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Enquire Within Upon Everything - The Great Victorian Domestic Standby
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401. To take Stains out of Mahogany Furniture.

Stains and spots may be taken out of mahogany with a little aquafortis or oxalic acid and water, rubbing the part with a cork dipped in the liquid till the colour is restored. Then wash the wood well with water, and dry and polish as usual.

402. To take Ink-Stains out of Mahogany.

Put a few drops of spirits of nitre in a teaspoonful of water; touch the spot with a feather dipped in the mixture, and as soon as the ink disappears, rub it over with a rag wetted in cold water, or there will be a white mark, which will not be easily effaced.

403. To remove Ink-Stains from Silver.

Ink-stains on the tops and other portions of silver ink-stands may be completely eradicated by making a little chloride of lime into a paste with water, and rubbing it upon the stains. Chloride of lime has been misnamed "The general bleacher," but it is a great enemy to all metallic surfaces.

[DISEASE IS THE PUNISHMENT OF NEGLECT.]

404. To take Ink-Stains out of a Coloured Table-Cover.

Dissolve a teaspoonful of oxalic acid in a teacup of hot water; rub the stained part well with a flannel or linen rag dipped in the solution.

405. Ink Stains.

Very frequently, when logwood has been used in manufacturing ink, a reddish stain still remains, after the use of oxalic acid, as in the former directions. To remove it, procure a solution of the chloride of lime, and apply it in the same manner as directed for the oxalic acid.

406. To take Ink out of Boards.

Apply strong muriatic acid, or spirits of salts, with a piece of cloth; afterwards wash well with water.

407. Oil or Grease

may be removed from a hearth by covering it immediately with hot ashes, or with burning coals.

408. Marble may be Cleaned

by mixing up a quantity of the strongest soap-lees with quick-lime, to the consistence of milk, and laying it on the marble for twenty-four hours; clean it afterwards with soap and water.

409. Silver and Plated Ware

should be washed with a sponge and warm soapsuds every day after using, and wiped dry with a clean soft towel.

410. Bronzed Chandeliers, Lamps, &c.,

should be merely dusted with a feather-brush, or with a soft cloth, as washing them will take off the bronzing.

411. To clean Brass Ornaments.

Wash the brasswork with roche alum boiled to a strong ley, in the proportion of an ounce to a pint. When dry it must be rubbed with fine tripoli.

412. For Cleaning Brasses belonging to mahogany furniture,

use either powdered whiting or scraped rotten-stone, mixed with sweet oil and rubbed on with chamois leather.

413. Brasses, Britannia Metal, Tins, Coppers, &c.,

may be cleaned with a mixture of rotten-stone, soft soap, and oil of turpentine, mixed to the consistency of stiff putty. The stone should be powdered very fine and sifted. The articles should first be washed with hot water, to remove grease; then a little of the above mixture, mixed with water, should be rubbed over the metal; then rub off briskly with dry, clean rag or leather, and a beautiful polish will be obtained.

414. To preserve Steel Goods from Rust.

After bright grates have been thoroughly cleaned, they should be dusted over with unslacked lime, and thus left until wanted. Coils of piano wires, thus sprinkled, will keep from rust for many years. Table-knives which are not in constant use ought to be put in a case in which sifted quicklime is placed, about eight inches deep. They should be plunged to the top of the blades, but the lime should not touch the handles.

415. To keep Iron and Steel Goods from Rust.

Dissolve half an ounce of camphor in one pound of hog's lard; take off the scum: mix as much black lead as will give the mixture an iron colour. Iron and steel goods, rubbed over with this mixture, and left with it on twenty-four hours, and then dried with a linen cloth, will keep clean for months. Valuable articles of cutlery should be wrapped in zinc foil, or be kept in boxes lined with zinc. This is at once an easy and most effective method.

416. Iron Wipers.

Old soft towels, or pieces of old sheets or tablecloths, make excellent wipers for iron and steel goods.

417. To Clean Looking-Glasses.

First wash the glass all over with lukewarm soapsuds and a sponge. When dry, rub it bright with a chamois leather on which a little prepared chalk, finely powdered, has been sprinkled.

[KEEP THE BLOOD PURE AND SPARE THE LEECH.]

418. To Clean Mirrors, &c.

If they should be hung so high that they cannot be conveniently reached, have a pair of steps to stand upon; but mind that they stand steady. Then take a piece of soft sponge, well washed, and cleaned from everything gritty, dip it into water and squeeze it almost dry, dip it into some spirit of wine, and then rub it over the glass. Next, dust the glass over with some powder blue or whiting sifted through muslin; wipe the powder lightly and quickly off again with a cloth; then take a clean cloth, and rub the glass well once more, and finish by rubbing it with a silk handkerchief. If the glass be very large, clean one-half at a time, as otherwise the spirit of wine will dry before it can be rubbed off. If the frames are not varnished, the greatest care is necessary to keep them quite dry, so as not to touch them with the sponge, as this will discolour or take off the gilding. To clean the frames, take a little raw cotton in the state of wool, and rub the frames with it; this will take off all the dust and dirt without injuring the gilding. If the frames are well varnished, rub them with spirit of wine, which will take out all spots, and give them a fine polish. Varnished doors may be done in the same manner. Never use any cloth to frames or drawings, or oil paintings, when cleaning and dusting them.

419. China and Glass.

The best material for cleansing either porcelain or glass, is fuller's earth: but it must be beaten into a fine powder, and carefully cleared from all rough or hard particles, which might endanger the polish of the surface.

420. Porcelain.

In cleaning porcelain, it must also be observed that some species require more care and attention than others, as every person must have observed that chinaware in common use frequently loses some of its colours.

421. Red Fading.

The red, especially of vermilion, is the first to go, because that colour, together with some others, is laid on by the Chinese after burning.

422. Modern Porcelain Fades Less.

The modern chinese porcelain is not, indeed, so susceptible of this rubbing or wearing off, as—vegetable reds are now used by them instead of the mineral colour.

423. Temperature with China and Glass.

It ought to be taken for granted that all china or glass ware is well tempered: yet a little careful attention may not be misplaced, even on that point; for though ornamental china or glassware is not exposed to the action of hot water in common domestic use, yet it may be injudiciously immersed therein for the purpose of cleaning; and as articles intended solely for ornament are not so highly annealed as others, it will be proper never to apply water beyond a tepid temperature.

424. Annealing Glass.

An ingenious and simple mode of annealing glass has been some time in use by chemists. It consists in immersing the vessel in cold water, gradually heated to the boiling point, and suffered to remain till cold, when it will be fit for use. Should the glass be exposed to a higher temperature than that of boiling water, it will be necessary to immerse it in oil.

425. To take Marking-Ink out of Linen.

Use a solution of cyanide of potassium applied with a camel-hair brush. After the marking ink disappears, the linen should be well washed in cold water.

426. To take Stains of Wine out of Linen.

Hold the articles in milk while it is boiling on the fire, and the stains will soon disappear.

427. Fruit Stains in Linen.

To remove them, rub the part on each side with yellow soap, then tie up a piece of pearlash in the cloth, &c., and soak well in hot water, or boil; afterwards expose the stained part to the sun and air until the stain is removed.

428. Mildewed Linen

may be restored by soaping the spots while wet, covering them with fine chalk scraped to powder, and rubbing it well in.

429. To keep Moths, Beetles, &c., from Clothes.

Put a piece of camphor in a linen bag, or some aromatic herbs, in the drawers, among linen or woollen clothes, and no insects will come near them.

[LOOSE HABITS LEAD TO TIGHT BANDAGES.]

430. Moths.

Clothes closets that have become infested with moths, should be well rubbed with a strong decoction of tobacco, and repeatedly sprinkled with spirits of camphor.

431. To remove Stains from Floors.

For removing spots of grease from boards, take fuller's earth and pearlash, of each a quarter of a pound, and boil in a quart of soft water. While hot lay the mixture on the greased parts, allowing it to remain on them from ten or twelve hours; after which it may be scoured off with sand and water. A floor much spotted with grease should be completely washed over with this mixture the day before it is scoured. Fuller's earth and ox-gall, boiled together, form a very powerful cleansing mixture for floors or carpets. Stains of ink are removed by the application of strong vinegar, or salts of lemon.

432. Scouring Drops for removing Grease

There are several preparations of this name; one of the best is made as follows:—Camphine, or spirit of turpentine, three ounces: essence of lemon, one ounce; mix and put up in a small phial for use when required.

433. To take Grease out of Velvet or Cloth.

Pour some turpentine over the part that is greasy; rub it till quite dry with a piece of clean flannel; if the grease be not quite removed, repeat the application, and when done, brush the part well, and hang up the garment in the open air to take away the smell.

434. Medicine Stains

may be removed from silver spoons by rubbing them with a rag dipped in sulphuric acid, and washing it off with soapsuds.

435. To Extract Grease Spots from Books or Paper.

Gently warm the greased or spotted part of the book or paper, and then press upon it pieces of blotting-paper, one after another, so as to absorb as much of the grease as possible. Have ready some fine clear essential oil of turpentine heated almost to a boiling state, warm the greased leaf a little, and then, with a soft clean brush, apply the heated turpentine to both sides of the spotted part. By repeating this application, the grease will be extracted. Lastly, with another brush dipped in rectified spirit of wine, go over the place, and the grease will no longer appear, neither will the paper be discoloured.

436. Stains and Marks from Books.

A solution of oxalic acid, citric acid, or tartaric acid, is attended with the least risk, and may be applied to paper and prints without fear of damage. These acids, which take out writing ink, and do not touch the printing, can be used for restoring books where the margins have been written upon, without injuring the text.

437. To take Writing Ink out of Paper.

Solution of muriate of tin, two drachms; water, four drachms. To be applied with a camel-hair brush. After the writing has disappeared, the paper should be passed through water, and dried.

438. A Hint on Household Management.

Have you ever observed what a dislike servants have to anything cheap? They hate saving their master's money. I tried this experiment with great success the other day. Finding we consumed a vast deal of soap, I sat down in my thinking chair, and took the soap question into consideration, and I found reason to suspect we were using a very expensive article, where a much cheaper one would serve the purpose better. I ordered half a dozen pounds of both sorts, but took the precaution of changing the papers on which the prices were marked before giving them into the hands of Betty. "Well, Betty, which soap do you find washes best?" "Oh, please sir, the dearest, in the blue paper; it makes a lather as well again as the other." "Well, Betty, you shall always have it then;" and thus the unsuspecting Betty saved me some pounds a year, and washed the clothes better—Rev. Sydney Smith.

[BOTTLES OF BRANDY ARE FOLLOWED BY BOTTLES OF PHYSIC.]

439. Domestic Rules.

Mrs Hamilton, in her "Cottagers of Glenburnie," gives three simple rules for the regulation of domestic affairs, which deserve to be remembered, and which would, if carried into practice, be the means of saving time, labour, and patience, and of making every house a "well-ordered" one. They are as follows:

i. Do everything in its proper time.

ii. Keep everything to its proper use.

iii. Put everything in its proper place.

440. An Ever-dirty Hearth,

and a grate always choked with cinders and ashes, are infallible evidences of bad housekeeping.

441. Economy.

If you have a strip of land, do not throw away soapsuds. Soapsuds are good manure for bushes and young plants.

442. Washing Woollens.

Woollen clothes should be washed in very hot suds, and not rinsed. Lukewarm water shrinks them.

443. Keeping Coffee and Tea.

Do not let coffee and tea stand in tin.

444. Freshness of Surfaces.

Scald your wooden-ware often, and keep your tin-ware dry.

445. Re-using Letters.

Preserve the backs of old letters to write upon.

446. Make Writing-Books.

If you have Children who are learning to write, buy coarse white paper by the quantity, and make it up into writing-books. This does not cost half so much as it does to buy them ready made at the stationer's.

447. No Waste.

See that nothing is thrown away which might have served to nourish your own family or a poorer one.

448. Bread.

As far as possible, have pieces of bread eaten up before they become hard: spread those that are not eaten, and let them dry, to be pounded for puddings, or soaked for brewis.

449. Brewis.

Brewis is made of crusts and dry pieces of bread, soaked a good while in hot milk, mashed up, and eaten with salt. Above all, do not let crusts accumulate in such quantities that they cannot be used. With proper care, there is no need of losing a particle of bread.

450. Regular Mending.

All the Mending in the house should be done once a week if possible.

451. Never put out Sewing.

If it be not possible to do it in your own family, hire some one to come to the house and work with them.

452. White Spots on Furniture.

A warming-pan full of coals, or a shovel of coals, held over varnished furniture, will take out white spots. Care should be taken not to hold the pan near enough to scorch; the place to which heat has thus been applied, should be rubbed with a flannel while warm.

453. Acid Fading.

Sal-Volatile or hartshorn will restore colours taken out by acid. It may be dropped upon any garment without doing harm.

454. New Iron

should be very gradually heated at first. After it has become inured to the heat, it is not as likely to crack.

455. Before Using a Brass Kettle.

Clean a brass kettle, before using it for cooking, with salt and vinegar.

456. Shaking Carpets.

The oftener carpets are shaken the longer they wear; the dirt that collects under them grinds out the threads.

457. Saving Rags.

All linen rags should be saved, for they are useful in sickness. If they have become dirty and worn by cleaning silver, &c., wash them and scrape them into lint.

458. Softening Washing-Water.

If you are troubled to get soft water for Washing, fill a tub or barrel half full of wood ashes, and fill it up with water, so that you may have ley whenever you want it. A gallon of strong ley, put into a great kettle of hard water, will make it as soft as rain water. Some people use pearlash, or potash; but this costs something, and is very apt to injure the texture of the cloth.

459. Protecting Knife-Handles.

Do not let knives be dropped into hot dish-water. It is a good plan to have a large tin pot to wash them in, just high enough to wash the bladet without wetting the handles.

460. Do It Well.

It is better to accomplish perfectly a very small amount of work, than to half do ten times as much.

[BE TEMPERATE IN ALL THINGS.]

461. Polishing Knives with Charcoal.

Charcoal Powder will be found a very good thing to give knives a first-rate polish.

462. Preventing Wear.

A bonnet and trimmings may be worn a much longer time, if the dust be brushed well off after walking.

463. Good Examples.

Much knowledge may be obtained by the good housewife observing how things are managed in well-regulated families.

464. Apple Pips.

Apples intended for dumplings should not have the core taken out of them, as the pips impart a delicious flavour to the dumpling.

465. Rice Pudding.

A rice pudding is excellent without either eggs or sugar, if baked gently: it keeps better without eggs.

466. "Wilful Waste makes Woeful Want."

Do not cook a fresh joint whilst any of the last remains uneaten —hash it up, and with gravy and a little management, eke out another day's dinner.

467. Shanks of Mutton.

The shanks of mutton make a good stock for nearly any kind of gravy, and they are very cheap—a dozen may be had for a penny, enough to make a quart of delicious soup.

468. Lack of Fresh Air.

Thick curtains, closely drawn around the bed, are very injurious, because they not only confine the effluvia thrown off from our bodies whilst in bed, but interrupt the current of pure air.

469. Regular Accounting.

Regularity in the payment of accounts is essential to housekeeping. All tradesmen's bills should be paid weekly, for then any errors can be detected whilst the transactions are fresh in the memory.

470. Enough Talk.

Allowing children to talk incessantly is a mistake. We do not mean to say that they should be restricted from talking in proper seasons, but they should be taught to know when it is proper for them to cease.

471. Blacking for Leather Seats, &c.

Beat well the yolks of two eggs and the white of one: mix a tablespoonful of gin and a teaspoonful of sugar, thicken it with ivory black, add it to the eggs, and use as common blacking; the seats or cushions being ieft a day or two to harden. This is good for dress boots and shoes

472. Black Reviver for Black Cloth.

Bruised galls, one pound; logwood, two pounds; green vitriol, half a pound; water, five quarts. Boil for two hours, and strain. Use to restore the colour of black cloth.

473. Enamel Paint

Special preparations of paint, styled "enamel," are now made, suitable for both useful and decorative purposes—garden stands, indoor furniture or ornaments, baths, &c. They are ready mixed in a variety of shades, can be easily applied, and dry with a hard glossy surface.

[KEEP THE HEAD COOL AND THE FEET WARM.]

474. Hints for Home Comfort.

i. Eat slowly and you will not overeat.

ii. Keeping the feet warm will prevent headaches.

iii. Late at breakfast—hurried for dinner—cross at tea.

iv. A short needle makes the most expedition in plain sewing.

v. Between husband and wife little attentions beget much love.

vi. Always lay your table neatly, whether you have company or not.

vii. Put your balls or reels of cotton into little bags, leaving the ends out.

viii. Whatever you may choose to give away, always be sure to keep your temper.

ix. Dirty windows speak to the passer-by of the negligence of the inmates.

x. In cold weather a leg of mutton improves by being hung three, four, or five weeks.

xi. When meat is hanging, change its position frequently, to equally distribute the juices.

xii. There is much more injury done by admitting visitors to invalids than is generally supposed.

xiii. Matches, out of the reach of children, should be kept in every bedroom. They are cheap enough.

xiv. Apple and suet dumplings are lighter when boiled in a net than a cloth. Skim the pot well.

xv. When sheets or chamber towels get thin in the middle, cut them in two, sew the selvedges together, and hem the sides.

xvi. When you are particular in wishing to have precisely what you want from a butcher, go and buy it yourself.

xvii. A flannel petticoat will wear as nearly as long again, if turned hind part before, when the front begins to wear thin.

xviii. People in general are not aware how very essential to the health of the inmates is the free admission of light into their houses.

xix. When you dry salt for the table, do not place it in the salt cellars until it is cold, otherwise it will harden into a lump.

xx. Never put away plate, knives and forks, &c., uncleaned, or great inconvenience will arise when the articles are wanted.

xxi. Feather beds should be opened every third year, the ticking well dusted, soaped, and waxed, the feathers dressed and returned.

xxii. Persons of defective sight, when threading a needle, should hold it over something white, by which the sight will be assisted.

xxiii. In mending sheets and shirts, put in pieces sufficiently large, or in the first washing the thin parts give way, and the work done is of no avail.

xxiv. When reading by candle-light, place the candle behind you, that the rays may pass over your shoulder on to the book. This will relieve the eyes.

xxv. A wire fire-guard, for each fire-place in a house, costs little, and greatly diminishes the risk to life and property. Fix them before going to bed.

xxvi. In winter, get the work forward by daylight, to prevent running about at night with candles. Thus you escape grease spots, and risks of fire.

xxvii. Be at much pains to keep your children's feet dry and warm. Don't bury their bodies in heavy flannels and wools, and leave their arms and legs naked.

xxviii. Apples and pears, cut into quarters and stripped of the rind, baked with a little water and sugar, and eaten with boiled rice, are capital food for children.

xxix. A leather strap, with a buckle to fasten, is much more commodious than a cord for a box in general use for short distances; cording and uncording is a tedious job.

xxx. After washing, overlook linen, and stitch on buttons, hooks and eyes, &c.; for this purpose keep a "house-wife's friend," full of miscellaneous threads, cottons, buttons: hooks, &c.

xxxi. For ventilation open your windows both at top and bottom. The fresh air rushed in one way, while the foul escapes the other. This is letting in your friend and expelling your enemy.

xxxii. There is not any real economy in purchasing cheap calico for night-shirts. Cheap calico soon wears into holes, and becomes discoloured in washing.

xxxiii. Sitting to sew by candle-light at a table with a dark cloth on it is injurious to the eyesight. When no other remedy presents itself, put a sheel of white paper before you.

xxxiv. Persons very commonly complain of indigestion; how can it be wondered at, when they seem, by their habit of swallowing their food wholesale, to forget for what purpose they are provided with teeth.

xxxv. Never allow your servants to put wiped knives on your table, for, generally speaking, you may see that that have been wiped with a dirty cloth. If a knife is brightly cleaned, they are compelled to use a clean cloth.

xxxvi. There is not anything gained in economy by having very young and inexperienced servants at low wages; the cost of what they break, waste, and destroy, is more than an equivalent for higher wages, setting aside comfort and respectability.

xxxvii. No article in dress tarnishes so readily as black crape trimmings, and few things injure it more than damp; therefore, to preserve its beauty on bonnets, a lady in nice mourning should in her evening walks, at all seasons of the year, take as her companion an old parasol to shade her crape.

[GUARD THE FOOT, AND THE HEAD WILL SELDOM HARM.]

475. Domestic Pharmacopoeia.

In compiling this part of our hints, we have endeavoured to supply that kind of information which is so often wanted in the time of need, and cannot be obtained when a medical man or a druggist is not near. The doses are all fixed for adults, unless otherwise specified. The various remedies are arranged in sections, according to their uses, as being more easy for reference,

476. Collyria, or Eye Washes

477. Alum.

Dissolve half a drachm of alum in eight ounces (half a pint) of water. Use as astringent wash. When twice as much alum and only half the quantity of water are used, it acts as a discutient, but not as an eye-water.

Note that this and the following washes are for outward application only.

478. Common.

Add half an ounce of diluted acetic acid to three ounces of decoction of poppy heads.

Use as anodyne wash.

479. Compound Alum.

Dissolve alum and white vitriol, of each one drachm, in one pint of water, and filter through paper.

Use as astringent wash.

480. Zinc and Lead.

Dissolve white vitriol and acetate of lead, of each seven grains, in four ounces of elder-flower water; add one drachm of laudanum (tincture of opium), and the same quantity of spirit of camphor, then strain.

Use as detergent wash.

481. Acetate of Zinc.

Dissolve half a drachm of white vitriol in five ounces of water. Dissolve two scruples of acetate of lead in five ounces of water. Mix these solutions, then set aside for a short time, and afterwards filter.

Use as astringent wash; this forms a most valuable collyrium.

482. Sulphate of Zinc.

Dissolve twenty grains of white vitriol in a pint of water or rose water.

Use for weak eyes.

483. Zinc and Camphor.

Dissolve a scruple of white vitriol in ten ounces of water; add one drachm of spirit of camphor, and strain.

Use as a stimulant.

484. Compound Zinc.

Dissolve fifteen grains of white vitriol in eight ounces of camphor water (Mistura camphorae), and the same quantity of decoction of poppy heads.

Use as anodyne and detergent wash: it is useful for weak eyes.

485. Confections and Electuaries.

486. Purpose.

Confections are used as vehicles for the administration of more active medicines, and Electuaries are made for the purpose of rendering some remedies palatable. Both should be kept in closely covered jars.

487. Almond Confection.

Remove the outer coat from an ounce of sweet almonds, and beat them well in a mortar with one drachm of powdered gum arabic, and half an ounce of white sugar.

Use to make a demulcent mixture known as "almond emulsion."

488. Alum Confection.

Mix two scruples of powdered alum with four scruples of treacle.

Dose, half a drachm.

Use as astringent in sore throat, relaxed uvula, and ulcerations of mouth.

489. Orange Confection.

Take one ounce of the freshly rasped rind of orange, and mix it with three ounces of white sugar, and beat together till perfectly incorporated.

Dose, from one drachm to one ounce.

Use as a gentle stomachic and tonic, and as a vehicle for administering tonic powders.

490. Black Pepper Confection.

Take of black pepper and elecampane root, each one ounce; fennel seeds, three ounces; honey and sugar, of each two ounces. Rub the dry ingredient to a fine powder, and when the confection is wanted, add the honey, and mix well.

Dose, from one to two drachms.

Use in haemorrhoids, or piles.

[BETTER PAY THE COOK THAN THE DOCTOR.]

491. Cowhage.

Mix in treacle as much of the fine hairs or spiculae of cowhage as the treacle will take up.

Dose, a teaspoonful every morning and evening.

Use as an anthelmintic.

492. Senna Confection. No. 1.

Take of senna, powdered, four ounces; figs, half a pound, viassia pulp, tamarind pulp, and the pulp of prunes, each four ounces; coriander seeds, powdered, two ounces; liquorice root, one ounce and a half; sugar, one pound and a quarter; water, one pint and a half. Rub the senna with the coriander, and separate, by sifting, five ounces of the mixture. Boil the water, with the figs and liquorice added, until it is reduced to one half; then press out and strain the liquor. Evaporate the strained liquor in a jar by boiling until twelve fluid ounces remain; then add the sugar, and make a syrup. Now mix the pulps with the syrup, add the sifted powder, and mix well.

Use as a purgative.

493. Senna Confection. No. 2.

A more simple confection, but equally efficacious, may be made in the following manner. Infuse an ounce of senna leaves in a pint of boiling water, pouring the water on the leaves in a covered mug or jug, or even an old earthenware teapot. Let the infusion stand till it is cold, then strain off the liquor, and place it in a saucepan or stewpan, adding to it one pound of prunes. Let the prunes stew gently by the side of the fire till the liquor is entirely absorbed.

Use as a purgative or laxative, giving half a teaspoonful to little children and a teaspoonful to children over ten years of age.

494. Castor Oil and Senna Confection.

Take one drachm of powdered gum arabic, and two ounces of confection of senna, and mix, by gradually rubbing together in a mortar, with half an ounce of castor oil.

Dose, from half an ounce to an ounce.

Use as a purgative.

495. Sulphur and Senna Confection.

Take of sulphur and sulphate of potash, each half an ounce; confection of senna, two ounces; oil of aniseed, twenty minims; mix well.

Dose, from one to two drachms.

Use as a purgative.

496. Cream of Tartar Confection.

Take one ounce of cream of tartar, one drachm of jalap, and half a drachm of powdered ginger; mix into a thick paste with treacle.

Dose, two drachms.

Use as a purgative.

497. Antispasmodic Electuary.

Take six drachms of powdered valerian and orange leaves, mixed and made into an electuary, with a sufficient quantity of syrup of wormwood.

Dose, from one to two drachms, to be taken two or three times a day.

498. Decoctions.

These should only be made as they are wanted; pipkins or tin saucepans should be used for the purpose; and no decoction should be boiled longer than ten minutes.

499. Chimaphila.

Take one ounce of pyrola (chimaphila, or winter-green), and boil it in a pint and a half of water until the water is reduced to one pint; then strain.

Dose, from one to two ounces, four times a day.

Use in dropsies, as a diuretic.

500. Logwood.

Boil one ounce and a half of bruised logwood in two pints of water until the water is reduced to one pint; then add one drachm of bruised cassia, and strain.

Dose, from one to two ounces.

Use as an astringent.

501. Dandelion.

Take two ounces of the freshly-sliced root, and boil in a quart of water until it comes to a pint.

Dose, from two to four ounces, that is to say, from an eighth of a pint to a quarter of a pint.

Use for sluggish state of the liver.

502. Embrocations and Liniments.

These remedies are used externally as local stimulants, to relieve deep seated inflammations when other means cannot he employed, as they are more easily applied locally.

503. Anodyne and Discutient.

Take two drachms of scraped white soap, half a drachm of extract of henbane, and dissolve them by a gentle heat in six ounces of olive oil.

Use for glandular enlargements which are painful and stubborn, about half an ounce to be well rubbed into the part twice a day.

504. Strong Ammoniated.

Add one ounce of strong liquid ammonia to two ounces of olive oil, shake well together until properly mixed.

Use as a stimulant in rheumatic pains, paralytic numbnesses, chronic glandular enlargements, lumbago, sciatica, &c.

Note that this embrocation must be used with care, and only employed in very obstinate cases.

505. Compound Ammoniated.

Add six drachms of oil of turpentine to the strong ammoniated liniment above.

Use for the diseases mentioned in the preceding paragraph and chronic affections of the knee and ankle joints.

506. Lime and Oil.

Take equal parts of common linseed oil and lime water and shake well.

Use for burns, scalds, sun peelings, &c.

507. Camphorated.

Take half an ounce of camphor and dissolve it in two ounces of olive oil.

Use as a stimulating and soothing application for stubborn breasts, glandular enlargements, dropsy of the belly, and rheumatic pains.

508. Soap Liniment with Spanish Flies.

Take three ounces and a half of soap liniment, and half an ounce of tincture of Spanish flies, mix and shake well.

Use as stimulant to chronic bruises, sprains, rheumatic pains, and indolent swellings.

509. Turpentine.

Take two ounces and a half of resin cerate, and melt it by standing the vessel in hot water, then add one ounce and a half of oil of turpentine, and mix.

Use as stimulant to ulcers, burns, scalds, &c.

510. Enemas.

These are a peculiar kind of medicines, administered by injecting them into the rectum or outlet of the body. The intention is either to empty the bowels, kill worms, protect the lining membrane of the intestines from injury, restrain copious discharges, allay spasms in the bowels, or to nourish the body. These clysters, or glysters, are administered by means of bladders and pipes, or a proper apparatus.

511. Laxative.

Take two ounces of Epsom salts, and dissolve in three quarters of a pint of gruel, or thin broth, with an ounce of olive oil.

512. Nutritive.

Take twelve ounces of strong beef tea, and thicken with hartshorn shavings or arrowroot.

513. Turpentine.

Take half an ounce of oil of turpentine, the yolk of one egg, and half a pint of gruel. Mix the turpentine and egg, and then add the gruel.

Use as an anthelmintic.

514. Common.

Dissolve one ounce of salt in twelve ounces of gruel.

515. Castor Oil.

Mix two ounces of castor oil with one drachm of starch, then rub them together, and add fourteen ounces of thin gruel.

Use as a purgative.

516. Opium.

Rub three grains of opium with two ounces of starch, then add two ounces of warm water.

Use as an anodyne in colic, spasms, &c.

517. Oil.

Mix four ounces of olive oil with half an ounce of mucilage and half a pint of warm water.

Use as a demulcent.

518. Asafoetida.

Mix one drachm of the tincture of asafoetida in a pint of barley water.

Use as an anthelmintic, or in convulsions from teething.

519. Gargles.

These are remedies used to stimulate chronic sore throats, or a relaxed state of the swallow, or uvula.

520. Acidulated.

Mix one part of white vinegar with three parts of honey of roses, and twenty-four of barley water.

Use in chronic inflammation of the throat, malignant sore throat, &c.

521. Astringent.

Take two drachms of roses and mix with eight ounces of boiling water, infuse for one hour, strain, and add one drachm of alum and one ounce of honey of roses.

Use for severe sore throat, relaxed uvula, &c.

[VIOLENT PASSIONS LEAD TO GREAT DEPRESSIONS.]

522. For Salivation.

Mix from one to four drachms of bruised gall-nuts with a pint of boiling water, and infuse for two hours, then strain and sweeten.

523. Tonic and Stimulant.

Mix six ounces of decoction of bark with two ounces of tincture of myrrh, and half a drachm of diluted sulphuric acid.

Use in scorbutic affections.

524. Alum.

Dissolve one drachm of alum in fifteen ounces of water, then add half an ounce of treacle, and one drachm of diluted sulphuric acid.

Use as an astringent.

525. Myrrh.

Add six drachms of tincture of myrrh to seven ounces of infusion of linseed, and then add one drachm of diluted sulphuric acid.

Use as a detergent.

526. For Slight Inflammation of the Throat.

Add one drachm of sulphuric ether to half an ounce of syrup of marsh-mallows, and six ounces of barley water. This may be used frequently.

527. Lotions.

Lotions are usually applied to the parts required by means of a piece of linen rag or piline, wetted with them, or by wetting the bandage itself.

They are for outward application only.

528. Emollient.

Use decoction of marsh-mallow or linseed.

529. Elder Flowers.

Add two drachms and a half of elder flowers to one quart of boiling water, infuse for one hour, and strain.

Use as a discutient.

530. Sedative.

Dissolve one drachm of extract of henbane in twenty-four drachms of water.

531. Opium.

Mix two drachms of bruised opium with haif a pint of boiling water.

Use, when cold, for painful ulcers, bruises, &c.

532. Stimulant.

Dissolve one drachm of caustic potash in one pint of water, and then gradually pour it upon twenty-four grains of camphor and one drachm of sugar, previously bruised together in a mortar.

Use for fungoid and flabby ulcers.

533. Ordinary.

Mix one drachm of salt with eight ounces of water.

Use for foul ulcers and flabby wounds.

534. Cold Evaporating.

Add two drachms of Goulard's extract, and the same quantity of sulphuric ether to a pint of cold water.

Use as lotion for contusions, sprains, inflamed parts, &c.

535. Hydrochlorate of Ammonia.

Dissolve two drachms of sal ammoniac in six ounces of water, then add an ounce of distilled vinegar and the same quantity of rectified spirit.

Use as a refrigerant.

536. Yellow Lotion.

Dissolve one grain of corrosive sublimate in an ounce of lime water, taking care to bruise the crystals of the salt in order to assist its solution.

Use as a detergent.

Note, that corrosive sublimate is a violent and deadly poison.

537. Black Wash.

Add half a drachm of calomel to four ounces of lime water, or eight grains to an ounce of lime water; shake well.

Use as a detergent.

538. Acetate of Lead with Opium

Take twenty grains of acetate of lead, and a drachm of powdered opium, mix, and add an ounce of vinegar and four ounces of warm water, set aside for an hour, then filter.

Use as an astringent.

539. Creosote.

Add a drachm of creosote to a pint of water, and mix by shaking.

Use as an application in cutaneous diseases.

540. Galls.

Boil one drachm of bruised galls in twelve ounces of water until only half a pint remains, then strain, and add one ounce of laudanum.

Use as an astringent and sedative.

541. Ointments and Cerates

These remedies are used as local applications to parts, generally ulcers. They are usually spread upon linen or other materials.

542. Camphorated.

Mix half an ounce of camphor with one ounce of lard, having, of course, previously powdered the camphor, by adding a few drops of spirits of wine.

Use as a discutient and stimulant in indolent tumours.

543. Chalk.

Mix as much prepared chalk as you can into some lard, so as to form a thick ointment.

Use as an application to burns and scalds.

544. For Itch.

Mix four drachms of sublimed sulphur, two ounces of lard, and half a drachm of diluted sulphuric acid together.

Use as an ointment to be rubbed into the body.

545. For Scrofulous Ulcerations.

Mix one drachm of ioduret of zinc and one ounce of lard together.

Use twice a day to the ulcerations.

546. Catechu.

Mix one ounce of powdered catechu, two drachms and a half of powdered alum, one ounce of powdered white resin, and two ounces and a half of olive oil, together.

Use for flabby and indolent ulcerations.

547. Tartar Emetic.

Mix twenty grains of tartar emetic and ten grains of white sugar with one drachm and a half of lard.

Use as a counter-irritant in white swellings, &c.

548. Pills.

549. Strong Purgative.

Take of powdered aloes, scammony, and gamboge, each fifteen grains, mix, and add sufficient Venice turpentine to make into a mass, then divide into twelve pills.

Dose, one or two occasionally.

550. Milder Purgative.

Take four grains of powdered scammony and the same quantity of compound extract of colocynth, and two grains of calomel; mix well, and add two drops of oil of cloves, or thin gum-water, to enable the ingredients to combine properly, and divide into two pills.

Dose, one or two when necessary.

551. Common Purgative.

Take of powdered jalap and compound extract of colocynth each four grains, of calomel two grains, mix as usual, and divide into two pills.

Dose, one or two occasionally.

552. Tonic.

Mix twenty-four grains of extract of gentian and the same of purified green vitriol (sulphate of iron) together, and divide into twelve pills.

Dose, one or two when necessary. Use in debility.

553. Cough.

Mix one drachm of compound powder of ipecacuanha with one scruple of gum ammoniacum and one of dried squill bulb in powder. Make into a mass with mucilage, and divide into twenty pills.

Dose, one, three times a day.

554. Astringent.

Mix sixteen grains of acetate of lead (sugar of lead) with four grains of opium, and make into a mass with extract of dandelion, so as to make eight pills.

Dose, from one to two. Use as an astringent in obstinate diarrhoea, dysentery, and spitting of blood.

555. Mixtures.

556. Fever, Simple.

Add three ounces of spirit of mindererus (Liquor ammonia acetatis), three drachms of spirits of sweet nitre, four drachms of antimonial wine, and a drachm of syrup of saffron, to four ounces of water, or medicated water, such as cinnamon, aniseed, &c.

Dose, for an adult, one or two tablespoonfuls every three hours. Use as a diaphoretic.

557. Aromatic.

Mix two drachms of aromatic confection with two drachms of compound tincture of cardamoms, and eight ounces of peppermint water.

Dose, from one ounce to one and a half. Use in flatulent colic and spasms of the bowels.

558. Cathartic.

Dissolve two ounces of Epsom salts in six ounces of compound infusion of senna, then add two ounces of peppermint water.

Dose, from one and a half to two ounces. Use as a warm and active cathartic.

559. Diuretic.

Dissolve one drachm of powdered nitre in three ounces of camphor mixture; add five ounces of the decoction of broom, with six drachms of sweet spirits of nitre, and three drachms of tincture of squills; mix.

Dose, one teaspoonful every two hours, or two tablespoonfuls every three hours. Use, excellent in dropsies

560. Cough.

Dissolve three grains of tartar emetic and fifteen grains of opium in one pint of boiling water, then add four ounces of treacle, two ounces of vinegar, and one pint more of boiling water.

Dose, from two teaspoonfuls to two tablespoonfuls, according to circumstances, every three hours, or three times a day. Use in common catarrh, bronchitis, and irritable cough.

561. Cough (for Children).

Mix three drachms of ipecacuanha wine with half an ounce of oxymel of squills, the same quantity of spirits of tolu, one ounce of mucilage, and two ounces of water.

Dose, one teaspoonful for children under one year, two teaspoonfuls from one to five years, and a tablespoonful from five years, every time the cough is troublesome.

562. Antispasmodic.

Dissolve fifty grains of camphor in two drachms of chloroform, and then add two drachms of compound tincture of lavender, six drachms of mucilage of gum arabic, eight ounces of aniseed, cinnamon, or some other aromatic water, and two ounces of distilled water; mix well.

Dose, one tablespoonful every half hour if necessary. Use in cholera in the cold stage, when cramps are severe, or exhaustion very great; and as a general antispasmodic in doses of one dessert spoonful when the spasms are severe.

563. Tonic and Stimulant.

Dissolve one drachm of extract of bark, and half a drachm of powdered gum arabic, in six ounces of water, and then add one ounce of syrup of marshmallow, and the same quantity of syrup of tolu.

Dose, one tablespoonful every three hours. Use after fevers and catarrhs.

564. Stomachic.

Take twenty grains of powdered rhubarb, and rub it down in three ounces and a half of peppermint water, then add sal volatile and compound tincture of gentian, each one drachm and a half; mix.

Dose, from one to one ounce and a half. Use this mixture as a tonic, stimulant, and stomachic.

565. Drinks.

566. Tamarind. (1)

Boil two ounces of the pulp of tamarinds in two pints of milk, then strain. Use as cooling drink.

567. Tamarind. (2)

Boil two ounces of the pulp in two pints of warm water, and allow it to get cold, then strain. Use as cooling drink.

568. Powders.

569. Compound Soda.

Mix twenty-four grains of calomel, thirty-six grains of sesquicarbonate of soda, and one drachm of compound chalk powder, together. Divide into twelve powders. One of the powders to be given for a dose when required. Use as a mild purgative for children during teething.

570. Tonic.

Mix one drachm of powdered rhubarb with the same quantity of dried carbonate of soda, then add two drachms of powdered calumba root.

Dose, from ten to twenty grains as a tonic after fevers, in all cases of debility, and dyspepsia attended with acidity.

571. Rhubarb and Magnesia.

Mix one drachm of powdered rhubarb with two drachms of carbonate of magnesia, and half a drachm of ginger.

Dose, from fifteen grains to one drachm. Use as a purgative for children.

572. Sulphur and Potash.

Mix one drachm of sulphur with four scruples of bicarbonate of potash, and two scruples of nitre.

Dose, from half a drachm to one drachm. Use as a purgative, diuretic, and refrigerant.

573. Anti-Diarrhoeal.

Mix one grain of powdered ipecacuanha, and one grain of powdered opium, with the same quantity of camphor.

Dose, one of these powders to be given in jam, treacle, &c., once or twice a day; but to adults only.

574. Antispasmodic.

Mix four grains of subnitrate of bismuth, forty-eight grains of carbonate of magnesia, and the same quantity of white sugar, and then divide in four equal parts.

Dose, one-fourth part. Use in obstinate pain in the stomach with cramps, unattended by inflammation.

575. Antipertussal, or against Whooping-Cough.

Mix one drachm of powdered belladonna root, and two ounces of white sugar, together.

Dose, six grains morning and evening for children under one year; nine grains for those under two and three years of age; fifteen grains for those between five and ten; and thirty grains for adults.

Caution, this should be prepared by a chemist, as the belladonna is a poison, and occasional doses of castor oil should be given while it is being taken.

576. Purgative (Common).

Mix ten grains of calomel, with one drachm of powdered jalap, and twenty grains of sugar.

Dose, one-half of the whole for adults.

577. Sudorific.

Mix six grains of compound antimonial powder, two grains of ipecacuanha, and two grains of sugar together.

Dose, as mixed, to be taken at bed-time. Use in catarrh and fever.

578. Miscellaneous.

579. Anthelmintic, or Vermifuge.

For ridding the bowels of tape-worms, an excellent medicine exists in the male fern—Aspidium felix mas. A decoction may be made of the fresh roots, or the root may be dried and powdered.

Dose, of the powdered root, from ten to thirty grains; of the decoction, from a tablespoonful to a wineglassful, according to age. Use to kill tape-worm.

580. Another Anthelmintic.

For thread-worms, which infest the rectum and especially the lower portion, near the orifice of the body, an injection of salt and water, in the proportion of one ounce and a half of salt to a pint, or twenty ounces of water, or of quassia chips, will generally prove effectual, and obviate the necessity of administering medicine.

581. Emulsion, Laxative.

Rub down an ounce of castor oil in two drachms of mucilage of gum arabic, add three ounces of dill water, and a drachm of tincture of jalap, gradually.

Dose, as prepared, the whole to be taken while fasting in the morning.

582. Emulsion, Purgative.

Rub down six grains of scammony with six drachms of white sugar in a mortar, and gradually add four ounces of almond emulsion, and two drops of oil of cloves.

Dose, as prepared, early in the morning.

583. To Prevent Pitting after Small Pox.

Spread a sheet of thin leather with the ointment of ammoniacum with mercury, and cut out a place for the mouth, eyes, and nostrils. This forms what is called a mask, and, after anointing the eyelids with a little blue ointment, it should be applied to the face, and allowed to remain for three days for the distinct kind, and four days for the running variety. Apply before the spots fill with matter, although it will answer sometimes even after they have become pustulous. It may be applied to any part in the same way.

584. Another Method,

and one more reliable, is that of touching every pustule, or poc, on the face or bosom with a camel-hair pencil dipped in a weak solution of lunar caustic (nitrate of silver), made in the proportion of two grains of nitrate of silver to one ounce of distilled water. The time for application is about the seventh day, while each pustule is filled with a limpid fluid, or before suppuration takes place, the lotion arresting that action, and by preventing the formation of matter, saving the skin from being pitted; a result that follows from the conversion of the adipose tissue into pus.

585. A Third Method

of effecting the same purpose is by passing a fine needle through each poc, when fully distended with lymph; the escape of the fluid averting, as in the other mode, the suppuration which would otherwise ensue.

[A FOOL OR A PHYSICIAN AT FORTY.]

586. Another Method.

A fourth and much more simple method of preventing pitting from small-pox is to lightly touch every part of the face with a feather dipped in sweet oil. It also tends to prevent this disfigurement to cause the light in the patient's apartment by day to assume a yellow tinge or colour, which may be easily managed by fitting the room with yellow or brownish yellow linen blinds.

587. Mucilage of Gum Arabic.

Rub one ounce of gum arabic in a mortar, with four ounces of warm water. Use for coughs, &c.

588. Mucilage of Starch.

Rub one drachm of starch with a little water, and gradually add five ounces of water, then boil until it forms a mucilage. Use for enemas, topical applications, and demulcents.

589. Diseases.

For the proper Remedies and their Doses see "Prescriptions" (par. 650).

590. Seek Medical Advice.

It should be clearly understood, that in all cases of disease, the advice of a skilful physician is of the first importance. It is not, therefore, intended by the following information to supersede fhe important and necessary practice of the medical man; but rather, by exhibiting the treatment required, to show in what degree his aid is imperative. In cases, however, where the disorder may be simple and transient, or in which remote residence, or other circumstances, may deny the privilege of medical attendance, the following particulars will be found of the utmost value. Moreover, the hints given upon what should be AVOIDED will be of great service to the patient, since the physiological is no less important than the medical treatment of disease.

591. Apoplexy.

Immediate and large bleeding from the arm, cupping at the back of the neck, leeches to the temples, aperients Nos. 1 and 7, one or two drops of croton oil rubbed or dropped on the tongue. Avoid excesses, intemperance, animal food.

592. Bile, Bilious, or Liver Complaints.

Abstinence from malt liquors, cool homoeopathic cocoa for drink, no tea or coffee, few vegetables, no broths or soups; lean juicy meat not over-cooked for dinner, with stale bread occasionally and a slice of toasted bacon for breakfast. Nos. 44 and 45.

593. Chicken Pox.

Mild aperients, No. 4, succeeded by No. 7, and No. 8, if much fever accompany the eruption.

594. Chilblains.

Warm, dry woollen clothing to exposed parts in cold weather, as a preventive. In the first stage, friction with No. 48, used cold. When ulcers form they should be poulticed with bread and water for a day or two, and then dressed with calamine cerate. Or, chilblains in every stage, whether of simple inflammation or open ulcer, may always he successfully treated by Goulard's extract, used pure or applied on lint twice a day.

595. Common Continued Fever.

Aperients in the commencement, No. 1, followed by No. 7, then diaphoretics, No. 8, and afterwards tonics, No. 13, in the stage of weakness. Avoid all excesses.

596. Common Cough.

The linctus, No. 42 or No. 43, abstinence from malt liquor, and protection from cold damp air. Avoid cold, damp, and draughts.

597. Constipation.

The observance of a regular period of evacuating the bowels, which is most proper in the morning after breakfast. The use of mild aperients, No. 47, and brown bread instead of white. There should be an entire change in the dietary for a few days while taking opening medicine.

598. Consumption.

The disease may be complicated with various morbid conditions of the lungs and heart, which require appropriate treatment. To allay the cough, No. 42 is an admirable remedy. Avoid cold, damp, excitement, and over exertion.

599. Convulsions (Children).

If during teething, free lancing of the gums, the warm bath, cold applications to the head, leeches to the temples, an emetic, and a laxative clyster, No. 20.

600. Croup.

Leeches to the throat, with hot fomentations as long as the attack lasts; the emetic, No. 16, afterwards the aperient, No. 5. Avoid cold and damp.

[DESPISE SCHOOL AND REMAIN A FOOL.]

601. Dropsy.

Evacuate the water by means of No. 10, and by rubbing camphorated oil into the body night and morning.

602. Epilepsy.

If accompanied or produced by fulness of the vessels of the head, leeches to the temples, blisters, and No. 1 and No. 7. If from debility or confirmed epilepsy, the mixture, No. 18. Avoid drinking and excitement.

603. Eruptions on the Face.

The powder, No. 30, internally, sponging the face with the lotion, No. 31. Avoid excesses in diet.

604. Erysipelas.

Aperients, if the patient be strong, No. 1, followed by No. 7, then tonics, No. 27. No. 27 may be used from the commencement for weak subjects.

605. Faintness.

Effusion of cold water on the face, stimulants to the nostrils, pure air, and the recumbent position; afterwards, avoidance of the exciting cause. Avoid excitement.

606. Frost-Bite and Frozen Limbs.

No heating or stimulating liquors must be given. Rub the parts affected with ice, cold, or snow water, and lay the patient on a cold bed.

607. Gout.

The aperients No. 1, followed by No. 24, bathing the parts with gin-and-water; for drink, weak tea or coffee. Warmth by flannels. Abstain from wines, spirits, and animal food.

608. Gravel.

No. 5, followed by No. 7, the free use of magnesia as an aperient. The pill No. 22. Abstain from fermented drinks and hard water. Another form of gravel must be treated by mineral acids, given three times a day.

609. Whooping Cough.

Wooping cough may be complicated with congestion or inflammation of the lungs, or convulsions, and then becomes a serious disease. If uncomplicated, No. 43.

610. Hysterics.

The fit may be prevented by the administration of thirty drops of laudanum, and as many of ether. When it has taken place open the windows, loosen the tight parts of the dress, sprinkle cold water on the face, &c. A glass of wine or cold water when the patient can swallow. Avoid excitement and tight lacing.

611. Indigestion.

The pills No. 2, with the mixture No. 18, at the same time abstinence from veal, pork, mackerel, salmon, pastry, and beer; for drink, homoeopathic cocoa, a glass of cold spring water the first thing every morning. Avoid excesses.

612. Inflammation of the Bladder.

Bleeding, aperients No. 5 and No. 7, the warm bath, afterwards opium; the pill No. 11, three times a day till relieved. Avoid fermented liquors, &c.

613. Inflammation of the Bowels.

Leeches, blisters, fomentations, hot baths, iced drinks, the pills No. 19; move the bowels with clysters, if necessary, No. 20. Avoid cold, indigestible food, &c.

614. Inflammation of the Brain.

Application of cold to the head, bleeding from the temples or back of the neck by leeches or cupping; aperients No. 1, followed by No. 7; mercury to salivation, No. 15. Avoid excitement, study, intemperance.

615. Inflammation of the Kidneys.

Bleeding from the arm, leeches over the seat of pain, aperients No. 5, followed by No. 49, the warm bath. Avoid violent exercise, rich living.

616. Inflammation of the Liver.

Leeches over the right side, the seat of pain, blisters, aperients No. 1, followed by No. 7, afterwards the pills No. 19, till the gums are slightly tender. Avoid cold, damp, intemperance, and anxiety.

617. Inflammation of the Lungs.

Bleeding from the arm or over the painful part of the chest by leeches, succeeded by a blister; the demulcent mixture, No. 14, to allay the cough, with the powders No. 15. Avoid cold, damp, and draughts.

618. Inflammation of the Stomach.

Leeches to the pit of the stomach, followed by fomentations, cold iced water for drink, bowels to be evacuated by clysters; abstinence from all food except cold gruel, milk and water, or tea. Avoid excesses, and condiments.

619. Inflammatory Sore Throat.

Leeches and blisters externally, aperients No. 1, followed by No. 7, gargle to clear the throat, No. 17. Avoid cold, damp, and draughts.

620. Inflamed Eyes.

The bowels to be regulated by No. 5, a small blister behind the ear or on the nape of the neck—the eye to be bathed with No. 35.

621. Influenza.

No 4 as an aperient and diaphoretic. No. 14 to allay fever and cough. No. 27 as a tonic, when weakness only remains. Avoid cold and damp, use clothing suited to the change of temperature.

622. Intermittent Fever, or Ague.

Take No. 13 during the intermission of the paroxysm of the fever; keeping the bowels free with a wine-glass of No. 7. Avoid bad air, stagnant pools, &c.

623. Itch.

The ointment of No. 28, or lotion No. 29.

624. Jaundice.

The pills No. 1, afterwards the mixture No. 7, drinking freely of dandelion tea.

625. Looseness of the Bowels (English Cholera).

One pill No. 19, repeated if necessary; afterwards the mixture No. 21. Avoid unripe fruits, acid drinks, ginger beer; wrap flannel around the abdomen.

626. Measles.

A well-ventilated room, aperients No. 4, with No. 14 to allay the cough and fever.

627. Menstruation (Excessive).

No. 40 during the attack, with rest in the recumbent position; in the intervals, No. 39.

628. Menstruation (Scanty).

In Strong patients, cupping the loins, exercise in the open air, No. 40, the feet in warm water before the expected period, the pills No. 38; in weak subjects, No. 39. Gentle and regular exercise. Avoid hot rooms, and too much sleep. In cases of this description it is desirable to apply to a medical man for advice. It may be useful to many to point out that pennyroyal tea is a simple and useful medicine for inducing the desired result.

629. Menstruation (Painful).

No. 41 during the attack; in the intervals, No. 38 twice a week, with No. 39. Avoid cold, mental excitement, &c.

630. Mumps.

Fomentation with a decoction of camomiles and poppy heads; No. 4 as an aperient, and No. 9 during the stage of fever. Avoid cold and attend to the regularity of the bowels.

631. Nervousness.

Cheerful society, early rising, exercise in the open air, particularly on horseback, and No. 12. Avoid excitement, study, and late meals.

632. Palpitation of the Heart.

The pills No 2, with, the mixture No. 12.

633. Piles.

The paste No. 34, at the same time a regulated diet. When the piles are external, or can be reached, one or two applications of Goulard's extract, with an occasional dose of lenitive electuary, will generally succeed in curing them.

634. Quinsey.

A blister applied all round the throat: an emetic, No. 16, commonly succeeds in breaking the abscess; afterwards the gargle No. 17. Avoid cold and damp.

635. Rheumatism.

Bathe the affected parts with No. 23, and take internally No. 24, with No. 25 at bedtime, to ease pain, &c. Avoid damp and cold, wear flannel.

636. Rickets.

The powder No. 33, a dry, pure atmosphere, a nourishing diet.

637. Ringworm.

The lotion No. 32, with the occasional use of the powder No. 5. Fresh air and cleanliness.

638. Scarlet Fever.

Well-ventilated room, sponging the body when hot with cold or tepid vinegar, or spirit and water; aperients, No 4; diaphoretics No. 8. If dropsy succeed the disappearance of the eruption, frequent purging with No. 5, succeeded by No. 7.

639. Scrofula.

Pure air, light but warm clothing, diet of fresh animal food; bowels to be regulated by No. 6 and No. 26, taken regularly for a considerable time.

640. Scurvy.

Fresh animal and vegetable food, and the free use of ripe fruits and lemon juice. Avoid cold and damp.

641. Small Pox

A well-ventilated apartment, mild aperients; if fever be present, No. 7, succeeded by diaphoretics No. 8, and tonics No. 13 in the stage of debility, or decline of the eruption.

642. St. Vitus's Dance.

The occasional use, in the commencement, of No. 5, followed by No. 7, afterwards No. 46.

643. Thrush.

One of the powders No. 6 every other night; in the intervals a dessertspoonful of the mixture No. 18 three times a day; white spots to be dressed with the honey of borax.

644. Tic Doloreux.

Regulate the bowels with No. 3, and take in the intervals of pain, No. 27. Avoid cold, damp, and mental anxiety.

645. Toothache.

Continue the use of No. 3 for a few alternate days. Apply liquor ammoniae to reduce the pain, and when that is accomplished, fill the decayed spots with silver succedaneum without delay, or the pain will return. A drop of creosote, or a few drops of chloroform on cotton, applied to the tooth, or a few grains of camphor placed in the decayed opening, or camphor moistened with turpentine, will often afford instant relief.

646. Typhus Fever.

Sponging the body with cold or tepid water, a well-ventilated apartment, cold applications to the head and temples. Aperients No. 4, with refrigerants No. 9, tonics No. 13 in the stage of debility.

647. Water on the Brain.

Local bleeding by means of leeches, blisters, aperients No. 5, and mercurial medicines, No. 15.

648. Whites.

The mixture No. 36, with the injection No. 37. Clothing light but warm, moderate exercise in the open air, country residence.

649. Worms in the Intestines.

The aperient No. 5, followed by No. 7, afterwards the free use of lime water and milk in equal parts, a pint daily. Avoid unwholesome food.

650. Prescriptions.

To be used in the Cases enumerated under the head "Diseases" (page 112).

651. List of Prescriptions.

The following prescriptions, originally derived from various prescribers' Pharmacopoeias, embody the favourite remedies employed by the most eminent physicians:—

1. Take of powdered aloes, nine grains; extract of colocynth, compound, eighteen grains; calomel, nine grains; tartrate of antimony, two grains; mucilage, sufficient to make a mass, which is to be divided into six pills; two to be taken every twenty-four hours, till they act thoroughly on the bowels: in cases of inflammation, apoplexy, &c.

2. Powdered rhubarb, Socotrine aloes, and gum mastic, each one scruple; make into twelve pills: one before and one after dinner.

3. Compound extract of colocynth, extract of jalap, and Castile soap, of each one scruple; make into twelve pills.

4. James's powder, five grains; calomel, three grains: in fevers, for adults. For children, the following:—Powdered camphor, one scruple; calomel and powdered scammony, of each nine grains; James's powder, six grains; mix, and divide into six powders. Half of one powder twice a day for an infant a year old; a whole powder for two years: and for four years, the same three times a day.

5. James's powder, six grains; powdered jalap, ten grains; mix, and divide into three or four powders, according to the child's age: in one powder if for an adult.

6. Powdered rhubarb, four grains; mercury and chalk, three grains; ginger in powder, one grain: an alterative aperient for children.

7. Dried sulphate of magnesia, six drachms; sulphate of soda, three drachms; infusion of senna, seven ounces; tincture of jalap, and compound tincture of cardamoms, each half an ounce: in acute diseases generally; take two tablespoonfuls every four hours till it operates freely.

8. Nitrate of potass, one drachm and a half; spirits of nitric ether, half an ounce; camphor mixture, and the spirit of mindererus, each four ounces: in fevers, &c.; two tablespoonfuls, three times a day, and for children a dessertspoonful every four hours.

9. Spirit of nitric ether, three drachms; dilute nitric acid, two drachms; syrup, three drachms; camphor mixture, seven ounces; in fevers, &c., with debility; dose as in preceding prescription.

10. Decoction of broom, half a pint; cream of tartar, one ounce, tincture of squills, two drachms: in dropsies; a third part three times a day.

11. Pills of soap and opium, five grains for a dose, as directed.

12. Ammoniated tincture of valerian, six drachms; camphor mixture, seven ounces; a fourth part three times a day; in spasmodic and hysterical disorders.

13. Disulphate of quina, half a drachm; dilute sulphuric acid, twenty drops; compound infusion of roses, eight ounces: two tablespoonfuls every four hours, in intermittent and other fevers, during the absence of the paroxysm.

14. Almond mixture seven ounces and a half; wine of antimony and ipecacuanha, of each one drachm and a half: a tablespoonful every four hours; in cough with fever, &c.

15. Calomel, one grain; powdered white sugar, two grains; to make a powder to be placed on the tongue every two or three hours. Should the calomel act on the bowels, powdered kino is to be substituted for the sugar.

16. Antimony and ipecacuanha wines, of each an ounce; a teaspoonful every ten minutes for a child till vomiting is produced; but for an adult a large tablespoonful should be taken.

17. Compound infusion of roses, seven ounces; tincture of myrrh, one ounce.

18. Infusion of orange peel, seven ounces; tincture of hops, half an ounce; and a drachm of carbonate of soda: two tablespoonfuls twice a day. Or, infusion of valerian, seven ounces; carbonate of ammonia, two scruples; compound tincture of bark, six drachms; spirits of ether, two drachms: one tablespoonful every twenty-four hours.

19. Blue pill, four grains; opium, half a grain: to be taken three times a day.

20. For a Clyster.—A pint and a half of gruel or fat broth, a tablespoonful of castor oil, one of common salt, and a lump of butter; mix, to be injected slowly. A third of this quantity is enough for an infant.

21. Chalk mixture, seven ounces; aromatic and opiate confection, of each one drachm; tincture of catechu, six drachms: two tablespoonfuls every two hours.

22. Carbonate of soda, powdered rhubarb, and Castile soap, each one drachm; make thirty-six pills; three twice a day.

23. Lotion.—Common salt, one ounce, distilled water, seven ounces; spirit of wine, one ounce: mix.

24. Dried sulphate of magnesia, six drachms; heavy carbonate of magnesia, two drachms; wine of colchicum, two drachms; water, eight ounces: take two tablespoonfuls every four hours.

25. Compound powder of ipecacuanha, ten grains; powdered guaiacum, four grains: in a powder at bedtime.

26. Brandish's solution of potash; thirty drops twice a day in a wineglass of beer.

27. Disulphate of quina, half a drachm; dilute sulphuric acid, ten drops; compound infusion of roses, eight ounces: two tablespoonfuls every four hours, and as a tonic in the stage of weakness succeeding fever.

28. Flowers of sulphur, two ounces; hog's lard, four ounces; white hellebore powder, half an ounce: oil of lavender, sixty drops.

29. Hydriodate of potass, two drachms; distilled water, eight ounces.

30. Flowers of sulphur, half a drachm; carbonate of soda, a scruple; tartarized antimony, one-eighth of a grain: one powder, night and morning, in eruptions of the skin or face.

31. Milk of bitter almonds, seven ounces; bichloride of mercury, four grains; spirits of rosemary, one ounce: bathe the eruption with this lotion three times a day.

32. Sulphate of zinc, two scruples; sugar of lead, fifteen grains; distilled water, six ounces: the parts to be washed with the lotion two or three times a day.

33. Carbonate of iron, six grains; powdered rhubarb, four grains: one powder night and morning.

34. Elecampane powder, two ounces; sweet fennel-seed powder, three ounces; black pepper powder, one ounce; purified honey, and brown sugar, of each two ounces; the size of a nutmeg, two or three times a day.

35. Sulphate of zinc, twelve grains; wine of opium, one drachm; rose water, six ounces.

36. Sulphate of magnesia, six drachms; sulphate of iron, ten grains; diluted sulphuric acid, forty drops; tincture of cardamoms (compound), half an ounce; water, seven ounces: a fourth part night and morning.

37. Decoction of oak bark, a pint; dried alum, half an ounce: for an injection, a syringeful to be used night and morning.

38. Compound gamboge pill, and a pill of assafoetida and aloes, of each half a drachm: make twelve pills; two twice or three times a week.

39. Griffiths' mixture—one tablespoonful three times a day.

40. Ergot of rye, five grains; in a powder, to be taken every four hours. This should only be taken under medical advice and sanction.

41. Powdered opium, half a grain; camphor, two grains in a pill; to be taken every three or four hours whilst in pain.

42. Syrup of balsam of tolu, two ounces; the muriate of morphia, two grains; muriatic acid, twenty drops: a teaspoonful twice a day.

43. Salts of tartar, two scruples, twenty grains of powdered cochineal; 1/4 lb. of honey; water, half a pint; boil, and give a tablespoonful three times a day.

44. Calomel, ten grains; Castile soap, extract of jalap, extract of colocynth, of each one scruple; oil of juniper, five drops: make into fifteen pills; one three times a day.

45. Infusion of orange peel, eight ounces; carbonate of soda, one drachm; and compound tincture of cardamoms, half an ounce: take a tablespoonful three times a day, succeeding the pills.

46. Carbonate of iron, three ounces; syrup of ginger, sufficient to make an electuary: a teaspoonful three times a day.

47. Take of Castile soap, compound extract of colocynth, compound rhubarb pill, and the extract of jalap, each one scruple; oil of caraway, ten drops; make into twenty pills, and take one after dinner every day whilst necessary.

48. Spirit of rosemary, five parts; spirit of wine, or spirit of turpentine, one part.

49. Take of thick mucilage, one ounce; castor oil, twelve drachms; make into an emulsion: add mint water, four ounces; spirit of nitre, three drachms; laudanum, one drachm; mixture of squills, one drachm; and syrup, seven drachms; mix; two tablespoonfuls every six hours.

652. Medicines (Aperient).

In the spring time of the year, the judicious use of aperient medicines is much to be commended.

653. Spring Aperients.

For children, an excellent medicine is

i. Brimstone and treacle, prepared by mixing an ounce and a half of sulphur, and half an ounce of cream of tartar, with eight ounces of treacle; and, according to the age of the child, giving from a small teaspoonful to a dessertspoonful, early in the morning, two or three times a week.

As this sometimes produces sickness, the following may be used:

ii. Take of powdered Rochelle salts one drachm and a half, powdered jalap and powdered rhubarb each fifteen grains, ginger two grains, mix. Dose, for a child above five years, one small teaspoonful; above ten years, a large teaspoonful; above fifteen, half the whole, or two teaspoonfuls: and for a person above twenty, three teaspoonfuls, or the whole, as may be required by the habit of the person.

This medicine may be dissolved in warm water, mint, or common tea. The powder can be kept for use in a wide-mouthed bottle, and be in readiness for any emergency. The druggist may be directed to treble or quadruple the quantities, as convenient.

654. Aperient Pills.

To some adults all liquid medicines produce such nausea that pills are the only form in which aperients can be exhibited; the following is a useful formula:

i. Take of compound rhubarb pill a drachm and one scruple, of powdered ipecacuanha ten grains, and of extract of hyoscyamus one scruple; mix, and beat into a mass, and divide into twenty-four pills; take one or two, or if of a very costive habit, three at bedtime.

ii. For persons requiring a more powerful aperient, the same formula, with twenty grains of compound extract of colocynth, will form a good purgative pill. The mass receiving this addition must be divided into thirty, instead of twenty-four pills.

655. Black Draught.

The common aperient medicine known as black draught is made in the following manner:

i. Take of senna leaves six drachms, bruised ginger half a drachm, sliced liquorice root four drachms, Epsom salts two and a half ounces, boiling water half an imperial pint. Keep this standing on the hob or near the fire for three hours, then strain, and after allowing it to grow cool, add of sal volatile one drachm and a half, of tincture of senna, and of tincture of cardamoms, each half an ounce. This mixture will keep a long time in a cool place. Dose, a wineglassful for an adult; and two tablespoonfuls for young persons about fifteen years of age. It is not a suitable medicine for children.

656. Tonic Aperient.

The following will be found a useful medicine for persons of all ages.

i. Take of Epsom salts one ounce, diluted sulphuric acid one drachm, infusion of quassia chips half an imperial pint, compound tincture of rhubarb two drachms. Dose, half a wineglassful twice a day.

657. Infants' Aperient.

The following may be used with safety for young children.

i. Take of rhubarb five grains, magnesia three grains, white sugar a scruple, grey powder five grains; mix. Dose, for an infant from twelve to eighteen months of age, from one-third to one-half of the whole.

ii. A useful laxative for children is composed of calomel five grains, and sugar a scruple, made into five powders. Dose, half of one of these for a child from birth to one year, and a whole one from that age to three years.

658. Flour of Brimstone

is a mild aperient in doses of about a quarter of an ounce; it is best taken in milk. Flour of brimstone, which is also called sublimed sulphur, is generally put up in ounce packets at 7d.; its wholesale price is 4d. per pound.

[A SPARK MAY RAISE AN AWFUL BLAZE.]

659. Medicines.

Preparations of them.—The following directions are of the utmost value in connection with the DOMESTIC PHARMACOPOEIA, DISEASES, PRESCRIPTIONS, and POISONS.

They will be found most important to emigrants, attendants upon the sick, and persons who reside out of the reach of medical aid, sailors, &c., &c. They contain instructions not only for the compounding of medicines, but most useful hints and cautions upon the application of leeches, blisters, poultices, &c.

660. Articles Required for Mixing Medicines.

Three glass measures, one to measure ounces, another to measure drachms, and a measure for minims, drops, or small doses.

A pestle and mortar, both of glass and Wedgwood-ware.

A glass funnel.

Glass stirring rods.

A spatula, or flexible knife, for spreading ointments, making pills, &c.

A set of scales and weights.

A small slab of marble, or porcelain, for making pills upon, mixing ointments, &c.

661. Medicine Weights and Measures.—Weights.

When you open your box containing the scales and weights, you will observe that there are several square pieces of brass, of different sizes and thicknesses, and stamped with a variety of characters. These are the weights, which may now be explained.



662. Troy Weight.

Medicines are made up by troy weight, although drugs are bought by avoirdupois weight. There are twelve ounces to the pound troy, which is marked lb.; the ounce, which contains eight drachms, is marked [*ounce]i. [looks like a z on top of a 3]; the drachm, containing three scruples, is marked [*drachm]i. [looks like a 3]; and the scruple of twenty grains is marked [*scruple]i. [looks like a backwards C with a horizontal cross-bar]. The grain weights are marked by little circles, thus:

- o o Five o Grains o o -

Each of the grain weights, in addition to the circles denoting their several weights, bears also the stamp of a crown. Care must be taken not to mistake this for one of the numerals. Besides these weights there are others marked [*scruple]ss, which means half a scruple; [*drachm]ss, meaning half a drachm; and [*ounce]ss, meaning half an ounce. When there are ounces, drachms, or scruples, the number of them is shown by Roman figures, thus:—i. ii. iii. iv. v., &c., and prescriptions are written in this style.

663. Measures.—Liquid

Liquid medicines are always measured by the following table:

60 minims......... / 1 fluid drachm. 8 fluid drachms are 1 fluid ounce. 20 fluid ounces... contained 1 pint. 8 pints.......... / in 1 gallon.

And the signs which distinguish each are as follows:—c. means a gallon; o a pint; fl [*ounce], a fluid ounce; fl [*drachm], a fluid drachm; and m, a minim, or drop. Formerly drops used to be ordered, but as the size of a drop must necessarily vary, minims are always directed to be employed now for any particular medicine, although for such medicines as oil of cloves, essence of ginger, &c., drops are frequently ordered.

664. Specific Measuring Vessels.

In order that Medicines may be measured Accurately, there are graduated glass vessels for measuring ounces, drachms, and minims.

665. Approximate Measures.

When proper measures are not at hand, it is necessary to adopt some other method of determining the quantities required, and therefore the following table has been drawn up for that purpose:

A tumbler ....... / 10 ounces. A teacup ........ 6 " A wineglass .... usually 2 " A tablespoon..... - contains - 4 drachms. A dessertspoon... about 2 " A teaspoon....... / 1 "

These quantities refer to ordinary sized spoons and vessels. Some cups hold half as much more, and some tablespoons contain six drachms. A medicine glass, which is graduated so as to show the number of spoonfuls it contains, should be kept in every family.

[TO-DAY, MAN LIVES IN PLEASURE, WEALTH AND PRIDE.]

666. Process of Making Medicines.

To Powder Substances.—Place the substance in the mortar, and strike it gently with direct perpendicular blows of the pestle, until it separates into several pieces, then remove all but a small portion, which bruise gently at first, and rub the pestle round and round the mortar, observing that the circles described by the pestle should gradually decrease in diameter, and then increase again, because by this means every part of the powder is subjected to the process of pulverization. In powdering substances, making emulsions, and whenever using a mortar, the pestle should always travel from the right to the left.

667. Preparation and Assistance.

Some substances require to be prepared in a particular manner before they can be powdered, or to be assisted by adding some other body. For example, camphor powders more easily when a few drops of spirits of wine are added to it; mace, nutmegs, and such oily aromatic substances are better for the addition of a little white sugar; resins and gum-resins should be powdered in a cold place, and if they are intended to be dissolved, a little fine well-washed white sand mixed with them assists the process of powdering. Tough roots, like gentian and calumba, should be cut into thin slices; and fibrous roots, like ginger, cut slanting, otherwise the powder will be full of small fibres. Vegetable matter, such as peppermint, loosestrife, senna, &c., requires to be dried before it is powdered.

668. Care of the Mortar.

Be careful not to pound too hard in glass, porcelain, or Wedgwood-ware mortar; they are intended only for substances that pulverize easily, and for the purpose of mixing or incorporating medicines. Never use acids in a marble mortar, and be sure that you do not powder galls or any other astringent substances in any but a brass mortar.

669. Sifting.

Sifting is frequently required for powdered substances, and this is usually done by employing a fine sieve, or tying the powder up in a piece of muslin, and striking it against the left hand over a piece of paper.

670. Filtering.

Filtering is frequently required for the purpose of obtaining clear fluids, such as infusions, eye-washes, and other medicines; and it is, therefore, highly important to know how to perform this simple operation. First of all take a square piece of white blotting paper, and double it over so as to form an angular cup. Open out this filter paper very carefully, and having placed it in a funnel, moisten it with a little water. Then place the funnel in the neck of the bottle, and pour the liquid gently down the side of the paper, otherwise the fluid is apt to burst the paper.

671. Maceration.

Maceration is another process that is frequently required to be performed in making up medicines, and consists simply in immersing the medicines in cold water or spirits for a certain time.

672. Digestion.

Digestion resembles maceration, except that the process is assisted by a gentle heat. The ingredients are placed in a flask, such as salad oil is sold in, which should be fitted with a plug of tow or wood, and have a piece of wire twisted round the neck. The flask is held by means of the wire over the flame of a spirit lamp, or else placed in some sand warmed in an old iron saucepan over the fire, care being taken not to place more of the flask below the sand than the portion occupied by the ingredients.

673. Infusion.

Infusion is one of the most frequent operations required in making up medicines, its object being to extract the aromatic and volatile principles of substances, that would be lost by decoction, or digestion; and to extract the soluble from the insoluble parts of bodies. Infusions may be made with cold water, in which case they are weaker, but more pleasant. The general method employed consists in slicing, bruising, or rasping the ingredients first, then placing them in a common jug (which should be as globular as possible), and pouring boiling water over them. Cover the jug with a cloth folded six or eight times, but if there be a lid to the jug so much the better. When the infusion has stood the time directed, hold a piece of very coarse linen over the spout, and pour the liquid through it into another jug.

[TO-MORROW, POOR—OR LIFE ITSELF DENIED.]

674. Decoction.

Decoction, or boiling, is employed to extract the mucilaginous or gummy parts of substances, their bitter, astringent, or other qualities, and is nothing more than boiling the ingredients in a saucepan with the lid slightly raised. Be sure never to use an iron saucepan for astringent decoctions, such as oak-bark, galls, &c., as they will turn the saucepan black, and spoil the decoction. The enamelled saucepans are very useful for decoctions, but an excellent plan is to put the ingredients into a jar and boil the jar, thus preparing it by a water bath, as it is technically termed; or by using a common pipkin, which answers still better. No decoction should be allowed to boil for more than ten minutes.

675. Extracts.

Extracts are made by evaporating the liquors obtained by infusion or decoction, but these can be bought much cheaper and better of chemists and druggists, and so can tinctures, confections, cerates and plasters, and syrups: but as every one is not always in the neighbourhood of druggists, we shall give recipes for those most generally useful, and the method of making them.

676. Precautions to be observed in Giving Medicines.

677. Sex.

Medicines for females should not be so strong as those for males, therefore it is advisable to reduce the doses about one-third.

678. Temperament.

Persons of a phlegmatic temperament bear stimulants and purgatives better than those of a sanguine temperament, therefore the latter require smaller doses.

679. Habits.

Purgatives never act so well upon persons accustomed to take them as upon those who are not, therefore it is better to change the form of purgative from pill to potion, powder to draught, or aromatic to saline. Purgatives should never be given when there is an irritable state of the bowels.

680. Use of Alcohol.

Stimulants and narcotics never act so quickly upon persons accustomed to use spirits freely as upon those who live abstemiously.

681. Climate.

The action of medicines is modified by climate and seasons. In summer, certain medicines act more powerfully than in winter, and the same person cannot bear the dose in July that he could in December.

682. General Health.

Persons whose general health is good bear stronger doses than the debilitated and those who have suffered for a long time.

683. Idiosyncrasy.

By this is meant a peculiar temperament or disposition not common to people generally. For example, some persons cannot take calomel in the smallest dose without being salivated, or rhubarb without having convulsions; others cannot take squills, opium, senna, &c.; and this peculiarity is called the patient's idiosyncrasy, therefore it is wrong to insist upon their taking these medicines.

684. Forms best suited for Administration.

Fluids act quicker than solids, and powders sooner than pills.

685. Best Method of Preventing the Nauseous Taste of Medicines.

Castor oil may be taken in milk, coffee, or spirit, such as brandy; but the best method of covering the nauseous flavour is to put a tablespoonful of strained orange juice in a wineglass, pour the castor oil into the centre of the juice, and then squeeze a few drops of lemon juice upon the top of the oil. The wineglass should first be dipped, rim downwards, into water, so that the interior may be wetted. Cod liver oil may be taken, like castor oil, in orange juice. Peppermint water neutralizes, to a great extent, the nauseous taste of Epsom salts; a strong solution of extract of liquorice, that of aloes; milk, that of cinchona bark; and cloves that of senna.

[TO-DAY, LAYS PLANS FOR MANY YEARS TO COME.]

686. An Excellent Way to Prevent the Taste of Medicines

is to have the medicine in a glass, as usual, and a tumbler of water by the side of it; take the medicine, and retain it in the mouth, which should be kept closed, and if drinking the water be then commenced, the taste of the medicine is washed away. Even the bitterness of quinine and aloes may be prevented by this means. If the nostrils are firmly compressed by the thumb and finger of the left hand, while taking a nauseous draught, and so retained till the mouth has been washed out with water, the disagreeable taste of the medicine will be almost imperceptible.

687. Giving Medicines to Persons.

Medicines should be given in such a manner that the effect of the first dose shall not have ceased when the next dose is given, therefore the intervals between the doses should be regulated accordingly.

688. Doses of Medicine for Different Ages.

It must be plain to every one that children do not require such powerful medicine as adults or old people, and therefore it is desirable to have some fixed method of determining or regulating the administration of doses of medicine. Now let it be supposed that the dose for a full-grown person is one drachm, then the following proportions will be suitable for the various ages given; keeping in view other circumstances, such as sex, temperament, habits, climate, state of general health, and idiosyncrasy.

Age. Proportion. Proportionate Dose.

7 weeks one-fifteenth or grains 4 7 months one-twelfth or grains 5 Under 2 years one-eighth or grains 7-1/2 " 3 " one-sixth or grains 10 " 4 " one-fourth or grains 15 " 7 " one-third or scruple 1 " 14 " one-half or drachm 1/2 " 20 " two-fifths or scruples 2 Above21 " the full dose or drachm 1 " 65 " The inverse gradation



689. Drugs, with their Properties and Doses.

The various drugs have been arranged according to their properties, and the doses of each have been given. Many, however, have been necessarily omitted from each class, because they cannot be employed except by a medical man. The doses are meant for adults.

690. Classes of Drugs.

Medicines have been divided into four grand classes

1. General stimulants; 2. Local stimulants; 3. Chemical remedies; 4. Mechanical remedies.

691. General Stimulants.

General stimulants are subdivided into two classes, diffusible and permanent stimulants: the first comprising narcotics and antispasmodics, and the second tonics and astringents.

692. Narcotics.

Narcotics are medicines which stupefy and diminish the activity of the nervous system. Given in small doses, they generally act as stimulants, but an increased dose produces a sedative effect. Under this head are included alcohol, camphor, ether, the hop, and opium.

693. Alcohol.

Alcohol, or rectified spirit, is a very powerful stimulant, and is never used as a remedy without being diluted to the degree called proof spirit; and even then it is seldom used internally. It is used externally in restraining bleeding, when there is not any vessel of importance wounded. It is also used as a lotion to burns, and is applied by dipping a piece of lint into the spirit, and laying it over the part. Freely diluted (one part to eighteen) with water, it forms a useful eye-wash in the last stage of ophthalmia.

Used internally, it acts as a very useful stimulant when diluted and taken moderately, increasing the general excitement, and giving energy to the muscular fibres; hence it becomes very useful in certain cases of debility, especially in habits disposed to create acidity; and in the low stage of typhus fevers.

Dose.—It is impossible to fix anything like a dose for this remedy, as much will depend upon the individual; but diluted with water and sweetened with sugar, from half an ounce to two ounces may be given three or four times a day. In cases of extreme debility, however, much will depend upon the disease.

Caution.—Remember that alcohol is an irritant poison, and that daily indulgence in its use originates dyspepsia, or indigestion, and many other serious complaints. Of all kinds of spirits the best as a tonic and stomachic is brandy.

[TO-MORROW, SINKS INTO THE SILENT TOMB.]

694. Camphor.

Camphor is not a very steady stimulant, as its effect is transitory; but in large doses it acts as a narcotic, abating pain and inducing sleep. In moderate doses it operates as a diaphoretic, diuretic, antispasmodic, increasing the heat of the body, allaying irritation and spasm.

It is used externally as a liniment when dissolved in oil, alcohol, or acetic acid, being employed to allay rheumatic pains; and it is also useful as an embrocation in sprains, bruises, chilblains, and, when combined with opium, it has been advantageously employed in flatulent colic, and severe diarrhoea, being rubbed over the bowels.

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