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Enquire Within Upon Everything - The Great Victorian Domestic Standby
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2262. Liquid for Preserving Furs from Moth.

Warm water, one pint; corrosive sublimate, twelve grains. If washed with this, and afterwards dried, furs are safe from moth. Care should be taken to label the liquid—Poison.

[ONE DOUBT MAY LEAD TO DISBELIEF.]

2263. Velvet.

When Velvet gets crushed from pressure, hold the parts over a basin of hot water, with the lining of the article next the water; the pile will soon rise, and assume its original beauty.

2264. Stockings.

Worsted and Lambs'-Wool stockings should never be mended with worsted or lambs'-wool, because, the latter being new, it shrinks more than the stockings, and draws them up till the toes become short and narrow, and the heels have no shape left.

2265. Making Flannels.

All Flannels should be soaked before they are made up, first in cold, then in hot water, in order to shrink them.

2266. Washing Flannel.

Flannel should always he washed with white soap, and in warm but not boiling water.

2267. Brewing.

The best time of the year for brewing is the autumn. The spring is also suitable, but less so. It is a great object to secure a moderate temperature for the cooling of the worts, and to insure gradual fermentation. To those who wish to enter upon the practice, without any previous knowledge, we would advise their calling in the aid of some one practically acquainted with the process for the first operation. By so doing they will save a great deal of trouble, disappointment, and expense. In all places, town or country, there are persons who have worked in brewing establishments, or in gentlemen's families where they have superintended the operations of the brew-house, and the aid of such persons would be valuable. With such assistance, the following receipts will be of importance, since many who are able to go through the manipulations of brewing are unaware of the proper proportions to employ:

2268. Ale.

Take three bushels of malt, three pounds of hops, fifty-two gallons of water, for two workings. Or,—malt, two bushels and a half; sugar, three pounds; hops, three pounds; coriander seeds, one ounce; capsicum, a drachm. Thirty-six gallons. This gives a pleasant ale, with a good body.

2269. Amber Ale.

Three bushels of amber malt, three quarters of a bushel of pale amber malt, two pounds of hops, a tablespoonful of salt. Three mashes, forty to fifty gallons. Skim, and fine with isinglass.

2270. Burton Ale.

One quarter of pale malt, eight pounds and a half pale hops; mash three times. Work the first mash at 170 deg., second at 176 deg., third at 150 deg.. Boil the first wort by itself; when boiling add three pounds of honey, a pound and a half of coriander seeds, one ounce of salt. Mix the worts when boiled, cool to 61 deg., set to work with a pint and a half of yeast. As soon as the liquor gets yeasty, skim the head half off; rouse the rest with another pint and a half of yeast, three quarters of an ounce of bay salt, and a quarter of a pound of malt or bean flour. This makes a hogshead.

2271. Edinburgh Ale.

Mash two barrels per quarter, at 183 deg.; mash for three quarters of an hour; let it stand one hour, and allow half an hour to run off. Or, mash one barrel per quarter, at 190 deg.; mash three quarters of an hour, let it stand three quarters of an hour, and tap.

2272. Porter.

Brown amber and pale malt, in equal quantities; turn them into the mash-tub. Turn on the first liquor at 165 deg.; mash one hour, then coat the whole with dry malt. In one hour set the tap. Mix ten pounds of brown hops to a quarter of malt, half old, half new; boil the first wort briskly with the hops for three quarters of an hour, after putting into the copper one pound and a half of sugar, and one pound and a half of extract of liquorice to the barrel, turn it into coolers, rousing the wort the while. Turn on the second liquor at 174 deg., set tap again in an hour. The second wort having run off, turn on again at 145 deg.; mash an hour, and stand an hour; boil the second wort with the same hops for one hour. Turn into the coolers, and let into the tub at 64 deg., mixing the yeast as it comes down. Cleanse the second day at 80 deg., previously adding a mixture of flour and salt, and rousing well.

[WHEN IN MOTION, TO PUSH ON IS EASY.]

2273. Making Wines.

Wines from Rhubarb, Unripe Grapes, Currants, Gooseberries, &c.—The whole art of wine-making consists in the proper management of the fermenting process; the same quantity of fruit, whether it be rhubarb, currants, gooseberries, unripe grapes, leaves, tops, and tendrils, water, and sugar, will produce two different kinds of wine, by varying the process of fermentation only—that is, a dry wine like sherry, or a brisk beverage like champagne; but neither rhubarb, currants, nor gooseberries will produce a wine with the true champagne flavour; it is to be obtained only from the fruit of the grape, ripe or unripe, its leaves, tops, and tendrils. The following receipt will do for rhubarb, or any of the above-mentioned fruits.

2274. English Champagne.

Take fifty pounds of rhubarb and thirty-seven pounds of fine moist sugar. Provide a tub that will hold from fifteen to twenty gallons, taking care that it has a hole for a tap near the bottom. In this tub bruise the rhubarb; when done, add four gallons of water; let the whole be well stirred together; cover the tub with a cloth or blanket, and let the materials stand for twenty-four hours; then draw off the liquor through the tap; add one or two more gallons of water to the pulp, let it be well stirred, and then allowed to remain an hour or two to settle, then draw off; mix the two liquors together, and in it dissolve the sugar.

Let the tub be made clean, and return the liquor to it, cover it with a blanket, and place it in a room the temperature of which is not below 60 deg. Fahr.; here it is to remain for twenty-four, forty-eight, or more hours, until there is an appearance of fermentation having begun, when it should be drawn off into the ten-gallon cask, as fine as possible, which cask must be filled up to the bung-hole with water, if there is not liquor enough; let it lean to one side a little, that it may discharge itself; if there is any liquor left in the tub not quite fine, pass it through flannel, and fill up with that instead of water.

As the fermentation proceeds and the liquor diminishes, it must be filled up daily, to encourage the fermentation, for ten or twelve days; it then becomes more moderate, when the bung should be put in, and a gimlet hole made at the side of it, fitted with a spile; this spile should be taken out every two or three days, according to the state of the fermentation, for eight or ten days, to allow some of the carbonic acid gas to escape. When this state is passed, the cask may he kept full by pouring a little liquor in at the vent-hole once a week or ten days, for three or four weeks.

This operation is performed at long intervals, of a month or more, till the end of December, when on a fine frosty day it should be drawn off from the lees as fine as possible; and the turbid part passed through flannel. Make the cask clean, return the liquor to it, with one drachm of isinglass (pure) dissolved in a little water; stir the whole together, and put the bung in firmly.

Choose a clear dry day in March for bottling. The bottles should be champagne bottles—common wine bottles are not strong enough; secure the corks in a proper manner with wire, &c. The liquor is generally made up to two or three pints over the ten gallons, which is bottled for the purpose of filling the cask as it is wanted. The wine contains spirit enough without the addition of brandy, which spoils all wines; a proper fermentation producing spirit enough.

The way to obtain a dry wine from these materials is to keep the cask constantly filled up to the bung-hole, daily or every other day, as long as any fermentation is perceptible by applying the ear near to the hole; the bung may then be put in lightly for a time, before finally fixing it; it may be racked off on a fine day in December, and fined with isinglass as above directed, and bottled in March.

[A WORD BEFORE IS WORTH TWO BEHIND.]

2275. Parsnip Wine.

Take fifteen pounds of sliced parsnips, and boil until quite soft in five gallons of water; squeeze the liquor well out of them, run it through a sieve, and add three pounds of coarse lump sugar to every gallon of liquor. Boil the whole for three quarters of an hour. When it is nearly cold, add a little yeast on toast. Let it remain in a tub for ten days, stirring it from the bottom every day; then put it into a cask, in which it should remain for a year. As it works over, fill it up every day.

2276. Turnip Wine.

Take a large number of turnips, pare and slice them; then place in a cider-press, and obtain all the juice you can. To every gallon of juice add three pounds of lump sugar, and half a pint of brandy, Pour the liquor into a cask, and when it las done working, bung it close for three months, and draw off into another cask. When it is fine, bottle, and cork well.

2277. Blackberry Wine.

Gather the fruit when ripe, on a dry day. Put into a vessel, with the head out, and a tap fitted near the bottom; pour on boiling water to cover it. Mash the berries with your hands, and let them stand covered till the pulp rises to the top and forms a crust, in three or four days. Then draw off the fluid into another vessel, and to every gallon add one pound of sugar; mix well, and put it into a cask, to work for a week or ten days, and throw off any remaining lees, keeping the cask well filled, particularly at the commencement. When the working has ceased, bung it down; after six to twelve months it may be bottled.

2278. Black or White Elderberry Wine.

Gather the berries ripe and dry, pick them, bruise them with your hands, and strain them. Set the liquor by in glazed earthen vessels for twelve hours, to settle; put to every pint of juice a pint and a half of water, and to every gallon of this liquor three pounds of good moist sugar; set in a kettle over the fire, and when it is ready to boil, clarify it with the white of four or five eggs; let it boil one hour, and when it is almost cold work it with strong ale yeast, and tun it, filling up the vessel from time to time with the same liquor, saved on purpose, as it sinks by working. In a month's time, if the vessel holds about eight gallons, it will be fine and fit to bottle, and after bottling, will be fit to drink in twelve months.

2279. Arrack (Imitation).

Dissolve two scruples of flowers of benjamin in a quart of good rum, and it will impart to the spirit the fragrance of arrack.

2280. Devonshire Junket.

Put warm milk into a bowl, turn it with a little rennet, then add some scalded cream, sugar, and cinnamon on the top, without breaking the curd.

2281. A Nightcap For Travellers.

Take your pocket handkerchief, and laying it out the full square, double down one-third over the other part. Then raise the whole and turn it over, so that the third folded down shall now be underneath. Take hold of one of the folded corners, and draw its point towards the centre; then do the same with the other, as in making a cocked-hat, or a boat, of paper. Then take hold of the two remaining corners, and twisting the hem of the handkerchief, continue to roll it until it meets the double corners brought to the centre, and catches them up a little. Lift the whole, and you will see the form of a cap, which, when applied to the head, will cover the head and ears, and, being tied under the chin, will not come off. Very little practice will enable you to regulate the size of the folds so as to fit the head.

2282. Scotch Punch, or Whisky Toddy.

Pour about a wineglassful of _boiling_ water into a half-pint tumbler, and sweeten according to taste. Stir well up, then put in a wineglassful of whisky, and add a wineglassful and a half more boiling water. _Be sure the water _is boiling_. Never put lemon into toddy. The two in combination, in almost every instance, produce acidity in the stomach. If possible, store your whisky _in the wood_, not in bottles as keeping it in the cask mellows it, and dissipates the coarser particles.

[MAN DOUBLES HIS EVILS BY BROODING UPON THEM.]

2283. Athol Brose.

Put a wineglassful of whisky into a half-pint tumbler; sweeten with a large teaspoonful of honey, and fill up with milk that has been nearly brought to boiling over a clear fire. Remember that "milk boiled is milk spoiled."

2284. Buttered Rum.

Put a wineglassful of good rum into a half-pint tumbler, with a lump or two of sugar and a piece of butter the size of a filbert. Fill up with boiling water. This is excellent for hoarseness and husky condition of the throat.

2285. Raspberry Vinegar.

Put a pound of very fine ripe raspberries in a bowl, bruise them well, and pour upon them a quart of the best white wine vinegar; next day strain the liquor on a pound of fresh ripe raspberries; bruise them also, and the following day do the same, but do not squeeze the fruit, or it will make it ferment; only drain the liquor as dry as you can from it. Finally, pass it through a canvas bag, previously wet with the vinegar, to prevent waste. Put the juice into a stone jar, with a pound of sugar, broken into lumps, to every pint of juice; stir, and when melted, put the jar into a pan of water; let it simmer, and skim it; let it cool, then bottle it; when cold it will be fine, and thick, like strained honey, newly prepared.

2286. Ginger Beer.

The following receipt is taken from the celebrated treatise of Dr. Pereira on Diet. The honey gives the beverage a peculiar softness, and from not being fermented with yeast, it is less violent in its action when opened, but requires to be kept a somewhat longer time before use. White sugar, five pounds; lemon juice, one quarter of a pint; honey, one quarter of a pound; ginger, bruised, five ounces; water, four gallons and a half. Boil the ginger in three quarts of the water for half an hour, then add the sugar, lemon juice and honey, with the remainder of the water, and strain through a cloth; when cold add a quarter of the white of an egg, and a small teaspoonful of essence of lemon; let the whole stand four days, and bottle; it will keep for many months. This quantity will make 100 bottles.

2287. Ginger-beer Powders.

Blue paper; Carbonate of soda, thirty grains; powdered ginger, five grains; ground white sugar, one drachm to one drachm and a half; essence of lemon, one drop. Add the essence to the sugar, then the other ingredients. A quantity should be mixed and divided, as recommended for Seidlitz powders.—White paper; Tartaric acid, thirty grains. Directions.—Dissolve the contents of the blue paper in water; stir in the contents of the white paper, and drink during effervescence. Ginger-beer powders do not meet with such general acceptation as lemon and kali, the powdered ginger rendering the liquid slightly turbid.

2288. Lemonade.

Powdered sugar, four pounds; citric or tartaric acid, one ounce; essence of lemon, two drachms; mix well. Two or three teaspoonfuls make a very sweet and agreeable glass of extemporaneous lemonade.

2289. Milk Lemonade.

Dissolve three quarters of a pound of loaf sugar in one pint of boiling water, and mix with them one gill of lemon juice, and one gill of sherry, then add three gills of cold milk. Stir the whole well together, and strain it.

2290. Champagne Lemonade.

Champagne Lemonade, composed of two bottles of champagne, one bottle of seltzer water, three pomegranates, three lemons, and of sugar sufficient, is a princely beverage in hot weather; only care must be taken that perspiration is not hereby too much encouraged.

2291. Summer Champagne.

To four parts of seltzer water add one of Moselle wine (or hock), and put a teaspoonful of powdered sugar into a wineglassful of this mixture; an effervescence takes place, and the result is a sort of champagne, which is more wholesome in hot weather than the genuine wine known by that name.

[THINK OF EASE BUT WORK ON.]

2292. Lemon and Kali, or Sherbet.

Large quantities of this wholesome and refreshing preparation are manufactured and consumed every summer; it is sold in bottles, and also as a beverage, made by dissolving a large teaspoonful in a tumbler two-thirds filled with water. The ingredients are—ground white sugar, half a pound; tartaric acid and carbonate of soda, of each a quarter of a pound; essence of lemon, forty drops. All the powders should be well dried; add the essence to the sugar, then the other powders; stir all together, and mix by passing twice through a hair sieve. Must be kept in tightly-corked bottles, into which a damp spoon must not be inserted. The sugar must be ground, or very finely pulverized, in a pestle and mortar. The powdered sugar sold for icing cakes will do.

2293. Soda Water Powders.

One pound of carbonate of soda, and thirteen and a half ounces of tartaric acid, supply the materials for 256 powders of each sort. Put into blue papers thirty grains of carbonate of soda, and into white papers twenty-five grains of tartaric acid.

Directions.—Dissolve the contents of the blue paper in half a tumbler of water, stir in the other powder, and drink during effervescence. Soda powders furnish a saline beverage which is very slightly laxative, and well calculated to allay the thirst in hot weather.

2294. Seidlitz Powders.

Seidlitz powders are usually put up in two papers. The larger blue paper contains tartarized soda (also called Rochelle salt) two drachms, and carbonate of soda two scruples; in practice it will he found more convenient to mix the two materials in larger quantity by passing them twice through a sieve, and then divide the mixture either by weight or measure, than to make each powder separately. One pound of tartarized soda, and five ounces and a half of carbonate of soda, will make sixty powders. The smaller powder, usually placed in white paper, consists of tartaric acid, half a drachm.

Directions for Use.—Dissolve the contents of blue paper in half a tumbler of cold water, stir in the other powder, and drink during effervescence. (See par. 2291.)

2295. Economy of Tea.

A given quantity of tea is similar to malt—only imparting strength to a given quantity of water, therefore any additional quantity is waste. Two small teaspoonfuls of good black tea and one three parts full of green, is sufficient to make three teacupfuls agreeable, the water being put in, in a boiling state, at once; a second addition of water gives a vapid flavour to tea.

2296. Preparing Tea.

In preparing tea a good economist will be careful to have the best water, that is, the softest and least impregnated with foreign mixture; for if tea be infused in hard and in soft water, the latter will always yield the greatest quantity of the tannin matter, and will strike the deepest black with sulphate of iron in solution.

2297. Tea-making.

Dr. Kitchiner recommends that all the water necessary should be poured in at once, as the second drawing is bad. When much tea is wanted, it is better to have two tea-pots instead of two drawings.

2298. Another Method.

The water should be fresh boiled, not exhausted by long boiling. Scald the teapot and empty it; then put in as much water as necessary for the first cups; put the tea on it as in brewing, and close the lid as quickly as possible. Let it stand three minutes and a half, or, if the quantity be large, four minutes, then fill the cups. This is greatly superior to the ordinary method, the aroma being preserved instead of escaping with the steam, as it does when the water is poured on the tea.

2299. Substitute for Cream in Tea or Coffee.

Beat the white of an egg to a froth, put to it a very small lump of butter, and mix well. Then stir it in gradually, so that it may not curdle. If perfectly mixed, it will be an excellent substitute for cream.

[PERSEVERANCE IS THE BRIDGE BY WHICH DIFFICULTY IS OVERCOME.]

2300. Making Coffee.

In making Coffee, observe that the broader the bottom and the smaller the top of the vessel, the better the coffee will be.

2301. Turkish Mode of Making Coffee.

The Turkish way of making coffee produces a very different result from that to which we are accustomed. A small conical saucepan something like our beer-warmer, with a long handle, and calculated to hold about two tablespoonfuls of water, is the vessel used. The fresh roasted berry is pounded, not ground, and about a dessertspoonful is put into the minute boiler; it is then nearly filled with water, and thrust among the embers. A few seconds suffice to make it boil, and the decoction, grounds and all, is poured out into a small cup, which fits into a brass socket, much like the cup of an acorn, and holding the china cup as that does the acorn itself. The Turks seem to drink this decoction boiling, and swallow the grounds with the liquid. We allow it to remain a minute, in order to leave the sediment at the bottom. It is always taken plain; sugar or cream would be thought to spoil it; and Europeans, after a little practice, are said to prefer it to the clear infusion drunk in France. In every hut these coffee boilers may be seen suspended, and the means for pounding the roasted berry are always at hand.

2302. Coffee Milk.

(FOR THE SICK-ROOM.)—Boil a dessertspoonful of ground coffee, in nearly a pint of milk, a quarter of an hour, then put into it a shaving or two of isinglass, and clear it; let it boil a few minutes, and set it by the side of the fire to clarify. This is a very fine breakfast beverage; but it should be sweetened with sugar of a good quality.

2303. Iceland Moss Chocolate

(FOR THE SICK-ROOM).—Iceland moss has been in the highest repute on the Continent as the most efficacious remedy in incipient pulmonary complaints; combined with chocolate, it will be found a nutritious article of diet, and may be taken as a morning and evening beverage.

Directions.—Mix a teaspoonful of the chocolate with a teaspoonful of boiling water or milk, stirring it constantly until it is completely dissolved.

2304. Alum Whey.

A pint of cow's milk boiled with two drachms of alum, until a curd is formed. Then strain off the liquor, and add spirit of nutmeg, two ounces; syrup of cloves, an ounce. It is useful in diabetes, and in uterine fluxes, &c.

2305. Barley Water.

Pearl barley, two ounces; wash till freed from dust, in cold water. Boil in a quart of water a few minutes, strain off the liquor, and throw it away. Then boil the barley in four pints and a-half of water, until it is reduced one half.

2306. Agreeable Effervescent Drink for Heartburn, &c.

Orange juice (of one orange), water, and lump sugar to flavour, and in proportion to acidity of orange, bicarbonate of soda about half a teaspoonful. Mix orange juice, water, and sugar together in a tumbler, then put in the soda, stir, and the effervescence ensues.

2307. Apple Water.

A tart apple well baked and mashed, on which pour a pint of boiling water. Beat up, cool, and strain. Add sugar if desired. Cooling drink for sick persons.

2308. Tincture of Lemon Peel.

A very easy and economical way of obtaining and preserving the flavour of lemon peel, is to fill a wide-mouthed pint bottle half full of brandy, or proof spirit; and when you use a lemon pare the rind off very thin, and put it into the brandy, &c.; in a fortnight it will impregnate the spirit with the flavour very strongly.

2309. Camomile Tea.

One ounce of the flowers to a quart of water boiling. Simmer for fifteen minutes and strain. Emetic when taken warm; tonic when cold.

Dose, from a wine-glassful to a breakfast cup.

[SOLITUDE IS THE NURSE OF WISDOM.]

2310. Borax and its Uses.

The utility of borax for medicinal purposes, such as relieving soreness of the throat, and for the cure of thrush in young children, has long been known, but it is only in the present day that its good qualities as an antiseptic have become known, and its use in every kind of domestic work, in the laundry, in the garden, vinery, and greenhouse, and even for the toilet, under various forms and in different preparations bearing the general name of "Patent Californian Borax," specially prepared for all personal and domestic purposes, has been promoted by its production in small packets, varying in price from 1d. to 6d., which may be purchased of almost any chemist, oilman, grocer, or dealer, throughout the world.

2311. Its Antiseptic Qualities.

The Patent Borax, which consists of a combination of boron and sodium, acts in a marvellous manner as an arrester of decay, and as such is useful for the preservation of meat, milk, butter, and all articles of animal food liable to taint and decay, especially in hot weather. When infused in small quantities in water, it preserves and softens it for drinking, cooking, washing, and all household purposes; it whitens linen and cleanses it far better than soda, it kills harmful insect life, though perfectly harmless to human beings and domestic animals; it cleanses and heals ulcers, festering wounds, sore throat, &c.; is useful in the nursery for washing the heads of children, cleans sponges, destroys unpleasant and unwholesome smells, and is beneficial to teeth and gums when used as a tooth-powder, or put in water used for washing the teeth.

2312. Borax as a Disinfectant.

Alone or dissolved in water, and used freely to pour down closets, sinks, &c., it removes all noisome smells, acting as a purifier, and rendering even impure water wholesome. It should be used frequently where sewer gas is suspected.

2313. Borax for Cleansing Purposes.

A solution Patent in hot water, allowed to cool, is useful for washing any kind of glass or china, imparting a lustre and brightness to them that they never exhibit when washed in the ordinary way. When it is put into water used for washing floors it destroys all vermin with which the solution comes in contact.

2314. Borax as a Vermin Killer.

When sprinkled in the form of powder on places infested with insects, black beetles, &c., these troublesome pests with soon disappear.

2315. Its use in Cleansing Marble.

Sprinkle some borax on the marble, wherever it is stained or soiled, and then wash the marble with hot water and a little borax soap powder, applied with a soft flannel.

2316. Borax in Cookery.

A few grains added to the tea before the water is poured on it greatly improves the flavour of the infusion. When used instead of soda, or carbonate of soda, in cooking vegetables, such as greens, peas, beans, &c., it improves their flavour, preserves their colour, and renders them tender. Vegetables, eaten in an uncooked state, as, salad, are rendered more crisp and of better flavour, by steeping them for a short time before they are brought to table in a solution of borax.

2317. Borax as a Preservative of Meat, &c.

Meat may be preserved, and taint removed by soaking it for a short time in a solution of Patent Californian Borax, or by sprinkling it with the dry powder. Game, poultry, hams, bacon, and all kinds of meat may be thus preserved. Milk cans should be washed with the solution, and milk itself may be preserved and kept sweet for some time by adding to each quart about half a thimbleful of this prepared borax dissolved in a tablespoonful of hot water. Butter may also be preserved by washing it in a solution of borax, or sprinkling the powder over it, or the cloths in which it is wrapped.

[JUDGEMENT IS THE THRONE OF PRUDENCE.]

2318. Borax in the Laundry.

For washing add a threepenny packet to every ten gallons of hot water used; let the clothes soak all night in the solution; in the morning give them a slight boil, adding a little more Patent Borax, if they be very greasy or dirty. By this means the clothes are rendered whiter, soap is saved, and the hands are uninjured. It acts, moreover, as a disinfectant, if the clothes have been taken from the bed or person of anyone who is suffering from any infectious disorder. Flannels are rendered softer, and the appearance of lace, fine articles, coloured prints, soiled ribbons, &c., greatly improved by washing them in this solution. A teaspoonful to each pint of starch, when hot, will add to the stiffness and gloss of linen when ironed.

2319. To Revive Black Lace.

Lay the lace on a piece of clean smooth board, and moisten it all over with a piece of black silk dipped in a solution of a teaspoonful of Patent Borax to a pint of warm water. Iron while damp, after covering the lace with a piece of black silk or cloth.

2320. Borax for the Toilet.

As a wash for the mouth add half a teaspoonful of spirits of camphor, and a teaspoonful of tincture of myrrh to a pint of hot water, in which a penny packet of Patent Borax has been dissolved, and use a wineglassful of this mixture in half a tumbler of water, when brushing the teeth. When the mouth is washed out with this solution, it removes the smell of tobacco and any unpleasant odour arising from decayed teeth. Camphorated chalk dentrifice is improved as a tooth powder by the addition of a little powdered borax. For washing hair brushes, sponges, etc., a solution of a small packet in a pint of hot water should be used.

2321. Borax in the Nursery.

A little borax added to water for bathing infants and children has a beneficial effect on the skin. For cleaning the hair and removing scurf or dandruff wash the head with a solution of a small packet of borax in a pint of hot water, after which the head should be rinsed with cold water, and carefully dried. This wash may be improved by the addition of half an ounce of rosemary spirit sold by any chemist.

2322. Borax in the Garden.

A solution made by dissolving borax in hot water in the proportion of a penny packet of the former to a pint of the latter, will kill the green fly on roses, and other plants. A weaker solution may be used for syringing the plants. When applied to the stems of fruit trees, and other trees, it destroys all insects in and about the bark, and clears the blight on apple trees. For these purposes the solution should be applied with a brush. For washing the shelves, boards, and woodwork of greenhouses, the solution is especially valuable, and when used for syringing vines in the proportion of a pint of the solution to ten gallons of water, and half a pound of borax dry soap, as soon as the grapes have been thinned, it will keep them free from red spider and all other insects.

2323. Fever or Infection.

In all cases of fever or infectious diseases, it should be freely used in the room by dusting the dry powder over floors, carpets, mats, &c. (it will not injure the finest fabrics), and by placing in dishes or other vehicles, into which hot water should be poured. It has no smell, but quickly removes all smells. In cases of death it is most valuable; the corpse may be kept perfectly sweet by merely dusting into ears, nose, mouth, under arm-pits, feet, &c., or when any moisture exudes. It will preserve features and skin fresh as in life for many weeks, and keep the corpse free from decomposition.

2324. Vaseline.

What it is.—This indispensable household requisite is a product of petroleum, from which it is obtained by an elaborate system of nitration, without the addition or aid of any chemical whatever. The substance thus produced, to which the name of "Vaseline" has been given, is in the form of a lemon-coloured jelly, completely devoid of either smell or taste, and of exquisite softness and smoothness to the touch. This jelly, which is one of the finest emollients known, and is possessed of healing and other medicinal properties, forms the basis of many preparations which are now widely used all the world over.

2325. Vaseline for Medicinal Use.

The pure jelly itself, without any addition, is an invaluable family remedy for burns, chilblains, chapped hands, and skin roughened by exposure to wind and water in cold weather; as well as for sun-burns, wounds, sprains, and all diseases of the skin; for inflamed eyelids, and for preventing pitting in small-pox, when used externally as an ointment. When taken internally, in doses of half a teaspoonful, or in smaller quantities, it forms a cure for diseases of the throat, chest, and stomach, and gives speedy relief in cases of diphtheria, croup, &c. For convenience in using it, a confection is prepared from it for complaints of the throat and lungs. No one need fear to use it, for although it is a product of petroleum, it is the only one that is not dangerous to use, and is possessed of no poisonous qualities. It may be procured from or through any chemist and druggist.

2326. Vaseline for the Toilet.

The toilet soap and tar soap made from vaseline are superior in emollient and healing properties, to similar preparations from glycerine. For the hair, an excellent hair tonic and pomade are supplied, which have the effect not only of strengthening, but of promoting its growth. For the complexion, vaseline cold cream should be used, and for the lips, when sore and chapped by cold winds or any other cause, vaseline camphor ice.

2327. Vaseline for the Household.

As time progresses there can be no doubt that this valuable preparation will be turned to good account for many domestic uses. It has already been found an excellent anti-corrosive, being an efficient protection against rust, when smeared over guns, bicycles, arms, knives, tools, and steel goods, of any kind in general household use. An excellent boot and shoe paste is prepared from it, which renders boots and shoes absolutely waterproof, and over which any ordinary blacking may be used to produce a polish.

2328. Vaseline in the Stable.

When mixed with graphite, vaseline affords a valuable lubricant for application to the axles of light and heavy carriages of every description, and for all bearings in machinery of any kind, especially where great speed is required. A paste is also prepared from it which renders leather harness soft, pliable, impervious to wet, and free from any tendency to crack, thus increasing its durability. Another preparation is found most useful for the cure of injuries and diseases of cattle and domestic animals. This, which is supplied under the name of Veterinary Vaseline, has been found to promote the growth of the hair, unchanged in colour, in the case of broken knees. Its use will also improve the condition of the coat on horses, and will keep off the flies, and cure the mange, and all skin diseases commonly met with in the stable, including injuries to the frogs, hoofs, and fetlocks.

2329. Damp Situations, Remedy for.

People who live in damp localities, particularly near undrained land, are apt to think that there is no help for them save in removal. They are mistaken. Successful experiments have shown that it is possible to materially improve the atmosphere in such neighbourhoods by the planting of the laurel and the sunflower. The laurel gives off an abundance of ozone, whilst the sunflower is potent in destroying the malarial condition. These two, if planted on the most restricted scale in a garden or any ground close to the house, will be found to speedily increase the dryness and salubrity of the atmosphere.

2330. Plant Skeletons.

The leaves should be put into an earthen or glass vessel, and a large quantity of rain water poured over them; after this they must be left in the open air, and to the heat of the sun, without covering the vessel. As the water evaporates and the leaves become dry, more water must be added; the leaves will by this means putrefy, but the time required for this varies; some plants will be finished in a month, others will require two months or longer, according to the toughness of their parenchyma. When they have been in a state of putrefaction for some time, the two membranes will begin to separate, and the green part of the leaf to become fluid; then the operation of clearing is to be performed.

The leaf is to be put upon a flat white earthen plate, and covered with clear water; and being gently squeezed with the finger, the membranes will begin to open, and the green substance will come out at the edges; the membranes must be carefully taken off with the finger, and great caution must be used in separating them near the middle rib. When once there is an opening towards this separation, the whole membrane always follows easily; when both membranes are taken off, the skeleton is finished, and it has to be washed clean with water, and then dried between the leaves of a book.

2331. Fruit Skeletons.

Fruits are divested of their pulp and made into skeletons in a different manner. Take, for an instance, a fine large pear which is soft, and not tough; let it be carefully pared without squeezing it, and without injuring either the crown or the stalk; put it into a pot of rain water, covered, set it over the fire, and let it boil gently till perfectly soft, then take it out and lay it in a dish filled with cold water; then holding it by the stalk with one hand, rub off as much of the pulp as you can with the finger and thumb, beginning at the stalk and rubbing it regularly towards the crown. The fibres are most tender towards the extremities, and are therefore to be treated with great care there. When the pulp has thus been cleared pretty well off, the point of a fine penknife may be of use to pick away the pulp sticking to the core. In order to see how the operation advances, the soiled water must be thrown away from time to time, and clean poured on in its place. When the pulp is in this manner perfectly separated, the clean skeleton is to be preserved in spirits of wine.

2332. To make Impressions of Leaves.

Prepare two rubbers by tying up wool or any other substance in wash-leather; then prepare the colours in which you wish to print leaves, by rubbing up with cold drawn linseed oil the tints that are required, as indigo for blue, chrome for yellow, indigo and chrome for green, &c. Get a number of leaves the size and kind you wish to stamp, then dip the rubbers into the paint, and rub them one over the other, so that you may have but a small quantity of the composition upon the rubbers; place a leaf upon one rubber and moisten it gently with the other; take the leaf off and apply it to the substance on which you wish to make an imprint of the leaf. Upon the leaf place a piece of white paper, press gently, and a beautiful impression of all the veins of the leaf will be obtained.

2333. To make a Fac-simile of a Leaf in Copper.

This beautiful experiment can be performed by any person in possession of a common galvanic battery. The process is as follows:

Soften a piece of gutta percha over a candle, or before a fire; knead it with the moist fingers upon a table, until the surface is perfectly smooth, and large enough to cover the leaf to be copied; lay the leaf flat upon the surface, and press every part well into the gutta-percha. In about five minutes the leaf may be removed, when, if the operation has been carefully performed, a perfect impression of the leaf will be made in the gutta percha.

This must now be attached to the wire in connection with the zinc end of the battery (which can easily be done by heating the end of the wire, and pressing it into the gutta percha), dusted well over with the best blacklead with a camel-hair brush—the object of which is to render it a conductor of electricity; it should then be completely immersed in a saturated solution of sulphate of copper. A piece of copper attached to the wire in connection with the copper end of the battery must also be inserted into the copper solution facing ihe gutta percha, but not touching it; this not only acts as a conductor to the electricity, but also maintains the solution of copper of a permanent strength.

In a short time the copper will be found to creep over the whole surface of the gutta percha, and in about twenty-four hours a thick deposit of copper will be obtained, which may then be detached from the mould. The accuracy with which a leaf may thus be cast is truly surprising.

2334. Leaf Printing.

After warming the leaf between the hands apply printing ink, by means of a small leather ball containing cotton, or some soft substance, or with the end of the finger. The leather ball (and the finger, when used for that purpose), after the ink is applied to it, should be pressed several times on a piece of leather, or some smooth surface, before each application to the leaf, that the ink may be smoothly and evenly applied. After the under surface of the leaf has been sufficiently inked, apply it to the paper where you wish the impression to be; and, after covering it with a slip of paper, use the hand or roller to press upon it.

2335. Directions for Taking Leaf Impressions.

Hold oiled paper in the smoke of a lamp or of pitch, until it becomes coated with the smoke; to this paper apply the leaf of which you wish an impression, having previously warmed it between your hands, that it may he pliable. Place the lower surface of the leaf upon the blackened surface of the oil-paper, that the numerous veins, which are so prominent on this side, may receive from the paper a portion of the smoke. Lay a paper over the leaf, and then press it gently upon the smoked paper with the fingers, or with a small roller covered with woollen cloth, or some similarly soft material, so that every part of the leaf may come in contact with the sooted oil-paper. A coating of the smoke will adhere to the leaf. Then remove the leaf carefully, and place the blackened surface on a sheet of white paper, or in a book prepared for the purpose, covering the leaf with a clean slip of paper, and pressing upon it with the fingers, or roller, as before.

Thus may be obtained the impression of a leaf, showing the perfect outlines, together with an accurate exhibition of the veins which extend in every direction through it, more correctly than the finest drawing. And this process is so simple, and the materials so easily obtained, that any person, with a little practice to enable him to apply the right quantity of smoke to the oil-paper, and give the leaf a proper pressure, can prepare beautiful leaf impressions, such as a naturalist would be proud to possess.

2336. Dry Botanical Specimens for Preservation.

The plants to be preserved should be gathered when the weather is dry. Place the ends in water, and let them remain in a cool place till the next day. When about to be submitted to the process of drying, place each plant between several sheets of blotting paper, and iron it with a large smooth heater, pretty strongly warmed, till all the moisture is dissipated. Colours may thus be fixed, which otherwise become pale, or nearly white. Some plants require more moderate heat than others, and herein consists the nicety of the experiment; but it is generally found that if the iron be not too hot, and is passed rapidly yet carefully over the surface of the blotting paper, it answers the purpose equally well with plants of almost every variety of hue and thickness.

In compound flowers, with those also of a stubborn and solid form, as the Centaurea, some little art is required in cutting away the under part, by which means the profile and forms of the flowers will be more distinctly exhibited. This is especially necessary when the flowers are fixed down with gum upon the paper previous to ironing, by which means they become almost incorporated with the surface. When this very delicate process is attempted, blotting-paper should be laid under every part excepting the blossoms, in order to prevent staining the white paper. Great care must be taken to keep preserved specimens in a dry place.

2337. Collecting and Laying out Sea-weeds.

"First wash the sea-weed in fresh water, then take a plate or dish (the larger the better), cut your paper to the size required, place it in the plate with fresh water, and spread out the plant with a good-sized camel-hair pencil in a natural form (picking out with the pin gives the sea-weed an unnatural appearance, and destroys the characteristic fall of the branches, which should be carefully avoided); then gently raise the paper with the specimen out of the water, placing it in a slanting position for a few moments, so as to allow the super-abundant water to ran off; after which, place it in the press. The press is made with either three pieces of board or pasteboard. Lay on the first board two sheets of blotting-paper; on that lay your specimens; place straight and smooth over them a piece of old muslin, fine cambric, or linen; then some more blotting-paper, and place another board on the top of that, and continue in the same way.

"The blotting-paper and the muslin should be carefully removed and dried every day, and then replaced; at the same time, those specimens that are sufficiently dried may be taken away. Nothing now remains but to write on each the name, date, and locality. You can either gum the specimens in a scrap-book, or fix them in, as drawings are often fastened, by making four slits in the page, and inserting each corner. This is by far the best plan, as it admits of their removal, without injury to the page, at any future period, if it be required either to insert better specimens, or intermediate species.

"Some of the large algae will not adhere to the paper, and consequently require gumming. The following method of preserving them has been communicated by a botanical friend:

'After well cleaning and pressing, brush the coarser kinds of algae over with spirits of turpentine, in which two or three small lumps of gum mastic have been dissolved, by shaking in a warm place; two-thirds of a small phial is the proper proportion, and this will make the specimens retain a fresh appearance.'"

Miss Gifford's Marine Botanist.

2338. To Preserve Fungi.

Receipt of the celebrated botanist, William Withering, by which specimens of fungi may be beautifully preserved.

"Take two ounces of sulphate of copper, or blue vitriol, and reduce it to powder; pour upon it a pint of boiling water; and when cold, add half a pint of spirits of wine; cork it well, and call it 'the pickle.' To eight pints of water, add one pint and a half of spirits of wine, and call it 'the liquor.' Be provided with a number of wide-mouthed bottles of different sizes, all well fitted with corks. The fungi should be left on the table as long as possible, to allow the moisture to evaporate; they should then he placed in the pickle for three hours, or longer, if necessary; then place them in the bottles intended for their reception, and fill with the liquor. They should then be well corked and sealed, and arranged in order, with their names in front of the bottles."

[TRUST NOT THE MAN WHO PROMISES WITH AN OATH.]

2339. To Stuff Birds, Quadrupeds, &c.

Large animals should be carefully skinned, with the horns, skull, tail, hoofs, &c., entire. Then rub the inside of the skin thoroughly with the mixture of salt, pepper, and alum, and hang up to dry. Large birds may be treated in the same way, but should not be put into spirits.

2340. Small Birds may be preserved as follows:

Take out the entrails, open a passage to the brain, which should be scooped out through the mouth; introduce into the cavities of the skull and the whole body, some of the mixture of salt, alum, and pepper, putting some through the gullet and whole length of the neck; then hang the bird in a cool, airy place—first by the feet, that the body may be impregnated by the salt, and afterwards by a thread through the under mandible of the bill, till it appears to be free from smell; then hang it in the sun, or near a fire: after it is well dried, clean out what remains loose of the mixture, and fill the cavity of the body with wood, oakum, or any soft substance, and pack it smooth in paper.

2341. Birds' Eggs.

In selecting eggs for a cabinet, always choose those which are newly laid; make a medium-sized hole at the sharp end with a pointed instrument, and one at the blunt end: let this last hole be as small as possible; this done, apply your mouth to the blunt end, and blow the contents through the sharp end. If the yolk will not come freely, run a pin or wire up into the egg, and stir the yolk well about; now get a cupful of water, and immersing the sharp end of the shell into it, apply your mouth to the blunt end and suck up some of the water into the empty shell; then put your finger and thumb upon the two holes, shake the water well within, and after this, blow it out. The water will clear the egg of any remains of yolk or of white which may stay in after blowing. If one injection of water will not suffice, make a second or third.

An egg, immediately after it is produced, is very clear and fine; but by staying in the nest, and coming in contact with the feet of the bird, it soon assumes a dirty appearance. To remedy this, wash it well in soap and water, and use a nail-brush to get the dirt off. The eggshell is now as it ought to be, and nothing remains to be done but to prevent the thin white membrane (which is still inside) from corrupting.

Take a wineglass and fill it with a solution of corrosive sublimate in alcohol, then immerse the sharp end of the eggshell into it, keeping the finger and thumb which hold the egg just clear of the solution. Apply the mouth to the little hole at the blunt end, and suck up some of the solution into the shell. There need be no fear of getting the liquor into the mouth, for as soon as it rises in the shell the cold will strike the finger and thumb, and then the sucking must be immediately discontinued. Shake the shell in the same manner as when the water was in it, and then blow the solution back into the glass.

The eggshell will now be beyond the reach of corruption; the membrane for ever retains its pristine whiteness, and no insect, for the time to come, will ever venture to prey upon it. If you wish your egg to appear extremely brilliant, give it a coat of mastic varnish, put on very sparingly with a camel-hair pencil: green or blue eggs must be done with gum arabic, as the mastic varnish is apt to injure the colour.

2342. Fishes.

Large fishes should be opened in the belly, the entrails taken out, and the inside well rubbed with pepper, and stuffed with oakum. Small fishes may be put in spirit, as well as reptiles, worms, and insects (except butterflies and moths); insects of fine colours should be pinned down in a box prepared for that purpose, with their wings expanded.

2343. Tracing Paper.

Mix together by a gentle heat, one ounce of Canada balsam, and a quarter of a pint of spirits of turpentine; with a soft brush spread it thinly over one side of good tissue paper. The composition dries quickly, is very transparent, and not greasy, and therefore, does not stain the paper to which it is applied.

[NEVER WALK ONE WAY AND LOOK ANOTHER.]

2344. Impressions from Coins.

Melt a little isinglass glue with brandy, and pour it thinly over the medal, &c., so as to cover its whole surface; let it remain on for a day or two, till it has thoroughly dried and hardened, and then take it off, when it will be fine, clear, and hard, and will present a very elegant impression of the coin. It will also resist the effects of damp air, which occasions all other kinds of glue to soften and bend if not prepared in this way.

2345. Method of Hardening Objects in Plaster of Paris.

Take two parts of stearine, two parts of Venetian soap, one part of pearlash, and twenty-four to thirty parts of a solution of caustic potash. The stearine and soap are cut into slices, mixed with the cold lye, and boiled for about half an hour, being constantly stirred. Whenever the mass rises, a little cold lye is added. The pearlash, previously moistened with a little rain water, is then added, and the whole boiled for a few minutes. The mass is then stirred until cold, when it is mixed with so much cold lye that it becomes perfectly liquid, and runs off the spoon without coagulating and contracting. Previously to using this composition, it should be kept for several days well covered. It may be preserved for years.

Before applying it to the objects, they should be well dusted, the stains scraped away, and then coated, by means of a thick brush, with the wash, as long as the plaster of Paris absorbs it, and left to dry. The coating is then dusted with leather, or a soft brush. If the surface has not become shining, the operation must be repeated.

2346. Modelling.

Modelling in Cork, Gutta Percha, Leather, Paper, Plaster of Paris, Wax, Wood, &c.—Modelling, in a general sense, signifies the art of constructing an original pattern, which is to be ultimately carried out on an enlarged scale, or copied exactly.

2347. Scale of Construction.

When models are constructed to give a miniature representation of any great work, elevation, or topographical information, they are executed in detail, with all the original parts in just and due proportions, so that the work may be conducted or comprehended better; and if the model is a scientific one, viz., relating to machinery, physical science, &c., then it requires to be even still more accurate in its details. In fact, all models should be constructed on a scale, which should be appended to them, so that a better idea may be obtained of the proportions and dimensions.

2348. Materials.

The materials used in modelling are plaster of Paris, wax, whiting, putty, clay, pipeclay; common and factory cinders; sand of various colours; powdered fluor-spar, oyster-shells, bricks, and slate; gums, acacia and tragacanth; starch; paper, white and brown, cardboard and millboard; cork sheets, cork raspings, and old bottle-corks; gutta percha; leather and leather chips; wood; paints, oil, water, and varnish; moss, lichen, ferns, and grass; talc, window and looking-glass; muslin and net; chenille; carded wool; tow; wire; hay and straw; various varnishes, glue, and cements.

2349. Tools.

The tools consist of brushes for paints, varnishes, and cements; two or three bradawls; a sharp penknife; a chisel, hammer, and punches; scissors and pencil.

2350. Caves.

Caves may be modelled readily in cork, wood, starch-paste, or cinders covered with brown paper soaked in thin glue.

2351. To Construct Caves of Cinders.

Arrange the cinders, whether common or factory, in such a manner as to resemble the intended design; then cover in such parts as require it with brown paper soaked in thin glue until quite pulpy. When nearly dry, dust over with sand, powdered brick, slate, and chopped lichen or moss, from a pepper-box; touch up the various parts with either oil, water, or varnish colours; and if necessary, form your trees of wire, covered with brown paper and moss, glued on.

[BETTER GO ROUND THAN FALL INTO THE DITCH.]

2352. Cave Effect.

When a Cave is constructed in the above manner, on a large scale, and the interior sprinkled with powdered fluor-spar or glass, the effect is very good by candle-light.

2353. Stalactites.

Stalactites may be represented by rough pieces of wood, which must be smeared with glue, and sprinkled with powdered fluor-spar, or glass.

2354. To Model Caves in Cork.

Construct the framework of wood, and fill up the outline with old bottle-corks. The various projections, recesses, and other minutiae, must be affixed afterwards with glue, after being formed of cork, or hollowed out in the necessary parts, either by burning with a hot wire and scraping it afterwards, or by means of a sharp-pointed bradawl.

2355. Small Trees.

If small cork models are constructed, the trees should be formed by transfixing short pieces of shaded chenille with a fine wire (.), and sticking them into the cork.

2356. Decoration.

Various parts of the model must be touched up with oil, water, or varnish colours; and powdered brick, slate, and chopped lichen, or moss, dusted on as usual.

2357. Wooden Models.

Wooden models are constructed roughly in deal, according to the proper design, and the various fine parts afterwards affixed with glue or brads.

2358. Finer Work in Wood.

In forming the finer parts of the wooden model, a vast amount of unnecessary labour may be saved, and a better effect obtained, by burning much of the outline, instead of carving it. By this plan, deeper tones of colouring, facility of operating, and saving of time and labour, are the result.

2359. Decorating Wooden Models.

In common with other models, those constructed of wood require the aid of lichen, moss, powdered slate, &c., and colours, to complete the effect.

2360. Water.

When water issues from the original cave, and it is desirable to copy it in the model, a piece of looking glass should be glued on the stand, and the edges surrounded by glue, and paper covered with sand. Sometimes it is requisite to cut away the wood of the stand, so as to let in the looking glass; this, however, is only when the water is supposed to be much lower than the surface of the land.

2361. Starch-Paste Models.

Starch-paste models are formed in the usual way, of the following composition:—Soak gum tragacanth in water, and when soft, mix it with powdered starch till of a proper consistence. It is much improved by adding some double-refined sugar finely powdered. When the model is finished, it must be coloured correctly, and varnished with white varnish, or left plain. This is the composition used by confectioners for modelling the various ornaments on cakes.

2362. Ancient Cities.

Ancient cities may be constructed of cork or starch-paste, in the same manner as directed above; bearing in mind the necessity for always working models according to a scale, which should be afterwards affixed to the stand of the model.

2363. Modern Cities.

Modern cities are better made of cardboard, starch-paste, or pipe-clay; the houses, public buildings, and other parts being constructed according to scale.

2364. Houses.

Houses should be cut out of a long thin strip of cardboard, partially divided by three strokes of a penknife, and glued together; this must afterwards be marked with a pencil, or pen and ink, to represent the windows, doors, stones, &c.; and the roof—cut out of a piece of square cardboard, equally and partially divided—is then to be glued on, and the chimney—formed of a piece of lucifer match, or wood notched at one end and flat at the other—is to be glued on, A square piece of cardboard must be glued on the top of the chimney; a hole made with a pin in the card and wood; and a piece of grey worsted, thinned at the end, fixed into the hole for smoke.

[EXAMPLES DO NOT AUTHORIZE SINS.]

2365. Public Buildings.

Cathedrals, churches, and other public buildings are made in the same way; but require the addition of small chips of wood, ends of lucifer matches, cork raspings, or small pieces of cardboard, for the various ornaments, if on a large scale, but only a pencil-mark if small.

2366. Starch-Paste or Pipeclay.

When constructed of starch-paste, or pipeclay, the material is rolled flat on a table or marble slab, and the various sides cut out with a sharp penknife; they are then gummed together, and coloured properly.

2367. Large Models.

If large models of houses or buildings are made, the windows are constructed of talc or thin glass, covered with net or muslin. The frames of the windows are made of cardboard, neatly cut out with a sharp penknife.

2368. Countries.

Countries should be made of cork, because it is easier to work. Although the starch-paste is very agreeable to model with, yet it is liable to shrink, and therefore, when in the mass, one part dries quicker than another, so that there is not equal contraction—a great objection to its employment in accurate models. Cork, on the contrary, may be easily cut into all forms, and from abounding with pores, it is remarkably light—no little consideration to travellers.

2369. Topographical Models.

Topographical models may, however, be formed of plaster of Paris, but the weight is an objection. A model of a country on a moderate scale—say one-eighth of an inch to a square mile—with its mountains, valleys, and towns, may be thus made:—A model having been first made in clay, according to scale and plan, moulds should then be taken of various parts in gutta percha, rendered soft by dipping it into hot water, and the parts cast in paper cement.

2370. Paper Cement.

i. Reduce paper to a smooth paste by boiling it in water; then add an equal weight each of sifted whiting and good size; boil to a proper consistence, and use.

ii. Take equal parts of paper, paste, and size, sufficient finely-powdered plaster of Paris to make into a good paste, and use as soon as possible after it is mixed. This composition may be used to cast architectural ornaments, busts, statues, &c., being very light, and susceptible of a good polish, but it will not stand weather.

2371. Other Parts.

The several mountains and other parts being formed, join them together in their proper places with some of the No. i. paper cement, rendered rather more fluid by the addition of a little thin glue. The towns are made of a piece of cork, cut and scratched to the form of the town; steeples of cardboard, and trees of blades of moss. Sand is sprinkled in one part; looking-glass in others, for the lakes, bays, and rivers; and green baize flock for the verdant fields.

2372. Monuments.

Monuments, ancient or modern, are better constructed of cork, on account of the lightness and facility in working, more especially the ancient ones.

2373. Ruins.

Ruins should be constructed of cork, according to the directions given above, and when it is necessary to represent the mouldering walls covered with moss or ivy, a little green baize flock, or moss chippings, should be attached by mucilage to the part; and oftentimes a brush of raw sienna, combined with varnish, requires to be laid underneath the moss or flock, in order to improve the effect. Prostrate columns and huge blocks are effectively represented in cork, and should be neatly cut out with a sharp knife, and the various parts supposed to be destroyed by age picked away with a pin or blunt knife afterwards.

2374. Cities and Temples.

We will suppose that the model is to represent the Temple of Theseus at Athens, which was built by Cimon, the son of Miltiades. In the first place we must obtain the necessary dimensions, and then, reducing the number of feet to fractional parts of an inch, form a scale suitable for carrying out the whole. A piece of wood of the necessary size is procured, the plan marked out in pencil, and the ground on which it stands imitated in cork, by cutting away the parts that are not required with a sharp penknife, and adding others with glue.

The floor of the temple is now to be glued on with common glue, for we should remark that the liquid glue does not dry quickly enough for cork modelling, and is not so good as the old plan; the sides and ends are formed of cork sheets, marked with a lead pencil to represent the blocks of stone; and ruined and broken parts imitated, by pricking the cork with a blunt penknife or needle. The frieze, representing the battle between the Centaurs and Lapithae and the metopes in mezzo-relievo, containing a mixture of the labours of Hercules and Theseus, should be drawn upon the sheets of cork according to scale, and coloured with a little lampblack and raw sienna, to represent the subject intended, if the scale is small; but if the model admits of it, the groups may be neatly carved with a sharp penknife from the cork, which has been previously outlined with pencil.

The next thing we shall have to do is to strengthen the interior of the model, and this is done by glueing small pieces of cork, at irregular intervals, at the angles formed by the junction of any parts; these are put on the inside, and lastly, the roof is affixed. Any parts that require to be coloured, may be touched up with varnish or water colours, and lichen, &c., affixed with mucilage where it is requisite.

2375. To Model from Living Objects.

We will imagine that the reader desires to model the features of some friend, and as there is some difficulty in the matter, on account of the person operated upon having a natural tendency to distort the features when the liquid plaster is poured upon the face, and some danger of suffocation if the process is not well managed, we will proceed at once to describe the various stages of operating:

2376. Procedure (1).

Mix the plaster of paris with warm water, and have it about as thick as cream, but do not mix it until all is ready. Lay the person upon his back, and having raised his head to the natural position when walking, by means of a pillow of bran or sand, cover the parts intended to be cast with oil of almonds or olives, applied by means of a feather, brush, or lump of cotton: plug the ears with cotton or wool, and insert two quills into the nostrils, and plug the space between each quill and the nostril very carefully with cotton.

2377. Procedure (2).

Cover the face with the plaster, beginning at the upper part of the forehead, and spread it downwards over the eyes, which should be kept firmly closed, but not in such a manner as to produce any distortion by too violent compression—and continue the plaster as far as the lower border of the chin; cover that part of the chest and arms that is to be represented, and carry the plaster upwards, so as to join the cast of the face; then carefully remove each, and season for casting, by soaking or brushing with linseed oil boiled with sugar of lead or licharge. Some persons boil the moulds in the oil; and many, instead of casting the face in one piece, and the chest in another, lay threads across the face and up and down it, leaving the ends out. As the plaster sets, or is nearly set, the threads are pulled through, so as to divide the cast into four, five, or more pieces.

2378. Procedure (3).

The back part of the head is moulded by having an oval trencher sort of vessel, deeper than half the head, and generally made of plaster, and boiled in oil. The back of the head being oiled, and this trencher partially filled with liquid plaster of Paris, the head is lowered into it, and the cast taken. The back of the neck is cast with the person turned over on his face.

2379. Procedure (4).

Each part of the mould is marked so as to secure accurate junction with the adjoining part or parts; sometimes with a x or , which, passing over the junction of two pieces, serves to distinguish them.

2380. Procedure (5).

To model the face, join the several pieces, and tie them together with twine; then wrap some rag round the joints, to prevent the plaster oozing out, and pour in the plaster, made tolerably fluid, taking care to oil the inside of the mould very carefully first. When the outer part of the mould is nearly set, scoop out the centre with a spoon, and let the whole dry; then remove the strings, &c., and smooth off the edges of the joints upon the model with a sharp penknife, and carve out the eyes from the mass, otherwise they will appear as if closed.

2381. Wax Models.

Wax models may be made from the moulds used for the plaster; but when the wax sets at the outside to about one-eighth of an inch, the rest should be poured out of the mould; or, a smaller portion being poured in, it may be shaken about the inside of the mould until it is coated. The pieces are removed, and the seams trimmed up, as in the plaster cast.

2382. Making a Cast.

If a cast be made in Gutta Percha from the model in plaster—or, what is still better, in fusible metal,—then, by pressing basil leather, moistened with water, into the mould, and strengthening the back and centre with chips of wood affixed by liquid glue, a very nice model may be obtained in leather, which, when varnished, will look like oak carving—especially if it be stained with Stephens's Oak Stain.

2383. Rustic-Work Seats.

Rustic-work seats, &c., may be constructed of wire twisted to the proper shape and size, and then covered with gutta percha, rendered soft by being dipped in hot water. The gutta percha should be twisted round the wire previously warmed, and gently heated over a spirit lamp, or dipped again into hot water, so as to allow the various parts to be covered with it. When the model is finished, it should be touched up here and there with oil colours—green, yellow, sienna, and Venetian red—according to fancy, and the effect produced will be very good.

2384. Dr. Clark's Pills for Nervous Headache.

Socotine aloes, powdered rhubarb, of each one drachm; compound powder of cinnamon, one scruple; hard soap, half a drachm; syrup enough to form the mass. To be divided into fifty pills, of which two will be sufficient for a dose; to be taken occasionally.

2385. Pains in the Head and Face.

A severe attack of tic-doulou-reux is said to have been cured by the following simple remedy:—Take half a pint of rose water, add two teaspoonfuls of white vinegar, to form a lotion. Apply it to the part affected three or four times a day. It requires fresh linen and lotion at each application; this will, in two or three days, gradually take the pain away.

2386. Sore Throat.

Those subject to sore throat will find the following preparation simple, cheap, and highly efficacious when used in the early stage: Pour a pint of boiling water upon twenty-five or thirty leaves of common sage; let the infusion stand for half an hour. Add vinegar sufficient to make it moderately acid, and honey according to the taste. This combination of the astringent and the emollient principle seldom fails to produce the desired effect. The infusion must be used as a gargle several times a day. It is pleasant to the taste, and if swallowed, contains nothing to render it dangerous in any way.

2387. Deafness.

It is now considered injurious to use water for the ear in cases of ear complaint. Pure glycerine has been found to act most beneficially as a solvent. In some forms of ear complaint powdered borax, as a constituent of the "drops" to be used has been found useful, and tannic acid in other forms. Carbolic acid mixed with glycerine is used when a disinfectant is necessary. So delicate, however, is the structure of the internal ear that in all cases it is desirable to consult a medical practitioner.

[ONE IS NOT SO SOON HEALED AS HURT.]

2388. A Cure for Weak and Sore Eyes.

Sulphate of zinc, three grains; tincture of opium, ten drops; water, two ounces. To be applied three or four times a day.

2389. Squinting.

Squinting frequently arises from the unequal strength of the eyes, the weaker eye being turned away from the object, to avoid the fatigue of exertion. Cases of squinting of long standing have often been cured by covering the stronger eye, and thereby compelling the weaker one to exertion.

2390. Pills for Gout and Rheumatism.

Acetic extract of colchicum, two grains; powdered ipecacuanha, four grains; compound extract of colocynth, half a drachm; blue pill, four grains. Divide into twelve pills; one to be taken night and morning.

2391. Gout Mixture.

Wine of colchicum, one ounce; spirit of nitrous ether, one ounce; iodide of potassium, two scruples; distilled water, two ounces. A teaspoonful of this mixture to be taken in camomile tea two or three times a day.

2392. Mixture for Rheumatic Gout or Acute Rheumatism.

Half an ounce of nitre (saltpetre), half an ounce of sulphur, half an ounce of flour of mustard, half an ounce of Turkey rhubarb, quarter of an ounce of powdered gum guaiacum. A teaspoonful to be taken in a wineglassful of cold water, every other night for three nights, and omit three nights. The water should have been well boiled.

2393. To Arrest Bleeding at the Nose.

Introduce, by means of a probe, a small piece of lint or soft cotton, previously dipped into some mild styptic, as a solution of alum, Friar's balsam, solution of blue stone, or even cold water. This will generally succeed; but should it not, cold water may be snuffed up the nostrils. Should the bleeding be very profuse, medical advice should be procured. In cases of haemorrhage of a severe character, Ruspini's styptic is most beneficial, and may be recommended.

2394. Biting the Nails.

This is a habit that should be immediately corrected in children, as, if persisted in for any length of time, it permanently deforms the nails. Dipping the finger-ends in some bitter tincture will generally prevent children from putting them into their mouth; but if this fails, as it sometimes will, each finger-end ought to be encased in a stall until the propensity is eradicated.

2395. To Prevent Galling in Invalids.

The white of an egg beaten to a strong froth; then drop in gradually, whilst you are beating, two teaspoonfuls of spirits of wine; put it into a bottle, and apply occasionally with a feather.

2396. Jaundice.

One penny-worth of allspice, ditto of flowers of brimstone, ditto of turmeric; these to be well pounded together, and afterwards to be mixed with half a pound of treacle. Two tablespoonfuls to be taken every day.

2397. Convulsions.

The following remarkable case, in which a surgeon saved the life of an infant in convulsions, by the use of chloroform, will be read with interest. He commenced the use of it at nine o'clock one evening, at which period the child was rapidly sinking, numerous remedies having been already tried without effect. He dropped half a drachm of chloroform into a thin muslin handkerchief, and held it about an inch from the infant's face. In about two minutes the convulsions gave way, and the child fell into a sleep. By slightly releasing the child from the influence of the chloroform, he was able to administer food, by which the child was nourished and strengthened. The chloroform was continually administered, in the manner described, from Friday evening at nine o'clock until Monday morning at nine. This treatment lasted sixty hours, and sixteen ounces of chloroform were used. No injurious effects, however trivial from the treatment adopted, subsequently appeared.

[HIDE THY DOMESTIC WOUNDS.]

2398. Asthma.

The following is recommended as a relief:—Two ounces of the best honey, and one ounce of castor oil, mixed. A teaspoonful to be taken night and morning.

2399. Coughs.

It is said that a small piece of resin dipped in the water which is placed in a vessel on a stove (not an open fireplace), will add a peculiar property to the atmosphere of the room which will give great relief to persons troubled with a cough. The heat of the stove is sufficient to throw off the aroma of the resin, and gives the same relief that is afforded by the combustion, because the evaporation is more durable. The same resin may be used for weeks.

2400. For a Cough.

Syrup of poppies, oxymel of squills, simple oxymel, in equal parts, mixed, and a teaspoonful taken when the cough is troublesome. It is best to have it made up by a chemist. The cost is trifling.

2401. A Mixture for a Bad Cold and Cough.

Solution of acetate of ammonia, two ounces; ipecacuanha wine, two drachms; antimony wine, two drachms; solution of muriate of morphine, half a drachm; treacle, four drachms; water, add eight ounces. Two tablespoonfuls to be taken three times a day.

2402. Pills for a Bad Cough.

Compound ipecacuanha powder, half a drachm; fresh dried squills, ten grains; ammoniacum, ten grains; sulphate of quinine, six grains; treacle, sufficient quantity to make a mass. Divide into twelve pills; one to be taken night and morning.

2403. Whooping Cough.

Dissolve a scruple of salt of tartar in a quarter pint of water; add to it ten grains of cochineal; sweeten it with sugar. Give to an infant a fourth part of a tablespoonful four times a day; two years old, half a spoonful; from four years, a tablespoonful. Great care is required in the administration of medicines to infants.

2404. Roche's Embrocation for Whooping Cough.

Olive oil, two ounces; oil of amber, one ounce; oil of cloves, one drachm. Mix: to be rubbed on the chest at bedtime.

2405. Offensive Breath.

For this purpose, almost the only substance that should be admitted at the toilette is the concentrated solution of chloride of soda, from six to ten drops of it in a wineglassful of pure spring water, taken immediately after the operations of the morning are completed. In some cases, the odour arising from carious teeth is combined with that of the stomach. If the mouth be well rinsed with a teaspoonful of the solution of the chloride in a tumbler of water, the bad odour of the teeth will be removed.

2406. Breath tainted by Onions.

Leaves of parsley, eaten with vinegar, will prevent the disagreeable consequences of eating onions.

2407. Mixture for Indigestion.

Infusion of calumba, six ounces; carbonate of potass, one drachm. Compound tincture of gentian, three drachms. Dose, two or three tablespoonfuls daily at noon.

2408. Ointment for Sore Nipples.

Take of tincture of tolu, two drachms; spermaceti ointment, half an ounce; powdered gum, two drachms. Mix these materials well together to make an ointment. The white of an egg mixed with brandy is the best application for sore nipples; the person should at the same time use a nipple shield.

2409. Ointment for the Piles, or Haemorrhoids.

Take of good lard, four ounces; camphor, two drachms; powdered galls, one ounce; laudanum, half an ounce. Apply the ointment made with these ingredients every night at bed-time.

2410. Ointment for Broken Chilblains or Chapped Hands, &c.

Sweet oil, one pint; Venice turpentine, three ounces; hog's-lard, half a pound; bees'-wax, three ounces. Put all into a pipkin over a slow fire, and stir it with a wooden spoon till the bee's wax is all melted, and the ingredients simmer. It is fit for use as soon as cold, but the longer it is kept the better it will be. It must be spread very thin on soft rag, or (for chaps or cracks) rubbed on the hands when you go to bed.

[AN ACT IS BETTER THAN A WORD.]

2411. Camphor Balls to prevent Chaps.

Melt three drachms of spermaceti, four drachms of white wax, with one ounce of almond oil, and stir in three drachms of camphor (previously powdered by moistening it with a little spirits of wine); pour small quantities into small gallipots, so as to turn out in the form of cakes.

2412. Cramp in Bathing.

For the cure of the cramp when swimming, Dr. Franklin recommends a vigorous and violent shock of the part affected, by suddenly and forcibly stretching out the leg, which should be darted out of the water into the air if possible.

2413. Cramp in the Legs.

Stretch out the heel of the leg as far as possible, at the same time drawing up the toes as far as possible. This will often stop a fit of the cramp after it has commenced.

2414. Hiccough or Hiccup.

This is a spasm of the diaphragm, caused by flatulency, indigestion, or acidity. It may be relieved by the sudden application of cold, also by two or three mouthfuls of cold water, by eating a small piece of ice, taking a pinch of snuff, or anything that excites counteraction.

2415. Scratches.

Trifling as scratches often seem, they ought never to be neglected, but should be covered and protected, and kept clean and dry, until they have completely healed. If there is the least appearance of inflammation, no time should be lost in applying a large bread-and-water or linseed-meal poultice, or hot flannels may be repeatedly applied. Leeches should be applied only when ordered by a medical man, as in some cases erysipelas may be the consequence.

2416. Ring-worm.

The head should be washed twice a day with soft soap and warm soft water, and when dry the places should be rubbed with a piece of linen rag dipped in ammonia from gas tar. The patient should take a little sulphur and treacle, or some other gentle aperient, every morning. Brushes and combs should be washed every day, and the ammonia kept tightly corked.

2417. Ointment for Scurf in the Heads of Infants.

Lard, two ounces; sulphuric acid, diluted, two drachms; rub them together, and anoint the head once a day.

2418. Scurf in the Head.

Into a pint of water drop a lump of fresh quicklime, the size of a walnut; let it stand all night, then pour the water off clear from sediment or deposit, add a quarter of a pint of the best vinegar, and wash the head with the mixture, which is perfectly harmless, and forms a simple and effectual remedy.

2419. To Restore Hair when removed by Ill-health or Age.

Rub onions frequently on the part requiring it. The stimulating powers of this vegetable are of service in restoring the tone of the skin, and assisting the capillary vessels in sending forth new hair; but it is not infallible. Should it succeed, however, the growth of these new hairs may be assisted by the oil of myrtle-berries, the repute of which, perhaps, is greater than its real efficacy. Even if they do no good, these applications are harmless.

2420. Baldness.

The decoction of boxwood, which has been found successful in some cases of baldness, is thus made:—Take of the common box, which grows in garden borders, stems and leaves four large handfuls; boil in three pints of water, in a closely covered vessel, for a quarter of an hour, and let it stand in a covered earthenware jar for ten hours or more; strain, and add an ounce and a half of eau-de-Cologne or lavender-water, to make it keep. The head should be well washed with this solution every morning.

[NEVER QUIT CERTAINTY FOR HOPE.]

2421. Lotion for the Cure and Prevention of Baldness.

Eau-de-Cologne, two ounces; tincture of cantharides, two drachms; oil of rosemary, oil of nutmeg, and oil of lavender, each ten drops. To be rubbed on the bald part of the head every night.

2422. Remedy for Rheumatism, Lumbago, Sprains, Bruises, Chilblains, and Bites of Insects.

One raw egg well beaten, half a pint of vinegar, one ounce of spirits of turpentine, a quarter of an ounce of spirits of wine, a quarter of an ounce of camphor. These ingredients to be beaten well together, then put in a bottle and shaken for ten minutes, after which, to be corked down tightly to exclude the air. In half an hour it is fit for use.

Directions.—To be well rubbed in, two, three, or four times a day. For rheumatism in the head, to be rubbed at the back of the neck and behind the ears. This mixture should not be used for broken chilblains.

2423. Excellent Remedy for Sprains.

Put the white of an egg into a saucer; keep stirring it with a piece of alum about the size of a walnut, until it becomes a thick jelly; apply a portion of it on a piece of lint or tow large enough to cover the sprain, changing it for a fresh one as often as it feels warm or dry. The limb should be kept in a horizontal position by placing it on a chair.

2424. Remedy for Blistered Feet.

Rub the feet, on going to bed, with spirits mixed with tallow, dropped from a lighted candle into the palm of the hand.

2425. Boils.

These should be brought to a head by warm poultices of camomile flowers, or boiled white lily root, or onion root; by fermentation with hot water, or by stimulating plasters. When perfectly ripe and ready to break, they may be discharged by a needle or the lancet.

Constitutional treatment:—Peruvian bark, and port wine, and sea-bathing are desirable. Gentle purgatives should be given occasionally.

2426. Bunions.

Bunions may be checked in their early development by binding the joint with adhesive plaster, and keeping it on as long as any uneasiness is felt. The bandaging should be perfect, and it might be well to extend it round the foot. An inflamed bunion should be poulticed, and larger shoes be worn. Iodine, twelve grains; lard or spermaceti ointment, half an ounce, makes a capital ointment for bunions. It should be rubbed on gently twice or thrice a day.

2427. Cure of Warts.

The easiest way to get rid of warts is to pare off the thickened skin which covers the prominent wart; cut it off by successive layers; shave it till you come to the surface of the skin, and till you draw blood in two or three places. When you have thus denuded the surface of the skin, rub the part thoroughly over with lunar caustic. One effective operation of this kind will generally destroy the wart; if not, cut off the black spot which has been occasioned by the caustic, and apply the caustic again, or acetic acid may be applied in order to get rid of it.

2428. Corns (1).

Any remedy for these painful growths, to be effectual, must include removal of the usual cause—pressure by tight or ill-fitting boots. Strong acetic acid may be used, but great care is necessary in applying it, to avoid burning the adjacent parts. Soft corns may be cured by extract of lead.

2429. Corns (2).

A very good remedy for corns is that known as "Celandine," which is harmless and easily applied. Any chemist will supply it.

2430. To Cure Stings of Bees and Wasps.

The sting of a bee is generally more virulent than that of a wasp, and with some people attended with very violent effects. The sting of a bee is barbed at the end, and is consequently always left in the wound; that of a wasp is pointed only, so that the latter insect can sting more than once, which a bee cannot do. When stung by a bee, let the sting be instantly pulled out; for the longer it remains in the wound, the deeper it will pierce, owing to its peculiar form, and emit more of the poison. The sting is hollow, and the poison flows through it, which is the sole cause of the pain and inflammation. The pulling out of the sting should he done carefully, and with a steady hand; for if any part of it breaks in, all remedies then, in a great, measure, will be ineffectual. When the sting is extracted, suck the wounded part, if possible, and very little inflammation, if any, will ensue. If hartshorn drops are immediately afterwards rubbed on the part, the cure will be more complete.

2431. A Cure for Bee Stings, etc.

Among other simple remedies for this purpose, rubbing the part affected with sweet oil, the juice of onion, or the blue bag used in washing, slightly moistened, will be found efficacious.

2432. Nettle Stings.

The sting of a nettle may be cured by rubbing the part with rosemary, mint, or sage leaves. Dock leaves are also said to supply an effectual remedy.

2433. Arnica for Bites.

A correspondent of the Times says:

"Noticing in your paper an account of the death of a man from the bite of a cat, I beg to trouble you with the following case, which occurred to myself about three weeks ago:—I took a strange dog home, which produced consternation among the cats. One of them I took up, to effect a reconciliation between her and the dog. In her terror, she bit me so severely on the first finger of the left hand, as not only to cause four of the teeth of her lower jaw to enter the flesh, but so agonizing was her bite that the pressure of her palate caused the finger to swell at the joint on the opposite side to where the lower teeth entered the finger. In a minute or two the pain was about as excruciating as anything I ever felt—certainly greater than I have suffered from a wound. I got some tincture of arnica, diluted with about twelve times the quantity of water, and proceeded to bathe the finger well with it. In about half a minute the blood began to flow freely, the pain ceased, and the swelling abated, and up to this moment I have had no further inconvenience or pain, not even soreness."

2434. Cure for Burns.

Of all applications for a burn, there are none equal to a simple covering of common wheat flour. This is always at hand; and while it requires no skill in using, it produces most astonishing effects. The moisture produced upon the surface of a slight or deep burn is at once absorbed by the flour, and forms a paste which shuts out the air. As long as the fluid matters continue flowing, they are absorbed, and prevented from producing irritation, as they would do if kept from passing off by oily or resinous applications, while the greater the amount of those absorbed by the flour, the thicker the protective covering. Another advantage of the flour covering is, that next to the surface it is kept moist and flexible. It can also be readily washed off, without further irritation in removing. It may occasionally be washed off very carefully, when the crust that it forms has become dry, and a new covering be sprinkled on.

2435. Remedy for Burns and Scalds.

Take chalk and linseed, or common olive oil, and mix them in such proportions as will produce a compound as thick as thin honey; then add vinegar so as to reduce it to the thickness of treacle; apply with a soft brush or feather, and renew the application from time to time. Each renewal brings fresh relief, and a most grateful coolness. If the injury is severe, especially if it involve the chest, give ten drops of laudanum to an adult, and repeat it in an hour, and again a third time. To a child of ten years give, in like manner, only three drops, but beware of giving any to an infant. This plan with an internal stimulant, according to age, as brandy, or salvolatile, or both, should be at once adopted, until the arrival of the medical attendant.

2436. Lime-Water.

Lime-water beaten up with sweet oil is an excellent application for burns.

2437. Pitting in Small Pox.

The following is a simple process that has been adopted most successfully, not only in cases of small pox, in which it completely prevented pitting, but in all eruptive diseases generally, such as measles, scarlatina, nettlerash, chicken pox, &c., relieving the itching, tingling, and irritation of those complaints, and thereby affording great relief, especially in the case of children. It consists in smearing the whole surface of the body, after the eruption is fairly out, with bacon fat; and the simplest way of employing it is to boil thoroughly a small piece of bacon with the skin on, and when cold to cut off the skin with the fat adhering to it, which is to be scored crosswise with a knife, and then gently rubbed over the surface once, twice, or thrice a day, according to the extent of the eruption and the recurrence of itching and irritation.

Another plan, practised by Dr. Allshorn, of Edinburgh, is to mix three parts of oil with one of white wax, by heat, and while warm and fluid to paint over the face and neck with a camel-hair brush. As this cools and hardens it forms a mask, which effectually excludes the air, and prevents pitting. It is said that if light is admitted into the patient's room through yellow blinds, so that the red and blue rays of the sun are excluded, pitting will be prevented.

2438. Cutaneous Eruptions.

The following mixture is very useful in all cutaneous eruptions: Ipecacuanha wine, four drachms; flowers of sulphur, two drachms: tincture of cardamoms, one ounce. Mix: one teaspoonful to be taken three times a day, in a wineglassful of water.

2439. Wash for a Blotched Face.

Rose water, three ounces: sulphate of zinc, one drachm. Mix; wet the face with it, gently dry it, and then touch it over with cold cream, which also dry gently off.

2440. Freckles.

To disperse them, take one ounce of lemon juice, a quarter of a drachm of powdered borax, and half a drachm of sugar; mix, and let them stand a few days in a glass bottle till the liquor is fit for use, then rub it on the hands and face occasionally.

2441. To Remove Freckles.

Dissolve, in half an ounce of lemon juice, one ounce of Venice soap, and add a quarter of an ounce each of oil of bitter almonds, and deliquated oil of tartar. Place this mixture in the sun till it acquires the consistency of ointment. When in this state add three drops of the oil of rhodium and keep it for use. Apply it to the face and hands in the manner following:—Wash the parts at night with elder-flower water, then anoint with the ointment. In the morning cleanse the skin by washing it copiously in rose water.

2442. Wash for Sunburn.

Take two drachms of borax, one drachm of Roman alum, one drachm of camphor, half an ounce of sugar candy, and a pound of ox-gall. Mix and stir well for ten minutes or so, and repeat this stirring three or four times a day for a fortnight, till it appears clear and transparent. Strain through blotting-paper, and bottle up for use.

2443. Teething.

Young children, whilst cutting their first set of teeth, often suffer severe constitutional disturbance. At first there is restlessness and peevishness, with slight fever, but not unfrequently these are followed by convulsive fits, as they are commonly called, which are caused by the brain becoming irritated; and sometimes under this condition the child is either cut off suddenly, or the foundation of serious mischief to the brain is laid.

The remedy, or rather the safeguard against these frightful consequences, is trifling, safe, and almost certain, and consists merly in lancing the gum covering the tooth which is making its way through. When teething is about it may be known by the spittle constantly drivelling from the mouth and wetting the frock. The child has its fingers often in its mouth, and bites hard any substance it can get hold of. If the gums be carefully looked at, the part where the tooth is pressing up is swollen and redder than usual; and if the finger be pressed on it the child shrinks and cries, showing that the gum is tender.

When these symptoms occur, the gum should be lanced, and sometimes the tooth comes through the next day, if near the surface; but if not so far advanced the cut heals and a scar forms, which is thought by some objectionable, as rendering the passage of the tooth more difficult. This, however, is not so, for the scar will give way much more easily than the uncut gum. If the tooth do not come through after two or three days, the lancing may be repeated; and this is more especially needed if the child be very fractious, and seems in much pain.

Lancing the gums is further advantageous, because it empties the inflamed part of its blood, and so relieves the pain and inflammation. The relief children experience in the course of two or three hours from the operation is often very remarkable, as they almost immediately become lively and cheerful.

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