart that sends the blood outward: see diastole.



T

T. A. line: transverse anterior line; crosses the primaries of certain moths one-third or less from the base: = antemedial line.

Tactile: used for touching; an organ that has the sense of touch.

Taenia: a broad longitudinal stripe.

Taeniate -us: with broad longitudinal markings.

Taenidium -ia: the band or chitinized fibre forming a part of the spiral thread in the trachea of insects.

Tail: an elongated terminal segment of the abdomen: the cauda in plant lice: elongated processes on the secondaries, in some Lepidoptera and Neuroptera.

Tangential: set in or meeting at a tangent; applied to ornamentation and processes.

Tarsal: relating to the tarsi, or feet.

Tarsal lobes: membranous appendages arising from the underside of the tarsal joints in some Coleoptera.

Tarsus -i: the foot; the jointed appendage attached at the apex of tibia. bearing the claws and pulvilli.

Taste cups: specialized pits or cups, with or without a peg or hair, connected with ganglionated nerve cells: occur on the mouth structure and evidence the sense of taste.

Tawny: a brownish yellow, like the color of a tanned hide [pale cadmium yellow + Indian red].

Taxonomical: systematic: relating to classification.

Testate: covered; concealed: also used as = tectiform.

Tectiform: roof-like, sloping from a median ridge, like the primaries of Cicada.

Tegmen: a covering: sometimes used for the anterior wings in Orthoptera and Neuroptera.

Tegmina: the thickened primaries serving as wing covers in Orthoptera.

Tegulae: small, more or less cup-like scales at the base of primaries in many insects; specifically in Hymenoptera: in Lepidoptera, = the patagia or shoulder tippets; but the homology is disputed; also applied to the lappet-like pieces forming the collar: in Diptera, the alulae, q.v.: the latter use is unfortunate and should be abandoned; the first definition should limit the use of the term: see aileron.

Tegument: a covering surface or skin.

Teleodont: applied to those forms of male Lucanids bearing the largest mandibles: see mesodont, amphiodont, priodont.

Telescopic: arranged so that one portion of an organ or process may be drawn into another, like the joints of a telescope.

Telson: a terminal tubercle bearing the anal opening: the anal segment of the insect embryo.

Telum: a spear, or spear-shaped process.

Temple: the posterior part of the gena; behind, before or beneath the eye.

Tempora: the temples.

Temporal margins: in Mallophaga, the lateral margins of the hind head.

Tenaculum: in Collembola, a small organ which holds the furcula in position when at rest: = catch.

Tenant hair: see tenent hair.

Tendo: the anal area of secondaries when it forms a groove for the abdomen: has also been called frenum and frenulum: in Trichoptera, a small elliptical space at base of hind wings near base of anal veins and behind the trochlea.

Tendon: the slender, chitinous plates, bands, strap- or cup-shaped pieces, to which muscles are attached for moving appendages: see apodeme.

Tenent hair: specialized hair adapted for clinging or clasping.

Teneral: that state of the imago just after its exclusion from pupa or nymph, in which neither coloring nor clothing is fully developed.

Tensor: a muscle which stretches a membrane.

Tentacle: a flexible sensory or tactile process; in some cases retractile: usually prefixed by a descriptive term indicating the structure to which it is attached.

Tentacular -um: retractile processes on the larvae of Lepidoptera.

Tentaculate: a margin when fringed with soft tactile processes.

Tentiform: shaped like a tent: see mines.

Tentoria: Diptera; two hollow, cylindrical struts which pass from the ventral border of the occipital foramen to the cheeks.

Tentorium: a chitinous frame-work within the head, upon which the brain rests.

Tenuis: thin, slender; long drawn out.

Terebra: a borer or piercer: an ovipositor fitted for boring or cutting as in saw-flies: a mandibular sclerite articulated to the basalis; forms the point of the structure and = the galea of the maxilla.

Terebrant: with an ovipositor fitted for piercing or boring.

Terebrantia: Hymenoptera with sessile abdomen and valved ovipositors: Thripids in which the ovipositor of female is borer-like.

Teres, Terete: cylindric or nearly so.

Tergal: belonging to the primitively upper surface: see dorsal.

Tergal suture: the Y shaped dorsal suture on the head of many insect larvae.

Tergite: the primitively dorsal part of a segment, especially when that part consists of a single sclerite; usually applied to the abdomen.

Tergo-pleural: the upper and lateral portion of a segment.

Tergo-rhabdites: the lower pair of corneous appendages forming the ovipositor in grasshoppers: plates on the inner dorsal surface of the abdominal wall.

Tergum: the primitively upperor dorsal surface whether it consists of one or more than one sclerite and specifically of the abdomen: in Odonata and Orthoptera, applies to thorax as well.

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