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England, Picturesque and Descriptive - A Reminiscence of Foreign Travel
by Joel Cook
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SELBORNE.



Crossing from Midhurst over the border into Hampshire, the village of Selborne is reached, one of the smallest but best known places in England from the care and minuteness with which Rev. Gilbert White has described it in his Natural History of Selborne. It is a short distance south-east of Alton and about fifty miles south-west of London, while beyond the village the chalk-hills rise to a height of three hundred feet, having a long hanging wood on the brow, known as the Hanger, made up mainly of beech trees. The village is a single straggling street three-quarters of a mile in length, in a sheltered valley and running parallel with the Hanger. At each end of Selborne there rises a small rivulet, the one to the south becoming a branch of the Arun and flowing into the Channel, while the other is a branch of the Wey, which falls into the Thames. This is the pleasant little place, located in a broad parish, that Gilbert White has made famous, writing of everything concerning it, but more especially of its natural history and peculiarities of soil, its trees, fruits, and animal life. He was born at Selborne in 1720, and died there in 1793, in his seventy-third year. He was the father of English natural history, for much of what he wrote was equally applicable to other parts of the kingdom. His modest house, now overgrown with ivy, is one of the most interesting buildings in the village, and in it they still keep his study about as he left it, with the close-fronted bookcase protected by brass wire-netting, to which hangs his thermometer just where he originally placed it. The house has been little if any altered since he was carried to his last resting-place. He is described by those who knew him as "a little thin, prim, upright man," a quiet, unassuming, but very observing country parson, who occupied his time in watching and recording the habits of his parishioners, quadruped as well as feathered. At the end of the garden is still kept his sun-dial, the lawn around which is one of the softest and most perfect grass carpets in England.



The pleasant little church over which White presided is as modest and almost as attractive as his house. It was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and measures fifty-four by forty-seven feet, being almost as broad as it is long, consisting of three aisles, and making no pretensions, he says, to antiquity. It was built in Henry VII.'s reign, is perfectly plain and unadorned, and without painted glass, carved work, sculpture, or tracery. Within it, however, are low, squat, thick pillars supporting the roof, which he thinks are Saxon and upheld the roof of a former church, which, falling into decay, was rebuilt on these massive props because their strength had preserved them from the injuries of time. They support blunt Gothic arches. He writes that he remembers when the beams of the middle aisle were hung with garlands in honor of young women of the parish who died virgins. Within the chancel is his memorial on the wall, and he rests in an unassuming grave in the churchyard. The belfry is a square embattled tower forty-five feet high, built at the western end, and he tells pleasantly how the three old bells were cast into four in 1735, and a parishioner added a fifth one at his own expense, marking its arrival by a high festival in the village, "rendered more joyous by an order from the donor that the treble bell should be fixed bottom upward in the ground and filled with punch, of which all present were permitted to partake." The porch of the church to the southward is modern and shelters a fine Gothic doorway, whose folding doors are evidently of ancient construction. The vicarage stands alongside to the westward, an old Elizabethan house.



Among the singular things in Selborne to which White calls attention are two rocky hollow lanes, one of which leads to Alton. These roads have, by the traffic of ages and the running of water, been worn down through the first stratum of freestone and partly through the second, so that they look more like water-courses than roads. In many places they have thus been sunken as much as eighteen feet beneath the level of the fields alongside, so that torrents rush along them in rainy weather, with miniature cascades on either hand that are frozen into icicles in winter. These lanes, thus rugged and gloomy, affright the timid, but, gladly writes our author, they "delight the naturalist with their various botany." The old mill at Selborne, with its dilapidated windsails, presents a picturesque appearance, and up on the chalk-hills, where there is a far-away view over the pleasant vale beyond, is the Wishing Stone, erected on a little mound among the trees. All these things attracted our author's close attention, and as his parish was over thirty miles in circumference, as may be supposed his investigations covered a good deal of ground. His work is chiefly written in the form of a series of letters to friends, and he occasionally digresses over the border into the neighboring parishes to speak of their peculiarities or attractions. They all had in his day little churches, and the parish church of Greatham, not far from Selborne, is a specimen of the antique construction of the diminutive chapels that his ancestors handed down to their children for places of worship, each surrounded by its setting of ancient gravestones. The History of Selborne shows how the country parson in the olden time, whose flock was small, parish isolated, and visitors few, amused himself; but he has left an enduring monument that grows the more valuable as the years advance. In fact, it is a text-book of natural history; and so complete have been his observations that he not only describes all the plants and animals, birds, rocks, soils, and buildings, but he also has space to devote to the cats of Selborne, and to tell how they prowl in the roadway and mount the tiled roofs to capture the chimney swallows. How he loved his home is shown in the poem with which his work begins. We quote the opening stanza, and also some other characteristic portions of this ode, which describes the attractions of Selborne in the last century:

"See Selborne spreads her boldest beauties round, The varied valley, and the mountain ground Wildly majestic: what is all the pride Of flats with loads of ornament supplied? Unpleasing, tasteless, impotent expense, Compared with Nature's rude magnificence. Oft on some evening, sunny, soft, and still, The Muse shall hand thee to the beech-grown hill, To spend in tea the cool, refreshful hour, Where nods in air the pensile, nest-like bower; Or where the Hermit hangs his straw-clad cell, Emerging gently from the leafy dell: Romantic spot! from whence in prospect lies Whate'er of landscape charms our feasting eyes; The pointed spire, the hall, the pasture-plain, The russet fallow, and the golden grain; The breezy lake that sheds a gleaming light, Till all the fading picture fails the sight.... Now climb the steep, drop now your eye below, Where round the verdurous village orchards blow; There, like a picture, lies my lowly seat, A rural, sheltered, unobserved retreat. Me far above the rest, Selbornian scenes. The pendant forest and the mountain-greens, Strike with delight: ... There spreads the distant view That gradual fades, till sunk in misty blue."



WINCHESTER.



About sixteen miles south-west of Selborne is the chief city of Hampshire and one of the great historical cities of the realm—Winchester—built on the side of a chalk-hill rising from the valley of the Itchen, a stream that was Izaak Walton's favorite fishing-ground. This was the Roman Venta Belgarum, and was made an episcopal see in the seventh century. Nothing remains of the earlier cathedral, which was replaced by the present structure, begun in the eleventh century, but not finished until the fifteenth. Winchester Cathedral is five hundred and sixty feet long, and its nave is in the highest degree impressive, being the longest in England, extending two hundred and sixty-five feet. The western front has recently been restored. Within the cathedral are many noted tombs, including that of William Rufus, and above the altar is West's painting of the "Raising of Lazarus." In the presbytery are six mortuary chests containing the remains of kings and bishops of the ancient Saxon kingdom of Wessex. St. Swithin's shrine was the treasure of Winchester: he was bishop in the ninth century and the especial patron of the city and cathedral. Originally interred in the churchyard, his remains were removed to the golden shrine given by King Edgar, though tradition says this was delayed by forty days of rain, which is the foundation of the popular belief in the continuance of wet weather after St. Swithin's Day, July 15. In the Lady Chapel, Queen Mary was married to Philip of Spain in 1554, and the chair on which she sat is still preserved there. The cathedral close is extremely picturesque, surrounded by houses of considerable antiquity. Among the prelates of Winchester were William of Wykeham and Cardinal Beaufort: the former founded St. Mary's College there in the fourteenth century—a fine structure, with the picturesque ruins of the old palace of the bishops, Wolvesey Castle, near by; the latter, in the fifteenth century, built Cardinal Beaufort's Tower and Gateway in the southern suburbs, on the Southampton road, when he revived the foundation of St. Cross. This noble gateway, when approached from the city, is seen through the foliage, with a background of quaint high chimneys, church, and green leaves. The river Itchen flows alongside the road, half hidden among the trees. The St. Cross Hospital, with the thirteen brethren still living there in their black gowns and silver crosses, gives a vivid picture of ancient England. Adjoining the gateway on the left hand is the brewery, formerly known as the "Hundred Men's Hall," because a hundred of the poorest men in Winchester were daily entertained there at dinner, and, as the repast was provided on a bountiful scale, the guests always had ample provisions to carry home to their families. The tower and surrounding buildings are excellent examples of the domestic architecture of the fifteenth century. In this hospital the custom still prevails of giving the wayfarer a horn of ale and dole of bread, the ale being brewed on the premises and of the same kind made there centuries ago. The old West Gate of Winchester, the only survivor of the city's four gates, is a well-preserved specimen of the military architecture of the time of Henry III. Winchester Castle was originally built by William the Norman, and continued a residence of the kings until Henry III., but of it little remains beyond the hall and some subterranean fragments. Here hangs on the wall what is said to be the top of King Arthur's round table. There is a beautiful cross in Winchester, recently restored, and originally erected on the High Street by Cardinal Beaufort, who seems to have spent much of his vast and ill-gotten wealth in splendid architectural works. Shakespeare introduces him in Henry VI., and in the scene that closes his career truthfully depicts him:

"If thou be'st death, I'll give thee England's treasure, Enough to purchase such another island. So thou wilt let me live and feel no pain."

THE NEW FOREST.

The Itchen flows into the estuary of Southampton Water, and from its western shores spreads far away the domain of the New Forest, stretching down into the south-western part of Hampshire. This is a remnant of the forests that once covered the greater part of the island, and is the most extensive left in the English lowlands. It was made a royal forest by William the Norman, and thus continues to the present time, the largest tract of uncultivated land and one of the finest examples of woodland scenery in the kingdom. It covers almost the whole surface between Southampton Water and the Avon, which is the western border of Hampshire, but in recent years its area has been gradually curtailed, though its extent has never been accurately measured. Stretching about fifteen miles from east to west and twenty miles from north-west to south-east, it includes about ninety-one thousand acres, of which twenty-six thousand belong to private landowners, two thousand are the absolute property of the Crown, and the remaining sixty-three thousand acres have common and other rights due to a large number of tenants, though the title is in the Crown. About twenty-five thousand acres are covered with timber, but only five thousand acres of this is old timber, the remainder having been planted with trees within the last two hundred years. The surface is gently undulating, becoming hilly in the northern parts; the soil is usually arid, and the scenery discloses wide expanses of heathery moor, often marshy in the lower grounds, with here and there copses that gradually thicken into woodland as the true forest district is approached. The chief trees are oak and beech, which attain to noble proportions, while there are occasional tufts of holly and undergrowth.



Almost in the centre of the forest is the village of Lyndhurst, regarded as the best point of departure for its survey—a hamlet with one long street and houses dotted about on the flanks of a hill, the summit of which is adorned by a newly-built church of red brick with bath-stone dressings. Within this church is Sir Frederick Leighton's fresco of the "Wise and Foolish Virgins." In the ponderous "Queen's House," near the church, lives the chief official of the forest, and here are held the courts. Formerly, this official was always a prince royal and known as the lord warden, but now his powers are vested in the "First Commissioner of Woods and Forests:" here the poacher was in former days severely punished. The New Forest was originally not only a place for the king's pleasure in the chase, but it also furnished timber for the royal navy, though this fell into disuse in the Civil War. Subsequently parts were replanted, and William III. planted by degrees six thousand acres with trees. The great storm of 1703 uprooted four thousand fine trees, and then again there was partial neglect, and it was not until within a half century that a serious effort was made to fully restore the timber. There have now been ten thousand acres planted: a nursery for young trees has been established, and about seven hundred acres are annually planted, the young oaks being set out between Scotch firs, whose more rapid growth protects the saplings from the gales, and when they are able to stand alone the firs are thinned out. About four miles north of Lyndhurst and beyond Minstead is Rufus's Stone. Around Minstead Manor the land has long been enclosed and cultivated, and looks as little like a wild forest as can be imagined, while northward the ground rises to the top of Stony Cross Hill, disclosing one of the finest views in this region, looking down over a wide valley, with cultivated fields on its opposite sides and woodland beyond, gently shelving to Southampton Water, of which occasional glimpses may be had. There is an abundance of woodland everywhere, checquered by green lawns. At our back is the enclosed park, within which some intrenchments mark the site of Castle Malwood, where tradition says that William Rufus passed the night previous to his death. The king just before dawn aroused his attendants by a sudden outcry, and rushing into the chamber they found him in such agitation that they remained there until morning. He had dreamed he was being bled, and that the stream from his veins was so copious that it rose to the sky, obscuring the sun. The daylight also brought other omens: a foreign monk at the court had been dreaming, and saw the king enter a church, seize the rood, and rend it with his teeth; the holy image at first submitted to the insult, then struck down the king, who, while prostrate, vomited fire and smoke which masked the stars. The king, whose courage had returned with daylight, made light of the monk's tale, though he did not go to hunt as usual that morning, but after dinner, having taken liberal drafts of wine, rode out with a small party, including Walter Tyril, lord of Pontoise, lately arrived from Normandy. They hunted throughout the afternoon, and near sunset the king and Tyril found themselves alone in a glade below the castle. A stag bounded by, and the king unsuccessfully shot at him; then another ran past, when Tyril shot his arrow, bidden, as tradition says, by the king "in the devil's name." The arrow struck William Rufus full in the chest, and he dropped lifeless. Tyril, putting spurs to his horse, galloped westward to a ford across the Avon into Dorsetshire. Soon after a charcoal-burner named Purkis, whose descendants still live in the New Forest, came past, found the king's body, and, placing it on his cart, bore it, still bleeding, to Winchester. Tyril's arrow had glanced from a tree, which long existed, but, decaying centuries afterward, Rufus's Stone was set up to mark the spot. This became mutilated, and has been enclosed in an iron casing, with copies of the original inscriptions on the outside. It is now a cast-iron pillar about five feet high, with a grating at the top, through which may be seen the stone within. It stands on a gentle slope, not quite at the bottom of the valley, with pretty scenery around. Tyril got his horse shod at the Avon ford, for which offence the blacksmith afterwards paid an annual fine to the Crown. He was not very hotly pursued, however, and made his escape into Normandy, where he sturdily denied that the arrow was shot by him at all, laying the blame to a conspiracy of the king's enemies, of whom he had many.

Southward from Lyndhurst the road goes over undulating ground and through magnificent oaks and beeches to Brockenhurst, past a heronry at Vinney Ridge. This section contains some of the finest trees in the forest, with plenty of dense holly and an occasional yew. The ground discloses the bracken fern, and gray lichen clings thickly to the trunks and branches of the trees. The woodland views along this road are splendid, and only need the wild animals of a former era to bring back the forest-life of mediaeval times. Off to the eastward, standing on the little river Exe, are the foliage-clad ruins of Beaulieu Abbey, founded by King John, and now held by the Duke of Buccleuch, who has a mansion near by. Here was buried John's mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine, and here came the widow of Warwick the King-maker, after the battle of Barnet, for sanctuary. Perkin Warbeck when defeated also took refuge at Beaulieu, where he surrendered on promise of mercy. The abbey is a wreck now, for after its dissolution we are told that its stones "went to build Henry VIII.'s martello tower at Hurst, and its lead to repair Calshot" on Southampton Water, while the gate-house serves as the entrance to the modern ducal mansion, and the refectory is the parish church. Here are the tombs of Mary Dore and Mary Do. The former was a noted witch, "who could transform herself into a hare or cat, and afflict or cure all the cattle in the neighborhood." The latter is credited with more celestial attributes in the obituary that survives her than were allotted her unfortunate companion; and the acrostic inscription on her tomb is often quoted:

"Merciless fate (to our greate griefe and woe) A prey hath here made of our deere Moll Do, Rapte up in duste and hid in earthe and claye, Yet live her soule and virtues now and aye; Death is a debt all owe which must be paide Oh that she knew, and of it was not afraide!"



To the westward of Beaulieu is Brockenhurst, a pretty forest village, along whose main street we are told the deer formerly galloped on a winter's night, to the great excitement of all the dogs therein. The forest almost blends with the village-green, and on a low artificial mound stands its church, with traces of almost every style of architecture since the Conquest, and guarded by a famous yew and oak. At Boldre, near Brockenhurst, lived Rev. W. Gilpin, the vicar of the parish, the author of several works on sylvan scenery, and reputed to be the original of the noted Dr. Syntax, who made such a humorous "Tour in Search of the Picturesque." He now lies at rest under a maple alongside his church, in which Southey was married. Ringwood is the chief town of the western forest-border upon the level plain that forms the Avon Valley where Tyril escaped across the ford. It is not a very interesting place. A little way up the river, near Horton, "King Monmouth" was captured after Sedgemoor, and from Ringwood he wrote the abject letters begging his life from King James, who turned a deaf ear to all entreaty. Alice Lisle, who was judicially murdered by Judge Jeffreys for sheltering two refugees from that battle, also lived at Moyle Court, near Ringwood. The chief inn is the "White Hart," named in memory of Henry VII.'s hunt in the New Forest, where the game, a white hart, showed fine running throughout the day, and ultimately stood at bay in a meadow near the village, when, at the intercession of the ladies, the hounds were called off, the hart secured, given a gold collar, and taken to Windsor. The inn where the king partook of refreshments that day had its sign changed to the White Hart. It was at Bisterne, below Ringwood, that Madonie of Berkeley Castle slew the dragon, for which feat King Edward IV. knighted him—a tale that the incredulous will find confirmed by the deed still preserved in Berkeley Castle which records the event, confers the knighthood, and gives him permission to wear the dragon as his badge.

CHRISTCHURCH.



From Brockenhurst the Lymington River flows southward out of the New Forest into the Solent, across which is the Isle of Wight, steamers connecting Lymington at the mouth of the river with Yarmouth on the island. About twelve miles westward from Lymington is Christchurch, at the confluence of the Avon and Stour Rivers, which here form the estuary known as Christchurch Bay. The Avon flows down past Ringwood on the western verge of the New Forest, its lower valley being a wide grassy trough in a rolling plateau of slight elevation. The moors, with many parts too arid for cultivation, extend to the sea, having glens here and there whose sandy slopes are often thickly wooded, and whose beds are traversed by the "bournes" that give names to so many localities in this region. Along all the sea-border fashionable watering-places are springing up, which enjoy views over the water to the distant chalk-downs of the Isle of Wight, one of the best being that from Boscombe Chine. Through this land the Avon flows, and the Stour enters it from the west, with the ancient town of Christchurch standing on the broad angle between them. It is of Roman origin, and the remains of a British castle crown the neighboring promontory of Hengistbury Head. The chief attraction is the magnificent Priory Church, founded before the Norman Conquest, but rebuilt afterwards and dedicated to the Holy Trinity. The ancient town was known as Twynham from the two rivers, and it then became Christchurch-at-Twynham, but the original name was ultimately dropped. It was a royal demesne in Edward I.'s reign, and Edward III. granted it to the Earl of Salisbury, whose countess was the heroine of the institution of the Order of the Garter. It is a sleepy, old-fashioned place, with little of interest excepting the Priory Church and the castle. The square church-tower rises high above the Avon, a landmark from afar, its mass of gray masonry catching the eye from away over the sea. The church is of large dimensions, cruciform in plan, with short transepts, and a Lady chapel having the unusual peculiarity of an upper story. It is about three hundred and ten feet long, with the tower at the western end, and a large northern porch. The oldest part of the church was built in the twelfth century by Flambard, Bishop of Durham, who was granted this priory by William Rufus. Subsequently, he fell into disfavor, and the priory became a college of the Augustinians. Only the nave and transepts are left of his Norman church, the remainder being of later construction. The north porch, which has an extremely rich Decorated doorway, is of unusual size, having an upper chamber, and dating from the thirteenth century. The nave is of great beauty, being separated from the aisles by massive semicircular arches, rich in general effect, with a triforium above consisting of a double arcade, making it worthy to compete with the finest naves in England. The clerestory is more modern, being of Pointed Gothic, and the aisles are also of later construction: the northern aisle contains a beam to which is attached the legend that the timber was drawn out as if an elastic material "by the touch of a strange workman who wrought without wages and never spoke a word with his fellows." The western tower is of Perpendicular architecture, added by the later builders, and beneath it is the handsome marble monument erected to the memory of the poet Shelley, drowned at Spezzia in 1822: his family lived near Christchurch. The tower contains a peal of eight bells, two of them ancient, and from the belfry there is a noble view over the valleys of the two rivers, the distant moorlands and woods of the New Forest, the estuary winding seaward and glittering in the sun, while beneath are the houses and gardens of the town spread out as on a map. Among the many monuments in the church is that to Margaret, Countess of Salisbury, the last of the line who possessed the priory, and the closing heiress of the race of Plantagenets. She was the mother of Cardinal Pole, who upheld the cause of the pope against Henry VIII., and she was a prisoner in the Tower, held as hostage for his good behavior. At seventy years of age she was ordered out for execution, but refused to lay her head upon the block, saying, "So should traitors do, and I am none." Then, the historian says, "turning her gray head in every way, she bade the executioner, if he would have her head, to get it as he could, so that he was constrained to fetch it off slovenly." She was beheaded in May, 1541, being too near in kinship to the throne to be allowed to live. Little is left of the ancient priory buildings beyond the ruins of the old Norman gateway. The castle of Christchurch has also almost disappeared, leaving only massive fragments of the wall of the keep crowning a mound. It was of slight historical importance; and a more perfect relic is the ruin of the ancient Norman house standing near by on the bank of the Stour, an ivy-clad shell of masonry still showing the staircase and interior apartments. This crumbling memorial of the twelfth century was the home of Baldwin de Redvers, then Earl of Devon.

SOUTHAMPTON.

Crossing over the New Forest back to the Southampton Water on its eastern border, the river Itchen debouches on the farther shore near the head of the estuary, making a peninsula; and here is the celebrated port of Southampton, located between the river Itchen and the river Test, and having an excellent harbor. The Southampton Water extends from the Red Bridge, a short distance above the city, to Calshot Castle, about seven miles below, and varies in breadth from a mile and a half to two miles, the entrance being well protected by the Isle of Wight, which gives the harbor the peculiarity of four tides in the twenty-four hours—double the usual number, owing to the island intercepting a portion of the tidal wave in its flow both ways along the Channel. Southampton comes down from the Romans, and remains of their camp, Clausentum, now known as Bittern Manor, are still to be seen in the suburbs, while parts of the Saxon walls and two of the old gates of the town are yet preserved. The Danes sacked it in the tenth century, and afterwards it was the occasional residence of Canute, its shore being said to be the scene of his rebuke to his courtiers when he commanded the tide to cease advancing and it disobeyed. Southampton was destroyed by foreign invaders in the fourteenth century, and rebuilt by Richard II. and strongly fortified. For many years it was a watering-place, but within half a century extensive docks have been built, and it has become a great seaport, being the point of departure for steamship-lines to all parts of the world, especially the East Indies and America, as it is but seventy miles south-west of London, and thus shortens the sea voyage for trade from the metropolis. The harbor is a fine one, the channel being deep and straight, and affording good anchorage. In exploring the antiquities of Southampton the visitor will be attracted by an ancient house of the Plantagenet period located on St. Michael's Square, said to have been occupied by Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn, and the remains of the town-walls. The old Bargate in these walls crosses the High Street, dividing it into "Above Bar" and "Below Bar." In the ancient walls are the antique towers known as Arundel Tower and Catch-Cold Tower, and also a house (one of the oldest in England) built anterior to the twelfth century, and known as King John's Palace. Southampton Park, called the Common, is a pretty enclosure of three hundred and sixty acres just north of the city. The picturesque ruins of Netley Abbey are about three miles south of the city, and near them is the Royal Victoria Hospital, established just after the Crimean War, both of them on the eastern bank of Southampton Water.

PORTSMOUTH.



We will follow Southampton Water down to its entrance, where the two broad channels dividing the Isle of Wight from the mainland—the Solent and Spithead—join, and at the point jutting out on the western angle pass Calshot Castle, founded for coast-defence by Henry VIII., and now occupied by the coast-guard. Skirting along Spithead, which is a prolongation of the Southampton Water, without change of direction, at about twenty miles from Southampton we round Gillkicker Point, forming the western boundary of Portsmouth harbor. Here is Gosport, and east of it is Portsea Island, about four miles long and two and a half miles broad, on which Portsmouth is located, with its suburbs known as Portsea, Landport, and Southsea. Portsmouth is on the south-western part of the island, separated from Portsea by a small stream to the northward, both being united in a formidable fortress whose works would require thirteen thousand men to man, though the ordinary garrison is about twenty-five hundred. The royal dockyard, covering one hundred and twenty acres, is at Portsea, and at Gosport, opposite, are the storehouses, the channel between them, which extends for several miles between Portsea Island and the mainland, gradually widening until it attains three miles' breadth at its northern extremity. This channel affords anchorage for the largest vessels, and is defended by Southsea Castle on the eastern side and Moncton Fort on the western side of the entrance into Spithead, where the roadstead is sheltered by the Isle of Wight. Portsmouth was a port in the days of the Saxons, who in the sixth century called it Portsmuthe. It fitted out a fleet of nine ships to aid King Alfred defeat the Danes, and its vessels ineffectually endeavored to intercept the Normans when they landed near Hastings. In the fourteenth century the French burned the town, but were afterwards defeated with heavy loss. Ever since then the fortifications have been gradually improved, until now it is one of the strongest British fortresses. The Duke of Buckingham was murdered here in 1628, and part of the house where he was killed still remains. In 1757, Admiral Byng was executed here, and in 1782 the ship "Royal George" was sunk with Admiral Kempenfelt and "twice four hundred men." The town of Portsmouth contains little that is attractive beyond its ancient church of St. Thomas a Becket, built in the reign of Henry II., and containing on its register the record of the marriage of Charles II. with Catharine of Braganza in 1662. This marriage took place in the garrison chapel, which was originally the hospital of St. Nicholas, founded in the time of Henry III. The chief place of interest is the dockyard at Portsea, the entrance to which, by the Common Hard, or terrace fronting the harbor, bears the date of 1711. Here they have many relics of famous ships, and also vast numbers of boats, and all kinds of materials for building war-vessels, especially iron and armor-plated ships, with the docks and slips for their construction. Off the dockyard lies at anchor the most famous of the "wooden walls of old England," the "Victory," the ship in which Nelson died at Trafalgar, then the most powerful vessel of the British navy. Near her is anchored another celebrated man-of-war, the port-admiral's flag-ship, the "Duke of Wellington." The stores across the harbor at Gosport are on a large scale, and are known as the Royal Clarence Victualling Yard. In the southern part of Gosport is the Haslar Hospital for sick and disabled sailors and soldiers. From Gillkicker Point beyond, a sandbank stretches about three miles out from the shore in a south-easterly direction, and is called the Spit. This gives the name to the roadstead of Spithead, west of which is the quarantine station of Motherbank. This is the great roadstead of the British navy, and in the miles of docks, sheds, forges, basins, and shops of Portsmouth harbor that weary the tourist, who thinks he ought to dutifully go through them, are fashioned many of the monster iron-clads that modern improvements have made necessary in naval architecture.

THE ISLE OF WIGHT.



Crossing over the narrow strait—for there is ample opportunity by several routes—we will complete this English tour by a journey beyond the Solent and Spithead to the Isle of Wight. This island, formed like an irregular lozenge about twenty-two miles long and thirteen broad, is rich in scientific and historical associations, and a marvel of climate and scenery. Its name of Wight is said to preserve the British word "gwyth," the original name having been "Ynys-gwyth," or the "Channel Island." The Roman name was "Vectis," Rome having conquered it in Claudius' time. The English descended upon it in the early part of the sixth century, and captured its chief stronghold, Whitgarasbyrg, now Carisbrooke Castle. It afterwards became part of the Saxon kingdom of Wessex, and St. Wilfrid, Archbishop of York, is said to have converted its people to Christianity. Then the Danes devastated it, and after the Norman Conquest it was subdued by Fitzosborne, Earl of Hereford, whose descendants ruled it until Edward I. recovered the wardenship for the Crown. Richard II. granted it to the Earl of Salisbury, and Henry VI. created the Earl of Warwick, Henry Beauchamp, "king of the Isle of Wight," crowning him with his own hands. The title reverted to the Crown in the time of Henry VII. The French several times invaded the island, and it was the intention of the leaders of the Spanish Armada to capture and use it as a base for operations against England, but the English fleet harassed them so badly that they had to sail past without effecting a landing. In the Civil War the Isle of Wight made a considerable figure.



Beginning at the western end of the lozenge-shaped island, beyond which are the Needles, the entrance to the Solent is found defended by successive batteries on every headland, with Hurst Castle on the Hampshire shore. High Down, with its fine chalk-cliffs, rises six hundred feet above the sea, being haunted by numerous sea-gulls, and under it is Scratchell's Cave, a singular recess in the rock accessible only by boat. Sheltered by the bold headland is Alum Bay, with its tinted sands, gray, buff, and red, and from Headon Hill, its eastern boundary, the coast stretches away to Yarmouth, a little town on the Solent, where are the remains of one of the defensive blockhouses built by Henry VIII. The shores of the strait trend to the north-east, with pleasant views across on the coast of Hampshire, until the northernmost point of the Isle of Wight is reached, where its chief stream, the Medina, flows into the strait through an estuary about five hundred yards wide. Here is Cowes, divided by the river into the West Cow and the East Cow, the plural form of the name being modern. It is a popular bathing-place, but gets the most fame from being the headquarters of the Royal Yacht Club; their house is the old castle at the Medina entrance, built by Henry VIII., it is said, with portions of the masonry of Beaulieu Abbey. The harbor, at the proper season, is usually dotted with yachts. There is steam communication with the mainland, and a railway runs inland to Newport, the chief town of the island. Near East Cowes is Whippingham, which was the birthplace of Dr. Arnold, the famous head-master of Rugby School. Ascending the Medina, the beautiful park and gardens of Osborne House, the marine residence of Queen Victoria, border its eastern margin. This was the ancient manor of Austerbourne, and its owner in the Civil War buried all his money and plate in an adjoining wood, called the Money Copse, so as to preserve it. When peaceful days came back he went to get it, but found he had concealed it so thoroughly that it could not be recovered. The queen bought the estate in 1844, and the plain mansion was extended into an elegant marine villa just back from the sea-coast. It was the queen's childhood attachment to the locality that made her settle here, for when a young princess she had passed many pleasant days in the neighboring Norris Castle.

East of the Medina the coast trends to the south-east, the shores being lined by fine villas surrounded with highly-cultivated grounds; indeed, the coast of the strait seems like an extended park. Here, opposite Portsmouth, is the famous watering-place of Ryde, in a beautiful situation, and with railways running across the island to Sandown and Ventnor. The land steeply rises from the sea, with the town stretching along its slope, a panorama of villas whose trees grow down to the water's edge. It is an ancient town, having existed in the reign of Richard II., when the French burned it, but none of the present buildings are of much antiquity, it having in later years been gradually converted into a fashionable watering-place. The pier is the popular promenade, and the Spithead roadstead in front is closely connected with English naval history. It was here that the "Royal George" went down on a calm day and drowned her admiral and eight hundred men: she was careened over, the better to make some repairs, and, a squall striking her, it is said the heavy guns slid down to the lower side and tipped the vessel over, when she quickly filled and sank. Here also, in 1797, was the great mutiny in Lord Bridport's fleet, the sailors, when the signal to weigh anchor was given, declining to do it until their just demands were granted; the mutiny was suppressed and the leaders severely punished. All the neighboring shores bristle with forts and batteries protecting the entrance to Spithead. Inland are the Binstead quarries, whose stone was in demand in the Middle Ages and built parts of Winchester Cathedral, Beaulieu Abbey, and Christchurch; also, here are the scanty remains of Quarr Abbey. Eastward of Ryde the coast is low and bends more to the southward, reaching the estuary known as Brading Harbor, a broad sheet of water at full tide, but a dismal expanse of mud at low water, through which a small stream meanders. At Brading is the old Norman church which St. Wilfrid founded, of which Rev. Legh Richmond, author of the Annals of the Poor, was the curate. In the churchyard is the grave of his heroine, little Jane, the "Dairyman's Daughter." Extensive remains of a Roman villa have been discovered at Morton, near Brading, and to the eastward of them a hyptocaust. Rounding the Foreland, which is the easternmost point of the island, the chalk-rocks rise again, and Whitecliff Bay nestles under the protection of the lofty Culver Cliff as the coastline bends south-west and then makes a grand semicircular sweep to the southward around Sandown Bay. This wide expanse broadens between the two chalk-ridges that cross the Isle of Wight from its western side. The railway from Ryde runs across the chalk-downs to the growing watering place of Sandown, standing on the lowest part of the shores of the bay. Here the coast is guarded by a grim fort, and here in the last century came the noted John Wilkes to recuperate after his contests with the House of Commons, which vainly tried to keep him out of his seat.



The chalk-ranges to the southward provide magnificent scenery, and two miles from Sandown, but on higher ground, is Shanklin, from which its celebrated chine descends to the sea. This little ravine is about four hundred and fifty yards long and at its mouth about two hundred feet deep. It has been gradually worn in the brown sandstone rock by the action of a diminutive brook that bubbles over a little cascade at the upper end. The rich colors of the crags, the luxuriant foliage of the slopes, and the rhapsodies of guide books combine to give the Shanklin Chine a world-wide fame. It was here that a party of French under the Chevalier d'Eulx landed in 1545 to get some fresh water. The process was tedious, the stream being so small, and the chevalier and some of his party, wandering inland, were caught in an ambuscade. He and most of the others were killed, though they defended themselves bravely. South of Shanklin the chalk-cliffs are bold and lofty, and off these pretty shores the "Eurydice" was lost in a squall, March 24, 1878, when returning from her training-cruise in the West Indies. It was at four o'clock on Sunday afternoon, and her ports being open when the squall struck her, she capsized and almost immediately foundered, only two survivors remaining out of the three hundred persons on board. Climbing the cliffs south of Shanklin and crossing the summit, we reach Bonchurch on the southern coast, described by Dr. Arnold as the most beautiful thing on the sea-coast north of Genoa. Here villas are dotted and the villages are spreading into towns, for the coast of the Undercliff is becoming one of the most fashionable resorts the English have. Already complaints are made that a too general extension of settlements is interfering with the picturesque wildness of scenery and luxuriant vegetation that are the great charm of this delightful region. The Undercliff stretches along the southern coast for several miles to the westward of Bonchurch—an irregular terrace formed by the sliding forward of the chalk-downs, which dip gently towards the sea. This makes a lofty natural terrace, backed by cliffs to the northward and open to the full influence of the southern sun. It has the climate of Madeira, and is fanned by the sea-breezes that invigorate but do not chill. The mildness of the winter makes it a popular resort for invalids, and many greenhouse plants live outdoors throughout the year, the almost perpendicular rocks of the Undercliff absorbing during the day the heat that they radiate throughout the night. Yet at Bonchurch many who had sought health in this beautiful region ultimately found a grave, and of its churchyard it has been written, "It might make one in love with death to think one would be buried in so sweet a place." The ancient little Norman church of St. Boniface is still here, but a new and larger church was built not long ago. Here lies Rev. W. Adams, who wrote the allegory Under the Shadow of the Cross, and it is strictly true, for the cross raised as his monument casts its shadow on the slab over his grave. Admiral Hobson was born at Bonchurch, and ran away from the tailor's shop in which he was apprenticed to come back knighted for his victory over the Spaniards at Vigo Bay. Ventnor, known as the "metropolis of the Undercliff," is beyond Bonchurch, and is also a thriving wateringplace, above which rises the attractive spire of Holy Trinity Church, built by the munificence of three sisters.

From Ventnor the most beautiful part of the island coast stretches westward to Niton. The bold chalk-downs rise from their craggy bases, the guardians of the broken terrace intervening between them and the sea. Foliage and ivy cling to them; flowers cluster on the turf and banks and gleam in the crevices; and little streams come down the ravines. Here was the smallest church of England—St. Lawrence—twenty feet long, twelve wide, and six feet high to the eaves. A chancel has lately been added, while below are the ivy-clad ruins of the ancient Woolverton Chapel. Near Niton, at Puckaster Cove, Charles II. landed after a terrific storm; and beyond is Roche End, the southern point of the island. The coast, a dangerous one, then trends to the north-west, and wrecks there are frequent, while inland St. Catharine's Down rises steeply, there being a magnificent view of the island from its summit, elevated seven hundred and fifty feet. Here in the fourteenth century was founded, on the highest part of the Isle of Wight, a chantry chapel where a priest prayed for the mariner and at night kept a beacon burning to warn him off the reefs. An octagonal tower of the chapel remains, but a lighthouse supersedes the pious labors of the priest; a column near by commemorates a visit of the Russian Czar to the summit of the hill in 1814. The wild scenery of this region is varied by the great landslip which in 1799 carried about one hundred acres down towards the sea, the marks of its progress being still shown in the rended rocks and wave-like undulations of the earth. About a mile to the westward is the most noted and wildest of the ravines of the island, the Blackgang Chine, now filled with paths and summer-houses, for the thrifty hotel-keepers could not help domesticating such a prize. It is a more open ravine than that at Shanklin, and like it cut out by a tiny stream, while far away through the entrance is a distant view westward to Portland Isle and St. Aldhelm's Head. The rocks are dark green, streaked with gray and brown sandstone, looking like uncouth courses of masonry. The adjoining coast is guarded by grim crags on which many ships have been shattered. There are other chines to the westward—all of great attractions, though of less size and celebrity. The coast is not of so much interest beyond, but the cliffs, which are the outposts of the chalk-measures, become more lofty at Freshwater Gate, and our survey of the island shores terminates at the Main Bench, whose prolonged point goes out to the Needles.

CARISBROOKE CASTLE.



Following up the Medina River a few miles, almost to the centre of the island, it leads to the metropolis, the little town of Newport, and here, upon an outer precipice of the chalk-downs overlooking the river-valley and the town, and elevated two hundred feet above the sea, is Carisbrooke Castle. The oldest part of the present remains come down from Fitzosborne, but additions were afterwards made, and Queen Elizabeth, in anticipation of the descent of the Armada, had an outer line of defence constructed, pentagonal in shape and enclosing considerable space. The loyalty of the people in that time of trial was shown by their subscribing money and laboring without pay on these works. The ruins are not striking, but are finely situated on the elevated ridge. They are much decayed, but the entrance-gateway is well preserved, with its flanking round towers, portcullis, and ancient doors. Here lived Charles I. and two of his children. A small stone building within the enclosure covers the famous well of Carisbrooke, sunk in Stephen's days, two hundred and forty feet deep, of which ninety feet are filled with water. A solemn donkey in a big wooden wheel works the treadmill that winds the bucket up. Formerly, every visitor dropped a pebble into the well to hear the queer sounds it made in falling—"His head as he fell went knicketty-knock, like a pebble in Carisbrooke Well," used to be a proverb—but as this amusement threatened to fill up the well, it has been prohibited. The keep is at the north-eastern angle of the castle, polygonal in plan and of Norman architecture. Carisbrooke was held for the empress Maud against Stephen, but the failure of the old well in the keep, now filled up, caused its surrender. The new one, which has never been known to give out, was then bored. In the reign of Charles I. the castle was invested by militia on behalf of the Parliament, and was surrendered to them by the wife of the governor, the Countess of Portland. She obtained specially advantageous conditions from the besiegers by appearing on the walls with a lighted match and threatening to fire the first cannon unless the conditions were granted. King Charles I. took refuge here in November, 1647, but soon found he was practically a prisoner. He remained ten months, twice attempting to escape. On the first occasion he tried to squeeze himself between the bars of his window, but stuck fast; on the second his plan was divulged, and on looking out the window he found a guard ready to entrap him below. He was taken to Newport and surrendered himself to the Parliamentary commissioners, but was ultimately returned to Carisbrooke. Then some army officers removed him suddenly to Hurst Castle on the mainland, and thence he was taken to Windsor and London for the trial that ended on the block at Whitehall. Two of his children were imprisoned in Carisbrooke with him—the young Duke of Gloucester, afterwards sent to the Continent, and the princess Elizabeth, who died here in childhood from a fever. She was found dead with her hands clasped in the attitude of prayer and her face resting on an open Bible, her father's last gift. She was buried in an unmarked grave in Newport Church, but the coffin was discovered in 1793, and when the church was rebuilt in 1856 Queen Victoria erected a handsome monument over the little princess, the sculptor representing her lying on a mattrass with her cheek resting on the open Bible, the attitude in which she had been found. Newport has some ten thousand population.

TENNYSON'S HOME.

Tennyson's pretty home is at Farringford, near Freshwater, on the western slope of the Isle of Wight, just where it begins to contract into the long point of the chalk-cliffs that terminate with the Needles. At Brixton, on the south-western coast, is Bishop Ken's parsonage, where William Wilberforce spent the closing years of his life. The little rectory here is honorably distinguished as having given to the Church of England three of its famous prelates: Bishop Ken, one of the martyrs whom James II. imprisoned in the Tower, and whose favorite walk is still pointed out in the pretty garden; Bishop Samuel Wilberforce of Winchester, whose unfortunate death occurred not long ago at Evershed Rough; and the present Bishop Moberly of Salisbury. The western extremity of the Isle of Wight is a peninsula, almost cut off from the main island by the little river Yar, which flows into the Solent at Yarmouth. This is known as the Freshwater Peninsula, and presents almost unrivalled attractions for the tourist and the geologist. The coast-walk around the peninsula from Freshwater Gate to Alum Bay extends about twelve miles. The bold and picturesque chalk-cliffs tower far above the sea, their dazzling whiteness relieved by the rich green foliage. Some of these hills rise four hundred feet, forming the chalk-downs that are the backbone of this most attractive island. Among these hills are bewitching little vales and glens, and almost every favored spot is availed of as a villa site. No part of England is more sought as a place of rural residence than this richly-gifted isle, thus set as a gem upon the southern shore of the kingdom.



THE NEEDLES.

With the terminating western cliffs of the chalk-hills of the Isle of Wight beyond High Down we will close this pleasant journey. The far-famed Needles are a row of wedge-like masses of hard chalk running out to sea in the direction of the axis of the range of hills. They do not now much resemble their name, but in earlier years there was among them a conspicuous pinnacle, a veritable needle, one hundred and twenty feet in height, that fell in 1764. At present the new lighthouse, built at the seaward end of the outermost cliff, is the nearest approach to a needle. The headland behind them is crowned by a fort several hundred feet above the sea. There were originally five of these pyramidal rocks, but the waves are continually producing changes in their form, and now but three of them stand prominently out of the water.

* * * * *

And now our task is done. The American visitor landing at Liverpool has been conducted through England, and has been shown many of its more prominent attractions, but not by any means all of them, for that would be an impossible task. But he has been shown enough to demonstrate the claim of the mother-country to the continued interest of the Anglo-Saxon race from beyond the sea; and to this pleasant panorama and description there cannot be given a better termination than at the lovely Isle of Wight, the perfection of English scenery and climate, whereof Drayton has written,

"Of all the southern isles, she holds the highest place, And evermore hath been the great'st in Britain's grace; Not one of all her nymphs her sovereign favoreth thus, Embraced in the arms of old Oceanus."



INDEX.

Abbey Dale, 87.

Abbey Dore, 370.

Abbot, George, Archbishop of Canterbury, 465.

Abbot's Hospital, Guildford, 465.

Abbot's Tower, Alnwick, 328.

Abbotsbury, 420, 424.

Abergavenny, 372.

Abergele, 34.

Abergwili, 382.

Aber-tawe, 376.

Aberystwith Castle, 47.

Abingdon Abbey, 167.

Ad Pontem, 269.

Adams, Rev. W., 517.

Adam and Eve Inn, London, 218.

Addison, 104, 164, 217.

Addison's Walk, Oxford, 149.

Admirals, earliest, in England, 489.

Admiralty Building, London, 197.

Adrian IV., Pope, 226.

AElfred, 317, 464.

AElfrida, 415.

AEthelbald, 413.

AEthelbert, 413.

AEthelred, 338.

AElhelred's Tomb, Wimborne, 415.

AEthelstan, 412, 425.

Agglestone, 417.

Aire, River, 283.

Aislabie, John, 289.

Aisle of Tombs, Chester-le-Street, 320.

Alan the Red, 294.

Alard, Gervase, 489.

Alard, Stephen, 489.

Alban, 225.

Albert Memorial, Hyde Park, 206.

Albermarle, Earl of, 307.

Albert Bridge, Tamar River, 439.

Albury Down, Guildford, 464.

Albury Park, 466.

Alderney, 421, 423.

Aldershot Camp, 467.

Alexander, King of Scotland, 325.

Alexander VI., Pope, 404.

Alfred, King, 386, 412.

All Saints' Church, Oxford, 155.

All Souls' College, Oxford, 147.

Aller Church, 412.

Alne River, 322.

Alnwick Castle, 322, 323.

Alnwick Abbey, 325, 329.

Alton, 495.

Alton Towers, 91.

Alum Bay, Isle of Wight, 514.

American Weed, 166.

Amesbury, 390, 392.

Amphibalus, 225.

Anabaptists, 474, 475.

Analogy, Butler's, 399.

Anastasius, 470.

Anderida, 490.

Angel Inn, Helston, 456.

Anglesea, 35.

Anglesea Column, 38.

Anglican Monastery, Capel-y-ffyn, 374.

Angus, Earl, 334.

Annals of the Poor, 515.

Annandale, Earl of, 464.

Anne Boleyn's Seat, Studley Royal, 290.

Anne of Cleves, 478.

Anselm, Archbishop, 481.

Anstis Cove, 431.

Anti-Corn Law League, 495.

Antoninus, 381.

Apples in Devonshire, 437.

Aquarium, Brighton, 491, 492.

Aquila, House of, 489.

Aram, Eugene, 302.

Arcadia, 394, 477.

Arches Court, London, 196.

Argyle, Earl of, 334.

Ariconium, 355.

Arkwright, Sir Richard, 51, 86.

Armada, Spanish, 223, 382, 437, 513, 519.

Armada trophies, 233.

Armstrong guns, 321.

Armstrong, Sir William, 321.

Arnold, Dr., 168, 516.

Arnold, Dr., birthplace, Whippingham, 514.

Arran Fowddwy, 28.

Arthur, King, birthplace, 452.

Arthur, King, tomb, 408.

Arun River, 493, 495.

Arundel Castle, 493, 494.

Arundel, Earl of, 493, 494.

Arundel Tower, Southampton, 510.

Ascot, 384.

Ashby de la Zouche, 109.

Ashby, St. Leger, 128.

Ashdown, 386.

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, 153.

Asparagus Island, Kynance, 458.

Astley, Sir Jacob, 115.

Aston Hall, Birmingham, 125.

Athelney, Isle of, 412.

Athelstan, 338.

Auckland, 319.

Auditor's Tower, Alnwick, 328.

Audley, Baron Thomas, 234, 248.

Audley End, 234.

Austerbourne, 515.

Austin Friars Priory, 99.

Avelon, Isle of, 407.

Avon ford, New Forest, 504.

Avon gorge, 400.

Avon River, 118, 139, 337, 387, 394, 415, 432, 501, 506.

Axe River, 406, 424.

Axminster, 424.

Axminster carpets, 392.

Ayre, Point of, 59.

Babbicombe Bay, 430, 431.

Bablock Hythe Ferry, 140.

Backs of Colleges, Cambridge, 239.

Bacon, Francis, 261.

Bacon, Francis, tomb, 230.

Bacon, Roger, friar, 150, 168.

Baggy Point, Devonshire, 449.

Bagley Wood, 168.

Bagworthy Water, 443.

Baker, Chancellor, 475.

Baker's Cross, Sissinghurst, 475.

Bakewell, 76.

Bala Lake, 28, 47.

Balliol College, Oxford, 144, 154.

Balliol, King, 321.

Ballywasta, 377.

Balsham, Hugh de, 246.

Bamborough, 330, 335.

Bamborough Castle, 335.

Banbury, 158.

Bangor, 37.

Bangor-ys-Coed, 31.

Bank of England, 208.

Bankes, Lady, 417.

Bankes, Sir John, 417.

Banstead, 473.

Barbican, Alnwick, 323.

Barbican, Sandwich, 485.

Bard, the, 40.

Bardon Hill, 109.

Bardon Tower, the Strid, 287.

Bargate, Southampton, 510.

Barmoor Wood, Flodden, 334.

Barmouth, 44.

Barnard Castle, 325.

Barnard, Lady, 119.

Barnard's Heath, St. Albans, 229.

Barndoor Cove, 418.

Barnstaple, 449.

Barnstaple Bay, 449.

Barrow-in-Furness, 56.

Barry, Sir Charles, 91, 202.

Basingstoke Canal, 467.

Baslow, 85.

Bassenthwaite Lake, 67.

Basset, Gilbert, 165.

Bath, 394.

Bath bricks, 409.

Bath stone, 386.

Bathurst, Earl, 138, 147.

Battle of Dorking, 471.

Battle of Hastings, 489.

Battledon, 115.

Bayeux Tapestry, 490.

Bayham Abbey, 475.

Beachy Head, 490.

Beacon Hill, Harwich, 238.

Beacon Walks, Exmouth, 424.

Beaconsfield Club, London, 214.

Bearwood, 385.

Beauchamp Chapel, Warwick, 121.

Beauchamp, Henry, 377, 513.

Beauchamp, Thomas, Earl of Warwick, 121.

Beauchamp Tower, 193.

Beauchief Abbey, 87.

Beaufort, Cardinal, 500, 501.

Beaufort, Jane, 176.

Beaufort, Duke of, 366, 369, 380.

Beaulieu Abbey, 504, 514.

Beaumaris Castle, 36.

Beaumonts, the, 109.

Beaver Lake, 279.

Bebbanburg, 335.

Becket, St. Thomas a, 165, 481.

Becket, St. Thomas a, slain, 482.

Becket's Chapel, Peterborough, 254.

Becket's shrine, 482.

Beckford, William, 396.

Beckington, Bishop, 402, 404.

Bed of Ware, 234.

Bede, Venerable, 269, 316, 317.

Bedford Castle, 129.

Bedford, Duke of, 131, 439.

Bedford Level, 254.

Bedgebury Park, 474.

Beeston Castle, 27.

Bek, Antony, 318, 325.

Bell Harry, Canterbury, 482.

Bell Inn, Edmonton, 214.

Bell Tower, London, 193.

Bellamont, Henry de, 380.

Bellows, Kynance, 458.

Belted Will, 304.

Belvedere, Windsor Park, 384.

Belvoir Castle, 80, 106.

Ben Rhydding Palace, 285.

Bentinck, William, 271.

Beorm, 124.

Beresford, Field-marshal, 474.

Beresford Hope, A. J. B., 474, 482.

Berkeley Canal, 337.

Berkeley Castle, 339, 340, 506.

Berkeley Chapel, Bristol, 399.

Berkeley, Earls of, 398.

Berks and Wilts Canal, 161.

Berkshire, 140, 386.

Bermondsey Monastery, 111.

Berry Head, Torbay, 431.

Berry Pomeroy Castle, 433.

Berwick-on-Tweed, 335.

Berwick, Dorset, 131.

Bess of Hardwicke, 71, 271.

Betchworth Castle, 470.

Bettws-y-Coed, 41.

Beverley, 278.

Beverley Minster, 279.

Bicester, 165.

Bickleigh Vale, Plym River, 436.

Bickner, 361.

Bicycles, 106.

Biddulph, R. Myddelton, 30.

Bideford, 449.

Bideford Bridge, 450.

Bidston, 27.

Bigner, 495.

Bigod, Roger, 257, 365.

Binstead quarries, Isle of Wight, 515.

Bird-fair, Kirkham, 306.

Birkenhead, 17.

Birmingham, 124.

Bisham Abbey, 171.

Bishop Lloyd's Palace, Chester, 22.

Bishop's Eye, Wells, 403.

Bishop's Garden, Wells, 401.

Bishops Hatfield, 230.

Bisterne, 506.

Bittern Manor, 509.

Black Down, Mendip Hills, 407.

Black Friars Monastery, Newcastle, 321.

Black Mountains, 353, 369.

Black Rood, 316, 319.

Blackgang Chine, Isle of Wight, 518.

Blacklow Hill, 308.

Blackmore, novelist, 443.

Bladud's Well, Bath, 395.

Blake, Admiral, 409, 442.

Blenheim, 162.

Blenheim Woods, 157.

Blickling, 259.

Bloody Baker's Prison, 475.

Bloody Gap, Alnwick, 323, 327.

Bloody Meadow, Tewkesbury, 345.

Bloody Tower, London, 190.

Blorenge, Abergavenny, 372.

Boadicea, 225.

Boar and Sow, 417.

Boatswain, dog, 273.

Bodleian Library, Oxford, 152.

Bold, Jonas, 19.

Bodley, Sir Thomas, 153, 429.

Boldre, 505.

Boleyn, Anne, 477, 510.

Boleyn, Sir Geoffrey, 477.

Boleyn, Sir William, 259.

Bolsover Castle, 73, 74.

Bolton Abbey, 285.

Bolton Hall, 287.

Bonchurch, 516, 517.

Bonwaldesthorne's Tower, 25.

Borrowdale Valley, 65.

Boscobel Wood, 347.

Boscombe Chine, 507.

Bossiney, 452.

Boston, 263.

Boswell, 103, 303.

Bosworth Field, 113.

Botanic Garden, Oxford, 149.

Bothwell, Earl of, 334.

Boulton and Watt, 127.

Bourne River, 387.

Bournemouth, 415.

Bow and Arrow Castle, 421.

Bow bells, London, 195.

Bowder Stone, 65.

Bowness, 65.

Bowyer Tower, London, 193.

Box Hill, 470, 471.

Box Tunnel, 387.

Boy of Egremont, 287.

Bradda Head, 59.

Bradford, 284.

Bradgate, 108.

Brading Harbor, Isle of Wight, 515.

Bramble Hill, 502.

Brandon, Charles, 89.

Brandon Hill, Bristol, 397, 400.

Brasenose College, Oxford, 149.

Bray Church, 172.

Braybrooke, Baron, 236.

Brayford Pool, 263.

Brazen head, the, 150.

Breakwater, Portland, 421.

Brecknock, 353.

Brede River, 488.

Brendon River, 446.

Brendon Hills, Exmoor, 441.

Brick Tower, London, 193.

Brictric, King, 343.

Bridgenorth, 95.

Bridgenorth, Castle, 96.

Bridgewater, 409.

Bridgewater, Earl of, 99.

Bridport, Lord, 515.

Brigg-shot, Leeds, 284.

Brightstow, 397.

Brighton, 491.

Brislee Hill, Alnwick Park, 330.

Bristol, 397.

Bristol Cathedral, 398.

Bristol Channel, 376, 407, 408, 440.

Bristol, Marquis of, 250.

Bristol milk, 398.

Bristow Castle, 397.

Britannia Bridge, 38.

British Constitution, 67.

British Museum, 212.

Brixham, 431.

Brixton, 520.

Broad Moor, Naseby, 117.

Broad Walk, Oxford, 146.

Broadcloth manufacture, 474.

Broad water, 179.

Brocavum, 68.

Brockenhurst, 504, 505.

Brockenhurst Church, 405.

Brockweir, 365.

Brompton, Chatham, 480.

Bronwen, Lady, 49.

Brooke, Lord, 102.

Brooke, Sir James, 435.

Brougham Castle, 67.

Brougham, Lord, 218.

Broughton Castle, 158, 160.

Broughton, Lady, 27.

Brown, Capability, 262.

Brown, Sir William, 20.

Brown Willy, Mount, 453.

Browning, Elizabeth B., 350.

Brummagem, 125.

Buccleuch, Duke of, 504.

Buckhurst, Lord, 238.

Buckingham, 134.

Buckingham, Duke of, 134, 199.

Buckingham, Duke of, murdered, 511.

Buckingham Palace, 199.

Buckinghamshire, 131.

Buckland Abbey, 440.

Bull-running, 91.

Bumble Rock, Lizard, 459.

Bunbury College, 27.

Bunyan, John, 129.

Burgess, Dr., 404.

Burghley House, 231, 261.

Burghley, Lord, 141, 231.

Burke, Edmund, 397.

Burke, Sir Bernard, 110.

Burnet, Bishop, 427.

Bury St. Edmunds, 250.

Bushey Park, 178.

Bussex Rhine, Sedgemoor, 411.

Butchers' Row, Hereford, 353.

Bute, Marquis of, 375.

Butler, Bishop, 98, 319, 399.

Butler, Lady, 28.

Buxton, 75.

Byng, Admiral, executed, 511.

Byrom, 53.

Byron, Lord, 273, 454.

Byron, Sir John, 273.

Byron's Pool, 249.

Cable, Submarine, 458.

Cabot, Sebastian, 397, 399.

Cad River, 435.

Cade, Jack, 179.

Cader Idris, 45.

Cadogan, Lord, 171.

Caedmon, 310.

Caer Taff, 375.

Caergwrle Castle, 34.

Caerleon, 375.

Caermarthen, 381.

Caernarvon, 39.

Caernarvon Castle, 38.

Caernarvonshire, 35.

Caerphilly Castle, 376.

Caerwise, 425.

Caesar, Julius, 177, 469.

Caesarea, 423.

Caesar's Tower, Warwick Castle, 121.

Caister Castle, 256.

Caithness, Earl of, 335.

Caius College, Cambridge, 243.

Cakes, Banbury, 159.

Calder River, 282.

Calf of Man, 59.

Calshot Castle, 509, 510.

Calveley, Sir Hugh, 27.

Cam River, 234.

Cambridge, 239.

Cambridge Castle, 249.

Camden, Marquis of, 475.

Camdentown, London, 215.

Camelford, 453.

Campbell, Lord, 169.

Canova, 470.

Canterbury, 480.

Canterbury, Archbishop of, 129, 194.

Canterbury Castle, 482.

Canterbury Cathedral, 481, 482.

Canterbury Tales, 483.

Canute, 509.

Canynge, William, 399.

Capel, Lord, 233.

Capel-y-ffyn, 374.

Capstone Rock, Ilfracombe, 448.

Cardiff, 375.

Cardigan Bay, 44.

Cardinal Beaufort's Tower and Gate, Winchester, 500.

Cardinal's Cap Inn, Dorking, 469.

Carew Castle, 383.

Carfax Conduit, Oxford, 156.

Carisbrooke Castle, 512, 519.

Carisbrooke Well, 519.

Carlisle, 68.

Carlisle, Earls of, 90, 303, 304, 307.

Carlton Club, London, 213.

Carmelite discipline, 330.

Carpets, 392, 394, 424.

Carr, Robert, 414.

Carrick Roads, Falmouth, 453.

Caskets, the, Alderney, 421.

Cassiobury, 233.

Cassivelaunus, 177, 224.

Castello, Hadrian de, Bishop, 404.

Castle Cornet, 423.

Castle Crag, 65.

Castle Field, Bridgwater, 410.

Castle Green, Hereford, 355.

Castle Hill, 66.

Castle Hill, Dover, 487.

Castle Hill, Scarborough, 308.

Castle Howard, 303.

Castle Malwood, 503.

Castle Rock, Lynton, 445, 446.

Castleton, 70.

Castletown, 60.

Catch-Cold Tower, Southampton, 510.

Catesby, Robert, 128.

Catharine of Braganza married, 511.

Catharine, queen's tomb, 254.

Catwater Haven, Plymouth, 437, 438.

Cavendish, Sir Charles, 271.

Cavendish, Sir William, 72, 82, 271.

Cavendish Square, London, 214.

Cavern of the Peak, 71.

Caversham, 170.

Caversham House, 171.

Cawdor, Earl of, 382.

Cecil, Henry, 262.

Cecil, Sir Robert, 231.

Cecil, Sir William, 230.

Cecil, Thomas, 262.

Cecil, William Allayne, 261.

Chain Gate, Wells, 403.

Chain Pier, Brighton, 491.

Chalk Cliffs, 486.

Chalk measures, 463.

Chanctonbury Hill, 492, 493.

Channel Islands, 421.

Chapel Royal, Whitehall, 197.

Charlecote House, 119.

Charles I., 270, 296, 414, 519, 520.

Charles I., death, 168.

Charles I., tomb, 177.

Charles II., 235, 237, 347, 423, 518.

Charles II., married, 511.

Charles X., 419.

Charnwood Forest, 107.

Chartley Castle, 91.

Chatham, 480.

Chatsworth, 73, 81.

Chatterton, Thomas, 399, 400.

Chaucer, 161, 190, 244, 249, 480, 483.

Chaucer's tomb, 189.

Chavenage, 139.

Checquers Inn, Canterbury, 480.

Chequers Inn, Tunbridge, 476.

Cheddar cheese, 407.

Cheddar Cliffs, 405.

Cheddar Forest, Wells, 403.

Chedzoy, 410.

Chee Tor, 76.

Chelsea Hospital, 238.

Cheltenham, 138.

Chenies, Woburn, 132.

Chepstow Castle, 367.

Chertsey, 177.

Cherwell River, 214.

Cheshire, 26.

Chesil Bank, Portland, 419.

Chesilton, 420.

Cheslyn, Richard, 110.

Chester, 21.

Chester, Earls of, 105, 106.

Chester-le-Street, 314, 320.

Chesterfield, 74.

Cheviot Hills, 322, 330, 331.

Chichele, Archbishop, 147, 148.

Chichester, 494.

Childs, George W., 189.

Chiltern Hills, 135.

Chirk Castle, 30.

Christ Church College, Oxford, 144, 145.

Christ Church, Coventry, 105.

Christ's College, Cambridge, 248.

Christchurch, 506.

Christchurch Castle, 509.

Christchurch Gate, Canterbury, 481.

Church Brixham, 431.

Church Hope Cove, 421.

Churchill, John, 162, 304, 411.

Churn River, 137.

Churnet River, 92.

Cinque Ports, 483.

Cirencester, 138.

Citadel Point, Plymouth, 437.

Clapham, 286.

Clare College, Cambridge, 243.

Clare, Gilbert de, 476.

Clare, Walter de, 365.

Clarendon, Earl of, 124.

Clarendon, Lord, 74.

Clausentum, 509.

Cleddan River, 382.

Cliefden, 171.

Clifford Castle, 353.

Clifford, Lord, 135.

Clifford, Rosamond, 135.

Clifford's Tower, York, 301.

Clifton, Bristol, 397.

Clifton-Dartmouth-Hardness, 434.

Clifton-Hampden, 170.

Clinton, Geoffrey de, 122.

Clock Tower, St. Albans, 228.

Clock Tower, Westminister, 202.

Clovelly, 450.

Clovelly Court, 451.

Clumber Park, 270.

Clwyd River, 34.

Clytheroe Castle, 57.

Coal-mines, 312, 321, 376, 377.

Cobb Pier, Lyme Regis, 424.

Cobbett, Colonel, 347.

Cobden, Richard, 495.

Cobden Hall, Rochester, 479.

Codex Beza, Cambridge, 243.

Coed-pen-Maen, 375.

Coeur de Leon, 434.

Coldwell, 361.

Coleridge, S. T., 67.

College Walks, Cambridge, 241.

Colman's mustard, 261.

Coln River, 140, 177.

Color Court, St. James Palace, 199.

Combe Martin, 447.

Commemoration Day, Oxford, 146.

Common Hard, Portsea Dockyard, 511.

Compton Castle, 431.

Comus, Masque of, 98.

Conderum, 320.

Congleton, 27.

Coningsby, 470.

Conrad's Choir, Canterbury, 481.

Constable's Tower, Alnwick, 327.

Constantine the Great, 295.

Constantius Chlorus, 295.

Conway Castle, 40.

Conway River, 42.

Cookes, Sir Thomas, 154.

Copper King, 379.

Copper-mines, 453.

Copper-works, 378, 379.

Coquet Island, 330.

Corbiere Promontory, Jersey, 422.

Corfe Castle, 415.

Corincus, Giant, 460.

Corinium, 138.

Cormoran, Giant, 460.

Corner Tower, Alnwick, 328.

Cornet Castle, 423.

Cornwall, 452.

Cornwall, Duchy of, 453.

Cornwallis, Lord, 236.

Coronation chairs, 186.

Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 245.

Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 146.

Corwen, 28.

Cotswold Hills, 137, 337.

Cotton, Charles, 75, 87.

Count of the Saxon Shore, 484.

"Country Bridal," the, 123.

Court of Arches, London, 196.

Court of St. James, 199.

Coventry, 104.

Cowdray Ruins, 494, 495.

Cowes, 514.

Cowes Harbor, 512.

Cowey Stakes, 177.

Cowley, 177.

Cox, Bishop of Ely, 252.

Cranbrook, 474.

Cranbrook Church, 475.

Cranmore Pool, Dartmoor, 432.

Crescents, Bath, 395.

Creslow House, 135.

Crewe, Baron Bishop, 318.

Cricklade, 137.

Crimea trophies, 233.

Crocodile's Tears, 236.

Cromlechs, 461.

Cromwell, Oliver, 116, 160, 248, 340, 347, 368, 369, 378.

Cronk-ny-Jay Llaa, 59.

Cross, Banbury, 159.

Cross, Winchester, 501.

Crosses, Market, 279, 494.

Crowland Abbey, 254.

Croxden Abbey, 92.

Crumlyn Bog, 381.

Crusoe, Robinson, 303.

Crystal Palace, Hyde Park, 85, 207.

Cumberland, Clifford, Earl of, 301.

Cumberland, Earl of, 67.

Cumberland Gate, Hyde Park, 205.

Cumberlandshire, 64.

Cumnor Hall, 141.

Cursus, Stonehenge, 391.

Cutlers' Hall, Sheffield, 281.

Cutlery, Sheffield, 280.

Culver Cliff, Isle of Wight, 516.

Dacre, Lord, 334.

Dairyman's Daughter, The, 515.

Dale, John, 76.

Dalton, Dr., 55.

Dane River, 27.

Darling, Grace, 335.

Darnley, Earl, 479.

Dart River, 432.

Dartmoor, 432.

Dartmouth, 434.

Daventry, 116.

David, King of Scotland, 267, 306, 325.

Davy, Sir Humphry, 462.

Dawlish, 430.

De Gray, Walter, tomb, York, 300.

De Lacy, Baron Ilbert, 284.

De Ros family, 306.

Deadly Nightshade, Valley of, 56.

Deal, 484, 486.

Dean Forest, 337, 360, 361, 365.

Dean's Eye, Wells, 403.

Deans, Jeanie, 274.

Death Rock, Devonshire, 449.

Dee, Miller of, 26.

Dee River, 21, 24, 28.

Dee, Sands o', 33.

Deepdale, 87.

Deepdene, 470.

Denbies, Dorking, 471.

Denbigh, 33.

Dene, Ralph de, 475.

Dennis Duval, 488.

Derby, 87.

Derby Day, Epsom, 472.

Derby, Earls of, 20, 23, 27, 61, 165, 472.

Derbyshire, 70.

Derbyshire marbles, 82.

Derwent River, 64, 75, 81, 303, 306.

Derwentwater, 64.

Derwentwater, Earl of, 66.

Despenser, Hugh, 376.

D'Eulx, Chevalier, 516.

Devil's Bellows, Lyme Regis, 424.

Devil's Cheese-Ring, Lynton, 446, 447.

Devil's Coits, 140.

Devon, Countess of, 440.

Devon, Earls of, 436, 509.

Devonport, 437, 438.

Devonshire, Dukes of, 71, 240, 287.

Devonshire, Earl of, 439.

Dewerstone, Dartmoor, 436.

Dickens, Charles, 470, 480.

Digby, Earl of, 415.

Digby, G. D. Wingfield, 415.

Dinan, Joyce de, 97.

Dinas Bran Castle, 29.

Dingles, the, Warwickshire, 119.

Disraeli, 470.

Ditchling Beacon, Brighton, 492.

Ditton, 178.

Do, Mary, tomb, Beaulieu Abbey, 504, 505.

Dockyard, Plymouth, 438.

Dolgelly, 46.

Dolwyddelan, 42.

Don River, 279.

Donington Hall, 109.

Doone Glen, 443.

Dorchinges, 499.

Dore, Mary, tomb, Beaulieu Abbey, 504.

Dore River, 369, 370.

Dorking, 463, 469.

Dorking, Battle of, 471.

Dorking fowls, 470.

Dorsetshire, 413.

Double Cube-room, Wilton, 393.

Douglas, death, 329.

Dour River, 486.

Dove Holes, 87.

Dovecote, Holmwood Park, 409.

Dovedale, 86.

Dover, 484, 486, 487.

Dover Castle, 486.

Dovey River, 47.

Dowards, Great and Little, 362.

Dowlands landslip, 424.

Downing College, Cambridge, 248.

Downing Street, London, 197.

Downs, the, 486.

Downton Castle, 100.

Drake, Sir Francis, 440.

Drawing Room, Kynance, 458.

Drayton, Michael, 392.

Drayton, poet, 522.

Drummond, Henry, 466.

Dubrae River, 486.

Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, 477.

Dudley, Earl of Leicester, 123, 141.

Dugdale, 104.

Duke of Cornwall Harbor, 452.

Duke of Wellington Flagship, 511.

Dukeries the, 270.

Dukesborough, 343.

Dulas River, 370.

Dunciad, The, 409.

Dunford House, 495.

Dungeness Lighthouse, 480.

Dunhelm, 314.

Dunkery Beacon, Exmoor, 442.

Dunstan, Abbot of Glastonbury, 406.

Dunster, 441.

Dunster Castle, Siege, 441.

Dupplin, Lady Betty, 358.

Durham, 312.

Durham, Bishop of, 508.

Durham Castle, 314, 318.

Durham Cathedral, 314.

Durham, Earls of, 314, 320.

Durovernum, 482.

Dwr River, 486.

Dyer, 383.

Dyfi River, 352.

Eadwine, King, 295, 297.

Eadwine's Tomb, 310.

Eagle and Child, 20.

Eagle Honour Castle, 489.

Eagle Rock, 85.

Eagle Tower, 77.

Earl Hugh's Tower, Alnwick, 328.

Earl's Drive, 92.

Earl's Park, Wilton, 392.

Easby Abbey, 294.

East Cow, Isle of Wight, 514.

East Lyn River, 445.

Eaton Hall, 26, 32.

Eaton Square, London, 214.

Ebbsfleet, 486.

Eboracum, 294.

Ebrane, King, 295.

Eddystone Lighthouse, 238, 439.

Edeirnim Vale, 28.

Eden River, 477.

Edgar, King, 395.

Edgar Tower, Worcester, 349.

Edgecot, 114.

Edgecumbe, Mount, 439.

Edgehill Battle, 160.

Edgehill Battlefield, 113.

Edial, 104.

Edmund, King, 405.

Edward, King, 415.

Edward I., 368, 489.

Edward II., 307, 376, 381.

Edward II.'s murder, 340.

Edward II.'s Shrine, 339, 341.

Edward III., 174.

Edward IV., 296.

Edward IV.'s Chapel, Wakefield, 282.

Edward VI., 230.

Edward the Black Prince, 161.

Edward, Black Prince, tomb, Canterbury, 482.

Edward the Confessor's Chapel, Westminster, 188.

Eel-Pie Island, 178.

Egbert, King, 273.

Egyptian Hall, London, 210.

Eldon, Chancellor, 418.

Eldon, Earl of, 138.

Eleanor of Aquitaine's Tomb, Beaulieu Abbey, 504.

Eleanor, Queen, 63, 142, 155.

Elford the Royalist, 435.

Eliseg's Pillar, 29.

Elizabeth Castle, 422.

Elizabeth, Princess, 520.

Elizabeth's Tomb, Newport, 520.

Elizabeth, Queen, 139, 161, 230, 252, 474.

Elizabeth's Court, 220.

Elizabeth's Defiance, 222.

Elkington, Messrs., 126.

Ellesmere Canal, 30.

Elstow, Bedford, 130.

Elswick, 321.

Elton, 127.

Ely, 464.

Ely Cathedral, 251.

Ely, Isle of, 251.

Ely River, 375.

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 169.

Emma, Queen, 464.

Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 248.

Emperor Fountain, 84.

Encombe, 418.

Endsleigh, 440.

Endymion, 471.

English Bickner, 361.

Epping Forest, 219.

Epsom Races, 472.

Epsom Salts, 472.

Erasmus' Court, Cambridge, 245.

Eric, 361.

Erme River, 432.

Ermine Street, Lincoln, 266.

Ermine Street Road, 337.

Ernisius, 372.

Erpingham, Sir Thomas, 257.

Esk River, 310.

Essex, 234.

Essex, Earls of, 91, 113, 233, 437.

Ethelbald, 256.

Ethelbert, King, 226.

Ethelfleda, 120.

Eton College, 172.

Eurydice wrecked, 516.

Euston Square Station, London, 215.

Evelyn, John, 466, 471.

Evelyn's Diary, 471.

Evenlode River, 140.

Evergreen Drive, Woburn, 134.

Evershed Rough, Wolton, 472.

Ewer, Colonel, 369.

Ewias, Harold, 369.

Ewiasvale, 372.

Ewloe Castle, 27.

Exanceaster, 425.

Exchequer Gate, Lincoln, 263.

Exe River, 424, 504.

Exeter, 425.

Exeter Cathedral, 425, 426.

Exeter College, Oxford, 153.

Exeter, Earl of, 262.

Exeter Gardens, Oxford, 149.

Exeter, Marquis of, 261.

Exmoor, 407, 440, 447.

Exmouth, 424.

Eynsham, 166.

Faerie Queene, 432.

Fair Rosamond, 142.

Fair Rosamond's birthplace, 353.

Fair Rosamond's coffin, 166.

Fairfax, Lord, 116, 364.

Falkland, Lord, 474.

Falmouth, 454.

Falmouth Harbor, 453.

Falstaff Inn, Canterbury, 482.

Falstaff, Sir John, 260.

Farnborough, 467.

Farne, 313, 335.

Farringford, 520.

Fawkes, Guy, 128, 303.

Feathers Inn, 99.

Fell, Dean, 168.

Fenland, 134, 249.

Ferrars Abbey, 91.

Ferrars, Earl, 108.

Feversham, Lord, 410.

Field of the Dead, 100.

Fiennes, John de, 484.

Finch, Lord Chancellor, 200.

Finger Pillory, 109.

Fire Monument, London, 180.

Fish Street Hill, London, 181.

Fishes, Brighton Aquarium, 492.

Fitzalan, Richard, 494.

Fitzalans' tombs, Arundel, 493.

Fitzgilbert, Richard, 475.

Fitzhanem, Robert, 343, 375.

Fitzosborne, 368, 512, 519.

Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 246.

Fitzwilliam, Viscount, 246.

Five Sisters' Window, York, 300.

Flambard, Bishop of Durham, 508.

Flamborough Head, 307.

Fleet Ditch, 409.

Fleet Estuary, 419.

Flemings, 474.

Flemyng, Richard, 153.

Flint Castle, 33.

Flintshire, 31, 33.

Floating Island, 66.

Flodden, Battle, 319, 331, 334.

Fluellen, 364.

Folkestone, 484, 487.

Folly Bridge, Thames, 168.

Fonthill Abbey, 396.

Ford Castle, 331.

Foreign Office, London, 198.

Foreland, Dorset, 417.

Foreland, Isle of Wight, 516.

Forest Minstrel, 88.

Forest of Dean, 337, 360, 361, 365.

Forfarshire wreck, 336.

Fors Noddyn, 42.

Forster, Anthony, 141.

Fort George, Guernsey, 423.

Fort Pitt, Chatham, 480.

Foss River, 301.

Fosse Dyke Canal, 263.

Foston-le Clay, 307.

Fotheringhay, 127.

Fountains Abbey, 289.

Fountain Dale, 273.

Fountains Dale, 290.

Fountains Hall, 293.

Fowey, 453.

Fowey Pier, 452.

Fowls, Dorking, 470.

Fox and Hounds, Box Hill, 471.

Fox, Bishop, 146, 263.

Fox, Charles James, 217.

Fox, George, 301, 308.

Fox, Henry Vassal, 217.

Freshwater, 520.

Freshwater Gate, Isle of Wight, 518.

Freshwater Peninsula, 520.

Friar Tuck, 273.

Friar's Crag, 66.

Friar's Heel, Stonehenge, 391.

Friars, the, Winchelsea, 489.

Friar's Tower, the, 168.

Frome River, 397.

Furness, 56.

Furness Abbey, 56.

Gad's Hill, 480.

Gainsborough, 119.

Galilee, Durham, 314.

Gallantry Bower, Clovelly, 451.

Garrick, David, 104, 119, 178.

Garter, Order of, 175, 507.

Garway Hill, 372.

Gates, Sir John, 404.

Gaunt, John of, 123.

Gaveston, Piers, 307.

Gee, Sir William, tomb, York, 300.

Geoffrey of Monmouth, 363.

George II., portrait, 236.

George III., 263, 339, 419.

George IV., 465, 491.

George Inn, Glastonbury, 407.

George Inn, Stamford, 263.

Ghosts, 136.

Giant's Hole, Bristol, 401.

Gillkicker Point, Portsmouth Harbor, 510.

Gillott's steel pens, 126.

Gilpin, John, 214.

Gilpin, Rev. W., 505.

Gladstone, William E., 27, 133.

Glamorganshire, 375, 376.

Glastonbury Abbey, 407.

Gleawecesore, 338.

Glendower, Owen, 47, 93, 267, 346.

Glendower's Seat, 28.

Glevum, 337.

Gloucester, 337.

Gloucester Cathedral, 340.

Gloucester, Dukes of, 220, 520.

Gloucester, Duke of, tomb, 228.

Gloucester Siege, 339.

Gloucester Spa, 342.

Gloucestershire, 137.

Glyme River, 163.

Goblin Tower, 25.

Goderic de Winchcomb, 360.

Godiva, Lady, 104.

God's Providence House, Chester, 22.

Godstow Nunnery, 142.

Godwine, Earl, 464, 493.

Golden Cap, Lyme Regis, 424.

Golden Gallery, St. Paul's, 184.

Golden Gates, Woburn, 134.

Golden Grove, 382.

Golden Tower, Richmond, 294.

Golden Valley, 369.

Goldstone, Prior, 481.

Golgotha, Cambridge, 244.

Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, 243.

Goodrich Castle and Court, 360.

Goodrich Priory, 360.

Goodwin Sands, 479, 486.

Goodwood races, 495.

Goose fair, Nottingham, 268.

Gormund, 138.

Goring, 170.

Goring, Charles, 492.

Goring, Lord, 408.

Goring, Rev. John, 492.

Gosport, 510.

Goudhurst, 474.

Gower, Henry de, 377.

Grace Darling's Monument, 336.

Grace Dieu Abbey, 109.

Grand Trunk Canal, 52.

Grange, 65.

Grantham, 263.

Granville, Earl, 472.

Granville, Richard de, 381.

Gravesend, 222.

Graveyards, the, 116.

Gray's Inn, London, 210.

Great and Little Hangman, Combe Martin, 448.

Great Doward, 362.

Great Fire, London, 180.

Great Hall, Lumley Castle, 320.

Great Hampden, 135.

Great Malvern, 351.

Great North Road, 273.

Great Orme's Head, 40.

Great Park, Windsor, 176.

Great Paul, bell, 183.

Great St. Mary's Church, Cambridge, 244.

Great Tom, Lincoln, 264.

Great Western Railway, 383, 386.

Greatham Church, 498, 499.

Green Dragon Inn, Worcester, 350.

Green Park, London, 206.

Greenaleigh Headland, Exmoor, 441.

Greenwich, 220.

Grenofen, 436.

Grenovicum, 220.

Grenville, Richard, 134.

Greta Hall, 67.

Greta River, 67.

Grevilles, Earls of Warwick, 120.

Grey, Lady Jane, 111.

Grey, Sir John, 110.

Groby, 108.

Gros, William le, 307.

Grosmont Castle, 372.

Grosvenor Square, London, 214.

Grouville Bay, 423.

Guernsey, 421, 423.

Guesten Hall, Worcester, 349.

Guestling Brook, Sandwich, 485.

Guild Hall, Exeter, 428.

Guildhall, Norwich, 260.

Guildford, 463, 464.

Guiordano, 262.

Gun Wharf, Chatham, 480.

Gunpowder Plot, 128, 326.

Guthlac, 255.

Guthram, 412.

Guttred the Dane, 60.

Guy of Warwick, 121.

Guy's Cliff, Warwickshire, 121.

Guy's Tower, Warwick Castle, 121.

Gwydyr House, 43.

Gwynne, Nell, 237, 405.

Gwynne, Nell, birthplace, Hereford, 354.

Hacket, Bishop, 103.

Haddon Hall, 76.

Hailsham, 490.

Haldon Hills, Exmouth, 424.

Hall, Elizabeth, 119.

Hallam Manor, 281.

Halle, John, 388.

Haltwhistle, Hexham, 322.

Hammond's Ford, Alne River, 324.

Hamoaze, the, Tamar River, 437, 438.

Hampden, John, 135.

Hampshire, 467, 495, 513, 514.

Hampton Court, 178.

Hanger, Selborne, 495.

Hansom cabs, 493.

Happy Valley, 108.

Harcourt family, 140.

Harcourt, Lord, 156.

Hardicanute, 346.

Hardwicke Hall, 72.

Harlech Castle, 49.

Harold, King, 25, 295, 370, 464.

Harriet, Duchess of Sutherland, 90.

Harrison, John, 285.

Harrow School, 224.

Harry Hereford, 362.

Harry Monmouth, 362.

Hartland Point, Devon, 451.

Harwich, 238.

Haslar Hospital, Gosport, 512.

Hastings, 484, 489.

Hastings Castle, 489.

Hastings, Lord, 109.

Hastings, Marquis of, 110.

Hastings, Warren, 170.

Hatfield, Bishop, 318.

Hatfield House, 230.

Hathaway, Anne, 119.

Hathaway, Anne, Cottage, 119.

Hatton, Anne, 423.

Hatton, Sir Christopher, 128, 423.

Haverfordwest, 382.

Hawarden Castle, 27.

Hay Castle, 353.

Hay Park, 99.

Hayes Barton, 424.

Hayes, Sir James, 474.

Headon Hill, Isle of Wight, 514.

Heath flowers, Cornwall, 456.

Heber, Bishop, 32.

Heights of Abraham, 86.

Helford River, 453.

Helston, 454.

Hemp, 448.

Hengist, 386.

Hengist and Horsa, 486.

Hengistbury Head, 507.

Hengrave Hall, 250.

Henley Reach, 171.

Henry II., 142.

Henry II.'s penance, Canterbury, 482.

Henry III., 348, 387.

Henry IV., tomb, Canterbury, 482.

Henry V., birthplace, 362.

Henry VI., birthplace, 175.

Henry VII., 506.

Henry VII.'s Chapel, Westminster, 186, 188.

Henry VIII., 477, 510.

Henry VIII., tomb, 177.

Henry Beauclerc, 167, 239.

Henry Beauclerc's death, 342.

Henry of Monmouth, 372.

Herbert, George, 394.

Herbert, Lord, 159.

Herbert, Lord of Lea, 394.

Herbert, Sidney, 388, 394.

Herbert, Sir William, 392.

Herbert's Statue, Pall Mall, 213.

Hereford, 353.

Hereford Cathedral, 354.

Hereford, Earl of, 368, 512.

Hereford, Harry, 362.

Herefordshire Beacon, 351.

Herne the Hunter, 177.

Heron, Lady, 331, 333.

Heron, Sir William, 331.

Heronry, Vinney Ridge, 504.

Hertford, Earl of, 230.

Hertfordshire, 224.

Hervey, 115.

Hever Castle, 477.

Hexham, 314, 322.

High Down, Isle of Wight, 513, 521.

High Level Bridge over Tyne, 321.

High Peak, Sidmouth, 424.

High Tor, 85.

High Town, Hereford, 354.

Hill Tower, Dunster, 441.

Hill, William, sexton, 255.

Hilda, 310.

Hillsborough, 448.

Hinderskelf Cattle, 305.

Hoare, Sir Richard, 391.

Hobs, Robert, 131.

Hobson, Admiral, 518.

Hobson's Choice, 248.

Hobson's Conduit, Cambridge, 248.

Hock Tuesday, 123.

Hodder River, 57.

Hodeni River, 372.

Hoe, the, Plymouth, 439.

Hog's Back, Guildford, 464.

Holbein, 392.

Holgate, 303.

Holland, Earl of, 217.

Holland House, 216.

Holland the regicide, 135.

Holmby House, 128.

Holme, Randall, 22.

Holmsdale, Surrey, 473.

Holmwood, 469.

Holt, 31.

Holt, Chief-Justice, 169.

Holte, Sir Thomas, 126.

Holy Isle, 335.

Holy Headland, 461.

Holy Mountain, 371.

Holy Trinity Church, Hull, 278.

Holy Trinity Church, Stratford, 119.

Holy Trinity Church, Ventnor, 518.

Holy Well, Malvern, 352.

Holy Well, Southwell, 269.

Holyhead, 33, 50.

Holywell, 35.

Home, Earl of, 334.

Hood, Robin, 268, 270.

Hook, Theodore, 178.

Hoole House, 27.

Hooker, Richard, 429.

Hooper, John, Bishop, 341.

Hope Castle, 34.

Hope, H. T., 470.

Hope's Nose, 430.

Horse Guards, Whitehall, 197.

Horsley, artist, 475.

Horticultural Gardens, London, 208.

Horton, 505.

Hosiery-making, 267.

Hotspur, 93, 326, 327, 329.

Hotspur's Chair, Alnwick, 323, 327.

Hotspur's Tomb, York, 300.

Houghton, Lord, 366.

House of Commons, 203.

House of Delight, Greenwich, 221.

House of Peers, 203.

Houses of Parliament, 202.

How Castle, 67.

Howard Castle, 303.

Howard, Henry, 176.

Howard, Lord of Effingham, 452.

Howard, Lord Thomas, 234, 334.

Howard, Lord William, 69, 304.

Howards' tombs, Arundel, 493.

Howitt's Forest Minstrel, 88.

Howsham, 306.

Hudibras, 98.

Hudson, railway king, birthplace, 306.

Hugh of Avelon, Bishop, 264.

Hull, 277.

Hull, Mr., 468.

Hull River, 277.

Hulne Priory, Alnwick Park, 330.

Humber River, 75, 277.

Humbleton Hill, battle, 329.

Hundred Men's Hall, Winchester, 500.

Huntingdon, 128.

Huntley, Earl of, 334.

Hurst Castle, 513, 520.

Hurstmonceux Castle, 490.

Huskisson, Joseph, 52.

Hut-villages, 461.

Hyde Park Corner, 206.

Hyde Park, London, 205.

Hyptocaust, Chester, 24.

Hythe, 484, 487.

Ida, King, 335.

Idris's chair, 45.

Iffley, 157.

Ifon, David ap, 49.

Ignatius, Father, 374.

Iktis, 460.

Ilchester Castle. 424.

Ilchester, Earl of, 420.

Ilfracombe, 447, 448.

Ilkley, 285.

Ina, King, 401, 413.

Ina's Rock, 92.

Inner Temple, London, 210.

Inns of Court, London, 210.

Ireton, Colonel, 116, 139.

Iron-mills, 311, 312, 321, 376.

Iron ore, 310.

Ironsides, 117, 296.

Irwell River, 52.

Isca, 425.

Isis River, 146.

Isle of Athelney, 412.

Isle of Avelon, 407.

Isle of Dogs, 220.

Isle of Purbeck, 415.

Isle of St. Nicholas, 438.

Isle of Thanet, 483.

Isle of Wight, 507, 512.

Itchen River, 499, 500, 509.

Ivanhoe, 109.

Ivy Castle, 423.

Jack the Giant-killer, 460.

James I., 148, 156, 232, 414, 452.

James II., 349, 350, 405.

James I. of Scotland. 176.

James IV. of Scotland, 331.

James, G. P. R., 474.

Jan Ridd's tree, 444.

Jane, the Dairyman's Daughter, 515.

Jarrow Monastery, 317.

Jason, Thorwaldsen's, 470.

Jeffreys, Judge, 412, 506.

Jephson Gardens, Leamington, 121.

Jersey, 421, 422.

Jesmond, 321.

Jesus College, Cambridge, 248.

Jesus College, Oxford, 153.

Jet, 310.

Jewel, Bishop of Salisbury, 448.

Jewel House, Tower of London, 192.

Jewry Wall, 111.

Jews' House, Lincoln, 266.

Jews' Massacre, York, 301.

Joan of Navarre, tomb, Canterbury, 482.

Joan of the Tower, 190.

Jocelyn, Bishop, 402, 404.

John, King, 273, 325, 377, 416.

John, King, signs Magna Charta, 177.

John, King, tomb, Worcester, 346, 348.

John of Gaunt, 58, 91.

John of Hexham, 322.

John of Kent, 372.

John of Monmouth, 362.

Johnson, Dr. Samuel, 26, 103, 154.

Jonson, Ben, 74, 477.

Jones, Inigo, 421.

Joseph of Arimathea, 407.

Joyce, Cornet, 128.

Judhael's Castle, 433.

Julius Caesar's Tower, Chester, 22.

Keate, Head-master of Eton, 173.

Keats, 471.

Keble College, Oxford, 144, 154.

Kempenfelt, Admiral, 511.

Ken, Thomas, Bishop, 405, 520.

Ken, Bishop, parsonage, 520.

Kendal Castle, 67.

Kenilworth, 141.

Kenilworth Castle, 122.

Kennet River, 171.

Kensington Palace, 200.

Kent, 474.

Kent, Duke of, 424.

Kentchurch, 372.

Keswick, 65.

Kettel Hall, Oxford, 154.

Keyham Point, Plymouth, 438.

Kidder, Bishop, 404.

Kilmarth Mountain, 453.

Kilndown, 474.

Kilpeck, 371.

Kimmeridge Vale, 418.

Kinder Fall, 70.

Kinderscout, 70.

Kineton, 115.

King Alfred's White Horse, 386.

King Arthur's Cliffs, Tintagel, 452.

King Arthur's Round Table, 501.

King Arthur's Round Table, Newport, 375.

King Edward's Court, Cambridge, 240.

King Monmouth, 410, 466.

King of Isle of Wight, 513.

King of the Peak, 79.

King's Arms Inn, Lancaster, 59.

King's Chapel, Cambridge, 244.

King's College, Cambridge, 244.

King's Court, Cambridge, 241.

King's Gateway, Cambridge, 240.

King's Hall, Oxford, 149.

King's Head Inn, 116.

King's Manor, Guildford, 464.

King's Parade, Cambridge, 244.

Kingsley, Charles, 33, 449, 451.

Kingston, 178.

Kingston-upon-Hull, 277.

Kirk Braddon, 59.

Kirke, Colonel, 412.

Kirke's Lambs, 412.

Kirkgate Church, Leeds, 285.

Kirkgate, Wakefield, 283.

Kirkham Priory, 306.

Kitchen, Abbot's, Glastonbury, 408.

Knebworth, 233.

Knole, 478.

Knott Mill, 53.

Knowsley Hall, 20.

Koh-i-noor Diamond, 192.

Kymin Hill, 364.

Kynance Cove, 457.

Kyrle, John, 355.

Kytson, Sir Thomas, 250.

Labilliere, Major, 471.

Laconia, 477.

Lacy, William de, 372.

Ladies of the Vale, 100.

Lady Chapel, Winchester, 500.

Lady of Caversham, 170.

Lady Well, Southwell, 269.

Laira Estuary, Plym River, 437.

Lake Country, 64.

Lamb Row, Chester, 22.

Lamberhurst, 475.

Lambert's Oaks, Banstead, 473.

Lambeth Bridge, 275.

Lambeth Palace, 194.

Lambton Castle, 320.

Lampreys, 342.

Lancashire, 51.

Lancaster Castle, 58.

Lancaster, Dukes of, 112.

Landor, Walter Savage, 373, 378.

Landewednack, 459.

Landport, 510.

Land's End, 453, 462.

Lansdowne Hill, Bath, 396.

Landslip, Isle of Wight, 518.

Lanfranc, Archbishop, 481.

Langley Priory, 110.

Langport, 409.

Langton, Archbishop, tomb, Canterbury, 482.

Languard Fort, Harwich, 238.

Latimer, Bishop, 478.

Launcelot of the Lake, 52.

Launceston Castle, 452.

Law of Lydford, 440.

Lazarus, Raising of, painting, 499.

Lea Hall, 27.

Lead-mines, 407.

League of Tunbridge, 476.

Leam River, 121.

Leamington, 121.

Lebanon, cedars of, 374.

Leche River, 140.

Lechlade, 140.

Leconfield Castle, 279.

Leeds, 283.

Leeds Castle, 478.

Leeta Monastery, 283.

Leicester, 111.

Leicester, Earl of, 112, 123, 141.

Leicester Hospital, Warwick, 122.

Leicestershire, 106.

Leigh Woods, Bristol, 400.

Leighton, Sir Frederick, 502.

Leith Hill, 467, 468.

Leith Hill Place, 468.

Lennox, Earl of, 334.

Leo X., Pope, 405.

Leofric, 273.

L'Espec, Sir Walter, 306.

Leveson, Sir John, 89.

Leveson-Gowers, the, 89.

Lewellyn, 378.

Leys Park, 362.

Lichfield Cathedral, 200.

Liege Abbey, 102.

Lincoln, 263.

Lincoln, Bishop of, 149, 153.

Lincoln Castle, 266.

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