HotFreeBooks.com
Every Step in Canning
by Grace Viall Gray
Previous Part     1  2  3  4     Next Part
Home - Random Browse

Chicken-Soup Stock. Place thirty pounds chicken in ten gallons of cold water and simmer for five hours. Remove meat and bones, then strain. Add sufficient water to make ten gallons of stock. Fill glass jars or tin cans with hot stock. Partially seal glass jars. Cap and tip tin cans. This stock is used to make soup where the term "chicken-soup stock" is used. Process ninety minutes if using hot-water-bath outfit or condensed-steam outfit; seventy-five minutes if using water-seal outfit; sixty minutes if using five-pound steam-pressure outfit; forty-five minutes if using pressure-cooker outfit.

Chicken Broth With Rice. For each gallon of soup stock use twelve ounces of rice. Boil rice thirty minutes. Fill jars or tin cans two-thirds full of rice and the remainder with soup stock. Partially seal glass jars. Cap and tip tin cans. Process ninety minutes if using hot-water-bath outfit or condensed-steam outfit; seventy-five minutes if using water-seal outfit; sixty minutes if using five-pound steam-pressure outfit; forty-five minutes if using pressure-cooker outfit.

Chicken Gumbo. Cut two pounds ham into small cubes and boil thirty minutes. Mince three pounds chicken and chop half a pound of onions fine. Make a smooth paste of a half pound flour. Add above to five gallons of chicken-soup stock. Then add a half pound butter and a quarter pound salt and boil ten minutes. Next add three ounces powdered okra mixed with one pint water. Pack into glass jars or tin cans while hot. Partially seal glass jars. Cap and tip tin cans. Process ninety minutes if using hot-water-bath outfit or condensed-steam outfit; seventy-five minutes if using water-seal outfit; sixty minutes if using five-pound steam-pressure outfit; forty-five minutes if using pressure-cooker outfit.

TOMATO ACID CHECKS BACTERIA

Some women who have canned soup tell me it spoiled or tasted "sourish and smelled sourish too." This is what we call "flat sour." It may happen to any vegetable you can, as well as to the soups. "Flat sour" affects peas, beans, asparagus and corn more than other vegetables. If the vegetables have been picked for some time and the bacteria have had a chance "to work," and you are not exceedingly careful about your canning, you may develop "flat sour" in the soup. If you let one little spore of this bacteria survive all is lost. Its moist growing place is favorable to development, particularly if not much acid is present. One little spore left in a jar will multiply in twenty hours to some twenty millions of bacteria. This twenty million can stand on the point of a needle, so a can could acquire quite a large population in a short time. Bacteria do not like acids, so it is always a good idea to have tomatoes in your soup mixture, and get the tomatoes into the stone crock early in the game. The tomato acid will safeguard the other vegetables which lack acid.

If you are careless about the blanching and cold-dipping—that is, not doing these full time—if you work too slowly in getting the products into jars and then let the full jars stand in the warm atmosphere, you are pretty sure to develop "flat sour."

Place each jar in the canner as it is packed. The first jars in will not be affected by the extra cooking. Have the water just below the boiling point as you put in each jar. When you have the canner full bring the water to the boiling point as quickly as possible and begin to count cooking or sterilizing time from the moment it does boil.

Some women make the mistake at the end of the cooking period of letting the jars remain in the boiling water, standing on the false bottom of the canner until they are cool enough to handle with no danger of burning the hands. This slow method of cooling not only tends to create "flat sour," but it is apt to result in cloudy-looking jars and in mushy vegetables.

For this reason you should have in your equipment a lifter with which you can lift out the hot jars without the hands touching them. If you use a rack with wire handles this answers the same purpose.

This "flat sour," which is not at all dangerous from the standpoint of health, must not be confused with the botulinus bacteria, which is an entirely different thing.

"Flat sour," perfectly harmless, appears often with inexperienced canners. Botulinus, harmful, appears rarely. You need not be at all alarmed about eating either "flat sour" or botulinus, because the odor from spoiled goods is so distasteful—it really resembles rancid cheese—that you would never get a spoon of it to your mouth.

If you are debating whether this jar or that jar of soup or vegetables is spoiled, do not taste the contents of the jar. Smell it. Tasting might poison you if you happened on the botulinus bacteria, which is so rare it need alarm no one; whereas smelling is perfectly safe.

TIME-TABLE FOR SOUPS

GRAY SOUP WITHOUT STOCK

NUMBER OF INGREDIENTS MINUTES OTHER PREPARATION TO BLANCH

1 Peck ripe tomatoes Scald 11/2 Remove core and stem end. 1 Head cabbage 5} 1 Dozen carrots 5} 1 White turnip 5} Cut into cubes after blanching 2 Pounds string beans 5} 1 Pound okra 5} 3 Red peppers 5}

1 Peck spinach Steam 15 minutes or until thoroughly wilted. 2 Pounds asparagus 4 Cut into small pieces after blanching. 6 Small beets 5 Cut into slices after blanching. 6 Ears sweet corn 5 Cut from cob after blanching. Salt

NUMBER OF MINUTES TO STERILIZE

In boiling water or homemade outfit, 212 degrees Fahrenheit, 90. In condensed steam outfit, 90. In water-seal outfit, 214 degrees Fahrenheit, 60. In steam-pressure outfit, 5 pounds, 60. In pressure-cooker outfit, 10 to 15 pounds, 45.

VEGETABLE SOUP WITHOUT STOCK, USING DRY LEGUMES

6 Pounds dried Lima beans} { Soak over night, then boil 4 Pounds dried peas } { for one half hour. 16 Pounds carrots 3} 6 Pounds cabbage 3} Cut into small cubes after 3 Pounds celery 3} blanching. 6 Pounds turnips 3} 4 Pounds okra 3 Cut into slices after blanching. 1 Pound onions 3 Chop fine after blanching. 4 Pounds parsley 3 Cut into pieces after blanching. Salt

NUMBER OF MINUTES TO STERILIZE

In boiling water or homemade outfit, 212 degrees Fahrenheit, 90. In condensed steam outfit, 90. In water-seal outfit, 214 degrees Fahrenheit, 60. In steam-pressure outfit, 5 pounds, 60. In pressure-cooker outfit, 10 to 15 pounds, 45.

SOUP STOCK (Foundation of All Stock Soups)

NUMBER OF INGREDIENTS MINUTES OTHER PREPARATION TO BLANCH 25 Pounds beef hocks, joints and bones Simmer for 6 or 7 hours. 5 Gallons water Should make 5 Gallons stock.

NUMBER OF MINUTES TO STERILIZE

In boiling water or homemade outfit, 212 degrees Fahrenheit, 40. In condensed steam outfit, 40. In water-seal outfit, 214 degrees Fahrenheit, 30. In steam-pressure outfit, 5 pounds, 30. In pressure-cooker outfit, 10 to 15 pounds, 25.

VEGETABLE SOUP WITH STOCK

1/4 Pounds dried Lima beans Soak 12 hours. 1 Pound rice Soak 12 hours. 1/4 Pound pearl barley Cook 2 hours. 1 Pounds carrots 3} 1 Pounds onions 3} Cut into small cubes after 1 Potato 3} blanching. 1 Red Pepper 3} 1/2 Pound flour } { Make paste of flour and soup stock. 5 Gallons soup stock } { Boil 3 minutes and add salt 4 Ounces salt } { Pour over vegetables and fill cans.

NUMBER OF MINUTES TO STERILIZE

In boiling water or homemade outfit, 212 degrees Fahrenheit, 90. In condensed steam outfit, 90. In water-seal outfit, 214 degrees Fahrenheit, 75. In steam-pressure outfit, 5 pounds, 75. In pressure-cooker outfit, 10 to 15 pounds, 45.

CREAM OF PEA SOUP

8 Pounds dried peas { Soak over-night and cook until soft. { Mash peas fine. 5 Gallons soup stock Add stock and boil. Put through sieve. 1/2 Pound flour } { Make paste of flour, sugar and salt 10 Ounces sugar } { and add to stock. Cook until thick. 3 Ounces salt } { Can.

NUMBER OF MINUTES TO STERILIZE

In boiling water or homemade outfit, 212 degrees Fahrenheit, 90. In condensed steam outfit, 90. In water-seal outfit, 214 degrees Fahrenheit, 80. In steam-pressure outfit, 5 pounds, 70. In pressure-cooker outfit, 10 to 15 pounds, 45.

CREAM OF POTATO SOUP

NUMBER OF INGREDIENTS MINUTES OTHER PREPARATION TO BLANCH

11/2 Pounds potatoes } { Boil potatoes and stock sliced thin } { 10 minutes. Add salt, 5 Gallons soup stock } { pepper, butter and boil 3 Ounces salt } { 5 minutes. Make flour 1/4 Teaspoonful pepper } { into paste and add. 1/2 Pound butter } { Cook 3 minutes and can. 3 Tablespoonfuls flour } Boil potatoes and stock }

NUMBER OF MINUTES TO STERILIZE

In boiling water or homemade outfit, 212 degrees Fahrenheit, 90. In condensed steam outfit, 90. In water-seal outfit, 214 degrees Fahrenheit, 75. In steam-pressure outfit, 5 pounds, 65. In pressure-cooker outfit, 10 to 15 pounds, 45.

BEAN SOUP

3 Pounds dried beans Soak 12 hours. 2 Pounds ham Cut ham into 1/4 inch cubes. 4 Gallons water } { Boil beans, ham and water 5 Gallons soup stock } { until beans are soft. Salt } { Mash beans fine. Add { stock and salt. Can.

NUMBER OF MINUTES TO STERILIZE

In boiling water or homemade outfit, 212 degrees Fahrenheit, 120. In condensed steam outfit, 120. In water-seal outfit, 214 degrees Fahrenheit, 90. In steam-pressure outfit, 5 pounds, 75. In pressure-cooker outfit, 10 to 15 pounds, 60.

CHICKEN SOUP STOCK (Foundation of All Chicken Soups)

30 Pounds chicken } 10 Gallons cold water. } Should make 10 gallons } Simmer 5 hours. Can. stock when finished }

NUMBER OF MINUTES TO STERILIZE

In boiling water or homemade outfit, 212 degrees Fahrenheit, 90. In condensed steam outfit, 90. In water-seal outfit, 214 degrees Fahrenheit, 75. In steam-pressure outfit, 5 pounds, 60. In pressure-cooker outfit, 10 to 15 pounds, 45.

CHICKEN GUMBO

2 Pounds ham Cut ham into small cubes and boil 30 minutes. 3 Pounds chicken Mince chicken. 1/2 Pound onions Chop onions. 1/2 Pound flour Make paste of flour. 5 Gallons chicken soup stock Add all this to soup stock. 1/2 Pound butter } 1/4 Pound salt } { Add butter and salt. Boil 3 Ounces powdered okra } { 10 minutes. Then add mixed with pint of } { okra mixed with water. water } { Can.

NUMBER OF MINUTES TO STERILIZE

In boiling water or homemade outfit, 212 degrees Fahrenheit, 90. In condensed steam outfit, 90. In water-seal outfit, 214 degrees Fahrenheit, 75. In steam-pressure outfit, 5 pounds, 60. In pressure-cooker outfit, 10 to 15 pounds, 45.



CHAPTER VI

JELLIES, JAMS, PRESERVES, MARMALADES, FRUIT JUICES AND SIRUPS

For jelly making select firm, slightly underripe fruit that is fairly acid and contains a large amount of pectin. Fruit that is just a little underripe contains more pectin than the mature or overripe fruits. Pectin is the substance that makes jelly harden. This fundamental jelly-making quality does not exist in all fruits. Such fruits as currants, crab apples and grapes contain much pectin and are, therefore, considered excellent jelly-making fruits.

The white inner skin of grapefruit is also a prolific source of pectin, but as it has a bitter taste we seldom use it for jellies, though we find it valuable in making orange, grapefruit and other marmalades.

Rhubarb, strawberries and cherries all lack pectin, but can be made into good jellies if we add the white skins of oranges and lemons to them while cooking.

So the very first thing we must know about jelly making is whether or not a fruit contains pectin. There will be no tears shed over jelly that will not "jell" if all young housewives will learn the simple test for pectin; to find out whether a juice contains pectin or not is a very easy matter.

Take one tablespoonful of grain alcohol—90 to 95 per cent.—and add to it one tablespoonful of cooked juice that has been cooled. The effect of the alcohol is to bring together the pectin in a jelly-like mass. If a large quantity of pectin is present it will appear in one mass or clot which may be gathered up on a spoon. You will notice I said cooked juice. It is peculiar that this pectin frequently is not found in the juices of raw fruits, though it is very plentiful in the cooked juices. Therefore the test must be made with cooked juice.

There is little pectin in the juice of raw apples, raw quince, raw grapes, and yet the cooked juices are full of pectin.

This test not only indicates the amount of pectin present, but it also gives some idea of the proper proportions of sugar to juice. If three-fourths or more of the juice forms a gelatinous mass or clot this indicates that you should use three-fourths as much sugar as juice. If the pectin is slightly gelatinous or is less than three-fourths of the whole volume of juice, use less sugar. If the pectin is less than one-half add some form of pectin to make the jelly, or can the juice for use as a beverage, for flavoring ice cream or some form of cooking.

By employing this test, sugar can often be reduced, and thus the jelly texture will be fine, less rubbery and the flavor will be better.

After the fruit has been selected and prepared as usual by washing, stemming, and so forth, it is ready to be heated in an acid-proof kettle. With juicy fruits use just enough water to prevent burning—about one cup of water to every four or five quarts of fruit. The juicy fruits are currants, raspberries, and so forth. With less juicy fruits, as apples or quinces, use enough water to cover, or follow the rule, half as much water as fruit. Use the cores, skins and seeds; these improve the flavor and color of the jelly.

Berries can be mashed. Heat the fruit slowly in a covered kettle, stirring once in a while to obtain an even cooking. When the simmering point is reached, crush the fruit with a well-soaked wooden masher. When the fruit is tender or has a transparent appearance, it is ready to strain.

The jelly bag must be of closely woven material; one with a large mouth is advisable. If cheesecloth is used double it and tie opposite corners together. When a very clear jelly is desired use a flannel or felt bag for straining the juice.

What drips into the dish or pan is called Extraction One. When this Extraction One is fairly drained out, which takes about thirty minutes, do not squeeze the pulp for a second grade jelly as so many housewives do; instead, make another juice extraction. To do this, empty the contents or pulp in the bag into the preserving kettle, cover with water, and stir until thoroughly mixed; then cover, bring slowly to a boil as before and drain again. The juice that drips out is called Extraction Two.

The pectin-alcohol test can be used here again to find out whether there is much or little or no pectin left. If much pectin is present, you can repeat the operation and get Extraction Three.

Three extractions usually exhaust the pectin, but sometimes you can get as many as five extractions.

You may say, "Why bother with extractions—why not squeeze the juice and be done with it?" You will get clearer, better-flavored and more glasses of jelly if you will make the extractions than if you squeeze the jelly bag.

I always make the jelly from Extraction One by itself, but usually combine Extraction Two and Three.

The next step in jelly making is vitally important—that is, how much sugar to use to a given amount of fruit juice. This is where many housewives "fall down" on jelly making. They use the same proportion of sugar to all juices.

To make jelly that does not crystallize the right proportion of sugar must be added to the juice. To make jelly that is not tough or unpleasantly sour, the right proportion of sugar and juice must be used.

Currants and unripe or partly ripened grapes are so rich in pectin that they require equal amounts of sugar and juice—that is, to every cup of extracted currant and grape juice we add one cup of sugar.

Red raspberries and blackberries require three-fourths of a cup of sugar to every cup of juice. All fruits which require much water in the cooking take three-fourths of a cup of sugar to every cup of juice. Crab apples and cranberries are examples.

It is harder to make jellies from the fruits to which a large amount of water is added than from the juicy fruits.

I am frequently asked, "When should you add the sugar to the fruit juice in jelly making? Do you add it at the beginning of the boiling, in the middle of the process, or at the end, and should the sugar be hot when added to the juice?" It is better to add the sugar in the middle of the jelly-making process than at the beginning or the end. Skim the juice well before adding the sugar, so as to lose as little sugar as possible.

If the sugar is hot when added it will not cool the juice, and thus the cooking time will be shortened. To heat the sugar put it in a granite dish, place in the oven, leaving the oven door ajar, and stir occasionally. Be careful not to scorch it.

After the juice is put on, the jelly making should be done as quickly as possible. No simmering should be allowed and no violent boiling. A steady boiling, for as few minutes as possible, will produce good results.

Currant, blueberry and grape jelly usually can be made in from eight to ten minutes. The hot sugar is added at the end of four or five minutes.

Raspberry, blackberry and apple jelly take from twenty to thirty minutes. The sugar is added at the end of ten or fifteen minutes.

The jellying point is hard to determine. If you have a cooking thermometer or candy thermometer always use it when making jelly. It is the one sure, reliable test.

The temperature for jellies is 221 degrees Fahrenheit. If you want a very soft jelly, boil it 220 degrees. If you want to use it immediately, then boil it to 222 degrees.

If you do not have a thermometer the next best test is to pour the boiling sirup from the side of a clean, hot spoon, held horizontally. If the sirup is done two drops will break simultaneously from the side of the spoon.

Another test is to take a little jelly on a cold plate and draw a path through it with the point of a spoon; if the path stays and the juice does not run together, the jellying point has been reached.

When the jellying point has been reached, remove the kettle from the fire, skim the jelly and pour immediately into hot, sterilized glasses, which have been set on a cloth wrung out of hot water to prevent breaking. Fill the glasses not quite full.

Never attempt to make more than six to eight glasses of jelly at one time. If new at the game make only four, because there is danger of the juice jellying in the kettle before it can be removed.

When the jellies are well set cover them with hot, not merely melted, paraffin. The paraffin if hot will kill any germs that may fall on the surface of the jelly. Then cover with the clean tin or aluminum covers and store the jelly in a dry, cool place after proper labeling.

STEPS IN JELLY MAKING

1. Select firm, slightly underripe fruit that is fairly acid and contains a large amount of pectin.

2. Prepare fruit as usual by washing, stemming, and so forth.

3. Heat slowly in acid-proof kettle until fruit is tender. Mash berries before beginning to cook them. A little water may be added if necessary to keep from burning. Cut hard fruits into small pieces; add half as much water as fruit.

4. Pour into dampened bag.

5. Drain through closely woven bag.

6. Make alcohol test for pectin to determine minimum amount of sugar to use, also the character of the fruit. The amount of pectin, the fundamental jelly-making property, varies in different fruits. To make the pectin test add to one tablespoonful of cold cooked fruit juice one tablespoonful of grain alcohol. Shake gently. Allow to stand one-half hour. If three-fourths or more of the juice forms a lump add three-fourths as much sugar as juice in making jelly. If the precipitate—pectin—is not held together in a lump or is less than three-fourths of the whole volume of juice, add less sugar in proportion to juice. If less than one-half forms a lump, add pectin to make the jelly, or can the juice for use as a beverage, flavoring, and so forth.

7. If fruit juice meets jelly-making test put on to cook.

8. Add required amount of sugar after juice begins to boil or midway in the process.

9. Stir until sugar is dissolved.

10. Cook rapidly, but not hard.

11. Test to determine when jelly stage is reached by dipping a clean spoon into boiling juice. Remove and allow juice to drip from it. If done, two drops will break simultaneously from side of spoon. Some prefer to wait until mass sheets off from side of spoon. Better still, use thermometer.

12. Remove from fire and skim.

13. Pour immediately into hot, sterilized glasses.

14. When cool add hot melted paraffin. Melt the paraffin in a little coffeepot or pitcher with spout, so it will pour easily.

15. Cover, label and store.

No time can be given for jelly making, for several things enter into consideration: The proportion of pectin in the juice, the amount of water used in cooking the fruit and the proportion of sugar to juice; the more sugar used, the less time needed.

JAMS AND BUTTERS

Jams and butters are not so difficult to make as jellies.

1. Carefully wash berries and fruits.

2. Weigh the fruit on standard scales or, if scales are not convenient, use measuring cup.

3. Mash berries. Cut large fruits into several pieces.

4. Add enough water to prevent sticking.

5. Stir to keep from burning.

6. Cook gently until the mass begins to thicken.

7. Measure sugar, using three-fourths part of sugar to one part fruit. That is, for every pound of fruit use three-fourths of a pound of sugar, or to every cup of fruit use three-fourths of a cup of sugar.

8. Continue cooking, allowing the jam to simmer gently.

9. Cook the mixture until the desired consistency is reached. When a little of the jam falls in heavy drops from the spoon, it is thick enough.

10. A small amount of mixed ground spices, vinegar or crystallized ginger can be added if desired.

11. Pour into hot, sterilized glasses to within one-half inch of the top.

12. Allow to cool, seal with paraffin, cover, label and store.

Fruit butters are always softer than jam. Marmalades are made much as are jams. The rind is usually used in lemon, orange and grapefruit marmalades.

Conserves consist of a combination of several fruits. Nuts and raisins are often added to conserves.

Preserves are thick mixtures containing sugar equal to at least three-fourths of the weight of the fruit.

If you wish to eliminate the necessity of using paraffin or other wax tops for jellies, jams and preserves, you can use the cold-pack method of canning. You may have containers with screw or bail tops which you wish to use in this way. The following is one recipe showing how to proceed.

Cherry Preserves. Place one gallon of water in a kettle and add ten pounds of pitted cherries. Boil slowly for eighteen minutes. Add twelve pounds of granulated sugar and cook until product is boiling at a temperature of 219 degrees. Cool quickly in shallow pans. Pack into glass jars. Put rubber and cap in position, not tight. Cap and tip if using enameled tin cans. If using a hot-water-bath outfit, sterilize twenty minutes; if using a water-seal outfit, a five-pound steam-pressure outfit or a pressure-cooker outfit, sterilize fifteen minutes. Remove jars. Tighten covers. Invert to cool and test the joints. Wrap jars with paper to prevent bleaching and store. When using pressure-cooker outfits on preserves, keep the valve open during period of sterilization.

Fruit Juices. Fruit juices furnish a healthful and delicious drink and are readily canned at home. Grapes, raspberries and other small fruits may be crushed in a fruit press or put in a cloth sack, heated for thirty minutes, or until the juice runs freely, and allowed to drip.

Strain through two thicknesses of cotton flannel to remove the sediment, sweeten slightly, bottle, close by filling the neck of the bottle with a thick pad of sterilized cotton, heat to 160 degrees, or until air bubbles begin to form on the bottom of the cooker, and keep at this temperature one hour and a half to two hours; or heat to 200 degrees, or until the bubbles begin to rise to the top of the water, and hold at this temperature for thirty minutes. The hot water comes up to the neck of the bottle. Cork without removing the cotton. If canned in jars close the jar partly, and seal tight after cooking.

Fruit juices should never be heated above 200 degrees, as a higher temperature injures the flavor.

Strawberry Preserves. 1. Add thirty-five ounces of sugar to one-half pint of water; bring to a boil and skim.

With this amount of sirup the berries can be packed attractively without floating and no sirup will be left over.

To this amount of sirup add exactly two and three-fourths pounds of washed, capped and stemmed strawberries. Boil the fruit until it registers 222 degrees Fahrenheit on a candy or chemical thermometer. If no thermometer is available boil until the sirup is very heavy—about as thick as molasses. Remove the scum.

Fill the sterilized jars full of hot berries. Pour in enough of the hot sirup to fill the jar, leaving as little air space as possible. Put sterilized rings and caps on at once, but do not fasten tightly.

Stand the sealed jars in tepid water up to their necks if possible. Bring this water to a boil. Let pint jars stay in the boiling water for at least fifteen minutes and quart jars at least twenty-five minutes; then close caps tightly at once. At the conclusion of the operation, stand each jar for a moment on its cap to make sure that the seal is absolutely tight.

Recipe Number 2. The following method is preferred by some because it leaves more of the natural color in the preserves:

To two pounds of washed, capped and stemmed strawberries add twenty-six ounces sugar; let stand over-night. In the morning pour juice thus obtained into a preserving kettle, add berries and cook to 222 degrees Fahrenheit, or until the sirup is very heavy. Pack and sterilize, as in Recipe Number 1. These recipes can be used for all other berries.

When wet weather makes strawberries too soft or sandy for the table, they are still useful for making "strawberry acid," a thick sirup which, mixed with water, ice and perhaps spearmint, makes a cooling summer drink.

Strawberries—Sun Preserves. Select firm ripe berries; hull and rinse. Place them in a shallow platter in a single layer; sprinkle sugar over them. Pour over them a thick sirup made of one quart of water and eleven pounds of sugar, boiled until very thick.

Cover them with a glass dish or a plain window glass. Allow them to stand in the hot sun eight to twelve hours. Pack them in jelly glasses and cover with paraffin or put in regular glass jars or tin cans. Put the rubber and cap in position, not tight. Cap and tip or seal if using enameled tin cans. Sterilize for the length of time given below for the particular type of outfit used:

MINUTES Hot-water bath, homemade or commercial 20 Water seal, 214 degrees 15 Steam pressure 10

Remove the jars, tighten the covers, invert the jars to cool, and test the joint. Wrap the jars in paper to prevent bleaching.

When using steam-pressure or pressure-cooking outfit on preserves, remember to keep the valve open during the sterilizing.

SPECIAL DIRECTIONS FOR JELLY AND JAM MAKING

Apples vary in the percentage of sugar and acid they contain; a fine flavored acid apple should be used when possible. Winter apples are best for jelly making. If necessary to make apple jelly in the spring, add juice of 1 lemon to every pint of apple juice.

Apricots are delicious combined with pineapple.

Blackberries, elderberries and loganberries make delicious juices and shrubs for summer beverages.

The total time of making blueberry jelly need not exceed 10 minutes.

Cranberries are not always put through a jelly bag, but are rubbed through a sieve.

Cherries are most delicious if preserved in the sun. A good combination for preserves is equal parts of cherries and strawberries.

Crab apples can be combined with some juices, such as peach, pear and pineapple, to furnish necessary pectin.

One-half currants and one-half raspberries make a delicious jelly; currants are in best condition for jelly making from June 28 to July 3.

Black currant jam is considered quite a delicacy these days.

Acid grapes are best for jelly; sweet, ripe grapes contain too much sugar. Equal portions ripe and green grapes are satisfactory.

If gooseberries are fully ripe they make finer-flavored jam than do green-as-grass gooseberries.

Some women are successful in making peach jelly, but be sure to test for pectin before completing the process, to save time and effort.

Pineapple is best canned alone or used as foundation for conserves.

An underripe, acid plum is best.

Plums and apples combined make an excellent tasting jelly.

Quince parings are often used for jelly, the better part of the fruit being used for preserving.

Raspberries and other berries should not be gathered after a rain, for they will have absorbed so much water as to make it difficult, without excessive boiling, to get the juice to "jell."

Rhubarb is an excellent foundation for the more expensive fruit. It will take the flavor of other fruits and thus we can make an otherwise expensive jam "go a long way."

Strawberries combine well with other fruits and can be utilized in many ways.

Select sour, smooth-skinned oranges.

Lemon Marmalade. After the 9 oranges and 6 lemons are sliced, put in kettle; add 4 quarts water, cover and let stand 36 hours; then boil 2 hours. Add 8 pounds sugar and boil one hour longer.

Grapefruit used alone is bitter. Oranges or lemons or both are usually combined with grapefruit.

All wild fruits or berries used for jelly making must be fresh and not overripe. Barberry jelly is firmer and of better color if made from fruit picked before the frost comes, while some of the berries are still green.

CHART FOR JELLY AND JAM MAKING

KIND OF FRUIT CHARACTER OF HOW TO AMOUNT OF AMOUNT OF FRUIT PREPARE WATER NEEDED SUGAR NEEDED FOR COOKING FOR JELLYING - APPLES, SOUR Excellent Wash, One-half as 3/4 cupful of for jelly discard any much water sugar to 1 making unsound as fruit cupful of portions, juice cut into small pieces. Include APRICOTS Not suitable Leave a few For jam use 3/4 cupful of for jelly stones in just enough sugar to 1 making. for flavor. water to cupful of Excellent keep from apricots for for jam. burning jam BLACKBERRIES Excellent Wash 1 cupful of 3/4 cupful of for jelly water to 5 sugar to 1 making quarts of cupful of berries juice BLUEBERRIES Excellent Wash 1 cupful of 1 cupful of for jelly water to 5 sugar to 1 making; make quarts of cupful of a sweet berries juice jelly CRANBERRIES Excellent Wash One-half as 3/4 cupful of for jelly much water sugar to 1 making as berries cupful of juice CHERRIES Pectin must Pit the For jam, use 3/4 cupful of be added for cherries for just enough sugar to 1 jelly making jam water to cupful of keep from cherries for burning jam CRAB APPLES Excellent Same as One-half as 3/4 cupful of for jelly apples much water sugar to 1 making as apples cupful of juice CURRANTS, RED Excellent Do not 1 cupful of 1 cupful of for jelly remove stems water to 5 sugar to 1 making for jelly quarts of cupful of currants juice CURRANTS, Better for Remove stems Enough water 3/4 cupful of BLACK jam to keep from sugar to 1 sticking cupful of currants GRAPES, Excellent Wash, do not 1 cupful of 1 cupful of UNRIPE for jelly stem; use water to 5 sugar to 1 making stems quarts of cupful of grapes juice GOOSEBERRIES Excellent "Head and 1 cupful of 1 cupful of for jelly tail," using water to 5 sugar to 1 making scissors quarts of cupful of gooseberries juice PEACHES Pectin must Peaches, Just enough 3/4 cupful of be added for apples and water to sugar to 1 jelly making raisins make keep from cupful of a delicious burning juice conserve PINEAPPLES Pectin must Prepare as For jams, 3/4 cupful of be added for for table enough water sugar to 1 jelly making use to keep from cupful of burning juice PLUMS, Suitable for Mash fruit 1 quart of 3/4 cupful of GREENGAGE jelly making and remove water for sugar to 1 stems; cook each peck of cupful of stones with fruit juice fruit PLUMS, DAMSON Suitable for Wipe and 1 quart of 3/4 cupful of jelly making pick over; water for sugar to 1 prick every peck cupful of several of plums juice times with large pin QUINCES Excellent Cut out the One-half as 3/4 cupful of for jelly blossom end. much water sugar to 1 making, if Mash and cut as quinces cupful of not too in quarters juice ripe. If so, add crab apple RASPBERRIES Excellent Wash them 1 cupful of 1 cupful of for jelly thoroughly, water to 5 sugar to 1 making but do not quarts of cupful of let them berries juice soak in the water RHUBARB Pectin must Wash and cut For jam, 3/4 cupful of be added for into small half as much sugar to 1 jelly pieces water as cupful of making. fruit. juice Better for jam. STRAWBERRIES Pectin must Wash and For jam, 3/4 cupful of be added for remove just enough sugar to 1 jelly hulls. water to cupful of making. keep from pulp. burning. CITRUS FRUITS ORANGES Excellent For orange Cook in Three-quarters for jelly marmalade water to their weight making and weigh cover. in sugar. marmalade oranges slice cross- wise with sharp knife as thin as possible; remove seed. LEMONS Excellent For 8 pounds of for jelly marmalade 9 sugar making and oranges and to supply 6 lemons are pectin to a good other fruits combination GRAPEFRUIT Best for Grapefruit Three-quarters marmalades is sliced their weight very thin, in sugar. seed removed. WILD FRUITS RASPBERRIES, All Prepare as Just enough 1 cupful of BLACKBERRIES, excellent other water to sugar to 1 BARBERRIES, for jelly fruits. keep from cupful of GRAPES, BEACH making. burning. juice. PLUMS. -



CHAPTER VII

MEAT

Canned meat adds variety to the diet in the winter-time and makes a pleasant change from the cured and smoked meats. You put meat into jars in the raw state and extend the sterilizing period or you can cook the meat partially or completely and then sterilize for a shorter period of time. Of course a reliable method of canning meat must be used, such as the cold-pack process, where the sterilizing is done in the tin or jar in either boiling water or steam under pressure. We usually recommend the partial cooking, roasting or boiling of the meat before canning especially for beginners. If you are a beginner in the business of cold-pack canning then by all means cook the meat before putting it in cans. If you have canned peas, beans and corn successfully for years then you are ready for all kinds of raw meat canning.

To save criticism of the cold-pack method of canning meat and to guard against any danger from eating poorly prepared and improperly sterilized meat we do not urge beginners to experiment with meat, although the meat can be safely canned by any one whether new at the canning game or a veteran in it if directions are carefully followed. But it is the big "If" that we have to watch.

Many farmers and farmerettes are canning meats of all kinds all over the country and there is never a can lost. We need more meat canning done at home and you can do it if you will practice cleanliness in all your work and follow directions.

The fear of getting botulinus bacteria from eating canned meat is just a "bug-a-boo." It should be clearly understood that botulism is one of the very rare maladies. The chances for getting it by eating canned goods, say the experts, is rather less than the chances from dying of lockjaw every time you scratch your finger. To regard every can as a source of botulism is worse than regarding every dog as a source of hydrophobia. Moreover, for the very timid, there is the comforting certainty that the exceedingly slight danger is completely eliminated by re-cooking the canned food for a short time before eating it.

There are always a few cases of illness traceable to bad food, not only to canned food but to spoiled meats, fish, bad milk, oysters and a number of things. There are also cases of injury and death by street accidents, but we do not for that reason stop using the streets. If you put good meat into the can and do your canning right then you will have good results. Never put into a can meat that is about ready to spoil, thinking thereby to "save it."

If you want to be absolutely sure, even if the jar of meat seems perfectly fresh when it is opened, you can re-cook the meat, thus insuring yourself against any possibility of botulinus poisoning. So you see, there is nothing at all alarming about that frightful sounding word "botulinus." Using fresh products, doing the canning properly and reheating before serving eliminates all danger.

For canning meat, tin cans are in most respects superior to glass, as they eliminate all danger of breakage, preserve the meat just as well as glass, and by excluding the light prevent any change of color. If you use glass jars be sure to get the best brand of jar rubbers on the market. This is very important.

If, as I have said, you are a beginner—cook the meat first by frying, roasting, broiling, baking or stewing—just as you would prepare it for immediate use. The meat is usually seasoned according to taste and is cooked until thoroughly heated through, before putting in the cans. Do not cook until tender as that will be too long with the additional sterilizing. If too tender it will fall apart and be unappetizing although perfectly good. See that nothing is wasted in the canning. If you are canning a young steer or a calf you would go about it as follows:

Select the meat that you would ordinarily want. Slice the meat wanted for steak. What is not suited for either of these can be used for stews, or be put through the meat grinder and made into sausage meat, formed into little cakes, fried and canned. What meat is left clinging to all bones will be utilized when the bones are boiled for soup stock. The sinews, the head and the feet, after being cleaned may be used for soup stock also.

The liver should be soaked in water, the coarse veins cut out and the liver skinned and prepared any way that is desired before canning it or it may be made into liver sausage. The heart can be used for goulash. The kidneys should be soaked in salt water, split open and the little sack removed; then they can be either stewed or fried and then canned. The sweetbreads may be prepared in various ways and then canned.

The brain is soaked in water to remove the blood, and the membrane enclosing it is removed. It can be fried or prepared in any favorite way and then canned. The ox tail is used for soup. The tongue is soaked in water, scrubbed, cleaned, salted, boiled, skinned and packed in cans with some soup stock added.

If you do not care to use the head for soup stock and if it comes from a young animal, split it open and soak in cold water. Use a brush and scrub thoroughly. Remove the eyes and mucous membrane of the nostrils and then boil it. After it is boiled, remove all meat and make a mock turtle stew or ragout. Prepare the tripe as for table use and then can.

After the soup stock is made and the bones are cracked for a second cooking, the bones need not be thrown away. You can dry them, run them through a bone crusher and either feed them to the chickens or use them for fertilizer. In this way not a particle of the dressed animal is wasted.

Here are a few ways to utilize the cuts that are really "left-overs."

GOULASH

2 Pounds of meat scraps which can consist of beef, veal or pork. 2 Ounces of any fat. 2 Onions chopped fine. 1 Stalk celery, cut in small pieces. 2 Carrots. 2 Cups tomatoes either canned or fresh. 1 Bay leaf. 6 Whole cloves. 6 Peppercorns. 1 Blade mace or a little thyme or both. A little flour. 1 Tablespoonful chopped parsley. Salt and paprika to taste.

Cut the meat into one inch squares and roll in flour. Melt the fat in the frying pan, add the vegetables (onions, celery, carrots) and brown lightly: add the meat and brown. Stir with a spoon or fork to prevent burning. When browned empty into a pan.

Put the bay leaf, cloves, peppercorns, mace and thyme into a cheesecloth bag and add to the meat, add tomatoes. Cover with soup stock or water and simmer 45 minutes if it is going to be canned. If for immediate use, 2 hours will be necessary to thoroughly cook it.

Remove the spices, season with salt, paprika and the chopped parsley. You can add Worcestershire sauce or soy sauce if desired. Use only small quantities as these sauces are very strong in their distinctive flavor. Put hot mixture into cans and sterilize.

If the different spices are not at hand a good goulash can be made by using the meat, fat, onions, tomatoes, flour, salt and pepper and omitting the rest of the recipe.

LIVER SAUSAGE

Beef, veal, or hog liver. Remove the membrane and cut away the large blood vessels. Soak in water 1 to 2 hours to draw out blood. Boil until done. When cooled put through a food chopper or grate finely. Take half as much boiled fat pork as liver. Divide this fat into two portions; chop one portion into one-quarter inch cubes; pass the other portion through the food chopper; mix all together thoroughly; add salt, ground cloves, pepper, and a little grated onion to taste. A little thyme and marjoram may be added to suit taste. (For a liver weighing 11/2 pounds add 3/4 pounds fat pork, 3 to 4 teaspoonfuls salt, 1/2 teaspoonful cloves, 1/2 teaspoonful pepper, 1 small onion, 1/4 teaspoonful thyme, and pinch of marjoram.) This mixture is stuffed into large casings. (If no casings are available, make casings of clean white muslin.) Cover with boiling water, bring to a boil, and boil for 10 minutes. Pack into cans, fill in with the water in which the sausages were boiled. Sterilize.

This liver sausage may also be made from the raw liver and raw pork, but in that case the sterilizing is for a longer period, as the time-table indicates. This recipe is recommended by the United States Department of Agriculture.

HEAD CHEESE

Cut a hog's head into four pieces. Remove the brains, ears, skin, snout and eyes. Cut off the fattest parts for lard. Put the lean and bony parts to soak over night in cold water in order to extract the blood and dirt. When the head is cleaned put it over the fire to boil, using water enough to cover it. Boil until the meat separates readily from the bones. Then remove it from the fire and pick out all the bones. Drain off the liquor, saving a part of it for future use. Chop the meat up finely with a chopping knife. Return it to the kettle and pour on enough of the liquor to cover the meat. Let it boil slowly for fifteen minutes to a half-hour. Season to taste with salt and pepper just before removing it from the fire. Bay leaves, a little ground cloves and allspice may be added and boiled a short time in the soup. Pack while hot in cans to within 1/2 inch of top. Sterilize. This head cheese is always served cold.

CORNED BEEF

After beef has been properly corned for three weeks, remove the meat from the brine. Soak for two hours in clear water, changing water once. Place in a wire basket and boil slowly for half an hour. Remove from the boiling water, plunge into cold water, and remove gristle, bone and excessive fat. Cut into small pieces and pack closely into cans. Add no salt and proceed as in other canning.

CANNED PORK

After the animal has been killed, cool quickly and keep the pork cool for at least 24 hours. Can only lean portions, using the fat to make lard. Place meat in a wire basket or cheesecloth and boil 30 minutes, or roast in the oven for 30 minutes. Cut into small sections and pack closely into cans. Add salt and proceed with remainder of process.

Other pieces of beef and pork: Hamburg steak, sausage, venison, squirrel, raccoon, opossum, lamb, are canned as follows:

After cleaning, season and fry, roast, stew, or bake in oven as though preparing for serving directly on the table. Cook until meat is about three fourths done. Pack while hot into sanitary tin cans or glass jars. Pour over the meat the hot liquids, gravies, dressings, etc., or hot water. Add salt and proceed as in any other cold-pack canning.

HOW TO CAN POULTRY AND GAME WITH THE BONES REMOVED

Kill bird and draw immediately; wash carefully and cool; then cut into convenient sections. Boil until the meat can be removed from the bones; remove from the boiling liquid and take out all bones; pack closely into glass jars or enameled cans; fill jars with the hot liquid after it has been concentrated one half; add 1 level teaspoonful salt to every quart of meat for seasoning; put rubbers and top of jars in place but not tight. If using enameled cans completely seal. Sterilize the length of time given in the time-table on page 108 of this book. After the sterilizing remove the jars; tighten the covers if glass was used; invert to cool and test joints. Wrap with paper to prevent bleaching.

FRIED SPRING CHICKEN

After cleaning and preparing the chickens, season and fry as though for serving directly on the table. Cook until the meat is about three-fourths done. If a whole spring chicken, break the neck and both legs and fold around body of chicken. Roll up tight, tie a string around the chicken and drop this hot, partially fried product into sanitary tin cans or glass jars. A quart tin can (No. 3) will hold two to four small chickens. Pour liquid from the griddle or frying pan into the can over the chicken. Proceed, as in any other canning, with the sealing, sterilizing and removing of the jars. Chicken fries canned in the late fall preserve the meat at the most delicious stage and furthermore we avoid the expense of feeding the chickens throughout the winter.

HOW TO CAN COCKERELS

When cockerels reach the point in their growth where it is no longer profitable to feed them, and when they are wanted for home use during the winter months they should be canned. This method of handling the cockerel not only saves money by cutting down the feed bill, but it places in the pantry or cellar the means of a delicious chicken dinner at a time of the year when the price of poultry is high.

The bird should not be fed for at least twenty-four hours before killing. It should be killed by the approved method and picked dry. When the feathers have been removed and the pin feathers drawn the bird should be cooled rapidly. This rapid cooling after killing is essential to a good flavor in canned meat. As soon as the bird has been properly cooled it should be singed and washed carefully with a brush.

CUTTING UP AND DRAWING CHICKENS

Mr. George Farrell, a most expert canner, tells us how to go about this job of canning chicken.

In preparing the bird for canning, care should be taken in drawing it so that the contents of the digestive tract do not come in contact with the meat.

1. Remove the tops of the wings, cutting at the first joint.

2. Remove the wings.

3. Remove the foot, cutting at the knee joint.

4. Remove the leg, cutting at the hip or saddle joint.

5. Cut the removed portion of the leg into two parts at the joint.

6. Place the bird so the back of the head is toward the operator, cut through the neck bone with a sharp knife but do not cut the windpipe or gullet.

7. With the index finger separate the gullet and windpipe from the skin of the neck.

8. Cut through the skin of the neck.

9. With a pointed knife cut through the skin from the upper part of the neck, thus separated, to the wing.

10. Leave the head attached to the gullet and windpipe and loosen these from the neck down as far as the crop.

11. With a sharp pointed knife cut around the shoulder blade, pull it out of position and break it.

12. Find the white spots on the ribs and cut through the ribs on these white spots.

13. Cut back to the vent; cut around it, and loosen.

14. Begin at the crop and remove the digestive tract from the bird, pulling it back toward the vent.

15. Remove the lungs and kidneys with the point of a knife.

16. Cut off the neck close to the body.

17. Cut through the backbone at the joint or just above the diaphragm.

18. Remove the oil sack.

19. Separate the breast from the backbone by cutting through on the white spots.

20. Cut the fillet from each side of the breastbone.

21. Cut in sharp at the point of the breastbone, turning the knife and cutting away the wishbone with the meat. Bend in the bones of the breastbone.

PACKING CHICKEN

Use a one quart jar. Caution: Do not pack the giblets with the meat.

1. Have the jar hot.

2. Pack the saddle with a thigh inside.

3. Pack the breastbone with a thigh inside.

4. Pack the backbone and ribs with a leg inside.

5. Pack the legs large end downward, alongside the breastbone.

6. Pack the wings.

7. Pack the wishbone.

8. Pack the fillets.

9. Pack the neck-bone.

10. Pour on boiling water to within one inch of the top; add a level teaspoonful of salt; place the rubber and cap in position, partially seal, and sterilize for the length of time given below for the particular type of outfit used:

Water bath, home made or commercial (pint or quart jars) 1 hour Water seal, 214 deg. 3 hours 5 pounds steam-pressure 2 hours 10 to 15 pounds steam-pressure 1 hour

Remove jars; tighten covers; invert to cool, and test joints. Wrap jars with paper to prevent bleaching.

PIGEONS

Young pigeons. Dress pigeons, wash well, and roast for 30 minutes basting frequently. Some pieces of fat bacon put over the breasts will prevent them getting too dry.

Old pigeons. Dress, wash, and fry pigeons.

Brown some onions in the fat with the pigeons, using a pound of onions to a dozen birds. Cover with hot water after pigeons and onions are a golden brown; simmer until the meat is tender and can be removed from the bones. Add from time to time boiling water, if necessary, in order to keep the birds covered. When tender, take meat from bones. Return the meat to the liquor, salt to taste and pack while boiling into cans or jars, fill with liquor to within one-half inch of top.

All small game birds may be canned like pigeons. Blackbirds may be treated like pigeons. They make an excellent stew.

PLAIN CANNING OF TENDER COTTON-TAILS OR TWICE-SKINNED JACK-RABBITS

1. Blanch in boiling water until the meat is white.

2. Cold dip.

3. Pack tightly in sterilized jars.

4. Add boiling water and 1 teaspoonful salt to quart.

5. Adjust rubber and lid.

6. Sterilize in hot water bath for three hours.

7. Remove from bath and complete the seal.

Rabbit meat thus canned, may be served in various appetizing ways.

RABBIT SAUSAGE

For rabbit sausage and mince-meat only the backs and legs of the carcass are used, discarding the sinews.

Grind together equal parts of rabbit and fat pork (or at least 1/4 fat pork). The pork may be salt pork if all salt is omitted from the mixture.

To every ten pounds of the above add 6 teaspoonfuls salt, 1 teaspoonful of pepper, 2 teaspoonfuls powdered sage. Mix thoroughly. Shape in flat cakes and fry till nicely browned. Pack tightly in jars, pour over the fat in which the sausage was fried, and sterilize.

RABBIT MINCE-MEAT

Rabbit mince-meat is used a great deal on the plains and large quantities of it are canned. The mince-meat may be made by simply substituting the rabbit meat for beef in your favorite recipe. The following is an inexpensive recipe:

1 Cup of rabbit meat which has been parboiled in salted water and drained, then chopped finely.

1 Cup chopped apple.

1/2 Cup finely chopped suet.

1/2 Cup seeded raisins.

1/2 Cup currants.

1 Cup molasses or syrup.

2 Tablespoonfuls sugar.

1 Tablespoon cider, lemon juice, fruit juice or vinegar.

1/4 Cup chopped watermelon pickles or green tomato pickles.

1 Teaspoon of cinnamon or nutmeg.

1 Teaspoon of salt.

1/2 Teaspoon cloves, mace or other spice.

Mix together all ingredients except the meat, add the meat broth and simmer for about 1 hour. Add the meat. Pour into jars, and sterilize. Remove and seal.

STEPS IN CANNING MEAT AND GAME

For all meat, poultry or game canning the following general instructions should be kept in mind.

1. Sterilize the jars, caps and rubbers.

2. Grade the meat for size.

3. Cut up into convenient portions for cooking or canning.

4. Saute, fry or bake, broil or stew as desired. This step can be omitted if you are an experienced canner.

5. Pack in sterilized, hot jars or tin cans.

6. Add 1 level teaspoonful salt per quart of meat for seasoning if not already seasoned.

7. If glass jars put on rubber and seal, not too tight. Seal tin cans.

8. Process in boiling water or steam under pressure.

9. Remove, completely seal the jar.

10. Invert to cool and test the joint.

11. Label and store.

If you can in tin use the enamel or lacquered cans. A slight amount of water in the bottom of the jars of prepared meat will insure quicker sterilization of the air remaining in the jar. Where meat has been stewed the liquor can be poured into the jar for filling. If you use a steam-pressure cooker outfit of course the time of cooking will be much shorter than if you use a wash-boiler or some other homemade outfit. If you cook in boiling water we call that the water-bath method.

The following data will be of interest to those who contemplate canning meat.

Hog on foot—weight 500.

Liver, heart and a part of the ribs were eaten at the time of butchering, therefore, not canned. The remainder of the ribs canned six No. 3 cans:

Ham 18, No. 3 cans

Shoulder 18, No. 3 cans

Roast 18, No. 3 cans

Sausage 26, No. 3 cans

Hash 4, No. 3 cans

Gravy 5, No. 3 cans

(which is also called stock)

The sausage weighed 52 lbs. before it was canned, making 2 lbs. to the can.

There were 200 lbs. of fat for lard. After it was rendered there were 176 lbs. of lard and 20 lbs. of cracklings.

TIME-TABLE FOR CANNING MEAT, POULTRY AND GAME

[A] IF USING HOT WATER BATH OUTFIT AT 212 deg.F [B] IF USING WATER-SEAL OUTFIT AT 214 deg.F [C] IF USING STEAM PRESSURE 5 POUNDS [D] IF USING PRESSURE COOKER 15 POUNDS

TIME TO STERILIZE PRODUCTS [A] [B] [C] [D] PARTIALLY COOKED MEAT OF ALL KINDS

Roast beef Corned beef Sweetbreads Tongue Brains Headcheese Spareribs 11/2 hrs. 1 hr. 40 min. 30 min. Kidneys Sausages and other meats Rabbits Pigeon Chicken

UNCOOKED OR RAW MEAT

Beef Pork 3 hrs. 3 hrs. 2 hrs. 1 hr. Veal and all other meats Poultry and game

All meat stocks with or without 11/2 hrs. 75 min. 1 hr. 40 min. vegetables and cereals

NOTE.—This time-table is for No. 2 and No. 3 tin cans or pint and quart glass jars. If larger cans or jars are used more time must be allowed for the sterilizing. If canning in tin, scratch on the can at the time of sealing the initial of the contents. For instance—S.R. means spareribs; G. means goulash; R.B. means roast beef. You can make out your list and mark accordingly.



CHAPTER VIII

FISH

People in some sections of the country are interested in canning mountain trout and others live where there is an abundant supply of either fresh-water fish or salt-water fish. Heretofore we have been wasteful and lax about the fish supply. But as we have learned to can vegetables and meats so we are going to learn to can fish. Fish is really canned the same in every step after preparation as peas and corn are canned.

In order to have a good product, fish must be fresh when canned. No time should be lost in handling the fish after being caught. Putrefaction starts rapidly, and the fish must be handled promptly. The sooner it is canned after being taken from lake, stream or ocean, the better. Never attempt to can any fish that is stale.

PREPARATION OF FISH FOR CANNING

As soon as fish are caught it is advisable to kill them with a knife and allow the blood to run out. Scale fish. This is easily done if the fish is dipped in boiling water. For canning, most varieties of fish need not be skinned. If the fish is very large and coarse, the large back fin may be cut out and the backbone removed, but with most varieties this is unnecessary. Cut off the head and tail, being careful to leave no more meat than necessary on the parts removed. Remove the entrails and the dark membrane that in some fish (e.g., mullets) covers the abdominal cavity. Thoroughly clean the inside. The head may be cleaned and used for fish chowder.

If you wish to be sure that all blood is drawn out before canning, place the fish in a brine made of one ounce of salt to one quart of water. Allow the fish to soak from 10 minutes to 1 hour according to the thickness of the fish. Never use this brine but once. If the meat of the fish is very soft or loose, it may be hardened by soaking in a brine (strong enough to float an Irish potato) for from 15 minutes to an hour, depending on the thickness of the pieces and the softness of the flesh.

CANNING THE FISH

1. Remove the fish from the brine where it has been placed in order to draw out all the blood and to harden the texture of the fish.

2. Drain well.

3. Cut into can lengths.

4. Place fish in a piece of cheesecloth or in a wire basket and blanch in boiling water from three to five minutes. Three minutes for the soft flesh fish, such as suckers, crappies, whitefish. Fish with a firmer flesh, as pike, muskalonge and sunfish require 5 minutes blanching. The blanching removes the strong fish flavor and cleans the outside of the fish.

5. Cold-dip the fish by plunging into cold water immediately. This makes the flesh firm.

6. Pack in hot jars or cans to within 1/2 inch from top. Add 1 teaspoonful salt per quart. Put on a good rubber and partially seal the jar, completely seal tin cans.

7. Place jars or cans in canner and process in boiling water for three hours. Three hours sterilization will insure the keeping of all varieties of fish, providing fresh products are used and the blanching and other work is carefully done. If canning with a steam-pressure canner or a pressure cooker sterilize for one hour and a half under 10 to 15 lbs. pressure.

8. At the end of the sterilizing period cool the jars quickly after sealing completely. The tin cans may be cooled by immersing them in cold water.

9. Store for future use.

SOFTENING OF BONES IN FISH

This can be done satisfactorily under pressure. The bones of fish are composed of large quantities of harmless lime, bound by a matrix of collagen, which is insoluble under ordinary conditions. When subjected to a high temperature under pressure this collagen is converted into gelatin and dissolved, leaving the bones soft and friable and even edible. Bony fish, such as herring and shad, which are too small to use otherwise are greatly improved when subjected to steam under pressure.

The bones in herring are softened in 37 minutes at a temperature of 240 degrees; shad in 1 hour; flounder 1 hour. Other fish are fully cooked and the bones softened in times approximately proportionate to the size of the bones.

The following table was made after many experiments and gives the time required to soften the bones in many common species of fish.

The term "softening" means the point in cooking when the small bones, ribs, etc., are soft, but when the large vertebrae are not yet sufficiently soft to be consumed along with the meat. In some of the larger fishes where the large bones could scarcely be eaten, even if they were softened, it would appear to be a waste of time and fuel to carry them to a point of complete cooking, and in such cases it ought to be sufficient to soften the small bones and sterilize the contents of the can. For such a purpose, the "softening" rather than the "soft" point, may be used.

The time periods are measured from the point when the given pressure and temperature are reached (at the top of the cooker) to the time when the heat is shut off. The heating-up and cooling-off period of time are therefore not included. The fish were salted, but no water was added.

Samples of fish canned during the course of these experiments were kept six weeks at room temperature (about 68 deg. F.) and were then incubated at 98 deg. F. for 48 hrs. All were sterile.

TIME REQUIRED TO SOFTEN THE BONES OF VARIOUS SPECIES OF FISH IN QUART JARS OR NO. 3 TIN CANS, 10 LBS. PRESSURE, 240 deg. F.

WEIGHT SOFTENING SOFT (LBS.) (MINUTES) (MINUTES) BLACK BASS Large 5-6 100 120 Small 3/4 to 1 100 110 BLUEFISH Large 6-9 90 100 Small 1-2 80 90 BUTTERFISH Average 1/4-1/2 60 80 CATFISH Large 11/2-2 70 80 Small 3/4 60 70 CERO Average 10-13 80 90 COD Large 6-16 80 90 Small 1-2 50 60 FLOUNDER Large 1-13/4 70 80 Small 1/2-1 50 60 HADDOCK Large 3-5 60 70 Small 1-2 50 60 HALIBUT Average 50-90 70 80 HICKORY SHAD Average 11/2-2 60 70 KINGFISH Average 1/2-1 60 70 LEMON SOLE Large 21/2-31/2 80 90 Small 3/4-2 60 70 MACKEREL Average 3/4-11/2 60 70 MACKEREL, SPANISH Average 11/2-21/2 100 110 PERCH, WHITE Average 1/4-3/4 100 110 PERCH, YELLOW Average 1/4-3/4 90 100 POLLACK Average 5-71/2 60 70 SALMON Average 13-19 90 100 SEA BASS Average 1-11/2 60 70 SQUETEAGUE Large 21/2-4 80 90 Small 3/4-2 50 60 SMELTS Large, per lb. 5-7 60 70 Small, per lb. 15-20 50 60 SNAPPER, RED Large 10-15 110 120 Small 5-6 90 100 SUCKER Average 1/2-11/2 80 90 TILEFISH Average 6-12 90 100 WHITING Average 1/2-1 50 60

FRIED FISH

1. Clean the fish and remove entrails. Split along the back and remove backbone.

2. Place in brine strong enough to float an Irish potato. Allow fish to remain in this brine from 10 minutes to 1 hour according to the thickness of the flesh. This draws out the blood and hardens the meat.

3. Draw, wipe dry.

4. Cut in pieces that can go through jar or can openings.

5. Roll in cornmeal or other flour, dip into beaten egg and roll in flour again.

6. Then put into frying basket and fry in deep fat until nicely browned, or it can be sauted in bacon or other fat until well browned.

7. Drain well by placing pieces on coarse paper to absorb excessive fat.

8. Pack into hot jars or enameled tin cans.

9. Add 1 teaspoonful salt per quart. Add no liquid.

10. Partially seal glass jars. Completely seal tin cans.

11. Process 3 hours in hot water bath outfit. Process 11/2 hours in steam pressure (10 to 15 lbs. pressure).

12. Remove from canner. Seal glass jars. Cool quickly as possible.

BAKED FISH

Prepare and bake fish same as for table use until half done. Pack in hot jars, add salt and sterilize three hours in hot-water-bath outfit or 11/2 hours in steam pressure or pressure cooker, 10 to 15 lbs. pressure.

ANOTHER FORMULA FOR MISCELLANEOUS FISH

Rub the fish inside and out with a mixture made as follows: to 50 pounds fish, mix 21/2 pounds salt, 21/2 pounds brown sugar and 21/2 ounces saltpeter. Let the fish stand in a cool place for 48 to 60 hours with the mixture on, then wash and drain. Fill into glass jars or enamel lined tin cans and add the following sauce until cans are nearly filled: 1/4 pound whole black pepper, 11/2 pounds salt, 1 pound of onions chopped fine, 1/2 ounce bay leaves, 1/4 pound whole cloves, 2 quarts cider vinegar and 25 quarts of water. Soak the pepper, cloves and bay leaves for 48 hours in the vinegar. Put the water, salt and onions in a kettle. Bring to a boil and cook 30 minutes, then add the vinegar and spices. Let boil for one minute. Strain and it is ready for use.

Sterilize for 3 hours in hot-water-bath outfit.

Sterilize for 11/2 hours in steam pressure or pressure cooker (10 to 15 lbs. pressure).

CANNED FISH IN OIL

Rub fish with salt, brown sugar and saltpeter as above directed. Wash and dry thoroughly in the sun. Spread on wire screens and dip in oil heated to a temperature of 300 degrees. Use a strap handle plunge thermometer to determine heat of oil. Cottonseed oil may be used for this purpose, although olive oil is best. As soon as the fish are cool enough to handle, pack tightly in cans, filling up with the hot oil.

Sterilize 3 hours in hot-water-bath-outfit; 11/2 hours in steam pressure or pressure cooker (10 to 15 lbs.).

CANNED FISH IN TOMATO SAUCE

Handle same as specified under "Another Formula for Miscellaneous Fish," except pour in the following sauce instead of pepper, cloves, onions, etc.: Ten gallons of tomato pulp (mashed tomatoes and juice with cores, seeds and skins removed); 1 gallon cider vinegar, 1 pint Worcestershire sauce; 21/2 pounds red sweet peppers; 21/2 pounds sugar, 2 cups salt, 2 pounds onions (chopped fine); 1 pound West India peppers and 1 ounce Saigon cinnamon. The fish are processed same as "Fish in Oil." Enamel lined cans or glass jars must be used.

FISH CHOWDER

The cleaned heads of any fish, the backbones cut out of large fish with what meat adheres to them and all other fish scraps may be used for fish chowder. Put all these parts in cold water (to cover) and cook until all the meat can be easily removed from the bones. Pick all the meat from the bones, strain the fish liquor and return it with the picked fish meat to the kettle. Add the following ingredients: To every two pounds of fish picked from bones and the liquor in which fish was cooked add 6 onions, diced or sliced thin; 6 potatoes, diced or sliced thin; 2 tablespoonfuls fat; 1 teaspoonful paprika; 2 teaspoonfuls salt or salt to taste.

Cook vegetables, fat and seasonings until vegetables are half done. Pack hot in cans and sterilize same as all other fish. When the chowder is opened, heat and add milk according to taste.

FISH ROE

For canning be sure to use roe of freshly caught fish and only such roe as is known to be good to eat. The roe of some fishes, such as the garfish, is not eaten.

Clean the roe by removing the shreds and strings adhering to it and wash well in cold water, being careful not to break the roe. Soak for 2 hours in a brine made of 6 quarts of water and 6 ounces of salt. Drain and pack in hot glass jars or enameled tin cans. Can for the same length of time as other fish.

OYSTERS

Be sure all oysters that are to be canned are absolutely fresh, have not "soured" and contain no spoiled oysters. Oysters are opened by hand. All oysters should be rejected that have partly open shells, as this is a sign that the oyster is dead and consequently not fit to eat.

Rinse the oysters to prevent any pieces of shell or grit from getting into the cans. Blanch 5 minutes. Cold-dip. If the canned oysters are to be sold it is required by law to mark on each can the net weight of solids or meat exclusive of liquids.

There have been a number of standard grades of oysters recognized on the Baltimore market. They are given as follows: "Standard Oysters" (four kinds).

No. 1 cans, containing respectively 11/2, 3, 4 and 5 ounces of meat, after being processed in the cans.

No. 2 cans, containing respectively 3, 6, 8 and 10 ounces of meat.

"Select" and "Extra Select" Oysters contain respectively 6 ounces and 12 ounces for No. 1 and No. 2 cans. The above are the net weights of meats only that have been drained over a strainer with a wire bottom of 1/2 inch mesh. These are the only grades that have so far been recognized by the trade. An even balance scale, with one platform for graduated weights and another for articles to be weighed, is used to weigh oysters or clams. It is suggested that those who are going to can clams or oysters find out from their prospective customers just what requirements are as to weights and then make their pack meet the occasion. Under no circumstances is it advisable to make any misstatements or misbrand in any respect.

After oysters have been packed in the can, fill with boiling brine made of 5 quarts of water to 1/4 lb. salt to within 1/2 inch from top of can. Sterilize as other fish.

CLAMS

If clams are received in a muddy condition, it is advisable, though not necessary to wash them before opening. After opening, discard broken or discolored clams. Do not can any clams unless absolutely fresh. Blanch. Cold-dip. Weigh out the amount of solid meat, after draining, that is to go into each can. Weigh and label just as oysters are weighed and labeled.

Fill can to within 1/2 inch from the top with boiling brine made of 5 gallons of water and 1 pound of salt. Sterilize.

CLAM BROTH AND CHOWDER

Place the clams, after being opened, in a kettle with enough cold water to cover. Add a few stalks of celery. Boil for 10 minutes. Season with salt, and pepper to taste and add 1 tablespoon butter to every 50 or 60 large clams. Can. Clam chowder can be made according to any recipe and then canned.

SHRIMPS

Shrimps when first caught are a grayish white color. They are very delicate and spoil quickly if allowed to stand for any length of time in a warm place. There are two general methods of canning shrimp—the "dry pack" and "wet pack." Nearly all the trade now calls for "wet pack" because the other always has a rather offensive odor and the meat is never so fresh and sweet of flavor as the "wet pack." Canned shrimp is very pleasing to the taste and is preferred by many to lobster for salads and stews.

Wet Pack. Medium sizes are preferable as very large shrimps are apt to be too tough and too dry. Put the shrimps into a wire scalding basket and lower into a boiling hot salt water solution made by mixing one pound of salt to each gallon of water. Allow the shrimps to remain in this bath for about five minutes, then remove and drain thoroughly.

Peel and remove viscera (entrails). The boiling and the salt will harden the meat and make the peeling comparatively easy. Pack into enameled tin cans or glass jars. Nos. 1 and 11/2 cans are used almost exclusively. These sizes should contain 41/2 oz and 9 ounces of meat respectively. It is unsafe to put in more meat than above directed, for it might cake and become solid when processed.

Add a very mild brine to within 1/2 inch from top of can. For the brine use 1 teaspoonful salt to 1 quart of boiling water. Sterilize.

Dry Pack. Handle same as above, except do not pour into the cans any brine. The fish is packed in the cans and processed as follows without the addition of any liquor.

Drying of Shrimps. After shrimps are boiled and peeled they may be dried. Spread on a drier of any kind and dry at a temperature of from 110 deg.F. to 150 deg.F. When thoroughly dry pack in dry clean glass jars or in parchment-paper lined boxes.

SALMON

Scale fish, clean and wipe dry. Do not wash. If the fish are large cut in lengths to fill the cans and in sizes to pass through can openings easily. Salmon is usually packed in No. 1 cans or in flat cans. Fill cans with fish after it has been blanched 5 minutes and cold dipped. Sterilize as other fish.

Many salmon packers lacquer the outside of their cans to prevent rusting. This is a very advisable point. The test for unsound salmon is the nose. If the contents issue an offensive odor, it is unsound. Freezing does not hurt canned salmon.

AMERICAN OR DOMESTIC SARDINES

The fish taught and used for packing domestic sardines belong to the herring family and are said to be of the same species as the sardines of France, Portugal and Spain. There are two methods generally used in canning sardines. First, when the fish are put in a sauce such as mustard dressing or tomato sauce, and secondly where they are packed in oil.

CANNING SARDINES IN SAUCE

The heads are cut off, the scales taken off and the fish cleaned. Blanch 5 minutes; cold dip; drain and pack into the cans dry. Cover with sauce, either mustard or tomato.

SARDINES IN OIL

The fish are prepared in the same manner as above described but instead of blanching them, they are put in wire baskets and immersed in boiling peanut or cottonseed oil until tender. Olive oil might be used, but is rather expensive. When cooked, they are drained, packed into cans in order, and the cans filled with olive oil. It is often advisable to salt the fish while fresh and before cooking as it improves the flavor.

CRAB MEAT

Put 5 gallons of water in a large kettle. Add 1/4 lb. of baking soda to it. When boiling vigorously throw the live crabs in it and boil quickly for 20 minutes. Remove crabs and wash them in cold water. Pick out all meat. Wash the meat in a brine made of 1 ounce of salt dissolved in three quarts of water. Drain and pack in enameled No. 1 flat cans. Sterilize. As soon as the time of sterilizing is up, plunge the cans immediately into cold water, otherwise crab meat discolors. For this reason, glass jars are not so well adapted to crab meat canning as tin cans.

FLAKED CODFISH

The fish are first cleaned and the entrails removed, then the fins are cut off. The fish are then soaked for about two hours in a salt brine to remove the blood. This brine is made with about 10 lbs. of salt to 8 gallons of water. The brine is then rinsed off and the fish are cooked, either boiled or cooked by steam. When codfish are thoroughly cooked, the meat will drop off of the bone in pieces, and it is very white in color and crisp in texture. These pieces are then broken in suitable sizes and are ready to place in the cans. The cans are filled as full as possible, because after processing the fish will shrink some.

CRAWFISH

The best way to can crawfish is to put it up in a bouillon as follows: Water, 2 gallons; vinegar, 1 quart; cloves, 10; carrots in slices, 6; onions in slices, 6; cloves of garlic, 3.

To the above should be added a good quantity of pepper to suit the taste, a little salt and bunch of parsley and a little thyme. Boil slowly for about an hour. Throw in the crawfish after the intestines have been extracted; to do this take the live crawfish in your hand and tear off the wing which is in the middle of the tail; it will pull out at the same time a little black intestine which is very bitter. Boil one or two minutes, never longer, put in cans and process.

TIME-TABLE FOR BLANCHING AND STERILIZING FISH



[A] SCALD OR BLANCH [B] HOT WATER BATH OUTFIT 212 deg.F [C] CONDENSED STEAM OUTFIT 212 deg.F [D] WATER-SEAL OUTFIT 214 deg.F [E] STEAM PRESSURE 5 TO 10 POUNDS [F] PRESSURE COOKER 10 POUNDS

NUMBER OF MINUTES TO STERILIZE PRODUCT [A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] Fish of all kinds 3 to 5 3 hrs. 3 hrs. 21/2 hrs. 2 hrs. 11/2 hrs. min. Shell fish of all 3 min. 3 hrs. 3 hrs. 21/2 hrs. 2 hrs. 11/2 hrs. kinds



CHAPTER IX

EASY METHODS OF CANNING IN TIN

If the proper sanitary requirements are provided and instructions of the cold-pack method of canning are followed, it is entirely safe and practical to use tin cans for all kinds of fruits, vegetables and other food products. Food poisoning—commonly called ptomaine poisoning—and the effects ascribed to "salts of tin" result from improper handling and improper preparation of the product before packing, or from allowing the product to stand in the tin after it has been opened. The raw food products used for canning in tin must be in sound condition, just as they must be if put into glass containers.

It is true that canned foods may be rendered unfit for use by improper handling of the product before packing and that decomposition may occur after canning, owing to insufficient processing, improper sealing or the use of leaky containers. This condition, however, is no more likely to be encountered in foods put up in tin than in products canned in other types of containers. You run no more danger of poison from your own tin-canned products than from tin-canned food bought at the store. Most canned foods if in a spoiled condition readily show this condition by the swelling of the can or by odor or taste. Canned foods showing such evidences of decomposition should not be used.

Certain foods which are high in protein, such as meats, peas, beans and fish products, may undergo decomposition without making this condition obvious to the senses. It is essential, therefore, that the greatest care be taken to subject such products to proper preparation and ample processing. It should be remembered that canned foods, after opening the containers, should be treated as perishable products and should be handled with the same precautions that are applied when fresh products are being used.

ADVANTAGES OF CANS

Many housewives ask, "Why can in tin when we have always used glass jars?" There are many advantages in canning in tin which we can well consider. There is no breakage as in glass; you can handle the tin cans as carelessly as you choose and you will not hear a snap or crack indicating a lost jar. Furthermore, tin cans are easier to handle not only in canning but in storing.

The expense each year of new tin covers or new tin cans is no more than the purchase of new rubbers and the replacement of broken glass jars. Furthermore, one big advantage of tin over glass is that tin cans can be cooled quickly by plunging them into cold water immediately upon removal from the canner, and thus the cooking is stopped at the proper moment. The product is consequently better in form and flavor than when the cooking is prolonged, as it must be in glass jars. Many women like the large openings of cans because they can make better packs than when using narrow-necked jars.

If you do not care to bother with the soldering you can purchase a safe and simple device that will do the work for you. This device is called a tin-can sealer. With a sealer no soldering is necessary. Even an inexperienced person, by following directions carefully, can seal a can as well as an experienced one. The sealed cans look exactly like those purchased at the store. Two or three cans a minute can be sealed with this device.

This is the way to operate a can sealer: Prepare the fruits and vegetables as for any canning, following directions formerly given for cold-pack canning.

After the fruits or vegetables have been properly prepared, blanched and cold-dipped if necessary, place them in sanitary, solderless cans. Put water or sirup on, according to directions. Put the top on the can and place the can in the sealer.

Raise the can into the chunk by swinging the raising lever at the bottom of the machine against the frame. Turn the crank, rapidly at first, with the right hand, and at the same time push the seaming-roll lever very slowly with the left hand until it will go no farther. This is one of the most important steps in the use of the machine. Continue to give the crank several turns after the seaming-roll lever has gone as far as it will go. This completes the first operation or seam.

Continue turning the crank with the right hand, and with the left hand pull the seaming-roll lever until it will go no farther in this direction. After this has been done give the crank several more turns, and the second and final operation is complete. Bring the seaming-roll lever back to the middle position and remove the can. The can is then ready for sterilization.

Before sealing a new lot of cans or after changing for a different size of can, one or two of the cans about to be used should be tested for leaks. If this is done and the cans stand the test it will be unnecessary to test the remaining cans of that same lot. The following is a simple and safe test:

Put one tablespoon of water into an empty can and seal. Have on hand a vessel containing enough boiling water to cover the can. Set aside and, as soon as bubbles disappear from the surface, immerse the can in the hot water. This heats the water in the can and creates a pressure within the can. Keep the can under the surface for two minutes, and if by that time no bubbles rise from the can the can has been sealed air-tight.

ADJUSTING THE SEAMING ROLLS

If bubbles rise from the can the seam is not sufficiently tight. If this seam is not sufficiently tight the second seaming roll needs adjusting, provided the directions regarding seaming rolls given below have been observed. To set the rolls proceed as follows: Loosen the nut on the bottom of the seaming-roll pin. With a screw driver turn the seaming-roll pin counter clockwise—that is, from right to left. Turn very slightly and, while holding the seaming-roll pin with the screw driver in the left hand, tighten nut with the right hand, and test as before.

Previous Part     1  2  3  4     Next Part
Home - Random Browse