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Evolution, Old & New - Or, the Theories of Buffon, Dr. Erasmus Darwin and Lamarck, - as compared with that of Charles Darwin
by Samuel Butler
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KNEE-PAN, Paley on the human, 18

Knowledge, nomenclature mistaken for, 141

LABOUR, glory comes after, if she can, 76

Lamarck, had brain upon the brain, 36

—— never quite recognized design, 39

—— Haeckel's surprising statement concerning, 73

—— wherein he mainly differs from Buffon, 105

—— memoir of, 235

—— his connection with Buffon, as tutor to his son, &c., 237, 258

—— his daughters, 242, 253

—— his poverty and blindness, 242, 253

—— Isidore Geoffroy on, bad caricature of his teaching, 244-246

—— Haeckel on, 246, 247

—— never seriously discussed, 247

—— "the well-known doctrine of," C. Darwin's reference to, 249, 250, 251, 298, 314, 376

—— on the opposition his theory met with, 252

—— too old to have begun his unequal contest, 253

—— on the feeling of animals, 254, 255

—— too theory-ridden, 254

—— misled by Buffon (query), 255

—— took from Buffon without sufficient acknowledgment, 255, 258, 260, 311

—— as compared with Dr. Erasmus Darwin, 257

—— like Dr. E. Darwin, sees struggle and modification turn mainly round three great wants, 257, 279, 300, 309

—— when and how he came over to the side of mutability, 258

—— and the French translation of the "Loves of the Plant," 259

—— on comparative anatomy, 266

—— on species, 267, &c.

—— on conditions of existence (circonstances), 105, 268, 270, 271, 275, 277, 278, 281, 291, 292, 294, 295, 298, 299, 300, &c.

—— on instinct, 274

—— on animals and plants under domestication, 275, 293, 296, 297, 300

—— on extinct species, 277

—— anticipated Lyell in rejecting catastrophes, 277

—— on the geometrical ratio of increase and struggle for existence, 280-282

—— on embryonic development, 289

—— the main principles which he supposes to underlie variations, 292, 299, 338, 339

—— his contention that plants have neither actions nor habits, 295

—— on use and disuse, 294, 296, 299, 301, 302, 304, 305, 307-309

—— on the various breeds of the dog, 297

—— habit a second nature, 300

—— like Erasmus Darwin and Buffon, understood the survival of the fittest, 301

—— on the way in which serpents have lost their legs, 303

—— on wading and aquatic birds, 305

—— on the eyes of flat fish, 307

—— on man, 311, &c.

—— on a single instance of considerable variation under domestication, 311

—— on speech, 313, 314

—— on the upright position of man and certain apes, 313

—— his, and Etienne Geoffroy's views on conditions of existence, 326, 327, 328

—— his hypothesis, and Isidore Geoffroy, 329

—— Herbert Spencer on, 330, 331

—— desired to discover the law underlying variations, 337

—— the extent to which he and C. Darwin take common ground, 335-337

—— on body and mind, 338, 339, 341

—— on his theory variations will be definite, will appear in large numbers of individuals at the same time, for long periods together, 341

—— how he and C. Darwin treat the winglessness of Madeira beetles respectively, 373-380

—— on the eyes and ears of cave-inhabiting animals, 378, 379

Laputan method of making books, the, and natural selection, 11

Lawyer's deed, if we come across a very intricate, &c., 27

Leopard, the, can change his spots if it becomes worth his while to try long enough, 40

Lewes, G. H., on embryology, 25

—— his objection to the tentativeness with which the same errors are repeated generation after generation, 26

—— his objection to C. Darwin's language concerning natural selection, 346

Lewes, G. H., on natural selection, 348, 349, 359

Life, some remarks about the criterion of, that I must retract, 279

—— one Proteus principal of, 320

"Life and Habit," what I believe to have been its most important features, 67, 203, 204

—— recapitulation of the main principle insisted on, 37, 56, 203, 380, 381, 384

—— and Hartmann's philosophy of the unconscious, German review, 56, 57

Lifetime, considerable modifications effected during a single, 304

—— the changes undergone by organisms during a single, Herbert Spencer, on, 332-334

Ligament, the, which binds down the tendons of the instep, 21

Living, Paley is but doing his best to earn an honest, 29

—— forms of faith, or faiths of form, 339

Lines, no sharp can be drawn, 47

Lion and tiger, Buffon on the, 143, 145

Llama, Buffon on the hereditary ills of the, 161

Longevity, the principle underlying, 67, 380, 381

Loopholes for escape, the "Origin of Species" full of, 358

"Loves of the Plants," French translation of the, 63, 259

Lungs for respiration, and corkscrew for corks, Professor Clifford on, 7. (See also p. 58)

Lyell, Sir C., and Lamarck, 277

—— on the similarity between Lamarck's theory and Mr. Darwin's, 336, 337

MACHINE, Paley declares animals to be neither wholly machines nor wholly not machines, 14

Madeira beetles, the ways in which Lamarck and C. Darwin would treat their winglessness, 373-380

Maillet, de, referred to, 70

Mainspring, the true, of our existence lies not in these muscles, &c., 32

Man, the designer of man, 30

—— and horse, skeleton of the, 88, 89

—— and the ape, 90

—— and the lower animals, Buffon on, 107, 108

—— Lamarck on, 311, &c.

Manner, the, is the man himself, 77

—— "but this is Mr. Darwin's", 378

Manufacture, the, of tools and of organs, two species of the same genus, 39

Margin, there is a margin in every organic structure, &c., 49, 50

—— on the margin of the self-evident the greatest purchase is obtainable, 197

Market, the higgling and haggling of the, 50

Martins, M., his life of Lamarck, 235, &c.

Matter less important than the manner, 77

—— and mind, inseparable, 371

Matthew, Mr. Patrick, his work on naval timber and arboriculture, 64, 65

—— extracts from, 315, &c.

—— Mr. C. Darwin on, 315

—— on animals and plants under domestication, 324

—— on will as influencing organism, 320, 321, 322

—— on the struggle for existence with survival of the fittest, 320, 322

—— and natural selection, 323

—— on instinct and memory, and on the continued personality of parents in offspring, 321, 322, 323

Means, C. Darwin's dangerous use of this word, 345

—— one sine qua non for a thing is as much a means of that thing's coming about as anything else is, 349

Mechanism of animals, Paley on the, 14

Mechanism of animals, evidence of design in any ordinary, 15

Memory, and life and heredity, 37, 38, 39, 56, 67, 198-203, 332, 380, 381

—— Professor Hering on, 198-200

—— Patrick Matthew on, 322

Meteoric, both want and power are, 44, 45

Meninges, Buffon on the, 132

Microcosm, each organism a history of the universe from its own point of view, 31

Microscope, illustration from successive improvements in the, 46, 47

Mind, "the least inadequate and misleading symbol," for the power that has designed organism, 3, 371

—— and body, Lamarck on, 338, 339, 341

—— and matter inseparable, 371

Misfortune, take advantage of, 51

Misrepresentation, "great is the power of steady," 251

Missionaries should avoid trying to effect sudden modifications, 183

Mistake, the power to make, rated highly, 29

—— importance of, depends on magnitude rather than on the direction, 50

Mivart, Professor, says that, "Mind is the least adequate and misleading symbol," &c., 3, 371

—— referred to, 22, 66, 67

—— admits that his objection does not tell against the Lamarckian theory of evolution, 343

—— points out that the admission of a principle underlying variations is fatal to C. Darwin's theory concerning natural selection, 343

—— on C. Darwin's "haphazard, indefinite variations," 343

—— how Professor Huxley pointed out to him the objection to C. Darwin's theory concerning natural selection, 344

—— asks what is natural selection? and declares it to be repudiated by its propounder, 369

—— declares it to be "nothing," and a puerile hypothesis, 370, 371

—— declares the causes of variation to be the causes of the distinction of species, 370

Model, artificial, of a foot, and true foot, difference between, 24

Modification. It is only on modification that reason reasserts itself, 55

—— there have been two factors of, one producing variations, and the other accumulating them, 227

—— arrived at by struggle round three great wants, Erasmus Darwin on, 226-229

—— Lamarck on the same, 257, 279, 300, 301

—— the cause of survival, not survival the cause of modification, 302

Moral, an organism is most, when looking a little ahead, but not too far, 44

—— struggle, the history of organic development, the history of a, 45

—— more, and safer, to be behind the age than in front of it, 401

Movement, Buffon's great criterion of sensation, 127

Mummies, Egyptian, Lamarck on, 274, 275

Murphy, Rev. J. J., mentioned, 22

—— referred to, 66, 67

Mutability of species commonly held to be incompatible with a belief in design, 9, 10

Mystery-mongering, that Buffon wished to protest against, 81, 171

Mystification, scientific, and orthodoxy, Buffon on, 138

NAIVELY, as Mr. Darwin naively adds, "sometimes equally convenient," 354

Natural selection, the essence of the theory is that the variations shall have been mainly accidental, 7

Natural selection, the unerring skill of, 9

—— Sir William Thomson and Sir John Herschel on, 10

—— Button, and, "by some chance common enough with Nature," 122

—— spoken of as though synonymous with descent with modification, 248, 285, 356

—— C. Darwin attributes the instincts of neuter insects to, 249

—— Mr. Patrick Matthew and, 323

—— like the secretion of a cuttle-fish, 332

—— G. H. Lewes's objection to C. Darwin's language concerning, 346

—— if this is declared to be a cause, the fact of variation is declared to be the cause of variation, 347

—— declared by C. Darwin to be a means of variation, 347

—— treated as a cause, 348

—— G. H. Lewes on, 348, 349, 350

—— identity with "conditions of existence," 351-354

—— according to C. Darwin, "fully embraces" and yet "is included in" conditions of existence, 355

—— a cloak for want of precision of thought, and of substantial difference from Lamarck, 358

—— "some have even imagined that it induces variability;" and small wonder, considering C. Darwin's language concerning it, 362

—— C. Darwin's reply to those who have objected to the term, 362-368

—— a cloak of difference from C. Darwin's predecessors, under which there lurks a concealed identity of opinion as to main facts, 362, 363

—— "implies only the preservation of such variations as arise," &c., 363

—— admitted by C. Darwin to be a false term, 364

—— the complaint is that the expression has been retained when an avowedly more accurate one is to hand, 365, 366

—— only another way of saying Nature, 368, 369

—— the dislike of it is increasing, 368, 369

—— Francis Darwin does not use the expression, 368, 369

—— daily and hourly scrutinizing throughout the world, &c., 369

—— practically repudiated by C. Darwin himself, 369

—— Professor Mivart declares it to be "simply nothing," 370

—— a "puerile hypothesis," 371

—— and not disuse, the true main cause of the winglessness of Madeira beetles, according to C. Darwin, 374

—— not the main cause of the winglessness of Madeira beetles, according to C. Darwin, 377

—— "combined probably with disuse," will account, according to C. Darwin, for the winglessness of Madeira beetles, 375

Naturalistes, le peuple des, 80, 171

Nature, the personification of comparatively venial, 367

—— and natural selection the same thing, 368, 369

—— the most important means of modification, and variation the cause of variation, 369

Neck, Paley on the human, 17, 18

Need, sense of, the main idea in connection with evolution that is left with the reader by the "Zoonomia," or "Philosophie Zoologique," 363

Needle, 20,000 devils dancing a saraband on the point of a, 216

Nest, a bird will alter its nest a little, to meet altered circumstances, 55

Nests, birds', Dr. E. Darwin on, 201

Neuter insects, "the demonstrative case of neuter insects," &c., 249, 298, 314

New countries, Buffon a hater of, 146

Nomenclature, mistaken for knowledge, 141

Nottingham market-place, Erasmus Darwin in, 182, 184, 197

OAK and man, the germs of, indistinguishable, 334

—— man may become as long-lived as the, 382

Obvious, Erasmus Darwin had no wish to see far beyond the, 197

Oken, alluded to, 72

Old age, the phenomena of, 67, 204, 381

—— and new worlds, Buffon on the fauna of, 145, &c.

One source for all life, Buffon on, 91

—— Erasmus Darwin on, 109, 233

Oneness of personality between parents and offspring, 37, 38, 39

—— Buffon on the, 151

—— Erasmus Darwin and Professor Hering on the, 198-200

—— Dr. E. Darwin's failure to grasp the whole facts in connection with this, 198, 201, 203

—— Dr. E. Darwin on, 214, 215

—— Patrick Matthew on, 322, 323

—— mentioned, 332, 380, 381

Orang-outang, Buffon on the, 156-159

Organ and use. See "Use."

—— and sense, interaction of the, Buffon on, 127

—— and faculty, Lamarck on, 255

Organs are living tools, 2

—— the manufacture of, and that of tools, two species of the same genus, 39, 43, &c.

—— are the expressions of mental phases, 339, 341

Organic structures have a margin, 49, 50

Organic strictures and inorganic, Buffon on the, 153, &c.

Organisms, have been developed as man's inventions have, 44, 46, 47, 384

"Origin of Species," the, cannot take permanent rank in the literature of evolution, 62

—— has no raison d'etre, if natural selection is not a cause of variation, 346

—— a piece of intellectual sleight of hand, 346

—— compared to the advice of a lawyer who wanted to leave plenty of loopholes, or to a cobbled Act of Parliament, 358

—— is "Hamlet" with the part of Hamlet cut out, 363

—— most readers would say that it advocated natural selection as the most important cause of variation, 363

—— and the "Zoonomia," or the "Philosophie Zoologique"; the one upholds natural selection, the other, sense of need, 363

Orthodoxy, scientific, and mystification, Buffon on, 138

—— scientific, clamouring for endowment, 360

—— dangers of, 368

Overseeing tends to oversight, 197

PAINS, genius a supreme capacity for taking, 76

Painting, a man should do something, no matter what, 51, 52

Paley, quotations from, 12, &c.

—— his argument a juggle, unless some one designed man, much as man designed the watch, 14, 16

—— on ordinary mechanism, as showing design, 15

—— on the human neck, 16, 17

—— on the patella, 18

—— on the joints, 19, 20

—— as a writer against evolution, 21

—— on the ligament that binds the tendons of the instep, 21, 22

—— opposes the view that structures have been formed through appetency, endeavour or effort, 22, 45

—— we turn on him and say, Show us your designer, 29

—— asks, How will our philosopher get an eye? 46

—— his "Natural Theology" written throughout at the "Zoonomia," 195

—— never gives a reference when quoting an opponent, 195, 306

Pantheism and Rome will in the end be the two sole combatants, 401

—— common ground held by Rome and Pantheism, 403-405

—— of Paul, 404

Parents and offspring, oneness of personality between (see "Personality")

Passions, of like passions, men of science are, with other pastors and prophets, 253

Patella, or knee-pan, Paley on the, 18

Paul, St., his pantheistic tendencies, 404

—— we want to accept him literally, 405

Peace, the, that passeth understanding, 35

Perception and sensation, Buffon on the difference between, 129, 130

Personality, oneness of, between parents and offspring, 37, 38, 39

—— Buffon on the, 151

—— Erasmus Darwin and Professor Hering on the, 198-200

—— Erasmus Darwin's failure to grasp the whole conception, 198, 201, 203

—— Erasmus Darwin on the, 214, 215

—— Patrick Matthew on the, 322, 323

—— mentioned, 332, 380, 381

Personification, the, of Nature, comparatively venial, 367

Pessimism: "Which is the pessimist I or Mr. Darwin?" 59

Peuple des Naturalistes, le, 80, 171

"Philosophie Zoologique," summary of, 261-314

—— the, leaves "sense of need" on the reader's mind; the "Origin of Species," natural selection, 363

Pig, Buffon on the, 118, &c.

Pigeons and fowls, Buffon on, 169

Plaisanterie, Button's disclaimer of, 93

Planted upside down, the vertebrata regarded as vegetables, 137

Plants under domestication, Buffon on, 167, &c.

—— Dr. Erasmus Darwin, on the life of, 206, &c.

—— Lamarck's assertion that they have no action nor habits, 294, 295

Plato upheld teleology, 4

Plus il a su, &c., 44

Poem, a, by Dr. Erasmus Darwin, 189

Poetry, Dr. Erasmus Darwin's, 83, 189, 193

Pope's shoes, scientists would step into the, if we would let them, 360, 394

Portrait of Mr. Day, author of "Sandford and Merton," 180

Potto, the missing forefinger of the, 303

Power and desire, interaction of, 44, 45, 47, 127, 217, 221, 300, 323

Praising, with faint damnation, 111

Prescience, need not extend over more than the next step, and yet the whole road may have been travelled presciently, 52, 384

Present, development due to a wise use of the, 50-52

Probable, whatever in the teaching of St. Thomas Aquinas is not probable is to be rejected, 402, 403

Proficiency is due to design if each step was taken designedly, though the end was not far foreseen, 52, 384

Protestantism tends towards disintegration, 396

Proteus principle of life, one, 320

Pump, Erasmus Darwin's poetry about the, 84, 193

Purpose, instinctive actions were once done with a, 54

—— spent or extinct, and rudimentary organs, 38, 383

Purposive, if each step is purposive, the whole is purposive, 52, 384

Purposiveness: I maintain the lungs to be as purposive us the corkscrew, 5, 6, 7, 58

RACE, the runners in a, and natural selection, 366, 367

—— significance of the words being used for a breed and a competition, 366, 367

Racehorse or greyhound, "the well-adapted forms of the," 359

Ranunculus aquatilis, Lamarck's passage on, 260, 297

Raleigh, Sir Walter, and evolution, 21, 70

Ray Lankester, Professor, on Hering's theory connecting memory and heredity, 198-200

Reason, there is less reason than feeling in animals, Buffon, 51

—— perfected becomes instinct, but reasserts itself when the circumstances alter, 54, 55, 56, 203

—— and instinct, Buffon on, 110, 116

—— Erasmus Darwin on, 115, 116, 201-205

—— a less remarkable faculty than generation, Hume on, 233

—— and instinct, Lamarck on, 256, 274

—— declared to be incipient instinct, 256

Reel, au, Buffon's use of these words, 126

Relativity of the sciences, Buffon on the, 140

Religion, Buffon's appeals to, 91, 115

Reopen settled questions, animals cannot, serpents must have no more than four legs, 303

Resume earlier habits, the tendency to, on the approach of a difficulty, 312, 313

Retrogressive, Mr. Darwin's views of evolution retrogressive, 66

Revelation, Buffon's appeals to, against evolution, 91, 115

Reviews of "Evolution, Old and New," 385, &c.

Riches, the normal growth of, and evolution, 222

Roman Empire, the, prophetic, 397

Romanes, G. R., on "Evolution, Old and New," 391-393

Rome, Church of, means the same by "gentleman" as we do, 395

—— I would join, if I could, 395, 396

—— a unifier, 398

—— the only source from which a church can come, 398-401

—— and Pantheism, the ultimate fight will be between, 401

—— points of agreement between Rome and Pantheists, 403-405

—— may, and should get rid of Protestantism by outbidding it, 407

Rousseau, Buffon would not play part of, 81

Rudimentary organs, the crux of the early evolutionist in respect of design, 34

—— are now mere cant formulae, force of habit, 38, 383

—— like the protuberance at the bottom of a tobacco-pipe, 38

—— Buffon would not accept them as designed, 83

—— Buffon on, 120

—— Professor Haeckel on, 383

Run, how did the winner come to be able to run ever such a little faster than his fellows, 367

Runners in a race and natural selection, 366, 367

"SANDFORD and Merton," Miss Seward on the author of, 179, 180

Saints will commonly strain a point or two in their own favour, 253

Saturday Review on "Evolution, Old and New," 389-391

Savery, Captain, 54

Science, men of, of like passions with other priests and prophets, 253

—— not a kingdom into which a poor man can enter easily, 253

—— the leaders of will generally burke new-born wit unless, &c., 315

—— not of that kind which desires to know, 392

Scientific orthodoxy and mystification, Buffon on, 138

—— danger of, 360, 368

Scramble, birds learned to swim through scrambling, 48, 51

Self-indulgence, virtue has ever erred rather on the side of, than on that of asceticism, 35

Sensation, Buffon on, 126, 129

Sense, "in one sense," 355

Sensitive plants, Dr. E. Darwin on, 206, 210

Seriously, Buffon speaking, 126

Serpents, how it is that they have lost their legs, 302

Seward, Miss, her life of Erasmus Darwin, 174, &c.

Shakspeare and Handel address the many as well as the few, 81

Shortest day, and shortest day but one, no difference perceptible between, 48

Skeletons, the, of man and of the horse, 88, &c.

Skill, the unerring, of natural selection, 9

Siamese twins, desire and power compared to, 218, 300

Simplicity, happy, an example of, 276

Sisters, "his, and his cousins and his aunts," 253

Slit, a slit in one tendon to let another pass through, 20

Something a man should do, no matter what, 51

Sometimes, "equally convenient" ("the survival of the fittest" with natural selection), 9, 354, 365

Son, the people who can get good sons and retain their affection are the only ones worth studying from, 76

Sorbonne, the, and Buffon, 82, 84

Sorbonnes, never do like people who write in this way, 143

Specialists, embryos are, 28

Species, Buffon on the causes or means of transformation, 159, &c.

—— Lamarck on, 267, &c.

—— clusters of, Lamarck on, 288

—— C. Darwin on, 289

Specific characteristics vary more than generic, Lamarck on, 287, 288

—— C. Darwin on, 288

Speech, Lamarck on, 313, 314

Spencer, Herbert, on Lamarck's hypothesis, 330, 331

—— a follower of Buffon, Dr. Erasmus Darwin and Lamarck, 332

Spent, or extinct purpose, and rudimentary organs, 383

Spontaneous: C. Darwin uses this word in connection with variability, 358

—— variability (or unknown causes), C. Darwin, on what it will account for, or make known, 358

Steam engine, latest development of, not foreseen, though each immediate step in advance was so, 54, 384

—— design lost sight of in the most common patterns, as with a bird's-nest, or the wheel, 55

Step, if each step is purposive, the whole road has been travelled purposively, 52, 384

—— only the few nearest are taken definitely, 44, 384

Sterility of hybrids, Lamarck on, 272

—— C. Darwin on, 273

Stock, Buffon on the, and the diaphragm, 130

Stronger, the, succeed, and the weaker fail, 320, 321

Strongest, the, eat the weaker, 282

Struggle for existence, Buffon on the, 123

—— and hence modification, according to Dr. Erasmus Darwin, mainly conversant about three wants, 226-229, 232

—— comparison between Erasmus Darwin and Lamarck's views on the foregoing, 257

—— Lamarck on the foregoing, 279

—— and survival of the fittest, Lamarck on the, 281, 282

—— Patrick Matthew on, 321

Style, Buffon on, 76, 77

Sudden, the question what is too, to be settled by higgling and haggling, 50

—— modifications, missionaries should avoid trying to effect, 183

Superficial, philosophy of the, 34, 35, 36, 198, 204

Supply and demand, and desire and power, 223, 300

Survival of the fittest, a synonym for natural selection, 9

—— Dr. Erasmus Darwin on the, 227

—— in the struggle for existence, Lamarck on the, 281, 282

—— understood and admitted by Buffon, Erasmus Darwin, and Lamarck, 301

—— subsequent to modification, and therefore not the cause of it, 302, 346

—— Patrick Matthew on, 321

—— this is not a theory, but a fact, 356, 357

Swimming, no shore bird ever set itself to learn, of malice prepense, 48, 51

TAIL, the beaver's, has become an incarnate trowel, 8

Teething, the pain an infant feels is the death-cry of many a good cell, 75

Teleological, failure of the early evolutionists to see their position as, 34

Teleology, statement of the question, 1

—— Aristotle denied, Plato upheld, 4

—— the, of Paley and the theologians, 12, &c.

—— internal as much teleology as external, 36

—— See also "Design."

Telescope, Lord Rosse's, and dew-drop, 44, 47

Tempering, the felicitous, of two great contradictory principles, 35

Tendon, a slit in one, to let another pass through, 20

Terminology of botany harder than botany, 108

—— Buffon on, 140, 141

Test, Buffon's, as to the name an object is to bear, 115

—— of perception and sensation, Buffon's, 127

Theological writer, few passages in any, displease me more, &c., 368

Theory, the survival of the fittest is a fact, not a theory, 356, 357

Theories, true, Fontenelle on, 22, 23

—— to be ordered out of court if troublesome, 35

This: "I can no more believe in this," &c., 359

—— "it is impossible to attribute to this cause," 358

Thomas, St., Aquinas, Papal encyclical on, 402, 403

Thomson, Sir W., natural selection and design, 10

Thought is expressed in organ, 339, 341

Time, Buffon on, 103

—— Lamarck on, 241

Tobacco-pipe, a rudimentary organ on a, 38

Toes, a man who plays the violin with his, 50

Tools, organs are living tools, 2

—— the manufacture of, and that of organs, two species of the same genus, 39

Touch, all senses modifications of the sense of touch, 47

Transformation of species, Buffon on the causes or means of, 159

Translation of the "Loves of the Plants" into French, 63, 258, 259

Translation of the "Zoonomia" into German, 71

—— of Dr. E. Darwin's other works, 195

Trapa Natans, Erasmus Darwin's note on, 260

Treviranus alluded to, 72

Tree, life seen as a tree, by Lamarck, 269

—— by C. Darwin, 270

—— nature compared to a, by Buffon, 171

Trees, the blind man who saw men as trees walking, 137

Trowel, the beaver has an incarnate trowel, 8

True, vitally, 227

—— all very, as far as it goes (that Nature is the most important means of modification), 369

Truism, the survival of the fittest, a, 351

Tutbury bull running, 187

Tyndall, Professor, a rhapsody about C. Darwin, 41

—— calls evolution C. Darwin's theory, 360, 361

UNCLES and aunts do not beget their nephews and nieces, 367, 376

Unconscious, our acquired habits come to be done as unconsciously as though instinctive, on repetition, 56

—— difference between my view of the, and Von Hartmann's, 58

Unconsciousness, the, with which habitual actions come to be performed, 37, 38, 39, 56-58, 67, 203, 332, 381

Understanding, the peace of mind that passeth, 35

Unity of the individual, Buffon on the, 127, 128. (See "Oneness")

"Unknown causes," according to Mr. Darwin, can do so much, but not so much more, 359

—— their identity with spontaneous variability, 359

—— heredity only another name for, unless the "Life and Habit" theory be adopted, 384

Upright position in man and certain apes, and children, Lamarck on, 312

Upside down, the vertebrata are perambulating vegetables planted, 137

Use and organ, 44, 45, 47, 217, 218, 221, 292, 294, 296, 299, 301, 302, 304, 305, 307-309, 311, 323

VACUUM, an omniscient and omnipotent, 28

Vague, efforts and desires are vague in the outset, 47, 52, 384

Variation, C. Darwin declares the fact of variation to be the cause of variation, 8, 9, 347, 369

Variations, one factor of modification provides, the other accumulates, 227

—— Lamarck strove to discover the law underlying, 337

—— C. Darwin sees no cause underlying them, 339, 340

—— according to Lamarck, they will tend to appear in definite directions in large numbers of individuals, for long periods together; according to C. Darwin they will not do thus, 341

—— must appear before they can be preserved, 346

—— the cause of variations is the cause of species (Professor Mivart on this), 370

Vary, man cannot vary his practices much more than animals can, 55

"Vestiges of Creation," the, 65

—— C. Darwin on the, 65

—— the author of, on Lamarck, 247

—— Darwin's treatment of, 247, 248

Virtue has ever erred on the side of excess than on that of asceticism, 35

Violin, a man who plays the, with his toes, 50

Vitally true, 227

Volition. (See "Will")

Voltaire, Buffon would not play the part of, 81

WALLACE, A. R., his review of Professor Haeckel's "Evolution of Man," 382-384

Want and power, interaction of, 44, 45, 47, 48, 217, 218, 221, 300, 323

Wasp, cutting a fly in half, Dr. Erasmus Darwin on, 205

Watch, Paley's argument from the, 13

Weaker, the strongest eat the, 282

Wealth, the normal growth of, and evolution, 222

Web-footed, how birds, became, 48, 49, 51

—— development of, birds, Lamarck on, 305

—— Paley on, 305

Wedge, Buffon let in the thin end of the wedge, by saying that changed habits modify form, 105, 106

Whisky, God keep you from—if he can, 176

Will, Patrick Matthew on, as influencing organism, 320-322. (See also "Desire," "Design," "Want," "Wish")

Will-o'-the-wisp, C. Darwin like a, 372

Wish and power, their interaction, 44, 45, 47, 48, 217, 218, 221, 300, 323

Wit, brevity may be its soul, but the leaders of science, &c., 315

Worcester, the Marquis of, 54

Words are apt to turn out compendious false analogies, 365

Worms, reasonable creatures, 255

Worth, nothing worth looking at or doing, except at a fair price, 35

Wright, of Derby, his portrait of Mr. Day, 180

ZEBRA and horse, Buffon on the, 80, 155, 164

"Zoonomia," German translation of the, 71

—— Paley's "Natural Theology" written at the, 195

—— fuller quotations from the, 214, &c.

—— the, and the "Origin of Species," the different ideas that an average reader would carry away with him from these two works ("Sense of Need" and "Natural Selection"), 363



The Mayflower Press, Plymouth, England. William Brendon & Son, Ltd.

THE END

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