English Synonyms and Antonyms - With Notes on the Correct Use of Prepositions
by James Champlin Fernald
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We have the idea of a Being infinitely ——, and from this Descartes reasoned that such a being really exists.

'Shall remain'! Hear you this Triton of the minnows? mark you His —— 'shall'?

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PERMANENT (page 269).


1. From what is durable derived? to what class of substances is it applied? 2. What is permanent, and in what connections used? 3. How does enduring compare with durable? with permanent?


My heart is wax, molded as she pleases, but —— as marble to retain.

A violet in the youth of primy nature, Forward, not ——, sweet, not ——, The perfume and suppliance of a minute.

For her merchandise shall be for them that dwell before the Lord, to eat sufficiently, and for —— clothing.

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PERMISSION (page 269).


1. What is authority? 2. What is permission? 3. How does permission compare with allowance? 4. What is a permit? 5. What is license? How does it compare with authority? with permission? 6. What does consent involve?


God is more there than thou; for thou art there Only by his ——.

Thieves for their robbery have ——, When judges steal themselves.

Very few of the Egyptians avail themselves of the —— which their religion allows them, of having four wives.

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PERNICIOUS (page 270).


1. From what is pernicious derived, and what does it signify? 2. How does pernicious compare with injurious? 3. What does noisome denote? 4. What is the distinctive sense of noxious? 5. How does noxious compare with noisome?


Inflaming wine, —— to mankind.

So bees with smoke, and doves with —— stench, Are from their hives, and houses, driven away.

The strong smell of sulfur, and a choking sensation of the lungs indicated the presence of —— gases.

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PERPLEXITY (page 270).


1. What is perplexity? confusion? How do the two words compare? 2. How do bewilderment and confusion compare? 3. From what does amazement result?


CAIUS.—Vere is mine host de Jarterre? HOST.—Here, master doctor, in —— and doubtful dilemma.

There is such —— in my powers As, after some oration fairly spoke By a beloved prince, there doth appear Among the buzzing, pleased multitude.

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PERSUADE (page 271).


1. What does convince denote? How does it differ from the other words of the group? 2. What is it to persuade? 3. How is convincing related to persuasion? 4. How does coax compare with persuade?


A long train of these practises has at length unwillingly —— me that there is something hid behind the throne greater than the king himself.

He had a head to contrive, a tongue to ——, and a hand to execute any mischief.

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PERVERSE (page 272).


1. What is the etymological meaning of perverse? What does it signify in common use? 2. What does petulant signify? wayward?


And you, my lords—methinks you do not well, To bear with their —— objections.

Whining, purblind, —— boy!

Good Lord! what madness rules in brainsick men When, for so slight and frivolous a cause, Such —— emulations shall arise.

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PHYSICAL (page 272).


1. What does material signify? 2. What idea does physical add to that contained in material? 3. To what do bodily, corporal, and corporeal apply? 4. How do bodily and corporal differ from corporeal? 5. To what is corporal now for the most part limited?


—— punishment is practically abandoned in the greater number of American schools.

Man has two parts, the one —— and earthly, the other immaterial and spiritual.

These races are all clearly differentiated by other —— traits than the color of the skin.

We can not think of substance save in terms that imply —— properties.

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PITIFUL (page 273).


1. What was the original meaning of pitiful? What does it now signify? 2. How does pitiful differ in use from pitiable? 3. What was the early and what is the present sense of piteous?


There is something pleading and —— in the simplicity of perfect ignorance.

The most —— sight one ever sees is a young man doing nothing; the Furies early drag him to his doom.

O, the most —— cry of the poor souls!

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PITY (page 273).


1. What is pity? sympathy? 2. How does sympathy in its exercise differ from pity? 3. How does pity differ from mercy? 4. How does compassion compare with mercy and pity? 5. How does commiseration differ from compassion?


Nothing but the Infinite —— is sufficient for the infinite pathos of human life.

He hallows every heart he once has swayed, And when his presence we no longer share, Still leaves —— as a relic there.

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PLEAD (page 274).


1. What is it to plead in the ordinary sense? in the legal sense? 2. How do argue and advocate differ? 3. What do beseech, entreat, and implore imply? 4. How does solicit compare with the above words?


Speak to me low, my Savior, low and sweet, . . . Lest I should fear and fall, and miss thee so, Who art not missed by any that ——.

Speaking of the honor paid to good men, is it not time to —— for a reform in the writing of biographies?

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PLEASANT (page 275).


1. What does pleasant add to the sense of pleasing? 2. How does pleasant compare with kind? 3. What does good-natured signify? How does it compare with pleasant?


Like one that wraps the drapery of his couch About him, and lies down to —— dreams.

When fiction rises —— to the eye, Men will believe because they love the lie.

... If we must part forever, Give me but one —— word to think upon.

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PLENTIFUL (page 276).


1. What kind of a term is enough, and what does it mean? 2. How does sufficient compare with enough? 3. What is ample? 4. To what do abundant, ample, liberal, and plentiful apply? 5. How is copious used? affluent? plentiful? 6. What does complete express? 7. In what sense are lavish and profuse employed? 8. To what is luxuriant applied?


My —— joys, Wanton in fulness, seek to hide themselves In drops of sorrow.

Can anybody remember when the right sort of men and the right sort of women were ——?

Share the advice betwixt you; if both gain all, The gift doth stretch itself as 'tis received, And is —— for both.

He hasted, and opposed the rocky orb Of tenfold adamant, his —— shield.

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POETRY (page 277).


1. What is poetry? 2. Does poetry involve rime? Does it require meter? 3. What is imperatively required beyond verse, rime, or meter to constitute poetry?


—— is rhythmical, imaginative language, expressing the invention, taste, thought, passion, and insight of a human soul.

He knew Himself to sing, and build the lofty ——.

And ever against eating cares, Lap me in soft Lydian airs, Married to immortal ——.

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POLITE (page 277).


1. What are the characteristics of a civil person? What more is found in one who is polite? 2. How does courteous compare with civil? 3. What does courtly signify? genteel? urbane? 4. In what sense is polished used? complaisant?


She is not —— for the sake of seeming ——, but —— for the sake of being kind.

He was so generally —— that nobody thanked him for it.

Her air, her manners, all who saw admired; —— tho coy, and gentle tho retired.

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POVERTY (page 279).


1. What does poverty strictly denote? What does it signify in ordinary use? 2. What does privation signify? How does it compare with distress? 3. What is indigence? destitution? penury? 4. What does pauperism properly signify? How does it differ from beggary and mendicancy?

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POWER (page 279).


1. What is power? 2. Is power limited to intelligent agents, or how widely applied? 3. How does ability compare with power? 4. What is capacity, and how related to power and to ability? 5. What is competency? faculty? talent? 6. What are dexterity and skill? How are they related to talent? 7. What is efficacy? efficiency?


Bismarck was the one great figure of all Europe, with more —— for good or evil than any other human being possessed at that time.

The soul, in its highest sense, is a vast —— for God.

I reckon it is an oversight in a great body of metaphysicians that they have been afraid to ascribe our apprehensions of —— to intuition. In consequence of this neglect, some never get the idea of ——, but merely of succession, within the bare limits of experience.

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PRAISE (page 280).


1. What is praise? By how many is it given, and how is it expressed? 2. What is applause? by how many given? and how expressed? 3. What is acclamation? How does it differ from applause? 4. How does approbation differ from praise? 5. What does approval add to the meaning of praise? 6. How does compliment compare with praise? 7. What is flattery?


The —— of listening senates to command, The threats of pain and ruin to despise, To scatter plenty o'er a smiling land, And read their history in a nation's eyes.

—— no man e'er deserved who sought no more.

Gladly then he mixed Among those friendly powers, who him received With joy and ——s loud.

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PRAY (page 281).


1. What is it to pray in the religious sense? 2. In what lighter and more familiar sense may pray be used? Is this latter use now common?


Hesiod exhorted the husbandman to —— for a harvest, but to do so with his hand upon the plow.

I kneel, and then —— her blessing.

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PRECARIOUS (page 282).


1. To what is the term uncertain applied? 2. What did precarious originally signify? How is it now used, and how does it differ from uncertain?


... Thou know'st, great son, The end of war's ——.

Life seems to be —— in proportion to its value.

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PRECEDENT (page 282).


1. What is a precedent? 2. How does case fall short of the meaning of precedent? 3. What is an obiter dictum? How does it differ from a precedent?


Where freedom broadens slowly down From —— to ——.

Let us consider the reason of the ——, for nothing is law that is not reason.

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1. What is predestination? 2. How does fate differ from predestination? 3. What does necessity signify in the philosophical sense? 4. What is foreknowledge? Does it involve foreordination or predestination?


For —— has wove the thread of life with pain.

All high truth is the union of two contradictories. Thus —— and free-will are opposites; and the truth does not lie between these two, but in a higher reconciling truth which leaves both true.

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PREJUDICE (page 283).


1. What is a presumption? On what is it founded? 2. On what are prejudice and prepossession based? How do these two words differ from each other?


When the judgment's weak, the —— is strong.

The —— is always in favor of what exists.

His fine features, manly form, and perfect manners awakened an instant —— in his favor.

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PRETENSE (page 283).


1. What is a pretense? How does it differ from a pretext? 2. What is a ruse?


The claim of a stronger nation to protect a weaker has commonly been but a —— for conquest.

It is not poverty so much as —— that harasses a ruined man—the struggle between a proud mind and an empty purse.

The independent English nobility conspired to make an insurrection, and to support the prince's ——s.

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PREVENT (page 284).


1. What is the original meaning of prevent? 2. What word is now commonly used in that sense? 3. What is the meaning of obviate? preclude? 4. How is prevent at present used?


The contrary supposition is obviously ——.

When the Siberian Pacific Railway is finished, what is there to —— Russia from annexing nearly the whole of China?

There appears to be no way to —— the difficulty.

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PREVIOUS (page 285).


1. What does antecedent denote? 2. How does preceding differ from antecedent and previous? 3. How is anterior commonly used? prior? 4. Of what is former used? What does former always imply?


These matters have been fully explained in —— chapters of this work.

The reader will be helped to an understanding of this process by a careful study of the diagram on the —— page.

In —— times many things were attributed to witchcraft that now have a scientific explanation.

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PRICE (page 285).


1. What is the cost of an article? the price? 2. How do cost and price ordinarily differ? 3. In what exceptional case may cost and price agree? 4. What does price always imply? 5. What is the meaning of value? How does market value differ from intrinsic value? 6. How does value differ from worth? 7. To what are charge and expense ordinarily applied?


—— is the life-giving power of anything; ——, the quantity of labor required to produce it; ——, the quantity of labor which its possessor will take in exchange for it.

No man can permanently do business by making the —— of his goods the same as their —— to him, however such a method may help him momentarily in an emergency.

* * * * *

PRIDE (page 286).


1. What is pride? haughtiness? arrogance? disdain? How do these qualities compare with pride? 2. What does superciliousness imply according to its etymology? 3. How do pride and vanity differ? 4. What difference is noted between self-conceit and conceit? 5. How do self-respect and self-esteem compare with each other and with the other words of the group?


—— may puff a man up, but never prop him up.

There is nothing —— can so little bear with as —— itself.

—— is as ill at ease under indifference, as tenderness is under the love which it can not return.

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PRIMEVAL (page 287).


1. What is the derivation and signification of aboriginal? autochthonic? primeval? 2. What do prime and primary denote? What special sense has primary as in reference to a school? 3. How is primordial used? 4. What does primitive suggest, as in the expressions, the primitive church, primitive simplicity? 5. What is pristine? 6. How do native and indigenous compare?


Thou from —— nothingness didst call First chaos, then existence, Lord.

The —— inhabitants of America are long since extinct, for even the races whom the white men conquered had themselves supplanted an earlier race.

All the later ages have wondered at and admired the whole-souled consecration of the —— church.

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PROFIT (page 288).


1. What are returns or receipts? 2. What is profit in the commercial sense? What in the intellectual and moral sense? 3. What is utility? 4. What does advantage originally signify? Does it now necessarily imply having or gaining superiority to another person, or securing anything at another's expense? 5. What is gain? benefit? emolument? 6. To what does expediency especially refer?


Silence has many ——s.

No man can read with —— that which he can not learn to read with pleasure.

Godliness with contentment is great ——.

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PROGRESS (page 289).


1. What is progress? 2. What do attainment, proficiency, and development imply? 3. What is advance? How does it differ from progress?


What is thy —— compared with an Alexander's, a Mahomet's, a Napoleon's?

And dreams in their —— have breath, And tears, and tortures, and the touch of joy.

Human —— consists in a continual increase in the number of those who, ceasing to live by the animal life alone and to feel the pleasures of sense only, come to participate in the intellectual life also.

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PROHIBIT (page 290).


1. What is it to prohibit? 2. How does forbid compare with prohibit? 3. How does prohibit compare with prevent?


Tho much I want which most would have, Yet still my mind —— to crave.

The laws of England, from the early Plantagenets, sternly —— the conversion of malt into alcohol, excepting a small portion for medicinal purposes.

Human law must —— many things that human administration of law can not absolutely ——; is not this true also of the divine government?

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PROMOTE (page 291).


1. What is it to promote? 2. To what does promote apply? To persons or things, and in what way?


The outlawed pirate of one year was —— the next to be a governor and his country's representative.

The imperial ensign, which full high ——ed, Shone like a meteor streaming in the wind.

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PROPITIATION (page 291).


1. What did atonement originally denote? What is its present theological and popular sense? 2. What does expiation signify? propitiation? satisfaction?


—— has respect to the bearing which satisfaction has upon sin or the sinner. —— has respect to the effect of satisfaction in removing the judicial displeasure of God.

When a man has been guilty of any sin or folly, I think the best —— he can make is to warn others not to fall into the like.

Redemption implies the complete deliverance from the penalty, power, and all the consequences of sin; —— is used in the sense of the sacrificial work, whereby the redemption from the condemning power of the law was insured.

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PROPOSAL (page 291).


1. What does an offer or proposal do? 2. What does a proposition set forth? 3. For what is the proposition designed? the proposal? 4. In what way does proposition come to have nearly the sense of proposal in certain uses? 5. What is a bid? 6. What does an overture accomplish? In what special application is the word commonly used?


Garrison emphatically declared, "I can not listen to any —— for a gradual abolition of wickedness."

The theme in confirmation must always admit of being expressed in a logical ——, with subject, predicate, and copula.

* * * * *

PROPOSE (page 292).


1. How does propose in its most frequent use differ from purpose? 2. How is propose used so as to be nearly equivalent to purpose? What important difference appears in this latter use?


I know, indeed, the evil of that I ——, but my inclination gets the better of my judgment.

Man ——s, but God disposes.

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PROTRACT (page 293).


1. What is it to protract? 2. What is the significance of defer and delay, and how do these words differ in usage from protract? 3. How does elongate differ from protract? 4. Is protract ordinarily favorable or unfavorable in sense? 5. Is continue favorable or unfavorable?


Unseen hands —— The coming of what oft seems close in ken.

Burton, a hypochondriac, wrote the "Anatomy of Melancholy," that marvel of learning, and —— his life to the age of sixty-four.

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PROVERB (page 293).


1. In what do the proverb and the adage agree? In what respects do they differ? 2. What is an apothegm? an aphorism? How do these two words differ? 3. What is a dictum? a saying? 4. What is a precept? How does it differ from a motto or maxim? 5. How do motto and maxim differ from each other?


The —— must be verified, That beggars mounted, run their horse to death.

Books, like ——s, receive their chief value from the stamp and esteem of ages through which they have passed.

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PRUDENCE (page 294).


1. What is the definition of prudence? 2. How does providence differ from prudence? 3. How does care compare with prudence and providence? 4. How is frugality related to prudence? 5. How do foresight and forethought compare with each other, and both with providence?


When desp'rate ills demand a speedy cure, Distrust is cowardice, and —— folly.

With a —— unknown in other parts of Scotland, the peasantry have in most places planted orchards around their cottages.

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PURCHASE (page 295).


1. From what language is purchase derived? 2. From what is buy derived? 3. How do buy and purchase agree in meaning? What single definition would answer for either? 4. How do buy and purchase differ in use? Give instances.


I'll give thee England's treasure, Enough to —— such another island, So thou wilt make me live.

'Tis gold which ——s admittance.

—— the truth, and sell it not.

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PURE (page 296).


1. What does pure signify? 2. In what sense are material substances said to be pure? 3. What does pure denote in moral and religious use? 4. How does pure compare with innocent? with virtuous?


Water from melted snow is ——r than rain-water, as it descends through the air in a solid form, incapable of absorbing atmospheric gases.

Stone walls do not a prison make, Nor iron bars a cage; Minds —— and quiet take That for a hermitage.

In every place incense shall be offered unto my name and a —— offering, saith the Lord of hosts.

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QUEER (page 297).


1. What is the meaning of odd? singular? Are odd and singular precise equivalents? 2. When is a thing called strange? 3. What is the primary meaning of peculiar? With what implication is it now commonly used? 4. What is the meaning of eccentric? How does it differ in use from odd or queer? 5. How does erratic compare with eccentric? 6. What is the primary meaning of queer? its common meaning? 7. What is the significance of quaint? grotesque?


A ——, shy man was this pastor—a sort of living mummy, dried up and bleached by Icelandic snows.

In setting a hen, says Grose, the good women hold it an indispensable rule to put an —— number of eggs.

Only a man of undoubted genius can afford to be ——.

The —— architecture of these medieval towns has a strange fascination.

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QUICKEN (page 297).


1. What is it to accelerate? to despatch? 2. What does the verb speed signify? hasten? hurry? What does hurry suggest in addition to the meaning of hasten?


The motion of a falling body is continually ——ed.

The muster-place is Lanrick mead! —— forth the signal! Norman, ——!

The pulsations of the heart are ——ed by exertion.

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QUOTE (page 298).


1. How does cite differ from quote? 2. What is it to paraphrase? to plagiarize?


A great man —— bravely, and will not draw on his invention when his memory serves him with a word as good.

The Devil can —— Scripture for his purpose.

To appropriate others' thoughts or words mechanically and without credit is to ——.

* * * * *

RACY (page 299).


1. To what does racy in the first instance refer? pungent? 2. How does piquant differ from pungent? 3. How are these words and the word spicy used in reference to literary products?


Pure mother English, —— and fresh with idiomatic graces.

The atmosphere was strangely impregnated with the —— odor of burning peat.

The spruce, the cedar, and the juniper, with their balsamic breath, filled the air with a —— fragrance.

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RADICAL (page 299).


1. What is the primary meaning of radical? 2. What contrasted senses are derived from this primary meaning?


Timidity is a —— defect in a reformer.

Social and political leaders look to vested interests, and hence are inclined to regard all —— measures as ——.

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RARE (page 300).


1. What is the meaning of unique? Can any one of a number of things of the same kind be unique? 2. What is the primary meaning of rare? What added sense is often blended with this primary meaning? 3. Is extraordinary favorable or unfavorable in meaning?


Nothing is so —— as time.

That which gives to the Jews their —— position among the nations is what we are accustomed to regard as their sacred history.

And what is so —— as a day in June? Then, if ever, come perfect days.

* * * * *

REACH (page 300).


1. What is it to reach in the sense here considered? 2. What is it to arrive? 3. What does attain add to the meaning of arrive? What does gain add?


And grasping down the boughs I ——ed the shore.

He gathered the ripe nuts in the fall, And berries that grew by fence and wall So high she could not —— them at all.

The heights by great men ——ed and kept Were not ——ed by sudden flight, But they, while their companions slept, Were toiling upward in the night.

It is only in this way that we can hope to —— at truth.

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REAL (page 301).


1. From what is real derived? What does it mean? 2. From what is the real distinguished? 3. To what is actual opposed? 4. What shades of difference may be pointed out between the four words actual, real, developed, and positive?


In —— life we do not die when all that makes life bright dies to us.

If there was any trouble, —— or impending, affecting those she had served, her place was with them.

This was regarded as proof —— of conspiracy.

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REASON, v. (page 302).


1. What is it to reason about a matter? 2. From what is argue derived, and what does it mean? 3. What is it to demonstrate? to prove? How do these two words agree and differ?


There are two ways of reaching truth: by ——ing it out and by feeling it out.

In ——ing, too, the person owned his skill, For e'en tho vanquished, he could —— still.

A matter of fact may be ——ed by adequate evidence; only a mathematical proposition can be ——ed.

* * * * *

REASON, n. (page 302).


1. How does cause differ from reason in the strict sense of each of the two words? 2. How is reason often used so as to be a partial equivalent of cause?


No one is at liberty to speak ill of another without a justifiable ——, even tho he knows he is speaking truth.

I am not only witty myself, but the —— that wit is in other men.

Necessity is the —— of tyrants; it is the creed of slaves.

Alas! how light a —— may move Dissension between hearts that love!

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REASONING (page 303).


1. What do argumentation and debate ordinarily imply? 2. How does reasoning differ from both the above words in this respect? 3. To what kind of reasoning were argument and argumentation formerly restricted? How widely are the words now applied? 4. How do argument and argumentation compare with reasoning as regards logical form?


All ——, Inductive or Deductive, is a reaching of the unknown through the known; and where nothing unknown is reached there is no ——.

Early at Bus'ness, and at Hazard late, Mad at a fox-chase, wise at a ——.

If thou continuest to take delight in idle ——, thou mayest be qualified to combat with the sophists, but never know how to live with men.

* * * * *

REFINEMENT (page 305).


1. To what does civilization apply, and what does it denote? 2. What is refinement? 3. What is the primary meaning of cultivation? the derived meaning? 4. By what word is cultivation now largely superseded? 5. What does culture denote?


What is ——? It is the humanization of man in society, the satisfaction for him in society of the true law of human nature.

Giving up wrong pleasure is not self-sacrifice, but self——-.

This refined taste is the consequence of education and habit; we are born only with a capacity of entertaining this ——.

* * * * *

RELIABLE (page 306).


1. What is to be said of the controversy regarding the formation and use of the word reliable? 2. What do trusty and trustworthy denote? 3. How does reliable compare with these words? 4. What meaning may reliable convey that trusty and trustworthy would not?


Good lack! quoth he, yet bring it me My leathern belt likewise, In which I bear my —— sword, When I do exercise.

The first voyage to America, of which we have any perfectly —— account, was performed by the Norsemen.

* * * * *

RELIGION (page 307).


1. What is the original sense of piety? the derived sense? 2. What is religion? What does it include? 3. What is worship? devotion? 4. What is morality? godliness? holiness? 5. How is theology related to religion?


—— is man's belief in a being or beings, mightier than himself and inaccessible to his senses, but not indifferent to his sentiments and actions, with the feelings and practises which flow from such belief.

——, whose soul sincere Fears God, and knows no other fear.

To deny the freedom of the will is to make —— impossible.

Systematic —— may be defined as the substance of the Christian faith in a scientific form.

* * * * *

REND (page 309).


1. To what are rend and tear usually applied? Which is the stronger word? 2. In what connection is rive used, and in what sense? 3. What does lacerate signify? 4. How does mangle compare with lacerate? 5. What do burst and rupture signify? Which is the stronger word? When is a steam-boiler said to be ruptured? 6. What does rip signify?


Storms do not —— the sail that is furled.

Oh, it offends me to the soul to hear a robustious, periwig-pated fellow —— a passion to tatters, to very rags, to split the ears of the groundlings.

And now a bubble ——s, and now a world.

The first blood shed in the revolutionary struggle; a mere drop in amount, but a deluge in its effects, ——ing the colonies forever from the mother country.

* * * * *

RENOUNCE (page 309).


1. From what is renounce derived, and in what sense used? recant? retract? 2. What is it to discard? 3. How does revoke compare with recall in original meaning and in present use? 4. What is the derivation and the distinctive meaning of abjure? 5. In what sense is repudiate used?


On his knees, with his hand on the Bible, Galileo was compelled to —— and curse the doctrine of the movement of the earth.

He adds his soul to every other loss, and by the act of suicide, —— earth to forfeit heaven.

He had no spiritual adviser, no human comforter, and was entirely in the hands of those who were determined that he should —— or die.

* * * * *

REPENTANCE (page 310).


1. What is regret? 2. What does penitence add to regret? 3. How does repentance surpass the meaning of penitence, regret, sorrow, etc.? 4. What is compunction? contrition? 5. What is remorse, and how does it compare with repentance?


What then? what rests? Try what —— can: what can it not?

Forgive me, Valentine, if hearty —— Be a sufficient ransom for offense, I tender't here.

So writhes the mind —— has riven, Unmeet for earth, undoomed to heaven, Darkness above, despair beneath, Around it flame, within it death.

* * * * *

REPROOF (page 311).


1. Are blame, censure, and disapproval spoken or silent? 2. Are comment, criticism, rebuke, reflection, reprehension, and reproof expressed or not? 3. How of admonition and animadversion? 4. Are comment and criticism favorable or unfavorable? Do they imply superiority on the part of commentator or critic? 5. Do reflection and reprehension imply such superiority? How are these two words discriminated? 6. What does rebuke literally signify? To what kind of person is a rebuke administered? 7. To what kind of person is reproof administered? 8. What do rebuke and reproof imply on the part of him who administers them? 9. What is animadversion? admonition?


A —— is intolerable when it is administered out of pride or hatred.

The best preservative to keep the mind in health is the faithful —— of a friend.

Open —— is better than secret love.

* * * * *

REPROVE (page 312).


1. What is it to censure? to reprove? to reprimand 2. How does admonish compare with the other words in the group? Is its reference to the past or to the future? 3. What is it to reproach? Does this word imply authority or superiority? 4. What is the force of expostulate and remonstrate?


He that oppresseth the poor ——eth his Maker.

Her answer ——ed me; for she said, "I never ask their crimes, for we have all come short."

Moses was ——ed of God when he was about to make the tabernacle: for, see, saith he, that thou make all things according to the pattern shewed to thee in the mount.

This witness is true. Therefore —— them sharply, that they may be sound in the faith.

* * * * *

REST (page 313).


1. What is ease? quiet? rest? 2. What is recreation, and how is it related to rest? 3. What is repose in the primary, and what in the derived, sense? 4. How does repose compare with rest? 5. What is a pause? 6. How does sleep compare with repose and rest?


Seek out, less often sought than found, A soldier's grave—for thee the best; Then look around, and choose thy ground, And take thy ——.

Her manners had not that —— That stamps the cast of Vere de Vere.

Shall I not take mine —— in mine inn?

* * * * *

RESTRAIN (page 315).


1. What is it to restrain? 2. How does constrain differ from restrain? 3. How does restrain differ from restrict? 4. How does repress compare with restrain? suppress?


The English Puritans, ——ed at home, fled for freedom to America.

In no political system is it so necessary to —— the powers of the government as in a democratic state.

* * * * *

REVENGE (page 316).


1. What is revenge? 2. How does retaliation compare with revenge? 3. What did vengeance formerly mean, and what does it now imply? 4. What is a requital? 5. How do avenging and retribution differ from retaliation, revenge, and vengeance? 6. What difference may be noted between avenging and retribution?


According to the wish of Sulla himself, ... his monument was erected in the Campus Martius, bearing an inscription composed by himself: "No friend ever did me a kindness, no enemy a wrong, without receiving full ——."

By the spirit of ——, as we sometimes express it, we generally understand a disposition, not merely to return suffering for suffering, but to inflict a degree of pain on the person who is supposed to have injured us, beyond what strict justice requires.

In all great religions we find one God, and in all, personal immortality with ——.

* * * * *

REVOLUTION (page 317).


1. What is the essential idea of revolution? 2. Does a revolution necessarily involve war? 3. What is anarchy? insubordination? sedition? revolt? rebellion? 4. How does rebellion differ from revolution? 5. By what class of persons is insurrection made? mutiny?


——s are not made; they come.

—— to tyrants is obedience to God.

Since government is of God, —— must be contrary to his will.

* * * * *

REVOLVE (page 318).


1. When is a body said to roll? to rotate? to revolve? 2. In what sense may the earth be said to revolve? and in what sense to rotate? 3. What are some of the extended uses of roll? 4. What kind of a word is turn, and what is its meaning?


Any bright star close by the pole is seen to —— in a very small circle whose center is the pole itself.

The sun ——s on an axis in the same direction in which the planets —— in their orbits.

Human nature can never rest; once in motion it ——s like the stone of Sisyphus every instant when the resisting force is suspended.

* * * * *

RIGHT (page 319).


1. What is a right? Is it general or special? 2. What is a privilege? an exemption? an immunity? 3. What is a franchise? a prerogative?


Friendship gives no —— to make ourselves disagreeable.

All men are created equal, and endowed with certain inalienable ——s.

* * * * *

RUSTIC (page 321).


1. From what are rural and rustic alike derived? How do the two words agree in general signification? How are they discriminated in use? 2. What is the meaning of pastoral? of bucolic?


How still the morning of the hallowed day! Mute is the voice of —— labor, hush'd The plowboy's whistle and the milkmaid's song.

The —— arbor which the summit crowned Was woven of shining smilax, trumpet-vine, Clematis, and the wild white eglantine.

When hunting tribes begin to domesticate animals, they enter usually upon the —— stage.

* * * * *

SACRAMENT (page 321).


1. What is a religious service in the extended sense? 2. What is a sacrament? 3. What is an observance? an ordinance? 4. How do sacrament and ordinance differ? 5. What is a rite?


Religion will glide by degrees out of the mind unless it be invigorated and reimpressed by external ——s.

Nothing tends more to unite men's hearts than joining together in the same prayers and ——s.

* * * * *

SALE (page 323).


1. What is change or exchange? 2. What is barter? sale? 3. What is a bargain in the strict sense? 4. What is trade in the broad and in the limited sense?


Honor sits smiling at the —— of truth.

I'll give thrice as much land to any well-deserving friend, But in the way of ——, mark ye me, I'll cavil on the ninth part of a hair.

Stamps God's own name upon a lie just made To coin a penny in the way of ——.

* * * * *

SAMPLE (page 323).


1. What is a sample? a specimen? 2. How do sample and specimen compare as indications of the quality of that which they respectively represent?


There is, therefore, in this country, an implied warranty that the goods correspond to the ——.

Curzola is a perfect —— of a Venetian town.

* * * * *

SCHOLAR (page 324).


1. What is the primary sense of scholar? the derived sense? 2. What does pupil signify? How is it technically used in educational work? 3. In what sense is student employed?


The accent or turn of expression of a single sentence will at once mark a ——.

The State of New York supplies all needed text-books free of charge to the ——s in the public schools.

The ——s in American colleges have taken up athletics with intense enthusiasm.

* * * * *

SCIENCE (page 325).


1. How does science compare with knowledge? 2. How does art compare with science? 3. What two senses of art must be discriminated from each other? 4. In which sense is art a system of rules? 5. In which sense does art transcend rule?


Beethoven took his —— as seriously as a saint and martyr takes his religion.

Modern —— may be regarded as one vast miracle, whether we view it in relation to the Almighty Being, by whom its objects and its laws were formed, or to the feeble intellect of man, by which its depths have been sounded, and its mysteries explored.

Printing has been aptly termed the —— preservative of all other ——s.

* * * * *

SECURITY (page 326).


1. Of what kind of value or property must an earnest consist? 2. How do pledge and security differ from earnest? 3. How does security differ from pledge? 4. What is bail? gage?


The —— for a national or state debt is the honesty of its people.

The surest —— of a deathless name Is the silent homage of thoughts unspoken.

And for an —— of a greater honor, He bade me, from him, call thee Thane of Cawdor.

* * * * *

SENSATION (page 328).


1. What is a sensation? a perception? 2. How does an emotion differ from a sensation? 3. How does the popular term feeling compare with sensation and emotion? 4. What is a sense?


But ——, in the technical and limited sense of the term, is appropriated to the knowledge of material objects, and of the external world. This knowledge is gained or acquired by means of the ——s, and hence, to be more exact, we call it sensible ——, or, more briefly, sense ——.

——s sweet, Felt in the blood, and felt along the heart.

* * * * *

SENSIBILITY (page 328).


1. What is sensibility in the philosophical sense? in popular use? 2. What does sensitiveness denote? 3. What is susceptibility? How does it compare with sensitiveness? 4. How are susceptibility and sensitiveness discriminated in physics?


The —— of the external surface of the body is a special endowment adapted to the elements around and calculated to protect the interior parts from injury.

—— to pleasure is of necessity also —— to pain.

Every mind is in a peculiar state of —— to certain impressions.

* * * * *

SEVERE (page 329).


1. What is severe? rigid? strict? 2. How does rigorous compare with rigid? 3. What does austere signify? What element is always found in an austere character?


In mathematics we arrive at certitude by —— demonstration.

He who the sword of heaven will bear Should be as holy as ——.

—— law is often —— injustice.

By —— adherence to truth in official dealing with the natives, the English have come to be always believed in India.

* * * * *

SHELTER, v. (page 331).


1. When is anything said to be covered? 2. How does shelter compare with cover? 3. What does defend signify? 4. What does guard imply? 5. How does protect surpass guard and defend? 6. What does shield signify? How does it compare with guard or defend? 7. In what sense is the verb harbor commonly used?


He that ——eth his sins shall not prosper, but he that forsaketh them shall find mercy.

Thou who trod'st the billowy sea, —— us in our jeopardy!

In youth it ——ed me, And I'll protect it now.

* * * * *

SIN (page 332).


1. What is sin? 2. How is transgression discriminated from sin in the general sense? 3. What is crime? guilt? depravity?


Commit The oldest ——s the newest kind of ways.

—— is not punished as an offense against God, but as prejudicial to society.

How —— once harbored in the conscious breast, Intimidates the brave, degrades the great.

* * * * *

SKETCH (page 334).


1. What is a sketch? How does it compare with outline? 2. In what special connection are draft and plan used? 3. How does a mechanical drawing differ from a draft? 4. What is a design? How does it exceed the meaning of drawing? 5. What is an outline in written composition? How does a sketch in this sense compare with an outline? 6. What is an outline of a sermon technically called? 7. What is a lawyer's brief? How does it compare with an outline or sketch?


A —— that is without vigor, and in which the anatomy has not been defined, is a bad foundation for a good picture.

A little model the master wrought, Which should be to the larger —— What the child is to the man.

* * * * *

SKILFUL (page 335).


1. What does skilful signify? 2. How does dexterous compare with skilful? 3. How does a skilled compare with a skilful workman?


So —— seamen ken the land from far, Which shows like mists to the dull passenger.

Thousands of —— workmen are thrown into enforced idleness by the strikes and lockouts of every year.

Much that has been received as the work of disembodied spirits has been but the —— sleight of hand of spirits embodied.

* * * * *

SLANDER (page 336).


1. What is it to slander? to defame? to libel? 2. When is defame equivalent to slander? When is it equivalent to libel? 3. What is it to asperse? to malign? to traduce? to disparage? 4. How do slander and libel differ in legal signification from the other words? 5. Which words of the group apply to open attack in one's presence, and which to attack in his absence?


——ed to death by villains That dare as well answer a man, indeed, As I dare take a serpent by the tongue.

If the Scriptures seem to —— knowledge, it is the knowledge that despises virtue.

Challenging each recreant doubter Who ——ed her spotless name.

* * * * *

SLANG (page 336).


1. What is a colloquialism? 2. What is slang in the primary and ordinary sense? in special senses? 3. What is a vulgarism? 4. What is cant in the sense here considered?


There is a —— bred of vileness that is never redeemed; there is also a —— that is the vigorous utterance of uncultured wit, that fills a gap in the language and mounts ultimately to the highest places.

A —— is worse than ——, because it bears the ineffaceable stamp of ignorance.

* * * * *

SOCIALISM (page 338).


1. What is socialism? What term do many of its advocates prefer? 2. What is communism? anarchism?


—— in its full sense means the abolition of inheritance, the abolition of the family, the abolition of nationalities, the abolition of religion, the abolition of property.

——, in some modified form, is steadily making its way among thinking men under the guise of cooperation.

—— is the offspring of sore hearts and shallow brains. It is the wisdom of the man who burned down his house because his chimney smoked.

* * * * *

SPONTANEOUS (page 340).


1. When is anything properly said to be spontaneous? voluntary? involuntary? 2. How do voluntary and involuntary compare with each other? both with spontaneous?


—— is opposed to reflective. Those operations of mind which are continually going on without any effort or intention on our part are spontaneous.

No action that is not —— has any merit.

* * * * *

SPY (page 340).


1. In what are the spy and the scout alike? 2. In what do they differ? 3. What are their respective rights in case of capture? 4. What is an emissary?


A daring —— of General Stuart made his way to my quarters, and informed me that General Imboden had planned an attack upon the town.

I had grown uneasy in regard to the disjointed situation of our army and, to inform myself of what was going on, determined to send a —— into the enemy's lines.

* * * * *

STATE, v. (page 341).


1. From what is state derived? What does it mean? 2. What is the significance of assert? What element is prominent in this word? 3. What is the relative force of affirm and assert? asseverate? aver? assure? 4. What does affirm signify in legal use, and how does it differ from swear? 5. What is it to certify? 6. What does vindicate signify?


The first condition of intelligent debate is that the question be clearly ——ed.

We —— that the sciences dispose themselves round two great axes of thought, parallel and not unrelated, yet distinct—the natural sciences held together by the one, the moral by the other.

It is impossible for the mind to —— anything of that of which it knows nothing.

* * * * *

STORM (page 343).


1. What is the essential meaning of storm? 2. What is a tempest?


The —— is hard at hand will sweep away Thrones, churches, ranks, traditions, customs, marriage.

Were any considerable mass of air to be suddenly transferred from beyond the tropics to the equator, the difference of the rotatory velocity proper to the two situations would be so great as to produce not merely a wind, but a —— of the most destructive violence.

* * * * *

STORY (page 343).


1. What is a story? Is it true or false? 2. What is an anecdote? a narrative or narration?


There are ——, common to the different branches of the Aryan stock.... They are ancient Aryan ——, ... older than the Odyssey, older than the dispersion of the Aryan race.

——s are relations of detached, interesting particulars.

Fairy ——s have for children an inexhaustible charm.

* * * * *

SUBJECTIVE (page 345).


1. What is the meaning of subjective? of objective? 2. How are these words illustrated in the case of a mountain? 3. What matters are purely subjective? 4. What matters are purely objective? 5. What is meant by saying that an author has a subjective or an objective style?


Subject therefore, denotes the mind itself; and ——, that which belongs to, or proceeds from, the thinking subject. Object is a term for that about which the knowing subject is conversant, ... while —— means that which belongs to, or proceeds from, the object known, and not from the subject knowing; and thus denotes what is real, in opposition to what is ideal,—what exists in nature, in contrast to what exists merely in the thought of the individual.

* * * * *

SUGGESTION (page 347).


1. In what way does a suggestion bring a matter before the mind? 2. What is an intimation? a hint? 3. What are the special characteristics of insinuation and innuendo?


Behold in the bloom of apples, And the violets in the sward, A —— of the old, lost beauty Of the garden of the Lord!

Time is truly the comforter, at once lessening the tendency to —— of images of sorrow, and softening that very sorrow when the images arise.

An —— is cowardly because it can seldom be directly answered, and the one who makes it can always retreat behind an assumed misconstruction of his words; but the —— is the stab in the back, sneaking as it is malicious.

* * * * *

SUPERNATURAL (page 347).


1. What is the original meaning of supernatural? of preternatural? 2. What is commonly implied in the use of preternatural? 3. In what sense do some hold a miracle to be supernatural? What descriptive term would others prefer? 4. What is the meaning of superhuman? In what secondary sense is it often used?


It was something altogether ——, as when God said, 'Let there be light,' and there was light.

With an imagination of intense vividness and —— activity, Choate was as practical as the most sordid capitalist that ever became an "incarnation of fat dividends."

* * * * *

SUPPORT (page 348).


1. What do support and sustain alike signify? 2. How does sustain surpass support in meaning and force? 3. What is the force and use of bear in this connection? 4. What is it to maintain? 5. How does maintain compare with support as to fulness and as to dignity? 6. What is it to prop? What is the limit upon the meaning of this word?


And Cain said, My punishment is great than I can ——.

You take my house when you do take the prop That doth —— my house.

Can a soul like mine, Unus'd to power, and form'd for humbler scenes, —— the splendid miseries of greatness?

While less expert, tho stronger far, The Gael ——ed unequal war.

* * * * *

SUPPOSE (page 348).


1. What is it to suppose? 2. How does conjecture differ from suppose? 3. What does think signify in the sense here considered? How does it compare with conjecture or suppose?


Newton ——ed that if the earth were to be so compressed as to be absolutely without pores, its dimensions might not exceed a cubic inch.

Let it not be ——ed that principles and opinions always go together.

* * * * *

SYNONYMOUS (page 349).


1. Are there any synonymous words in the strict sense of the term? 2. What is meant by synonymous words? 3. What are the two common faults with reference to synonymous words or synonyms?


The great source of a loose style is the injudicious use of those words termed ——.

To raise, with fitting observances, over the ruins of the historic fortress [Sumter] the —— flag which had waved over it during its first bombardment.

* * * * *

SYSTEM (page 350).


1. What is order, in the sense here considered? 2. What does method denote? 3. What is a system? 4. To what does manner refer? 5. To what does regularity apply? 6. Can there be order without regularity or regularity without order, and how?


If this be madness, there is —— in it.

A —— is ... an organized body of truth, or truths arranged under one and the same idea, which idea is as the life or soul which assimilates all those truths.

* * * * *

TEACH (page 353).


1. What is it to teach? 2. How does instruct surpass teach in signification? 3. What secondary sense has instruct? 4. What is the full meaning of educate? 5. What is it to train? 6. To what is train commonly applied where educate could not well be used? 7. What is it to discipline? 8. What does nurture signify, and how does it compare with educate?


Plato returned to Athens and began to ——; like his master, he —— without money and without price.

For the most effective mechanical work both mind and hand must be ——ed in childhood.

The Highlanders flocking to him from all quarters, though ill-armed, and worse ——ed, made him undervalue any enemy who, he thought, was yet to encounter him.

* * * * *

TERM (page 354).


1. What is the literal meaning of term? 2. Is this meaning retained in the figurative uses of the word? 3. What are the articles of a contract? the terms of a contract? 4. What is a condition? 5. What is a term in the logical sense? 6. How does term in ordinary use compare with word, expression, or phrase?


For beauty's acme hath a —— as brief As the wave's poise before it break in pearl.

But what are these moral sermons [of Seneca]? ——s, nothing but ——s.

The very —— miser is a confession of the misery which attends avarice.

* * * * *

TERSE (page 354).


1. What is the meaning of short or brief? 2. What is the derivation and meaning of concise? of condensed? of compendious? 3. What is the derivation and meaning of succinct? of terse? 4. What is the force of summary? 5. What is a sententious style? a pithy utterance?


With all his lucidity of statement, Hamilton was not always ——.

In most cases it will be found that the Victorian idiom is clearer, but less —— than the corresponding Elizabethan idiom which it has supplanted.

* * * * *

TESTIMONY (page 355).


1. What is testimony? 2. How does it compare with evidence? 3. How does a deposition differ from an affidavit?


The word ——, in legal acceptation, includes all the means by which any alleged matter of fact, the truth of which is submitted to us for investigation, is established or disproved.

As to the fruits of Sodom, fair without, full of ashes within, I saw nothing of them, tho from the —— we have, something of this kind has been produced.

* * * * *

TIME (page 356).


1. To what do sequence and succession apply? 2. What does time denote? How is it conceived of with reference to events? 3. How do duration and succession compare with time?


Every event remembered is remembered as having happened in —— past. This gives us the idea in the concrete.... We can now, by a process of abstraction, separate the —— from the event, and we have the abstract idea of time.

The —— of each earthquake is measured generally only by seconds, or even parts of a second.

It has been conjectured that our idea of —— is founded upon the conscious —— of sensations and ideas in our own minds.

* * * * *

TOOL (page 358).


1. What is a tool? 2. How does instrument compare in meaning with tool? 3. What special tools are ordinarily called instruments? 4. What is an implement? 5. What is a utensil? In what special relations is the word used? 6. What is an appliance? How does appliance compare with tool? 7. What is a mechanism? 8. What is a machine in the most general sense? in the technical and common use? 9. What is an apparatus? 10. Which of these words have figurative use? 11. How are instrument and tool contrasted in figurative use?


The time is coming when the ——s of husbandry shall supplant the weapons of war.

Mix salt and sand, and it shall puzzle the wisest of men, with his mere natural ——s, to separate all the grains of sand from all the grains of salt.

The pick, stone-saw, wedge, chisel, and other ——s were already in use when the pyramids were built.

* * * * *

TOPIC (page 359).


1. From what is topic derived, and with what meaning? 2. How is question used in a similar sense, and why? 3. Is the general subject or theme properly known as the topic? To what is that name more appropriately given?


My father ... always took care to start some ingenious or useful —— of discourse, which might tend to improve the minds of his children.

One of the most important rules in a deliberative assembly is, that every speaker shall speak to the ——.

The —— of the Iliad is not the war of Troy, but the wrath of Achilles exhibited during and in connection with the war of Troy.

* * * * *



1. How does transact differ from do? 2. How does transact differ from treat and negotiate? 3. How does negotiate compare with treat? 4. How do transactions differ from proceedings?


In the first Parliament of James the House of Commons refused for the first time to —— business on a Sunday.

The treaty of peace that closed the war of 1812 had been already —— before the battle of New Orleans was fought.

Any direction of Christ or any direction or act of his apostles respecting the —— of business in the church, is binding upon us, unless such direction or act was grounded upon peculiar circumstances then existing.

* * * * *

TRANSIENT (page 361).


1. What is the derivation of transient and transitory? 2. How does transient differ in signification from transitory? 3. What is the distinctive meaning of temporary? 4. From what is ephemeral derived, and with what sense? 5. How does ephemeral differ from transient or transitory? 6. What does ephemeral suggest besides brevity of time? 7. What is the derivation and meaning of fugitive? 8. What is the distinctive meaning of evanescent?


Mirth is short and ——, cheerfulness fixed and permanent.

Neither gratitude nor revenge had any share in determining his [Charles II.'s] course; for never was there a mind on which both services and injuries left such faint and —— impressions.

A —— chairman is commonly appointed at the opening of a meeting to conduct proceedings till a permanent presiding officer shall be elected.

* * * * *

UNION (page 362).


1. What is unity? 2. What is union? 3. How are unity and union contrasted? 4. When may unity be predicated of that which is made up of parts?


Behold how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in ——.

Out of the —— of Roman and Teutonic elements arose the modern world of Europe.

* * * * *

UTILITY (page 363).


1. From what is utility derived, and what is its primary meaning? 2. How is utility discriminated from use and usefulness? 3. What is the derivation and primary meaning of expediency? 4. How are expediency and utility used as regards moral action? Which is the inferior word in such use? 5. How does policy in such use compare with expediency and utility?


Principle is ever my motto, not ——.

Two words form the key of the Baconian doctrine, —— and progress. The ancient philosophy disdained to be useful, and was content to be stationary.

Justice itself is the great standing —— of civil society, and any departure from it, under any circumstances, rests under the suspicion of being no —— at all.

The fundamental objection to the doctrine of ——, in all its modifications is that taken by Dr. Reid, viz., "that agreeableness and —— are not moral conceptions, nor have they any connection with morality. What a man does merely because it is agreeable is not virtue."

* * * * *

VACANT (page 363).


1. What is the meaning of empty? of vacant? 2. To what does vacant especially refer? 3. What is the difference between an empty house and a vacant house? 4. What is the difference in dignity between the two words? 5. What is the significance of void and devoid? 6. What does waste imply? 7. In what sense is vacuous used?


—— heads console with —— sound.

The watch-dog's voice that bay'd the whispering wind And the loud laugh that spoke the —— mind.

* * * * *

VENAL (page 365).


1. From what is venal derived, and with what meaning? mercenary? hireling? 2. How are mercenary and venal discriminated from hireling?


The closing quarter of the nineteenth century may be termed the —— era of American politics. Never before has legislation been so universally, so unscrupulously, and unblushingly for sale.

The body of Greeks, immortalized under the name of the Ten Thousand, ... though embarking on a foreign —— service, were by no means outcasts, or even men of extreme poverty.

It is not the hire, but the working only for the hire that makes the ——.

* * * * *

VENERATION (page 366).


1. By what qualities is awe inspired? 2. What elements are present and what lacking in awe? 3. What is dread and by what aroused? 4. How do reverence and veneration differ from awe or dread? 5. How does adoration compare with veneration?


Man craves an object of ——; and if not supplied with that which God has appointed, will take what offers.

The Italian climate robs age of its ——, and makes it look newer than it is.

* * * * *

VENIAL (page 367).


1. From what is venial derived, and what does it signify? 2. How does venial compare with pardonable? 3. How does excusable differ from the above words? 4. What very different word is sometimes confounded with venial?


Theft on the part of a starving man is one of the most —— of offenses.

Under all the circumstances, the error was ——.

* * * * *

VERACITY (page 367).


1. Do truth and verity apply to thought and speech or to persons? 2. To what does veracity apply? truthfulness? 3. Into what two classes may the words in this group of synonyms be divided, and what words will be found in each class?


On a certain confidence in the —— of mankind is founded so much of the knowledge on which we constantly depend, that, without it, the whole system of human things would go into confusion.

If all the world and love were young, And —— in every shepherd's tongue, These pretty pleasures might me move To live with thee and be thy love.

* * * * *

VIRTUE (page 370).


1. What is the prominent idea in virtue? 2. How does goodness differ from virtue? 3. Of what relations are honesty and probity used? 4. How is honesty used in a sense higher than the commercial? 5. What, in the full sense, is integrity? 6. What is honor? 7. What is purity? duty? 8. What do rectitude and righteousness denote? 9. To what does uprightness especially refer? 10. What is virtuousness?


—— is the fruit of exertion; it supposes conquest of temptation.

In seeing that a thing is right, we see at the same time that it is our —— to do it.

It is true that —— is the best policy; but if this be the motive of honest dealing, there is no real ——.

Where is that chastity of —— that felt a stain like a wound?


abandon, 1 " renounce, 309 " surrender, 349

abandoned, addicted, 19

abase, 2

abash, 3

abate, 3 " abolish, 6 " alleviate, 33

abbreviation, 4 " abridgment, 7

abdicate, abandon, 1

aberration, insanity, 221

abet, 4 " help, 195

abetter, accessory, 13

abettor, accessory, 13

abhor, 5

abhorrence, abomination, 7 " antipathy, 48 " hatred, 193

abide, 5 " endure, 150

abiding, permanent, 269

ability, power, 279

abject, pitiful, 273

abjure, abandon, 1 " renounce, 309

able, adequate, 21 " clever, 109 " sagacious, 322

abode, home, 201

abolish, 6 " cancel, 92

abominable, criminal, 120

abominate, abhor, 5

abomination, 7

aboriginal, primeval, 287

abortive, vain, 364

abounding, plentiful, 276

aboveboard, candid, 93

abridge, restrain, 315

abridgment, 7 " abbreviation, 4

abrogate, abolish, 6 " cancel, 92

abrupt, bluff, 83 " steep, 342

absent, abstracted, 11

absent-minded, abstracted, 11

absolute, 8 " infinite, 216 " perfect, 268 " pure, 296

absolution, pardon, 262

absolve, 9 " pardon, 262

absorb, 9

absorbed, abstracted, 11

abstain, cease, 98

abstemiousness, abstinence, 10

abstinence, 10

abstract, v., 10

abstract, n., abridgment, 7

abstracted, 11

abstruse, complex, 112 " mysterious, 247 " obscure, 255

absurd, 11 " incongruous, 214

abundant, large, 229 " plentiful, 276

abuse, 12 " abomination, 7

abutting, adjacent, 22

accede, agree, 25

accelerate, quicken, 297

accept, agree, 25 " assume, 61 " confess, 114

acceptable, delightful, 126

accepted, authentic, 67

access, entrance, 154

accessible, friendly, 178

accession, entrance, 154

accessory, a., auxiliary, 67

accessory, n., 13 " appendage, 53

accident, 14 " hazard, 194

acclaim, praise, 280

acclamation, praise, 280

accompaniment, appendage, 53 " circumstance, 105

accompany, follow, 174

accomplice, accessory, 13 " associate, 60

accomplish, attain, 64 " do, 135 " transact, 360

accomplished, polite, 277 " skilful, 335

accomplishment, act, 16 " end, n., 148

accord, v., agree, 25

accord, n., harmony, 191

accordance, harmony, 191

accordingly, therefore, 355

accost, address, v., 19

account, v., calculate, 90

account, n., history, 200 " reason, n., 302 " record, 304 " report, 311 " story, 343

accountability, duty, 142

accouterments, arms, 55 " caparison, 93

accredited, authentic, 67

accumulate, amass, 38

accurate, perfect, 268

accuse, arraign, 56

accustomed, addicted, 19 " usual, 362

acerb, bitter, 81

acerbity, acrimony, 15

acetous, bitter, 81

ache, pain, 261

achieve, attain, 64 " do, 135 " get, 183 " succeed, 346

achievement, act, 16 " career, 95 " end, n., 148 " victory, 369 " work, 374

acid, bitter, 81

acidulated, bitter, 81

acidulous, bitter, 81

acknowledge, avow, 69 " confess, 114

acknowledgment, apology, 51

acquaintance, 15 " knowledge, 227

acquiesce, agree, 25

acquire, attain, 64 " get, 183 " purchase, 295

acquit, absolve, 9 " pardon, 262

acquittal, pardon, 262

acrid, bitter, 81

acrimonious, bitter, 81 " morose, 245

acrimony, 15 " enmity, 152

act, v., transact, 360

act, n., 16 " exercise, 162 " motion, 245 " transaction, 360

action, act, 16 " battle, 74 " behavior, 79 " exercise, 162 " motion, 245 " operation, 258 " transaction, 360 " work, 374

active, 17 " alert, 28 " alive, 30 " industrious, 215 " nimble, 253

activity, exercise, 162

actor, agent, 24 " cause, 98

actual, real, 301

actualize, do, 135

actuate, influence, 217

acumen, 18

acute, astute, 62 " sagacious, 322

acuteness, acumen, 18

adage, proverb, 293

adapted, adequate, 21

add, 18

addendum, appendage, 53

addicted, 19

addition, appendage, 53

address, v., 19

address, n., 20 " speech, 339

adduce, allege, 31

adept, skilful, 335

adequate, 21 " plentiful, 276

adherence, attachment, 63

adherent, 21

adhesion, attachment, 63

adhesive, 22

adieu, farewell, 168

adit, entrance, 154

adjacent, 22

adjoin, add, 18

adjoining, adjacent, 22

adjunct, appendage, 53

adjuration, oath, 254

administer, execute, 161

admiration, amazement, 39

admire, 23

admission, entrance, 154

admit, agree, 25 " allow, 35 " avow, 69 " confess, 114

admittance, entrance, 154

admixture, alloy, 36

admonish, reprove, 312

admonition, reproof, 311

adolescent, youthful, 375

adoration, veneration, 366

adore, admire, 23 " venerate, 366

adorn, 23

adroit, clever, 109 " skilful, 335

adroitness, address, n., 20 " dexterity, 129

adulation, praise, 280

adulteration, alloy, 36

advance, v., allege, 31 " amend, 41 " promote, 291 " quicken, 297

advance, n., progress, 289

advancement, progress, 289

advantage, profit, 288 " utility, 363 " victory, 369

adventure, accident, 14

adventurous, brave, 85

adversary, enemy, 151

adversity, misfortune, 242

advert, allude, 36

advertise, announce, 46

advised, conscious, 116

advocate, abet, 4 " plead, 274

aerial, airy, 27

affable, friendly, 178

affair, battle, 74 " business, 88 " transaction, 360

affect, assume, 61

affectation, hypocrisy, 204 " pretense, 283

affection, attachment, 63 " disease, 134 " friendship, 179 " love, 235

affectionate, friendly, 178

affidavit, oath, 254 " testimony, 355

affinity, analogy, 43 " kin, 227

affirm, allege, 31 " state, 341

affirmation, testimony, 355

afflict, chasten, 103

affliction, grief, 187 " misfortune, 242

affix, add, 18

affluent, plentiful, 276

afford, endure, 150

affray, feud, 170

affright, n., alarm, 28 " fear, 168

affright, v., frighten, 180

affront, 24

age, time, 356

aged, old, 257

agency, operation, 258

agent, 24 " cause, 98

aggravate, affront, 24

aggregate, amass, 38

aggression, attack, n., 64

aggrieve, abuse, 12

agile, active, 17 " nimble, 253

agitate, shake, 330

agitation, storm, 343

agnomen, name, 247

agnostic, skeptic, 334

agony, pain, 261

agree, 25

agreeable, amiable, 42 " comfortable, 110 " delightful, 126 " pleasant, 275

agreement, contract, 118 " harmony, 191

agricultural, rustic, 321

agriculture, 25

aid, v., abet, 4 " promote, 291

aid, n., adherent, 21 " auxiliary, 67 " help, 195 " subsidy, 345

aider, adherent, 21

ailment, disease, 134

aim, 26 " design, 128 " direction, 132 " reason, n., 302

air, 27 " pretense, 283

airy, 27

akin, alike, 30

alarm, 28 " frighten, 180

alarming, awful, 70

alert, 28 " active, 17 " alive, 30 " nimble, 253 " vigilant, 369

alien, a. & n., 29

alienate, surrender, 349

alienation, insanity, 221

alike, 30 " synonymous, 349

aliment, food, 175

alive, 30

all, every, 158

allay, 31

allege, 31 " state, 341

allegiance, 32

allegory, 33 " fiction, 170

alleviate, 33 " allay, 31

alley, way, 372

alliance, 34 " association, 60 " kin, 227

allot, 34 " apportion, 54

allow, 35 " confess, 114 " endure, 150

allowance, pay, 266 " permission, 269 " subsidy, 345

alloy, 36

allude, 36

allure, 37 " draw, 138 " persuade, 271

ally, n., accessory, 13 " adherent, 21 " associate, 60 " auxiliary, 67

almsgiving, benevolence, 80

also, 37

alter, change, v., 100

alteration, change, n., 101

alternative, 38

altho, notwithstanding, conj., 254

amass, 38

amateur, 39

amazement, 39 " perplexity, 270

ambiguous, equivocal, 155 " obscure, 255

ambition, 40

ameliorate, amend, 41

amenable, docile, 136

amend, 41

amiable, 42

amicable, friendly, 178

amid, 42

amidst, amid, 42

amity, friendship, 179 " harmony, 191

amnesty, pardon, 262

among, amid, 42

amongst, amid, 42

ample, large, 229 " plentiful, 276

amplify, 43 " add, 18

amuse, entertain, 152

amusement, entertainment, 153

analogous, alike, 30

analogy, 43

analysis, abridgment, 7

anarchism, socialism, 338

anarchy, revolution, 317

anathema, oath, 254

ancient, antique, 48 " obsolete, 256 " old, 257 " primeval, 287

and, but, 89

anecdote, story, 343

anger, 44 " hatred, 193

anguish, anxiety, 49 " pain, 261

animadversion, reproof, 311

animal, a., brutish, 87

animal, n., 45

animate, alive, 30

animated, airy, 27 " alive, 30 " eager, 142

animosity, anger, 44 " enmity, 152 " feud, 170 " hatred, 193

annals, history, 200

annex, add, 18

annihilate, abolish, 6 " exterminate, 163

annotation, remark, 308

announce, 46 " speak, 339

annoy, affront, 24

annoyance, abomination, 7

annul, abolish, 6 " cancel, 92

anomalous, absurd, 11 " queer, 297

answer, 46

antagonism, antipathy, 48 " enmity, 152

antagonist, enemy, 151

antecedent, a., previous, 285

antecedent, n., cause, 98 " precedent, 282

antepast, anticipation, 48

anterior, previous, 285

anticipate, 47 " abide, 5 " prevent, 284

anticipation, 48

antipathy, 48 " hatred, 193

antiquated, antique, 48 " obsolete, 256 " old, 257

antique, 48 " old, 257

anxiety, 49 " care, 94

anxious, eager, 142

any, every, 158

apathy, 50 " stupidity, 344 " stupor, 344

aphorism, proverb, 293

apiece, 51

apocalypse, revelation, 316

apologize for, palliate, 261

apologue, fiction, 170

apology, 51 " defense, 123

apothegm, proverb, 293

appal, frighten, 180

appalling, awful, 70

apparatus, tool, 358

apparel, dress, 140

apparent, 52 " clear, 107 " evident, 159

appeal, address, v., 19

appear, 52

appearance or semblance of, have, appear, 52

appearance, air, 27

appease, allay, 31

appellation, name, 247

append, add, 18

appendage, 53

appendix, appendage, 53

appetency, appetite, 54 " desire, 128

appetite, 54 " desire, 128

applaud, admire, 23

applause, praise, 280

appliance, tool, 358

application, exercise, 162 " industry, 216

appoint, allot, 34 " apportion, 54

apportion, 54 " allot, 34

appreciate, esteem, v., 156

apprehend, anticipate, 47 " arrest, 57 " catch, 97 " perceive, 267

apprehension, alarm, 28 " anticipation, 48 " anxiety, 49 " fear, 168 " idea, 206 " knowledge, 227

apprised, conscious, 116

approach, address, v., 19

approach, n., approximation, 55 " entrance, 154

approbation, praise, 280

appropriate, abstract, 10 " apportion, 54 " assume, 61

approval, praise, 280

approve, admire, 25 " agree, 25

approximation, 55

appurtenance, appendage, 53

apostrophize, address, v., 19

a priori, transcendental, 361

apt, clever, 109 " likely, 232 " sagacious, 322 " skilful, 335

aptitude, dexterity, 129 " power, 279

arbiter, judge, 224

arbitrary, absolute, 8

arbitrate, interpose, 222

arbitrator, judge, 224

archaic, obsolete, 256

archetype, example, 160 " idea, 206 " ideal, 206 " model, 243

archive, record, 304

archives, history, 200

ardent, eager, 142

ardor, enthusiasm, 153

arduous, difficult, 132

argue, plead, 274 " reason, v., 302

argument, reason, n., 302 " reasoning, 303

argumentation, reasoning, 303

arise, rise, 319

arising, beginning, 78

armament, army, 56

armor, arms, 55

arms, 55

army, 56 " array, 57

arraign, 56

arrangement, array, 57 " contract, 118

array, 57 " army, 56 " dress, 140

arrest, 57 " obstruct, 257

arrive, attain, 64 " reach, 300

arrogance, assurance, 61 " pride, 286

arrogant, absolute, 8 " dogmatic, 137

arrogate, assume, 61

art, artifice, 58 " business, 88 " science, 325

article, term, 354

article of belief, doctrine, 136 " of faith, doctrine, 136

articulate, speak, 339

artifice, 58 " fraud, 177

artificer, artist, 58

artisan, artist, 58

artist, 58

artistic, tasteful, 352

artless, candid, 93 " rustic, 321

as, because, 77

ascend, rise, 319

ascertain, discover, 133

ascribe, attribute, v., 65

ashes, body, 84

ask, 59 " plead, 274 " pray, 281

asperity, acrimony, 15

asperse, slander, 336

asphyxia, stupor, 344

aspiration, aim, 26 " ambition, 40 " desire, 128

assail, attack, v., 63

assassinate, kill, 226

assault, v., attack, v., 63

assault, n., attack, n., 64

assemblage, company, 110

assemble, convoke, 120

assembly, company, 110

assent, v., agree, 25

assent, n., faith, 164

assert, allege, 31 " state, 341

assertion, assurance, 61

asseverate, allege, 31 " state, 341

assiduity, industry, 216

assiduous, industrious, 215

assign, allege, 31 " allot, 34 " apportion, 54 " attribute, v., 65 " commit, 110

assist, abet, 4 " help, 195 " promote, 291

assistant, accessory, 13 " auxiliary, 67

associate, 60 " accessory, 13 " attribute, v., 65

association, 60 " acquaintance, 15 " class, 106

assuage, alleviate, 33

assume, 61

assumption, assurance, 61 " pretense, 283 " pride, 286

assurance, 61 " effrontery, 144 " faith, 164 " impudence, 213

assure, confirm, 114 " state, 341

assured, conscious, 116

astonishment, amazement, 39 " perplexity, 270

astute, 62

as well, also, 37

as well as, also, 37

at ease, comfortable, 110

atheist, skeptic, 334

atom, part, 264 " particle, 264

at once, immediately, 211

atonement, propitiation, 291

at rest, comfortable, 110

atrocious, barbarous, 73

attach, add, 18

attached, addicted, 19 " adjacent, 22

attachment, 63 " appendage, 53 " friendship, 179 " love, 235

attack, v., 63

attack, n., 64

attain, 64 " get, 183 " reach, 300 " succeed, 346

attainment, progress, 289 " wisdom, 372

attempt, v., endeavor, v., 149

attempt, n., endeavor, n., 150

attend, follow, 174 " listen, 232

attendant, accessory, 13

attention, care, 94 " industry, 216

attestation, testimony, 355

attire, dress, 140

attitude, 65

attract, allure, 37 " draw, 138

attraction, love, 235

attractive, amiable, 42 " beautiful, 76 " pleasant, 275

attribute, v., 65

attribute, n., 66 " characteristic, 103 " emblem, 146

audacity, effrontery, 144 " temerity, 353

augment, add, 18 " amplify, 43

augur, 66

august, awful, 70 " royal, 320

auspicious, propitious, 291

austere, severe, 329

authentic, 67 " real, 301

author, cause, 98

authoritative, absolute, 8 " authentic, 67 " dogmatic, 137

authority, permission, 269 " precedent, 282

authorization, permission, 269

authorized, authentic, 67

autobiography, history, 200

autochthonic, primeval, 287

autocratic, absolute, 8

automatic, spontaneous, 340

auxiliary, 67 " appendage, 53

avail, profit, 288 " utility, 363

avaricious, 68

avenge, 69 " requite, 313

avenging, revenge, 316

avenue, way, 372

aver, allege, 31 " avow, 69 " state, 341

averse, reluctant, 308

aversion, abomination, 7 " antipathy, 48 " hatred, 193

avocation, business, 88

avouch, avow, 69 " state, 341

avow, 69 " confess, 114 " state, 341

await, abide, 5

awake, vigilant, 369

award, allot, 34

aware, conscious, 116

awe, amazement, 39 " fear, 168 " veneration, 366

awful, 70

awkward, 70 " rustic, 321

axiom, 71 " proverb, 293

babble, 71

backbite, slander, 336

backer, adherent, 21

backward, reluctant, 308

backwardness, modesty, 244

bad, pernicious, 270

badinage, banter, 73

baffle, hinder, 199

bail, security, 326

balk, hinder, 199

balky, restive, 314

ban, v., banish, 72

ban, n., oath, 254

bandit, robber, 320

baneful, pernicious, 270

banish, 72 " exterminate, 163

bank, 72

bankrupt, break, 86

banter, 73 " wit, 373

bar, barrier, 74 " hinder, 199 " impediment, 213 " lock, 234 " obstruct, 257

barbarian, barbarous, 73

barbaric, barbarous, 73

barbarism, language, 228

barbarous, 73

barely, but, 89

bargain, contract, 118 " sale, 323

bargain for, purchase, 294

barricade, v., obstruct, 257

barricade, n., barrier, 74

barrier, 74 " boundary, 84 " impediment, 213

barter, business, 88 " sale, 323

barter for, purchase, 295

base, brutish, 87 " pitiful, 273

baseless, vain, 364

bashfulness, modesty, 244

bastinado, beat, 75

batter, beat, 75

battle, 74

battle array, array, 57

bawl, call, 91

beach, bank, 72

bear, abide, 5 " carry, 96 " endure, 150 " support, 348

bearing, air, 27 " behavior, 79 " direction, 132

bear up under, endure, 150

bear with, endure, 150

beast, animal, 45

beastly, brutish, 87

beat, 75 " conquer, 115

beauteous, beautiful, 76

beautiful, 76 " fine, 172 " graceful, 186

beautify, adorn, 23

because, 77 " therefore, 355

bechance, happen, 188

become, make, 236

becoming, 77

bedeck, adorn, 23

befall, happen, 188

befitting, becoming, 77

befoul, defile, 124

befriend, help, 195

beg, ask, 59 " plead, 274 " pray, 281

beggary, poverty, 279

beginning, 78

beguile, entertain, 152

behavior, 79 " air, 27

behold, discern, 133 " look, 234

belabor, beat, 75

beleaguer, attack, v., 63

belief, doctrine, 136 " faith, 164 " fancy, 167 " idea, 206

belittle, disparage, 134

belles-lettres, literature, 233

bellow, call, 91

bemoan, mourn, 246

bend, 79

benefaction, gift, 184

beneficence, benevolence, 80

benefit, profit, 288 " utility, 363

benevolence, 80 " mercy, 239

benevolent, humane, 203

benign, propitious, 291

benignant, amiable, 42 " humane, 203

benignity, benevolence, 80 " mercy, 239

bequest, gift, 184

bereavement, misfortune, 242

beseech, ask, 59 " plead, 274 " pray, 281

beseeming, becoming, 77

beset, attack, v., 63

beside, adjacent, 22

besides, also, 37 " but, 89 " yet, 374

besiege, attack, v., 63

bestial, brutish, 87

bestow, give, 185

betide, happen, 188

betoken, augur, 66

better, amend, 41

between, amid, 42

betwixt, amid, 42

bevy, flock, 173

bewail, mourn, 246

bewilder, abash, 3

bewilderment, amazement, 39 " perplexity, 270

bewitching, beautiful, 76 " charming, 103

bias, bend, 79 " prejudice, 283

bid, pray, 281 " proposal, 292

bide, abide, 5

big, large, 229

bigotry, fanaticism, 166

bills, money, 244

bind, 81

biography, history, 200

birth, kin, 227

biting, bitter, 81

bitter, 81

bitterness, acrimony, 15 " enmity, 152 " feud, 170

bizarre, queer, 297

blab, babble, 71

black, dark, 122

blame, v., condemn, 113 " reprove, 312

blame, n., reproof, 311

blameless, innocent, 220 " perfect, 268

blanch, bleach, 82

blank, vacant, 363

blaspheming, oath, 254

blasphemy, oath, 254

blaze, v., burn, 87

blaze, n., fire, 173 " light, 231

bleach, 82

blemish, 82 " injury, 219

blessed, happy, 190 " holy, 200

blessedness, happiness, 189

blessing, mercy, 239

blind, artifice, 58

bliss, happiness, 189

blissful, happy, 190

blithe, happy, 190

blithesome, happy, 190

block, hinder, 199

blood, kin, 227

blot, blemish, 82 " stain, 341

blot out, cancel, 92

blow, 83 " misfortune, 242

bluff, 83

blunt, bluff, 83

blur, blemish, 82

blurt, babble, 71

blustering, bluff, 83

boast, ostentation, 259

boasting, ostentation, 259

bode, augur, 66

bodily, physical, 272

body, 84

bold, bluff, 83 " brave, 85

boldness, assurance, 61 " effrontery, 144 " impudence, 213 " pertness, 271

bolt, lock, 234

bondage, fetter, 169

bonds, fetter, 169

bonny, beautiful, 76

bonus, subsidy, 345

books, literature, 233

boon, gift, 184

boorish, awkward, 70 " rustic, 321

bootless, vain, 364

border, bank, 72 " boundary, 84

bordering, adjacent, 22

both, 84 " every, 158

bound, bank, 72 " boundary, 84 " end, n., 148

boundary, 84 " end, n., 148

boundless, infinite, 216

bounteous, plentiful, 276

bountiful, generous, 182 " plentiful, 276

bounty, benevolence, 80 " gift, 184 " subsidy, 345

bourn, boundary, 84

bourne, boundary, 84

bout, battle, 74

bow, bend, 79

box, blow, 83

boyish, youthful, 375

brain, mind, 241

brand, v., burn, 87

brand, n., blemish, 82

brandish, shake, 330

brass, effrontery, 144

brave, 85

bravery, prowess, 294

brawl, feud, 170

break, 86 " rend, 309

break off, end, v., 148

breastwork, barrier, 74

breathing, alive, 30

breeding, behavior, 79 " education, 143

bribe, gift, 184

bridle, restrain, 315

bridle-path, way, 372

brief, a., terse, 354 " transient, 361

brief, n., sketch, 334

brigand, robber, 320

bright, clever, 109 " happy, 190

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