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Enquire Within Upon Everything - The Great Victorian Domestic Standby
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1256. Veal and Ham Patties.

Chop about six ounces of ready-dressed lean veal, and three ounces of ham, very small; put it into a stewpan with an ounce of butter rolled in flour, half a gill of cream, half a gill of veal stock, a little grated nutmeg and lemon peel, some cayenne pepper and salt, a spoonful of essence of ham, and lemon juice, and stir it over the fire some time, taking care it does not burn.

1257. Puff Paste.

To a pound and a quarter of sifted flour, rub gently in with the hand half a pound of fresh butter, mix up with half a pint of spring water, knead it well, and set it by for a quarter of an hour; then roll it out thin, lay on it in small pieces three quarters of a pound more of butter, throw on it a little flour, double it up in folds, and roll it out thin three times, and set it by for about an hour in a cold place. Or, if a more substantial and savoury paste be desired, use the following:

1258. Paste for Meat or Savoury Pies.

Sift two pounds of fine flour to a pound and a half of good salt butter, break it into small pieces, and wash it well in cold water; rub gently together the butter and flour, and mix it up with the yolks of three eggs, beat together with a spoon, and nearly a pint of spring water; roll it out, and double it in folds three times, and it is ready.

1259. Chicken and Ham Patties.

Use the white meat from the breast of the chickens or fowls, and proceed as for veal and ham patties.

1260. Prime Beef Sausages.

Take a pound of lean beef, and half a pound of suet, remove the skin, chop it fine as for mince collop, then beat it well with a roller, or in a marble mortar, till it is all well mixed and will stick together; season highly, and make into flat round cakes, about an inch thick, and shaped with a cup or saucer, and fry of a light brown. The sausages should be served up on boiled rice, as for curry, if for company, you may do them with eggs and bread-crumbs; but they are quite as good without. Or they may be rolled in puff or pie paste, and baked.

1261. Potato Puffs.

Take cold roast meat, either beef, or mutton, or veal and ham, clear it from the gristle, cut it small, and season with pepper, salt, and pickles, finely minced. Boil and mash some potatoes, and make them into a paste with one or two eggs; roll out the paste, with a dust of flour, cut it round with a saucer, put some of your seasoned meat on one half, and fold the other half over it like a puff; pinch or nick it neatly round, and fry of a light brown. This is an elegant method of preparing meat that has been dressed before.

[THE STEAM FROM A KETTLE SUGGESTED THE STEAM ENGINE.]

1262. Fried Eggs and Minced Ham or Bacon.

Choose some very fine bacon streaked with a good deal of lean; cut this into very thin slices, and afterwards into small square pieces; throw them into a stewpan and set it over a gentle fire, that they may lose some of their fat. When as much as will freely come is thus melted from them, lay them on a warm dish. Put into a stewpan a ladleful of melted bacon or lard; set it on a stove; put in about a dozen of the small pieces of bacon, then incline the stewpan and break in an egg. Manage this carefully, and the egg will presently be done: it will be very round, and the little dice of bacon will stick to it all over, so that it will make, a very pretty appearance. Take care the yolks do not harden. When the egg is thus done, lay it carefully on a warm dish, and do the others.

1263. Fish Cake.

Take the meat from the bones of any kind of cold fish, and put the bones with the head and fins into a stewpan with a pint of water, a little salt, pepper, an onion, and a faggot of sweet herbs, to stew for gravy. Mince the meat, and mix it well with crumbs of bread and cold potatoes, equal parts, a little parsley and seasoning. Make into a cake, with the white of an egg, or a little butter or milk; egg it over, and cover with bread crumbs, then fry a light brown. Pour the gravy over, and stew gently for fifteen minutes, stirring it carefully twice or thrice. Serve hot, and garnish with slices of lemon, or parsley. These cakes aiford a capital relish from scraps of cold fish. Housekeepers who would know how to economise all kinds of nutritious fragments, should refer to the "Family Save-all," which supplies a complete course of "Secondary Cookery." [1]

[Footnote 1: Published by Houlston and Sons, Paternoster-square, London, E.C. Price 2s. 6d.]

1264. Marbled Goose.

The following is suitable for larger supper parties, or as a stock dish for families where visitors are frequent; it is also excellent for breakfasts, or for picnics :—Take a fine mellow ox-tongue out of pickle, cut off the root and horny part at the tip, wipe dry, and boil till it is quite tender. Then peel it, cut a deep slit in its whole length, and lay a fair proportion of the following mixture within it:—Mace half an ounce, nutmeg half an ounce, cloves half an ounce, salt two tablespoonfuls, and twelve Spanish olives. The olives should be stoned, and all the ingredients well pounded and mixed together. Next take a barn-door fowl and a good large goose, and bone them. Put the tongue inside the fowl, rub the latter outside with the seasoning, and having ready some slices of ham divested of the rind, wrap them tightly round the fowl. Put the fowl and its wrapping of ham inside the goose, with the remainder of the seasoning, sew it up, and make all secure and of natural shape with a piece of new linen and tape. Put it in an earthen pan or jar just large enough to hold it, with plenty of clarified butter, and bake it for two hours and a half in a slow oven; then take it out, and when cold take out the goose and set it in a sieve; take off the butter and hard fat, which put by the fire to melt, adding, if required, more clarified butter. Wash and wipe out the pan, put the bird again into it, and take care that it is well covered with the warm butter; then tie the jar down with bladder and leather. It will keep thus for a long time. When wanted for the table the jar should be placed in a tub of hot water, so as to melt the butter, the goose then can he taken out, and sent to table cold.

[BE BOLD ENOUGH TO EXPERIMENT.]

1265. Oyster Pie.

The following directions may be safely relied upon. Take a large dish, butter it, and spread a rich paste over the sides and round the edge, but not at the bottom. The oysters should be fresh, and as large and fine as possible. Drain off part of the liquor from the oysters. Put them into a pan, and season them with pepper, salt, and spice. Stir them well with the seasoning. Have ready the yolks of some hard-boiled eggs, chopped fine, and the grated bread.

Pour the oysters (with as much of their liquor as you please) into the dish that has the paste in it. Strew over them the chopped egg and grated bread. Roll out the lid of the pie, and put it on, crimping the edges handsomely. Take a small sheet of paste, cut it into a square, and roll it up. Cut it with a sharp knife into the form of a double tulip. Make a slit in the centre of the upper crust, and stick the tulip in it. Cut out eight large leaves of paste, and lay them on the lid. Bake the pie in a quick oven.

1266. Salad.

The mixing of salad is an art which it is easy to attain with care. The main point is to incorporate the several articles required for the salad, and to serve up at table as fresh as possible. The herbs should be "morning gathered," and they will be much refreshed by laying an hour or two in spring water. Careful picking, and washing, and drying in a cloth, in the kitchen, are also very important, and the due proportion of each herb requires attention.

The sauce may be thus prepared:—Boil two eggs for ten or twelve minutes, and then put them in cold water for a few minutes, so that the yolks may become quite cold and hard. Rub them through a coarse sieve with a wooden spoon, and mix them with a tablespoonful of water or cream, and then add two tablespoonfuls of fine flask oil, or melted butter; mix, and add by degrees a teaspoonful of salt, and the same quantity of mustard: mix till smooth, and then incorporate with the other ingredients about three tablespoonfuls of vinegar.

Pour this sauce down the side of the salad bowl, but do not stir up the salad till wanted to be eaten. Garnish the top of the salad with the white of the eggs, cut in slices; or these may be arranged in such manner as to be ornamental on the table. Some persons may fancy they are able to prepare a salad without previous instruction, but, like everything else, a little knowledge in this case is not thrown away.

1267. French Mode of Dressing Salad.

Fill the salad bowl with lettuce and small salading, taking care not to cut up the lettuce into too small strips. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, and, if liked, drop some mustard, mixed thin, over the salad, and strew a little moist sugar over it. Then pour over the whole three tablespoonfuls of good salad oil and one of Orleans vinegar, and turn over the lettuce lightly with a salad spoon and fork, that every portion of it may be brought into contact with the mixture. This mode of preparing a salad is far more expeditious than the ordinary way.

1268. Salad Mixture in Verse.

Two large potatoes, passed through kitchen sieve, Unwonted softness to the salad give; Of mordant mustard add a single spoon— Distrust the condiment which bites so soon; But deem it not, thou man of herbs, a fault To add a double quantity of salt; Three times the spoon with oil of Lucca crown, And once with vinegar procured from town. True flavour needs it, and your poet begs The pounded yellow of two well-boiled eggs; Let onion atoms lurk within the bowl, And, scarce suspected, animate the whole; And lastly, on the favoured compound toss A magic teaspoon of anchovy sauce; Then, though green turtle fail, though venison's tough, And ham and turkey be not boiled enough Serenely full, the epicure may say,— "Fate cannot harm me—I have dined today."

1269. Apple Puddings.

One pound of flour, six ounces of very finely minced beef suet; roll thin, and fill with one pound and a quarter of boiling apples; add the grated rind and strained juice of a small lemon, tie it in a cloth; boil for one hour and twenty minutes, or longer. A small slice of fresh butter stirred into it when it is sweetened will be an acceptable addition; grated nutmeg, or cinnamon in fine powder, may be substituted for lemon rind. For a richer pudding use half a pound of butter for the crust, and add to the apples a spoonful or two of orange or quince marmalade.

[HE IS UNFORTUNATE WHO CANNOT BEAR MISFORTUNE.]

1270. Boston Apple Pudding.

Peel and core one dozen and a half of good apples; cut them small; put them into a stewpan with a little water, cinnamon, two cloves, and the peel of a lemon; stew over a slow fire till soft; sweeten with moist sugar, and pass it through a hair sieve; add the yolks of four eggs and one white, a quarter of a pound of good butter, half a nutmeg, the peel of a lemon grated, and the juice of one lemon; beat well together; line the inside of a pie-dish with good puff paste; put in the pudding, and bake half an hour.

1271. Bread Pudding.

Unfermented brown bread, two ounces; milk, half a pint; one egg; sugar, quarter of an ounce. Cut the bread into slices, and pour the milk over it boiling hot; let it stand till well soaked, and stir in the egg and sugar, well beaten, with a little grated nutmeg; and bake or steam for one hour.

1272. Plum Pudding.

Take of flour, one pound; three teaspoonfuls of baking powder; beef suet, eight ounces; currants, eight ounces; nutmeg and orange peel, grated fine, quarter of an ounce; three eggs. To be boiled or steamed four hours.

1273. Cabinet Pudding.

Cut three or four muffins in two, pour over them boiling milk sufficient to cover them, cover them up until they are tender. Make a rich custard with the yolks of eight eggs and the whites of four, a pint of cream, a quarter of a pound of loaf sugar, an ounce of almonds, blanched and cut, lemon peel and nutmeg grated, and a glass of ratafia or brandy, and add to the soaked muffins. Butter a tin mould for boiling—for baking, a dish. Put a layer of dried cherries, greengages, apricots, or French plums; cover with the mixture, adding fruit and mixture alternately, until the mould or dish is quite full. Boil an hour, and serve with wine sauce. In boiling this pudding it should be placed in a stewpan with only water enough, to reach half way up the mould. If for baking, it will not take so long. Lay a puff paste round the edges of the dish.

1274. Elegant Bread Pudding.

Take light white bread, and cut it in thin slices. Put into a pudding shape a layer of any sort of preserve, then a slice of bread, and repeat until the mould is almost full. Pour over all a pint of warm milk, in which four beaten eggs have been mixed; cover the mould with a piece of linen, place it in a saucepan with a little boiling water, let it boil twenty minutes, and serve with pudding sauce.

1275. Economical Family Pudding.

Bruise with a wooden spoon, through a cullender, six large or twelve middle-sized boiled potatoes; beat four eggs, mix with a pint of good milk, stir in the potatoes; sugar and seasoning to taste; butter the dish; bake half an hour. A little Scotch marmalade makes a delicious accompaniment.

1276. Batter Pudding.

Take of flour, four ounces; a teaspoonful of baking powder; a little sugar, and one egg. Mix with milk to a thin batter, and bake in a well-buttered tin, in a brisk oven, half an hour. A few currants may be strewed in the bottom of the tin if preferred.

1277. Batter Pudding, Baked or Boiled.

Six ounces of fine flour, a little salt, and three eggs; beat well with a little milk, added by degrees until it is the thickness of cream; put into a buttered dish: bake three-quarters of an hour: or if boiled put it into a buttered and floured basin, tied over with a cloth; boil one hour and a half or more.

[FALSEHOOD, LIKE A NETTLE, STINGS THOSE WHO MEDDLE WITH IT.]

1278. Half-Pay Pudding.

Four ounces of each of the following ingredients, viz., suet, flour, currants, raisins, and bread-crumbs; two tablespoonfuls of treacle, half a pint of milk—all of which must be well mixed together, and boiled in a mould, for four hours.

1279. Fig Pudding.

Three-quarters of a pound of grated bread, half a pound of best figs, six ounces of suet, six ounces of moist sugar, a teacupful of milk, and a little nutmeg. The figs and suet must be chopped very fine. Mix the bread and suet first, then the figs, sugar, and nutmegs, one egg beaten well, and lastly the milk. Boil in a mould four hours. To be eaten with sweet sauce.

1280. Plain Suet Pudding.

Take of flour, one pound and a half; bicarbonate of soda, three drachms; or two teaspoonfuls of baking powder; beef suet, four ounces; powdered ginger, half a drachm; water or milk, one pint. Mix according to the directions given for the tea cake (par. 2099) and boil or steam for two hours.

1281. Barley Pudding.

Take a quarter of a pound of Scotch or pearl barley. Wash, and simmer it in a small quantity of water; pour off the water, and add milk and flavouring as for rice puddings. Beat up with sugar and nutmeg, and mix the milk and barley in the same way. It may be more or less rich of eggs, and with or without the addition of butter, cream, or marrow. Put it into a buttered deep dish, leaving room for six or eight ounces of currants, and an ounce of candied peel, cut up fine, with a few apples cut in small pieces. An hour will bake it.

1282. Carrot Pudding.

Grate a raw red carrot; mix with double the weight of bread-crumbs or biscuit, or with the same weight of each: to a pound and a half of this mixture, put a Pint of new milk or cream, or half a pint of each, four or six ounces of clarified butter, three or four eggs well beaten, sugar to taste, a little nutmeg, and a glass of brandy; line or edge a dish with puff paste; pour in the mixture; put slices of candied lemon or orange peel on the top, and bake in a moderately hot oven.

1283. Potato Pudding.

Boil mealy potatoes in their skins, according to the plan laid down (par. 1104) skin and mash them with a little milk, pepper and salt: this will make a good pudding to bake under roast meat. With the addition of a bit of butter, an egg, milk, pepper, and salt, it makes an excellent batter for a meat pudding baked.

Grease a baking dish; put a layer of potatoes, then a layer of meat cut in bits, and seasoned with pepper, salt, a little allspice, either with or withouf chopped onions; a little gravy of roast meat is a great improvement: then put another layer of potatoes, then meat, and cover with potatoes. Put a buttered paper over the top, to prevent it from being burnt, and bake it from an hour to an hour and a half.

1284. Almond Pudding.

A large cupful of finely-minced beef suet, a teacupful of milk, four ounces of bread-crumbs, four ounces of well-cleaned currants, two ounces of almonds, half a pound of stoned raisins, three well-beaten eggs, and the whites of another two; sugar, nutmeg, and cinnamon, and a small glass of rum. Butter a shape, and place part of the raisins neatly in rows. Blanch the almonds; reserve the half of them to be placed in rows between the raisins just before serving. Mix all the remaining ingredients well together, put into the shape, and boil three hours.

1285. Sauce for Almond Pudding.

One teaspoonful of milk, and two yolks of eggs well beaten, and some sugar; place on the fire and stir till it just comes to the boil: then let it cool. When lukewarm, stir into it a glass of sherry or currant wine, and serve in a sauce tureen. This sauce is a great improvement to raisin pudding.

1286. Peas Pudding.

Dry a pint or quart of split peas thoroughly before the fire; then tie them up loosely in a cloth, put them into warm water, boil them a couple of hours, or more, until quite tender; take them up, beat them well in a dish with a little salt, the yolk of an egg, and a bit of butter. Make it quite smooth, tie it up again in a cloth, and boil it an hour longer. This is highly nourishing.

[LET TRUTH BE OUR GUIDE.]

1287. Apple Dumplings.

Paste the same as for apple pudding, divide into as many pieces as dumplings are required; peel and core the apples; roll out your paste large enough; put in the apples; close the dumplings, tie each in a cloth very tightly. Boil them one hour; when you take them up, dip them quickly in cold water, and put them in a cup while you untie them; they will turn out without breaking.

1288. Rice Dumplings.

Pick and wash a pound of rice, and boil it gently in two quarts of water till it becomes dry—keeping the pot well covered, and not stirring it. Then take it off the fire, and spread it out to cool on the bottom of an inverted sieve, loosening the grains lightly with a fork, that all the moisture may evaporate. Pare a dozen pippins, or some large juicy apples, and scoop out the core; then fill up the cavity with marmalade, or with lemon and sugar. Cover every apple all over with a thick coating of the boiled rice. Tie up each in a separate cloth, and put them into a pot of cold water. They will require about an hour and a quarter after they begin to boil, perhaps longer.

1289. Boiled Custard.

Boil half a pint of new milk, with a piece of lemon peel, two peach leaves, half a stick of cassia, a few whole allspice, from four to six ounces of white sugar. Cream may be used instead of milk; beat the yolks and white of four eggs, strain the milk through coarse muslin, or a hair sieve; then mix the eggs and milk very gradually together, and stir it well from the bottom, on the fire, till it thickens.

1290. Baked Custard.

Boil in a pint of milk a few coriander seeds, a little cinnamon and lemon peel; sweeten with four ounces of loaf sugar, mix with it a pint of cold milk; beat eight eggs for ten minutes; add the other ingredients; pour it from one pan into another six or eight times, strain through a sieve; let it stand; skim the froth from the top, pour it into earthen cups, and bake immediately in a hot oven till they are of a good colour; ten minutes will be sufficient.

1291. French Batter.

Two ounces of butter cut into bits, pour on it less than a quarter of a pint of water boiling; when dissolved, add three-quarters of a pint of water cold, so that it shall not be quite milk warm; mix by degrees smoothly with twelve ounces of fine dry flour and a small pinch of salt, if the batter be for fruit fritters, but with more if for meat or vegetables. Before used, stir into it the whites of two eggs beaten to solid froth; previously to this, add a little water if too thick. This is excellent for frying vegetables, and for fruit fritters.

1292. A Black Man's Recipe to Dress Rice.

Wash him well, much wash in cold water, the rice flour make him stick. Water boil all ready very fast. Throw him in, rice can't burn, water shake him too much. Boil quarter of an hour or little more; rub one rice in thumb and finger, if all rub away him quite done. Put rice in cullender, hot water run away; pour cup of cold water on him, put back rice in saucepan, keep him covered near the fire, then rice all ready. Eat him up!

1293. Yellow Rice.

Take one pound of rice, wash it clean, and put it into a saucepan which will hold three quarts; add to it half a pound of currants picked and washed, one quarter of an ounce of the best turmeric powder, previously dissolved in a cupful of water, and a stick of cinnamon; pour over them two quarts of cold water, place the saucepan uncovered on a moderate fire, and allow it to boil till the rice is dry, then stir in a quarter of a pound of sugar, and two ounces of butter: cover up, and place the pan near the fire for a few minutes, then mix it well and dish up. This is a favourite dish with the Japanese, and will be found excellent as a vegetable with roast meat, poultry, &c. It also forms a capital pudding, which may be improved by the addition of raisins, and a few blanched almonds.

[THE FALL OF THE LEAF IS A WHISPER TO THE LIVING.]

1294. Boiled Rice for Curry.

Put the rice on in cold water, and let it come to a boil for a minute or so: strain it quite dry, and lay it on the hob in a stewpan without a cover to let the steam evaporate, then shake it into the dish while very hot. A squeeze of lemon juice after it boils will make it separate better.

1295. Lemon Rice.

Boil sufficient rice in milk, with white sugar to taste, till it is soft; put it into a pint basin or an earthenware blanc-mange mould, and leave it till cold. Peel a lemon very thick, cut the peel into shreds about half or three-quarters of an inch in length, put them into a little water, boil them up, and throw the water away, lest it should be bitter, then pour about a teacupful of fresh water upon them; squeeze and strain the juice of the lemon, add it with white sugar to the water and shreds, and let it stew gently at the fire for two hours. (When cold it will be a syrup.) Having turned out the jellied rice into a cutglass dish, or one of common delf, pour the syrup gradually over the rice, taking care the little shreds of the peel are equally distributed over the whole.

1296. Remains of Cold Sweet Dishes.

1297. Ripe Pudding.

Over the cold rice pudding pour a custard, and add a few lumps of jelly or preserved fruit. Remember to remove the baked coating of the pudding before the custard is poured over it.

1298. Apple Tart.

Cut into triangular pieces the remains of a cold apple tart: arrange the pieces around the sides of a glass or china bowl, and leave space in the centre for a custard to be poured in.

1299. Plum Pudding.

Cut into thin round slices cold plum pudding, and fry them in butter. Fry also Spanish fritters, and place them high in the centre of the dish, and the fried pudding all round the heaped-up frittera. Powder all with lump sugar, and serve them with wine sauce in a tureen.

1300. Fritters.

Make them of any of the batters directed for pancakes, by dropping a small quantity into the pan; or make the plainer sort, and dip pared apples, sliced and cored, into the batter, and fry them in plenty of hot lard. Currants, or sliced lemon as thin as paper, make an agreeable change. Fritters for company should be served on a folded napkin in the dish. Any sort of sweetmeat, or ripe fruit, may be made into fritters.

1301. Oyster Fritters.

Make a batter of flour, milk, and eggs; season with a very little nutmeg. Beard the oysters, and put as many as you think proper in each fritter.

1302. Potato Fritters.

Boil two large potatoes, bruise them fine, beat four yolks and three whites of eggs, and add to the above one large spoonful of cream, another of sweet wine, a squeeze of lemon, and a little nutmeg. Beat this batter well half an hour. It will be extremely light. Put a good quantity of fine lard into a stewpan, and drop a spoonful at a time of the batter into it. Fry the fritters; and serve as a sauce, a glass of white wine, the juice of a lemon, one dessert-spoonful of peach-leaf or almond water, and some white sugar, warmed together; not to be served in a dish.

1303. Apple Fritters.

Peel and core some fine pippins, and cut into slices. Soak them in wine, sugar, and nutmeg, for a few hours. Make a batter of four eggs to a tablespoonful of rose water, a tablespoonful of wine, and a tablespoonful of milk, thickened with enough flour, stirred in by degrees; mix two or three hours before wanted. Heat some butter in a frying-pan; dip each slice of apple separately in the batter, and fry brown; sift pounded sugar, and grate a nutmeg over them.

[THE HOPE IS SURE WHICH HAS ITS FOUNDATION IN VIRTUE.]

1304. Pancakes.

Make a light batter of eggs, flour, and milk; a little salt, nutmeg, and ginger may be added; fry in a small pan, in hot dripping or lard. Sugar and lemon should be served to eat with them. Or, when eggs are scarce, make the batter with small beer, ginger, and so forth; or water, with flour, and a very little milk, will serve, but not so well as eggs and all milk.

1305. Cream Pancakes.

Mix two eggs, well beaten, with a pint of cream, two ounces of sifted sugar, six of flour, a little nutmeg, cinnamon, and mace. Fry the pancakes thin, with a bit of butter.

1306. Rice Pancakes.

Boil half a pound of ground rice to a jelly in a pint of water or milk, and keep it well stirred from the bottom to prevent its being burnt; if too thick add a little more milk; take it off the fire; stir in six or eight ounces of butter, a pint of cream, six or eight eggs well beaten, a pinch of salt, sugar, and nutmeg, with as much flour as will make the batter thick enough. Fry with lard or dripping.

1307. Scones.

Flour, two pounds; bicarbonate of soda, quarter of an ounce; salt, quarter of an ounce; sour buttermilk, one pint, more or less. Mix to the consistence of light dough, roll out about half an inch thick, and cut them out to any shape you please, and bake on a griddle over a clear fire about ten or fifteen minutes; turning them to brown on both sides—or they may be done on a hot plate, or ironing stove. A griddle is a thin plate of cast iron about twelve or fourteen inches in diameter, with a handle attached, to hang it up by.—These scones are excellent for tea, and may be eaten either cold or hot, buttered, or with cheese.

1308. Friar's Omelette.

Boil a dozen apples, as for sauce; stir in a quarter of a pound of butter, and the same of white sugar; when cold, add four eggs, well beaten; put it into a baking dish thickly strewed over with crumbs of bread, so as to stick to the bottom and sides; then put in the apple mixture; strew crumbs of bread over the top; when baked, turn it out and grate loaf sugar over it.

1309. Ordinary Omelette.

Take four eggs, beat the yolks and whites together with a tablespoonful of milk, and a little salt and pepper; put two ounces of butter into a frying-pan to boil, and let it remain until it begins to brown; pour the batter into it, and let it remain quiet for a minute; turn up the edges of the omelette gently from the bottom of the pan with a fork; shake it, to keep it from burning at the bottom, and fry it till of a bright brown. It will not take more than five minutes frying.

1310. Miss Acton's Observations on Omelettes, Pancakes, Fritters, &c.

"There is no difficulty in making good omelettes, pancakes, or fritters; and, as they may be expeditiously prepared and served, they are often a very convenient resource when, on short notice, an addition is required to a dinner. The eggs for all of them should be well and lightly whisked; the lard for frying batter should be extremely pure in flavour, and quite hot when the fritters are dropped in; the batter itself should be smooth as cream, and it should be briskly beaten the instant before it is used. All fried pastes should be perfectly drained from the fat before they are served, and sent to table promptly when they are ready.

"Eggs may be dressed in a multiplicity of ways, but are seldom more relished in any form than in a well-made and expeditiously served omelette. This may be plain, or seasoned with minced herbs and a very little shalot, when the last is liked, and is then called Omelettes aux fines herbes; or it may be mixed with minced ham or grated cheese: in any case it should be light, thick, full-tasted, and fried only on one side; if turned in the pan, as it frequently is in England, it will at once be flattened and rendered tough. Should the slight rawness, which is sometimes found in the middle of the inside when the omelette is made in the French way, be objected to, a heated shovel, or a salamander, may be held over it for an instant, before it is folded on the dish.

"The pan for frying it should be quite small; for if it be composed of four or five eggs only, and then put into a large one, it will necessarily spread over it and be thin, which would render it more like a pancake than an omelette; the only partial remedy for this, when a pan of proper size cannot be had, is to raise the handle of it high, and to keep the opposite side close down to the fire, which will confine the eggs into a smaller space. No gravy should be poured into the dish with it, and, indeed, if properly made, it will require none. Lard is preferable to butter for frying batter, as it renders it lighter; but it must not be used for omelettes. Filled with preserves of any kind, it is called a sweet omelette."

1311. Baked Pears.

Take twelve large baking pears; pare and cut them into halves, leaving on about half an inch of the stem. Take out the core with the point of a knife, and place the pears thus prepared close together in a block tin saucepan, the inside of which is quite bright, and whose cover fits quite close. Put to them the rind of a lemon cut thin, with half its juice, a small stick of cinnamon, and twenty grains of allspice; cover them with spring water, and allow one pound of loaf sugar to a pint and a half of water: cover up close, and bake for six hours in a very slow oven;—they will be quite tender, and of a good colour. Prepared cochineal is generally used for colouring the pears; but if the above is strictly attended to, it will be found to answer best.

1312. Apples served with Custard.

Pare and core apples; cut them in pieces; bake or stew them with as little water as possible; when they have become pulpy, sweeten and put them in a pie-dish, and, when cold, pour over them an unboiled custard, and put back into the oven till the custard is fixed. A Dutch oven will do. Equally good hot or cold.

1313. Apples in Syrup.

Pare and core some hard apples, and throw them into a basin of water. When all are done, clarify as much loaf sugar as will cover them; put the apples in along with the juice and rind of a lemon, and let them simmer till they are quite clear; care must be taken not to break them; place them on the dish they are to appear upon at table, and pour the syrup over. These are for immediate use.

1314. Apricots Stewed in Syrup.

Wipe the down from young apricots, and stew them as gently as possible in a syrup made of four ounces of sugar to half a pint of water, boiled the usual time.

1315. Mother Eve's Pudding.

If you want a good pudding, to teach you I'm willing: Take two pennyworth of eggs, when twelve for a shilling; And of the same fruit that Eve had once chosen, Well pared and well chopped, at least half a dozen; Six ounces of bread (let your maid eat the crust), The crumbs must be grated as small as the dust; Six ounces of currants from the stones you must sort, Lest they break out your teeth, and spoil all your sport; Six ounces of sugar won't make it too sweet; Some salt and some nutmeg will make it complete; Three hours let it boil, without hurry or flutter, And then serve it up, without sugar or butter.

1316. Accidents.

Always send for a surgeon immediately an accident occurs, but treat as directed until he arrives.

[AN EVIL CONSCIENCE IS THE GREATEST PLAGUE.]

1317. In both Scalds and Burns.

In both scalds and burns, the following facts cannot be too firmly impressed on the mind of the reader, that in either of these accidents the first, best, and often the only remedies required, are sheets of wadding, fine wool, or carded cotton, and in default of these, violet powder, flour, magnesia, or chalk. The object for which these several articles are employed is the same in each instance; namely, to exclude the air from the injured part; for if the air can be effectually shut out from the raw surface, and care is taken not to expose the tender part till the new cuticle is formed, the cure may be safely left to nature.

The moment a person is called to a case of scald or burn, he should cover the part with a sheet, or a portion of a sheet, of wadding, taking care not to break any blister that may have formed, or stay to remove any burnt clothes that may adhere to the surface, but as quickly as possible envelope every part of the injury from all access of the air, laying one or two more pieces of wadding on the first, so as effectually to guard the burn or scald from the irritation of the atmosphere; and if the article used is wool or cotton, the same precaution, of adding more material where the surface is thinly covered, must be adopted; a light bandage finally securing all in their places.

Any of the popular remedies recommended below may be employed when neither wool, cotton, nor wadding are to be procured, it being always remembered that that article which will best exclude the air from a burn or scald is the best, quickest, and least painful mode of treatment. And in this respect nothing has surpassed cotton loose or attached to paper as in wadding.

1318. If the Skin is much Injured.

If the skin is much injured in burns, spread some linen pretty thickly with chalk ointment, and lay over the part, and give the patient some brandy and water if much exhausted; then send for a medical man. If not much injured, and very painful, use the same ointment, or apply carded cotton dipped in lime water and linseed oil. If you please, you may lay cloths dipped in ether over the parts, or cold lotions. Treat scalds in the same manner, or cover with scraped raw potato; but the chalk ointment is the best. In the absence of all these, cover the injured part with treacle, and dust over it plenty of flour.

1319. Body in Flames.

Lay the person down on the floor of the room, and throw the tablecloth, rug, or other large cloth over him, and roll him on the floor.

1320. Dirt in the Eye.

Place your forefinger upon the cheek-bone, having the patient before you; then slightly bend the finger, this will draw down the lower lid of the eye, and you will probably be able to remove the dirt; but if this will not enable you to get at it, repeat this operation while you have a netting-needle or bodkin placed over the eyelid; this will turn it inside out, and enable you to remove the sand, or eyelash, &c., with the corner of a fine silk handkerchief. As soon as the substance is removed, bathe the eye with cold water, and exclude the light for a day. If the inflammation is severe, let the patient take a purgative, and use a refrigerant lotion.

1321. Lime in the Eye.

Syringe it well with warm vinegar and water in the proportion of one ounce of vinegar to eight ounces of water; take a purgative, and exclude light.

1322. Iron or Steel Spiculae in the Eye.

These occur while turning iron or steel in a lathe, and are best remedied by doubling back the upper or lower eyelid, according to the situation of the substance, and with the flat edge of a silver probe, taking up the metallic particle, using a lotion made by dissolving six grains of sugar of lead, and the same of white vitriol, in six ounces of water, and bathing the eye three times a day till the inflammation subsides. Another plan is—Drop a solution of sulphate of copper (from one to three grains of the salt to one ounce of water) into the eye, or keep the eye open in a wineglassful of the solution. Take a purgative, bathe with cold lotion, and exclude light to keep down inflammation.

[SLEEP FALLS SWEETLY UPON THE VIRTUOUS.]

1323. Dislocated Thumb.

This is frequently produced by a fall. Make a clove hitch, by passing two loops of cord over the thumb, placing a piece of rag under the cord to prevent it cutting the thumb; then pull in the same line as the thumb. Afterwards apply a cold lotion.

1324. Cuts and Wounds.

Clean cut wounds, whether deep or superficial, and likely to heal by the first intention, should never be washed or cleaned, but at once evenly and smoothly closed by bringing both edges close together, and securing them in that position by adhesive plaster. Cut thin strips of sticking-plaster, and bring the parts together; or if large and deep, cut two broad pieces, so as to look like the teeth of a comb, and place one on each side of the wound, which must be cleaned previously. These pieces must be arranged so that they shall interlace one another; then, by laying hold of the pieces on the right side with one hand, and those on the other side with the other hand, and pulling them from one another, the edges of the wound are brought together without any difficulty.

1325. Ordinary Cuts.

Ordinary cuts are dressed by thin strips, applied by pressing down the plaster on one side of the wound, and keeping it there and pulling in the opposite direction; then suddenly depressing the hand when the edges of the wound are brought together.

1326. Contusions.

Contusions are best healed by laying a piece of folded lint, well wetted with the extract of lead, on the part, and, if there is much pain, placing a hot bran poultice over the dressing, repeating both, if necessary, every two hours. When the injuries are very severe, lay a cloth over the part, and suspend a basin over it filled with cold lotion. Put a piece of cotton into the basin, so that it shall allow the lotion to drop on the cloth, and thus keep it always wet.

1327. Haemorrhage.

Haemorrhage, when caused by an artery being divided or torn, may be known by the blood issuing out of the wound in leaps or jerks, and being of a bright scarlet colour. If a vein is injured, the blood is darker and flows continuously. To arrest the latter, apply pressure by means of a compress and bandage. To arrest arterial bleeding, get a piece of wood (part of a mop handle will do), and tie a piece of tape to one end of it; then tie a piece of tape loosely over the arm, and pass the other end of the wood under it; twist the stick round and round until the tape compresses the arm sufficiently to arrest the bleeding, and then confine the other end by tying the string round the arm. A compress made by enfolding a penny piece in several folds of lint or linen, should, however, be first placed under the tape and over the artery.

If the bleeding is very obstinate, and it occurs in the arm, place a cork underneath the string, on the inside of the fleshy part, where the artery may be felt beating by any one; if in the leg, place a cork in the direction of a line drawn from the inner part of the knee towards the outer part of the groin. It is an excellent thing to accustom yourself to find out the position of these arteries, or, indeed, any that are superficial, and to explain to every person in your house where they are, and how to stop bleeding.

If a stick cannot be got, take a handkerchief, make a cord bandage of it, and tie a knot in the middle; the knot acts as a compress, and should be placed over the artery, while the two ends are to be tied around the thumb. Observe always to place the ligature between the wound and the heart. Putting your finger into a bleeding wound, and making pressure until a surgeon arrives, will generally stop violent bleeding.

1328. Bleeding from the Nose.

Bleeding from the nose, from whatever cause, may generally be stopped by putting a plug of lint into the nostrils, if this does not do, apply a cold lotion to the forehead; raise the head, and place over it both arms, so that it will rest on the hands; dip the lint plug, slightly moistened, into some powdered gum arabic, and plug the nostrils again; or dip the plug into equal parts of powdered gum arabic and alum, and plug the nose. Or the plug may be dipped in Friar's balsam, or tincture of kino. Heat should be applied to the feet; and, in obstinate cases, the sudden shock of a cold key, or cold water poured down the spine, will often instantly stop the bleeding. If the bowels are confined, take a purgative.

[MORNING IS WELCOME TO THE INDUSTRIOUS.]

1329. Violent Shocks.

Violent shocks will sometimes stun a person, and he will remain unconscious. Untie strings, collars, &c.; loosen anything that is tight, and interferes with the breathing; raise the head; see if there is bleeding from any part; apply smelling-salts to the nose, and hot bottles to the feet.

1330. Concussion.

In concussion, the surface of the body is cold and pale, and the pulse weak and small, the breathing slow and gentle, and the pupil of the eye generally contracted or small. You can get an answer by speaking loud, so as to arouse the patient. Give a little brandy and water, keep the place quiet, apply warmth, and do not raise the head too high. If you tickle the feet, the patient feels it.

1331. Compression of the Brain.

In compression of the brain from any cause, such as apoplexy, or a piece of fractured bone pressing on it, there is loss of sensation. If you tickle the feet of the injured person he does not feel it. You cannot arouse him so as to get an answer. The pulse is slow and laboured; the breathing deep, laboured, and snorting; the pupil enlarged. Raise the head, loosen strings or tight things, and send for a surgeon. If one cannot be got at once, apply mustard poultices to the feet and thighs, leeches to the temples and hot water to the feet.

1332. Choking.

When a person has a fish bone in the throat, insert the forefinger, press upon the root of the tongue, so as to induce vomiting; if this does not do, let him swallow a large piece of potato or soft bread; and if these fail, give a mustard emetic.

1333. Fainting, Hysterics, &c.

Loosen the garments, bathe the temples with water or eau-de-Cologne; open the window, admit plenty of fresh air, dash cold water on the face, apply hot bricks to the feet, and avoid bustle and excessive sympathy.

1334. Drowning.

Attend to the following essential rules:

i. Lose no time.

ii. Handle the body gently.

iii. Carry the body face downwards, with the head gently raised, and never hold it up by the feet.

iv. Send for medical assistance immediately, and in the meantime act as follows:

v. Strip the body, rub it dry: then wrap it in hot blankets, and place it in a warm bed in a warm room.

vi. Cleanse away the froth and mucus from the nose and mouth.

vii. Apply warm bricks, bottles, bags of sand, &c., to the armpits, between the thighs, and to the soles of the feet.

viii. Rub the surface of the body with the hands enclosed in warm dry worsted socks.

ix. If possible, put the body into a warm bath.

x. To restore breathing, put the pipe of a common bellows into one nostril, carefully closing the other, and the mouth; at the same time drawing downwards, and pushing gently backwards, the upper part of the windpipe, to allow a more free admission of air; blow the bellows gently, in order to inflate the lungs, till the breast be raised a little; then set the mouth and nostrils free, and press gently on the chest: repeat this until signs of life appear. The body should be covered the moment it is placed on the table, except the face, and all the rubbing carried on under the sheet or blanket. When they can be obtained, a number of tiles or bricks should be made tolerably hot in the fire, laid in a row on the table, covered with a blanket, and the body placed in such a manner on them, that their heat may enter the spine. When the patient revives, apply smelling-salts to the nose, give warm wine or brandy and water.

Cautions.

i. Never rub the body with salt or spirits.

ii. Never roll the body on casks,

iii. Continue the remedies for twelve hours without ceasing.

[PURE WATER IS BETTER THAN FOUL WINE.]

1335. Hanging.

Loosen the cord, or whatever it may be by which the person has been suspended. Open the temporal artery or jugular vein, or bleed from the arm; employ electricity, if at hand, and proceed as for drowning, taking the additional precaution to apply eight or ten leeches to the temples.

1336. Apparent Death from Drunkenness.

Raise the head, loosen the clothes, maintain warmth of surface, and give a mustard emetic as soon as the person can swallow.

1337. Apoplexy and Fits Generally.

Raise the head; loosen all tight clothes, strings, &c.; apply cold lotions to the head, which should be shaved; apply leeches to the temples, bleed, and send for a surgeon.

1338. Suffocation from Noxious Gases, &c.

Remove to the fresh air; dash cold vinegar and water in the face, neck, and breast; keep up the warmth of the body; if necessary, apply mustard poultices to the soles of the feet and spine, and try artificial respirations as in drowning, with electricity.

1339. Lightning and Sun Stroke.

Treat the same as apoplexy.

1340. Poisons, General Observations.

The abbreviations used are as follows:—

E., effects or symptoms. T., treatment. A., antidotes or counter poisons. D.A., dangerous antidotes.

1341. Poison.

A poison is a substance which is capable of altering or destroying some or all of the functions necessary to life. When a person is in good health, and is suddenly attacked, after having taken some food or drink, with violent pain, cramp in the stomach, feeling of sickness or nausea, vomiting, convulsive twitchings, and a sense of suffocation; or if he be seized, under the same circumstances, with giddiness, delirium, or unusual sleepiness, then it may be supposed that he has been poisoned.

1342. Classes of Poisons.

Poisons have been divided into four classes:

i. Those causing local symptoms. ii. Those producing spasmodic symptoms. iii. Narcotic or sleepy symptoms; and iv. Paralytic symptoms.

Poisons may be mineral, animal, or vegetable.

1343. Procedure.

i. Always send immediately for a Medical Man.

ii. Save all fluids vomited, and articles of food, cups, glasses, &c., used by the patient before being taken ill, and lock them up.

iii. Examine the cups to guide you in your treatment; that is, smell them, and look at them.

1344. Give and Apply.

As a rule give emetics after poisons that cause sleepiness and raving;—chalk, milk, eggs, butter, and warm water, or oil, after poisons that cause vomiting and pain in the stomach and bowels, with purging; and when there is no inflammation about the throat, tickle it with a feather to excite vomiting.

1345. Arsenic.

(White arsenic; orpiment, or yellow arsenic; realgar, red arsenic; Scheele's green, or arsenite of copper; King's yellow; ague drops; and arsenical paste.)

E. Little or no taste. Within an hour, heat and pain in the stomach, followed by vomiting of green, yellow, and bloody matter, burning, and violent thirst; purging, and twisting about the navel; pulse small, quick, and irregular, breathing laboured, voice hoarse, speaking painful; skin cold and clammy. Sometimes there are cramps and convulsions, followed by death.

T. Give plenty of warm water, new milk in large quantities, lime water, white of egg, mixed with gruel or honey, gruel, linseed tea; apply leeches to the bowels, foment, and give starch or gruel enemas. Scrape the iron rust off anything you can get at, mix it with plenty of water, and give in large draughts frequently, and give an emetic of mustard or ipecacuanha. The chief dependence, however, must be placed on the use of the stomach-pump.

Caution.—Never give large draughts of fluid until those given before have been vomited, because the stomach will not contract properly if filled with fluid, and the object is to get rid of the poison as speedily as possible.

1346. Copper.

(Blue vitriol, or bluestone; verdigris; verditer; verdigris crystals.)

E. An acid, rough, disagreeable taste in the mouth; a dry, parched tongue, with sense of strangling in the throat; coppery eructations; frequent spitting; nausea; frequent desire and effort to vomit, or copious vomiting; severe darting pains in the stomach; griping; frequent purging; belly swollen and painful; skin hot, and violent burning thirst; breathing difficult; intense headache and giddiness, followed by cold sweats, cramps in the legs, convulsions, and death.

A. White of eggs mixed with water (twelve to one pint), to be given in wineglassfuls every two minutes; iron filings mixed with water, or very strong coffee, accompanied by small and repeated doses of castor oil.

D.A. Vinegar, bark, alkalies, gall nuts.

T. If there is much pain in the belly or stomach, apply leeches. Give large draughts of milk and water, to encourage vomiting.

1347. Mercury.

(Corrosive sublimate; calomel; red precipitate; vermilion; turbeth mineral; prussiate of mercury.)

E. Acid metallic taste; tightness and burning in the throat; pain in the back part of the mouth, stomach, and bowels; anxiety of countenance; nausea; and vomiting of bloody and bilious fluids; profuse purging, and difficulty of making water; pulse small, hard, and quick; skin clammy, icy coldness of the hands and feet; and death in 24 or 36 hours.

A. White of eggs mixed with water, given as above; milk; flour and water, mixed pretty thick; linseed tea; and barley water.

T. Give large draughts of warm water, if you cannot get anything else; strong emetic of ipecacuanha, the stomach-pump, a dose of castor oil and laudanum. Apply poppy-head fomentations to bowels, and leeches if the belly is very tender.

1348. Antimony.

(Tartar emetic; butter of; Kermes' mineral.)

E. A rough metallic taste in the mouth, nausea, copious vomitings, sudden hiccough, purging, pains resembling those caused by colic, frequent and violent cramps, sense of choking, severe heartburn, pain at the pit of the stomach, difficult breathing, wildness of speech, cramp in the legs, and death.

A. Decoction or tincture of galls; strong tea; decoction or powder of Peruvian bark.

D.A. White vitriol, ipecacuanha, as emetics.

T. Give large draughts of water, or sugar and water, to promote vomiting; apply leeches to the throat and stomach if painful; and give one grain of extract of opium dissolved in a wineglassful of sugar and water, as soon as the vomiting ceases, and repeat three times at intervals of a quarter of an hour; and finally, one grain, in a little castor oil emulsion, every six hours.

1349. Tin.

(Butter of tin; putty powder.)

E. Colic and purging.

A. Milk.

T. Give warm or cold water to promote vomiting, or tickle the throat with a feather.

1350. Zinc.

(White vitriol; flowers of; chloride of.)

E. An astringent taste, sensation of choking, nausea, vomiting, purging, pain and burning in the throat and stomach, difficult breathing, pallor and coldness of the surface, pinched face, cramps of the extremities, but, with the exception of the chloride, seldom death.

A. For the two first give copious draughts of milk, and white of eggs and water, mucilage, and olive oil; for the third, carbonate of soda, and warm water in frequent draughts, with the same as for the other compounds.

T. Relieve urgent symptoms by leeching and fomentations, and after the vomiting give castor oil. For the chloride, use friction and warmth.

[BREATH MAY BLOW OUT A CANDLE, AN EXTINGUISHER PREVENT FIRE.]

1351. Silver, Gold and Bismuth.

Silver: (Lunar caustic; flowers of silver);

Gold (Chloride of);

and Bismuth (Nitrate; flowers of; pearl white),

are not frequently met with as poisons.

E. Burning pain in the throat, mouth, accompanied with the usual symptoms of corrosive poisons.

A. For silver, common salt and water; for gold and bismuth, no antidotes are known.

T. Give milk and mucilaginous fluids, and castor oil.

1352. Acids.

(Hydrochloric, or spirit of salt; nitric, or aquafortis; sulphuric, or oil of vitriol.)

E. Acid burning taste, acute pain in the gullet and throat, vomiting of bloody fluid, which effervesces when chalk is added to it; hiccough, tenderness of the belly, cold sweats, pinched face, convulsions, and death.

A. Give calcined magnesia, chalk, soap and water. Administer frequent draughts of water to weaken the acid with carbonate of soda, potass, or magnesia, to neutralize it; thick soap-suds made with common soap; chalk, or in default of the alkalies and chalk, break down the plaster of the wall or ceiling, mix in water, and give the sufferer. Excite vomiting, and repeat the remedies till all the acid is neutralized.

1353. Chlorine (gas).

E. Violent coughing, tightness of the chest, debility, inability to stand.

A. The vapour of caustic ammonia to be inhaled, or ten drops of liquid ammonia to one ounce of water to be taken.

T. Dash cold water over the face, and relieve urgent symptoms.

1354. Lead.

(Sugar of; red lead; wine sweetened by; and water impregnated with).

E. Sugary astringent metallic taste, tightness of the throat, pains as if caused by colic, violent vomiting, hiccough, convulsions, and death.

A. Epsom or Glauber's salt; plaster of Paris; or phosphate of soda.

T. An emetic of sulphate of zinc (twenty-four grains to half a pint of water); leeches to belly; fomentations if necessary; and a dose of castor oil mixed with laudanum.

1355. Phosphorus.

E. Intense burning and pain in the throat and stomach.

A. Magnesia and carbonate of soda.

T. Large draughts of cold water, and tickle the throat with a feather.

Caution. Do not give oil or milk.

1356. Lime.

E. Burning in the throat and stomach, cramps in the belly, hiccough, vomiting, and paralysis of limbs.

A. Vinegar or lemon juice.

T. Thin starch water to be drunk frequently.

1357. Alkalies.

(Caustic potash; soda; ammonia.)

E. Acrid, hot, disagreeable taste; burning in the throat, nausea, and vomiting bloody matter; profuse purging, pain in the stomach, colic, convulsions, and death.

A. Vinegar and vegetable acids

T. Give linseed tea, milk, almond or olive oil, and excite vomiting.

1358. Baryta

(Carbonate, pure, and muriate of, See LIME para. 1356.)

1359. Nitre.

E. Heartburn, nausea, violent vomiting, purging, convulsions, difficult breathing, violent pain in the bowels, kidneys, and bladder, with bloody urine.

T. Emetics, frequent draughts of barley water, with castor oil and laudanum.

1360. Narcotic Poisons.

(Bane berries; fool's parsley; deadly nightshade; water hemlock; thorn apple; opium, or laudanum; camphor, &c.)

E. Giddiness, faintness, nausea, vomiting, stupor, delirium, and death.

T. Give emetics, large draughts of fluids, tickle the throat, apply smelling salts to the nose, dash cold water over the face and chest, apply mustard poultices, and, above all, endeavour to rouse the patient by walking between two persons; and, if possible, by electricity; and give forty drops of sal-volatile in strong coffee every half-hour.

1361. Vegetable Irritating Poisons.

(Mezsreon; monk's-hood; bitter apple; gamboge; white hellebore, &c.)

E. Acrid, biting, bitter taste, choking sensation, dryness of the throat, retching, vomiting, purging, pains in the stomach and bowels, breathing difficult, and death.

T. Give emetics of camomile, mustard, or sulphate of zinc; large draughts of warm milk, or other bland fluids; foment and leech the belly if necessary, and give strong infusion of coffee.

[TAKE CARE OF PENCE, POUNDS WILL TAKE CARE OF THEMSELVES.]

1362. Oxalic Acid.

E. Vomiting and acute pain in the stomach, general debility, cramps, and death.

A. Chalk.

T. Give large draughts of lime water or magnesia.

1363. Spanish Flies.

E. Acrid taste, burning heat in the throat, stomach, and belly, bloody vomitings, colic, purging, retention of urine, convulsions, death.

T. Large draughts of olive oil; thin gruel, milk, starch enemas, linseed tea, laudanum, and camphorated water.

1364. Poisonous Fish.

(Old-wife; sea-lobster; mussel; tunny; blower; rock-fish, &c.)

E. Intense pain in the stomach after swallowing the fish, vomiting, purging, and sometimes cramps.

T. Give an emetic; excite vomiting by tickling the throat, and plenty of warm water. Follow emetics by active purgatives, particularly of castor oil and laudanum, or opium and calomel, and abate inflammation by the usual remedies.

1365. Bites of Reptiles.

(Viper; black viper; Indian serpents; rattle-snake.)

E. Violent and quick inflammation of the part, extending towards the body, soon becoming livid; nausea, vomiting, convulsions, difficult breathing, mortification, cold sweats, and death.

T. Suppose that the wrist has been bitten: immediately tie a tape between the wound and the heart, scarify the parts with a penknife, razor, or lancet, and apply a cupping-glass over the bite, frequently removing it and bathing the wound with volatile alkali, or heat a poker and burn the wound well, or drop some of Sir Wm. Burnett's Disinfecting Fluid into the wound, or cauterize the bite freely with lunar caustic, but not till the part has been well sucked with the mouth, or frequently washed and cupped. The strength is to be supported by brandy, ammonia, ether, and opium. Give plenty of warm drinks, and cover up in bed.

1366. Mad Animals, Bite of.

E. Hydrophobia, or a fear of fluids.

T. Tie a string tightly over the part, cut out the bite, and cauterize the wound with a red-hot poker, lunar caustic, or Sir Wm. Burnett's Disinfecting Fluid. Then apply a piece of "spongio-piline," give a purgative, and plenty of warm drink. Whenever chloroform can be procured, sprinkle a few drops upon a handkerchief, and apply to the nose and mouth of the patient before cauterizing the wound. When the breathing appears difficult, cease the application of the chloroform. A physician, writing in the Times, strongly urged this course, and stated, many years ago, that there is no danger, with ordinary care, in the application of the chloroform, while the cauterization may be more effectively performed.

1367. Insect Stings.

(Wasp, bee, gnat, hornet, gadfly, scorpion.)

E. Swelling, nausea, and fever.

T. Press the barrel of a watch-key over the part, so as to expose the sting, which must be removed. Give fifteen drops of hartshorn or sal-volatile in half a wine-glassful of camomile tea, and cover the part stung with a piece of lint soaked in extract of lead.

1368. Cautions for the Prevention of Accidents.

The following regulations should be engraved on the memory of all:

i. As many sudden deaths come by water, particular caution is therefore necessary in its vicinity.

ii. Do not stand near a tree, or any leaden spout, iron gate, or palisade, in times of lightning.

iii. Lay loaded guns in safe places, and never imitate firing a gun in jest.

iv. Never sleep near charcoal; if drowsy at any work where charcoal fires are used, take the fresh air.

v. Carefully rope trees before they are cut down, that when they fall they may do no injury.

vi. When benumbed with cold beware of sleeping out of doors; rub yourself, if you have it in your power, with snow, and do not hastily approach the fire.

vii. Beware of damp.

viii. Air vaults, by letting them remain open some time before you enter, or scattering powdered lime in them. Where a lighted candle will not burn, animal life cannot exist; it will be an excellent caution, therefore, before entering damp and confined places, to try this simple experiment.

ix. Never leave saddle or draught horses, while in use, by themselves; nor go immediately behind a led horse, as he is apt to kick. When crossing a roadway always go behind a cart or carriage, never in front of it.

x. Do not ride on footways.

xi. Look closely after children, whether they are up or in bed; and particularly when they are near the fire, an element with which they are very apt to amuse themselves.

xii. Leave nothing poisonous open or accessible; and never omit to write the word "POISON" in large letters upon it, wherever it may be placed.

xiii. In walking the streets keep out of the line of the cellars, and never look one way and walk another.

xiv. Never throw pieces of orange peel, or broken glass bottles, into the streets.

xv. Never meddle with gunpowder by candle-light.

xvi. In trimming a lamp with naphtha, never fill it. Leave space for the spirit to expand with warmth.

xvii. Never quit a room leaving the poker in the fire.

xviii. When the brass rod of the stair-carpet becomes loose, fasten it immediately.

xix. In opening effervescing drinks, such as soda water, hold the cork in your hand.

xx. Quit your house with care on a frosty morning.

xxi. Have your horses' shoes roughed directly there are indications of frost.

xxii. Keep lucifer matches in their cases, and never let them be strewed about.

xxiii. Kick into the gutter any piece of orange peel that you may see on the pavement or the roadway. By so doing you may save many from meeting with dangerous accidents.

xxvi. Never allow your servants to leave brooms, brushes, slop-pails, water cans, &c. in outside doorways, or at the head of a flight of stairs when engaged in house-work.

[IF YOU ARE IN DEBT, SOMEBODY OWNS PART OF YOU.]

1369. Accidents in Carriages.

It is safer, as a general rule, to keep your place than to jump out. Getting out of a gig over the back, provided you can hold on a little while, and run, is safer than springing from the side. But it is best to keep your place, and hold fast. In accidents people act not so much from reason as from excitement: but good rules, firmly impressed upon the mind, generally rise uppermost, even in the midst of fear.

1370. Life Belts.

An excellent and cheap life belt, for persons proceeding to sea, bathing in dangerous places, or learning to swim, may be thus made:—Take a yard and three quarters of strong jean, double, and divide it into nine compartments. Let there be a space of two inches after each third compartment. Fill the compartments with very fine cuttings of cork, which may be made by cutting up old corks, or (still better) purchased at the corkcutter's. Work eyelet holes at the bottom of each compartment, to let the water drain out. Attach a neck-band and waist-strings of stout boot-web, and sew them on strongly.

1371. Another.

Cut open an old boa, or victorine, and line it with fine cork-cuttings instead of wool. For ladies going to sea these are excellent, as they may be worn in stormy weather, without giving appearance of alarm in danger. They may be fastened to the body by ribands or tapes, of the colour of the fur. Gentlemen's waistcoats may be lined the same way.

1372. Charcoal Fumes.

The usual remedies for persons overcome with the fumes of charcoal in a close apartment are, to throw cold water on the head, and to bleed immediately; also apply mustard or hartshorn to the soles of the feet.

[ECONOMY IS THE EASY CHAIR OF OLD AGE.]

1373. Cautions in Visiting the Sick.

Do not visit the sick when you are fatigued, or when in a state of perspiration, or with the stomach empty—for in such conditions you are liable to take the infection. When the disease is very contagious, place yourself at the side of the patient which is nearest to the window. Do not enter the room the first thing in the morning, before it has been aired; and when you come away, take some food, change your clothing immediately, and expose the latter to the air for some days. Tobacco smoke is a preventive of malaria.

1374. Children and Cutlery.

Serious accidents having occurred to babies through their catching hold of the blades of sharp instruments, the following hint will be useful. If a child lay hold of a knife or razor, do not try to pull it away, or to force open the hand; but, holding the child's hand that is empty, offer to its other hand anything nice or pretty, and it will immediately open the hand, and let the dangerous instrument fall.

1375. Directing Letters.

It may sound like being over particular, but we recommend persons to make a practice of fully addressing notes, &c., on all occasions; when, in case of their being dropped by careless messengers (which is not a rare occurrence), it is evident for whom they are intended, without undergoing the inspection of any other person bearing a similar name.

1376. Prevention of Fires.

The following simple suggestions are worthy of observation:

Add one ounce of alum to the last water used to rinse children's dresses, and they will be rendered uninflammable, or so slightly combustible that in event of coming into contact with fire, they would only smoulder away very slowly, and not burst into flame. This is a simple precaution, which may be adopted in families of children. Bed curtains, and linen in general, may also be treated in the same way. Tungstate of soda has been recommended for the purpose of rendering any article of female dress incombustible. Any chemist will intimate to the purchaser the manner in which the tungstate of soda should be employed.

1377. Precautions in Case of Fire.

The following precautions should be impressed upon the memory of all our readers:

1378. Fire!

Should a Fire break out, send off to the nearest engine or police station.

1379. Water.

Fill Buckets with Water, carry them as near the fire as possible, dip a mop into the water, and throw it in showers on the fire, until assistance arrives.

1380. A Wet Blanket.

If a Fire is violent, wet a blanket, and throw it on the part which is in flames.

1381. Chimney Fire (1).

Should a Fire break out in the Kitchen Chimney, or any other, a blanket wetted should be nailed to the upper ends of the mantelpiece, so as to cover the opening entirely; the fire will then go out of itself: for this purpose two knobs should be permanently fixed in the upper ends of the mantelpiece, on which the blanket may be hitched.

1382. Curtains on Fire.

Should the Bed or Window Curtains be on fire, lay hold of any woollen garment, and beat it on the flames until extinguished.

1383. No Draughts.

Avoid leaving the Window Or Door open in the room where the fire has broken out, as the current of air increases the force of the fire.

1384. Burning Staircase: Escape.

Should the Staircase be burning, so as to cut off all communication, endeavour to escape by means of a trap-door in the roof, a ladder leading to which should always be at hand.

1385. Avoid Hurry and Confusion.

Avoid hurry and confusion; no person except a fireman, friend, or neighbour, should be admitted.

1386. Dress on Fire.

If a Lady's Dress takes Fire, she should endeavour to roll herself in a rug, carpet, or the first woollen garment she meets with.

1387. Handy Baize.

It is a Good Precaution to have always at hand a large piece of baize, to throw over a female whose dress is burning, or to be wetted and thrown over a fire that has recently broken out.

[LITTLE STICKS KINDLE THE FIRE, BUT GREAT ONES PUT IT OUT.]

1388. Use Pearlash.

A Solution of Pearlash in Water, thrown upon a fire, extinguishes it instantly. The proportion is a quarter of a pound, dissolved in some hot water, and then poured into a bucket of common water.

1389. Buckets and Mops.

It is recommended to Householders to have two or three fire-buckets and a carriage-mop with a long handle near at hand; they will be found essentially useful in case of fire.

1390. Check before Retiring.

All householders, but particularly hotel, tavern, and inn-keepers, should exercise a wise precaution by directing that the last person up should look over the premises previous to going to rest, to ascertain that all fires are safe and lights extinguished.

1391. To Extinguish a Fire in a Chimney (2).

So many serious fires have been caused by chimneys catching fire, and not being quickly extinguished, that the following method of doing this should be made generally known. Throw some powdered brimstone on the fire in the grate, or ignite some on the hob, and then put a board or something in the front of the fireplace, to prevent the fumes descending into the room. The vapour of the brimstone, ascending the chimney, will then effectually extinguish the fire.

1392. To Extinguish a Fire in a Chimney (3).

To Extinguish a Fire in the chimney, besides any water at hand, throw on it salt, or a handful of flour of sulphur, as soon as you can obtain it; keep all the doors and windows tightly shut, and hold before the fireplace a blanket, or some woollen article, to exclude the air.

1393. Escaping from a Fire.

In escaping from a fire, creep or crawl along the room with your face close to the ground. Children should be early taught how to press out a spark when it happens to reach any part of their dress, and also that running into the air will cause it to blaze immediately.

1394. Don't Read in Bed.

Reading in bed at night should be avoided, as, besides the danger of an accident, it never fails to injure the eyes.

1395. Warming a Bed.

To heat a bed at a moment's notice, throw a little salt on the hot coals in the warming-pan, and suffer it to burn for a minute previous to use.

1396. No Plant Life.

Flowers and shrubs should be excluded from a bed-chamber.

1397. Swimming.

Every person should endeavour to acquire the power of swimming. The fact that the exercise is a healthful accompaniment of bathing, and that lives may be saved by it, even when least expected, is a sufficient argument for the recommendation. The art of swimming is, in reality, very easy. The first consideration is not to attempt to learn to swim too hastily. That is to say, you must not expect to succeed in your efforts to swim, until you have become accustomed to the water, and have overcome your repugnance to the coldness and novelty of bathing. Every attempt will fail until you have acquired a certain confidence in the water, and then the difficulty will soon vanish.

[WHAT THOU CANST DO THYSELF, COMMIT NOT TO ANOTHER.]

1398. Dr. Franklin's Advice to Swimmers.

"The only obstacle to improvement in this necessary and life-preserving art is fear: and it is only by overcoming this timidity that you can expect to become a master of the following acquirements. It is very common for novices in the art of swimming to make use of cork or bladders to assist in keeping the body above water; some have utterly condemned the use of them; however, they may be of service for supporting the body while one is learning what is called the stroke, or that manner of drawing in and striking out the hands and feet that is necessary to produce progressive motion. But you will be no swimmer till you can place confidence in the power of the water to support you; I would, therefore, advise the acquiring that confidence in the first place; especially as I have known several who, by a little practice, necessary for that purpose, have insensibly acquired the stroke, taught, as it were, by nature.

The practice I mean is this: choosing a place where the water deepens gradually, walk coolly into it till it is up to your breast; then turn round your face to the shore, and throw an egg into the water between you and the shore; it will sink to the bottom and be easily seen there if the water be clear. It must lie in the water so deep that you cannot reach to take it up but by diving for it. To encourage yourself in order to do this, reflect that your progress will be from deep to shallow water, and that at any time you may, by bringing your legs under you, and standing on the bottom, raise your head far above the water; then plunge under it with your eyes open, which must be kept open on going under, as you cannot open the eyelids for the weight of water above you; throwing yourself toward the egg, and endeavouring by the action of your hands and feet against the water to get forward, till within reach of it.

In this attempt you will find that the water buoys you up against your inclination; that it is not so easy to sink as you imagine, and that you cannot, but by active force, get down to the egg. Thus you feel the power of water to support you, and learn to confide in that power, while your endeavours to overcome it, and reach the egg, teach you the manner of acting on the water with your feet and hands, which action is afterwards used in swimming to support your head higher above the water, or to go forward through it.

1399. continued...

"I would the more earnestly press you to the trial of this method, because I think I shall satisfy you that your body is lighter than water, and that you might float in it a long time with your mouth free for breathing, if you would put yourself into a proper posture, and would be still, and forbear struggling; yet, till you have obtained this experimental confidence in the water, I cannot depend upon your having the necessary presence of mind to recollect the posture, and the directions I gave you relating to it. The surprise may put all out of your mind.

1400. continued...

"Though the legs, arms, and head of a human body, being solid parts, are specifically somewhat heavier than fresh water, as the trunk, particularly the upper part, from its hollowness, is so much lighter than water, so the whole of the body, taken altogether, is too light to sink wholly under water, but some part will remain above until the lungs become filled with water, which happens when a person, in the fright, attempts breathing while the mouth and nostrils are under water.

1401. continued...

"The legs and arms are specifically lighter than salt water, and will be supported by it, so that a human body cannot sink in salt water, though the lungs were filled as above, but from the greater specific gravity of the head. Therefore a person throwing himself on his back in salt water, and extending his arms, may easily lie so as to keep his mouth and nostrils free for breathing; and, by a slight motion of his hand, may prevent turning, if he should perceive any tendency to it.

1402. continued...

"In fresh water if a man throw himself on his back near the surface, he cannot long continue in that situation, but by proper action of his hands on the water; if he use no such action, the legs and lower part of the body will gradually sink till he come into an upright position, in which he will continue suspended, the hollow of his breast keeping the head uppermost.

1403. continued...

"But if in this erect position the head be kept upright above the shoulders, as when we stand on the ground, the immersion will, by the weight of that part of the head that is out of the water, reach above the mouth and nostrils, perhaps a little above the eyes, so that a man cannot long remain suspended in water with his head in that position.

1404. continued...

"The body continuing suspended as before, and upright, if the head be leaned quite back, so that the face look upward, all the back part of the head being under water, and its weight consequently in a great measure supported by it, the face will remain above water quite free for breathing, will rise an inch higher every inspiration, and sink as much every expiration, but never so low as that the water may come over the mouth.

1405. continued...

"If therefore a person unacquainted with swimming and falling accidentally into the water, could have presence of mind sufficient to avoid struggling and plunging, and to let the body take this natural position, he might continue long safe from drowning, till, perhaps, help should come; for, as to the clothes, their additional weight when immersed is very inconsiderable, the water supporting it; though when he comes out of the water, he will find them very heavy indeed.



1406. continued...

"But I would not advise any one to depend on having this presence of mind on such an occasion, but learn fairly to swim, as I wish all men were taught do in their youth; they would on many occasions, be the safer for having that skill; and on many more, the happier, as free from painful apprehensions of danger, to say nothing of the enjoyment in so delightful and wholesome an exercise. Soldiers particularly should, methinks, all be taught to swim; it might be of frequent use, either in surprising an enemy or saving themselves; and if I had now boys to educate, I should prefer those schools (other things being equal) where an opportunity was afforded for acquiring so advantageous an art, which, once learned, is never forgotten.

1407.

"I know by experience, that it is a great comfort to a swimmer, who has a considerable distance to go, to turn himself sometimes on his back, and to vary, in other respects, the means of procuring a progressive motion.

1408.

"When he is seized with the cramp in the leg, the method of driving it away is to give the parts affected a sudden, vigorous, and violent shock; which he may do in the air as he swims on his back.

1409.

"During the great heats in summer, there is no danger in bathing, however warm we may be, in rivers which have been thoroughly warmed by the sun. But to throw one's self into cold spring water, when the body has been heated by exercise in the sun, is an imprudence which may prove fatal. I once knew an instance of four young men who, having worked at harvest in the heat of the day, with a view of refreshing themselves, plunged into a spring of cold water; two died upon the spot, a third next morning, and the fourth recovered with great difficulty. A copious draught of cold water, in similar circumstances, is frequently attended with the same effect in North America.

1410.

"The exercise of swimming is of the most healthy and agreeable in the world. After having swum for an hour or two in the evening one sleeps coolly the whole night, even during the most ardent heat of summer. Perhaps, the pores being cleansed, the insensible perspiration increases, and occasions this coolness. It is certain that much swimming is the means of stopping diarrhoea, and even of producing a constipation. With respect to those who do not know how to swim, or who are affected with diarrhoea at a season which does not permit them to use that exercise, a warm bath, by cleansing and purifying the skin, is found very salutary, and often effects a radical cure. I speak from my own experience, frequently repeated, and that of others, to whom I have recommended this.

1411.

"When I was a boy, I amused myself one day with flying a paper kite; and approaching the banks of the lake, which was nearly a mile broad, I tied the string to a stake, and the kite ascended to a very considerable height above the pond, while I was swimming. In a little time, being desirous of amusing myself with my kite, and enjoying at the same time the pleasure of swimming, I returned, and loosening from the stake the string, with the little stick which was fastened to it, went again into the water, where I found that, lying on my back, and holding the stick in my hand, I was drawn along the surface of the water in a very agreeable manner. Having then engaged another boy to carry my clothes round the pond, to a place which I pointed out to him on the other side, I began to cross the pond with my kite, which carried me quite over without the least fatigue, and with the greatest pleasure imaginable. I was only obliged occasionally to halt a little in my course, and resist its progress, when it appeared that by following too quickly, I lowered the kite too much; by doing which occasionally I made it rise again. I have never since that time practised this singular mode of swimming, and I think it not impossible to cross, in this manner, from Dover to Calais."

1412. Using Life-Belts.

Those who prefer the Aid of Belts will find it very easy and safe to make belts upon the plan explained in pars. 1370, 1371; and by gradually reducing the floating power of the belts from day to day, they will gain confidence, and speedily acquire the art of swimming.

[A CHILD IS THE BRIGHTEST RAY IN THE SUNSHIRE OF THE PARENT'S HEART.]

1413. Staining.—General Observations.

When alabaster, marble, and other stones are coloured, and the stain is required to be deep, it should be poured on boiling hot, and brushed equally over every part, if made with water; if with spirit, it should be applied cold, otherwise the evaporation, being too rapid, would leave the colouring matter on the surface, without any, or very little, being able to penetrate. In greyish or brownish stones, the stain will be wanting in brightness, because the natural colour combines with the stain; therefore, if the stone be a pure colour, the result will be a combination of the colour and stain.

In staining bone or ivory, the colours will take better before than after polishing; and if any dark spots appear, they should be rubbed with chalk, and the article dyed again, to produce uniformity of shade. On removal from the boiling hot dye-bath, the bone should be immediately plunged into cold water, to prevent cracks from the heat.

If paper or parchment is stained, a broad varnish brush should be employed, to lay the colouring on evenly.

When the stains for wood are required to be very strong, it is better to soak and not brush them; therefore, if for inlaying or fine work, the wood should be previously split or sawn into proper thicknesses; and when it is necessary to brush the wood several times over with the stains, it should be allowed to dry between each coating.

When it is wished to render any of the stains more durable and beautiful, the work should be well rubbed with Dutch or common rushes after it is coloured, and then varnished with seed-lac varnish, or if a better appearance is desired, with three coats of the same, or shell-lac varnish. Common work only requires frequent rubbing with linseed oil and woollen rags. The remainder, with the exception of glass, will be treated in the following sections:

[A LAUGHING CHILD IS THE BEST PORTRAIT OF HAPPINESS.]

1414. Alabaster, Marble, and Stone.

Alabaster, marble, and stone, may be stained of a yellow, red, green, blue, purple, black, or any of the compound colours, by the stains used for wood.

1415. Bone and Ivory. Black.

i. Lay the article for several hours in a strong solution of nitrate of silver, and expose to the light.

ii. Boil the article for some time in a strained decoction of logwood, and then steep it in a solution of persulphate or acetate of iron.

iii. Immerse frequently in ink, until of sufficient depth of colour.

1416. Bone and Ivory. Blue.

i. Immerse for some time in a dilute solution of sulphate of indigo—partly saturated with potash—and it will be fully stained.

ii. Steep in a strong solution of sulphate of copper.

1417. Bone and Ivory. Green.

i. Dip blue-stained articles for a short time in nitro-hydrochlorate of tin, and then in a hot decoction of fustic.

ii. Boil in a solution of verdigris in vinegar until the desired colour is obtained.

1418. Bone and Ivory. Red.

i. Dip the articles first in the tin mordant used in dyeing, and then plunge into a hot decoction of Brazil wood—half a pound to a gallon of water—or cochineal.

ii. Steep in red ink until sufficiently stained.

1419. Bone and Ivory. Scarlet.

Use lac dye instead of the preceding.

1420. Bone and Ivory. Violet.

Dip in the tin mordant, and then immerse in a decoction of logwood.

1421. Bone and Ivory. Yellow.

i. Impregnate with nitro-hydrochlorate of tin, and then digest with heat in a strained decoction of fustic.

ii. Steep for twenty-four hours in a strong solution of the neutral chromate of potash, and then plunge for some time in a boiling solution of acetate of lead.

iii. Boil the articles in a solution of alum—a pound to half a gallon—and then immerse for half an hour in the following mixture:—Take half a pound of turmeric, and a quarter of a pound of pearl-ash; boil in a gallon of water. When taken from this, the bone must be again dipped in the alum solution.

[AVOID YOURSELF WHAT YOU THINK WRONG IN YOUR NEIGHBOUR.]

1422. Horn.

Horn must be treated in the same manner as bone and ivory for the various colours given under that heading.

1423. Imitation of Tortoiseshell.

First steam and then press the horn into proper shapes, and afterwards lay the following mixture on with a small brush, in imitation of the mottle of tortoiseshell:—Take equal parts of quicklime and litharge, and mix with strong soap-lees; let this remain until it is thoroughly dry, brush off, and repeat two or three times, if necessary. Such parts as are required to be of a reddish brown should be covered with a mixture of whiting and the stain.

1424. Iron. Black, for ships' guns, shots, &c.

To one gallon of vinegar add a quarter of a pound of iron rust, let it stand for a week; then add a pound of dry lampblack, and three-quarters of a pound of copperas; stir it up at intervals for a couple of days. Lay five or six coats on the gun, &c., with a sponge, allowing it to dry well between each. Polish with linseed oil and soft woollen rag, and it will look like ebony.

1425. Paper and Parchment.Blue.

i. Stain the material green with the verdigris stain given in No. 1433, and brush over with a solution of pearlash—two ounces to the pint—till it becomes blue.

ii. Use the blue stain for wood.

1426. Paper and Parchment. Green and Red.

The same as for wood.

1427. Paper and Parchment. Orange.

Brush over with a tincture of turmeric, formed by infusing an ounce of the root in a pint of spirit of wine; let this dry, and give another coat of pearlash solution, made by dissolving two ounces of the salt in a quart of water.

1428. Paper and Parchment.Purple.

i. Brush over with the expressed juice of ripe privet berries.

ii. The same as for wood.

1429. Paper and Parchment.Yellow.

i. Brush over with tincture of turmeric.

ii. Add anatto or dragon's-blood to the tincture of turmeric, and brush over as usual.

1430. Wood. Black.

i. Drop a little sulphuric acid into a small quantity of water, brush over the wood and hold to the fire; it will turn a fine black, and take a good polish.

ii. Take half a gallon of vinegar, an ounce of bruised nut galls, of logwood chips and copperas each half a pound—boil well; add half an ounce of the tincture of sesquichloride of iron, formerly called the muriated tincture and brush on hot.

iii. Use the stain given for ships' guns.

iv. Take half a gallon of vinegar, half a pound of dry lampblack, and three pounds of iron rust, sifted. Mix, and let stand for a week. Lay three coats of this on hot, and then rub with linseed oil, and you will have a fine deep black.

v. Add to the above stain an ounce of nut galls, half a pound of log-wood chips, and a quarter of a pound of copperas; lay on three coats, oil well, and you will have a black stain that will stand any kind of weather, and one that is well suited for ships' combings, &c.

vi. Take a pound of logwood chips, a quarter of a pound of Brazil wood, and boil for an hour and a half in a gallon of water. Brush the wood several times with this decoction while hot. Make a decoction of nut galls by simmering gently, for three or four days, a quarter of a pound of the galls in two quarts of water; give the wood three coats of this, and, while wet, lay on a solution of sulphate of iron (two ounces to a quart), and when dry, oil or varnish.

vii. Give three coats with a solution of copper filings in aquafortis, and repeatedly brush over with the logwood decoction, until the greenness of the copper is destroyed.

viii. Boil half a pound of logwood chips in two quarts of water, add an ounce of pearlash, and apply hot with a brush. Then take two quarts of the logwood decoction, and half an ounce of verdigris, and the same of copperas; strain, and throw in half a pound of iron rust. Brush the work well with this, and oil.

[THE HIGHEST HAPPINESS IS TO BE GOOD AND TO DO GOOD.]

1431. Wood. Blue.

i. Dissolve copper filings in aquafortis, brush the wood with it, and then go over the work with a hot solution of pearlash (two ounces to a pint of water) till it assumes a perfectly blue colour.

ii. Boil a pound of indigo, two pounds of woad, and three ounces of alum, in a gallon of water; brush well over until thoroughly stained.

1432. Imitation of Botany Bay Wood.

Boil half a pound of French Berries (the unripe berries of the rhamnus infectorius) in two quarts of water till of a deep yellow, and while boiling hot give two or three coats to the work. If a deeper colour is desired, give a coat of logwood decoction over the yellow. When nearly dry form the grain with No. viii. black stain (see par. 1430) used hot; and when dry, dust and varnish.

1433. Wood. Green.

Dissolve verdigris in vinegar, and brush over with the hot solution until of a proper colour.

1434. Wood. Mahogany Colour.Dark.

i. Boil half a pound of madder and two ounces of logwood chips in a gallon of water, and brush well over while hot; when dry, go over the whole with pearlash solution, two drachms to the quart.

ii. Put two ounces of dragon's-blood, bruised, into a quart of oil of turpentine; let the bottle stand in a warm place, shake frequently, and, when dissolved, steep the work in the mixture.

1435. Wood. Light Red Brown.

i. Boil half a pound of madder and a quarter of a pound of fustic in a gallon of water; brush over the work when boiling hot, until properly stained.

ii. The surface of the work being quite smooth, brush over with a weak solution of aquafortis, half an ounce to the pint, and then finish with the following:—Put four ounces and a half of dragon's blood and an ounce of soda, both well bruised, to three pints of spirits of wine; let it stand in a warm place, shake frequently, strain, and lay on with a soft brush, repeating till of a proper colour; polish with linseed oil or varnish.

1436. Wood. Purple

Brush the work several times with the logwood decoction used for No. vi. black (see par. 1430), and when perfectly dry, give a coat of pearlash solution—one drachm to a quart—taking care to lay it on evenly.

1437. Wood. Red.

i. Boil a pound of Brazil wood and an ounce of pearlash in a gallon of water, and while hot brush over the work until of a proper colour. Dissolve two ounces of alum in a quart of water, and brush the solution over the work before it dries.

ii. Take a gallon of the above stain, add two more ounces of pearlash; use hot, and brush often with the alum solution.

iii. Use a cold infusion of archil, and brush over with the pearlash solution used for No. 1434.

1438. Imitation of Rosewood.

i. Boil half a pound of logwood in three pints of water till it is of a very dark red, add half an ounce of salt of tartar; stain the work with the liquor while boiling hot, giving three coats; then, with a painter's graining brush, form streaks with No. viii. black stain (see par. 1430); let the work dry, and varnish.

ii. Brush over with the logwood decoction used for No. vi. black, three or four times; put half a pound of iron filings into two quarts of vinegar; then with a graining brush, or cane bruised at the end, apply the iron filing solution in the form required, and polish with bees'-wax and turpentine when dry, or varnish.

1439. Wood. Yellow.

i. Brush over with the tincture of turmeric.

ii. Warm the work and brush over with weak aquafortis, then hold to the fire. Varnish or oil as usual.

1440. Laws of Employers and Employed.

1441. Hiring and Dismissal.

It is customary with respect to domestic servants, that if the terms are not otherwise defined, the hiring is by the month, and may be put an end to by either party giving a month's warning; or, at the will of the employer, a month's wages.

1442. Dismissal.

An employer may dismiss a servant upon paying wages for one month beyond the date of actual dismissal, the wages without service being deemed equivalent to the extra board and lodging with service.

1443. Distinctions.

There are Distinctions with respect to clerks, and servants of a superior class. A month's warning or wages will not determine the engagements of servants of this class.

1444. Terms.

The Terms on which clerks and superior servants are employed being very various, it is desirable to have some specific agreement, or other proof of the conditions of service and wages.

1445. Need for Stamping.

Agreements with menial servants need not be stamped; but contracts of a higher and special character should be.

1446. Terms of Agreement.

The Terms of an Agreement should be distinctly expressed, and be signed by both parties. And the conditions under which the agreement may be terminated by either party should be fully stated.

1447. Mutuality of Interest.

Every Agreement should bear Evidence of Mutuality of interest. If one party agrees to stay with another, and give gratuitous services, with the view of acquiring knowledge of a business, and the other party does not agree to employ and to teach, the agreement is void, as being without consideration.

1448. Contract.

An employer must Contract to employ, as well as a servant to serve, otherwise the employer may put an end to the contract at his own pleasure. In such a case a servant may be dismissed without notice.

1449. Permanency.

An Agreement to give Permanent Employment is received as extending only to a substantial and reasonable period of time, and that there shall be no immediate and peremptory dismissal, without cause.

1450. Stipulation.

When no Stipulation is made at the time of the hiring, or in the agreement, that a servant shall be liable for breakages, injuries from negligence, &c., the employer can only recover from the servant by due process of law.

1451. Prudent Stipulation.

It is a Prudent Stipulation that, if a servant quit his employ before the specified time, or without due notice, a certain amount of wages shall be forfeited; otherwise the employer can only recover by action for damages.

1452. Livery Servants.

In the case of Livery Servants, it should be agreed that, upon quitting service, they deliver up the liveries; otherwise disputes may arise that can only be determined by recourse to law.

1453. Change of Trade.

When a Master to whom an Apprentice is bound for a particular trade, changes that trade for another, the indenture binding the apprentice becomes null and void.

1454. Act of God.

If a Servant, retained for a year, happen within the period of his service to fall sick, or to be hurt or lamed, or otherwise to become of infirm body by the act of God, while doing his master's business, the master cannot put such servant away, nor abate any part of his wages for such time.

1455. Terms of Discharge.

But this does not interfere with the Right of an Employer to determine a contract for services in those cases where terms of discharge are specified in the contract of hiring. In such cases, inability to serve, through sickness or other infirmity, puts an end to right to wages, which are in consideration of such services.

1456. Forfeit.

When the Hiring of a Superior Servant is for a year, if the servant, prior to the expiration of the year, commits any act by which he may be lawfully discharged, he cannot claim wages for the part of the year which he may have served.

1457. Claim.

But a Menial Servant may claim up to the date of his dismissal, unless his discharge be for embezzlement or other felonious acts.

1458. Death.

Upon the Death of a Servant, his personal representative may claim arrears of wages due, unless the contract of employment specified and required the completion of any particular period.

1459. Bankrupt Master.

When a Master becomes Bankrupt, the wages or salary of any clerk or servant in his employ, not exceeding four months' wages or salary, and not more than L50, is payable in full before the general creditors receive anything. So also the wages of any labourer or workman not exceeding two months' wages. For any further sums due to him, the clerk, servant, or workman must prove against the bankrupt's estate the same as other creditors.

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