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Early Israel and the Surrounding Nations
by Archibald Sayce
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[Footnote 16: A contemporary of the Babylonian king Zamama-sum-iddin. If this is the last king but one of the Kassite dynasty, and not rather one of the unknown kings of the dynasty of Isin, the date of Assurdan I. will have to be pushed about 40 years further back.]

[Footnote 17: A contemporary of the Babylonian king Nebuchadrezzar I.]



IV

HEBREW CHRONOLOGY AS CORRECTED BY THE ASSYRIAN MONUMENTS

The Israelitish Exodus out of Egypt in the fifth year of Meneptah, son of Ramses II. 1276 Campaign of Ramses III. in southern Palestine cir. 1230 Chushan-rishathaim of Aram-Naharaim or Mitanni conquers Canaan cir. 1225 Saul elected King of Israel cir. 1020 Accession of David cir. 1000 Accession of Solomon cir. 960 Accession of Rehoboam, division of the kingdom cir. 930 Invasion of Palestine by Shishak I. of Egypt 927

JUDAH.

Rehoboam (17 years) cir. 932 Abijah 915 Asa 912 Jehoshapbat 871 Jeboram 846 Ahaziah or Jehoahaz 842 Athaliah 842 Joash 837 Amaziah 797 Uzziah or Azariah 768 Jotham 736 Ahaz 734 Becomes tributary to Tig-lath-pileser 734 Damascus taken by the Assyrians 732 Hezekiah 727 Invasion of Judah by Sennacherib 701 Manasseh 697 Amon 642 Josiah 640 Jehoahaz 608 Jehoiakim 608 Jehoiachin 597 Zedekiah 597 Jerusalem destroyed by Nebuchadrezzar 586

ISRAEL.

Jeroboam (22 years) 932 Nadab 910 Baasha 908 Elah 884 Zimri, for 7 days 882 Omri 882 Ahab 874 Ahab and his allies defeated by the Assyrians at Qarqar 853 Ahaziah 852 Revolt of Mesha of Moab 851 Joram 850 Jehu 842 He pays tribute to Assyria 841 Jehoanaz 814 Jehoash 798 Jeroboam II. 783 Zeohariah 742 Shallum 741 Menahem 741 Pays tribute to Tiglath-pileser 738 Pekahiah 737 Pekah 736 Hoshea 733 or 729 Samaria taken by the Assyrians 722



V

THE LETTERS OF EBEB-TOB (OR EBED KHEBA), VASSAL KING OF JERUSALEM, TO AMENOPHIS IV., KING OF EGYPT

I. "To the king my lord thus speaks Ehed-Tob thy servant: At the feet of the king my lord seven times seven I prostrate myself. What have I done against the king my lord? They have slandered me before the king my lord, saying: Ebed-Tob has revolted from the king his lord. Behold, neither my father nor my mother have exalted me in this place; the arm of the Mighty King has made me enter the house of my father. Why should I have committed a sin against the king my lord? By the life of the king, I say to the Commissioner of the king my lord: Why dost thou love the Khabiri (Confederates) and hate the (loyal) governors? And yet continually are they slandering me before the king my lord, because I say that the provinces of the king my lord are being destroyed. Continually are they slandering me to the king my lord. But let the king my lord consider, since the king my lord has established the garrisons which have taken the fortresses ... may the king send help to his country. [May he send troops] to his country! The cities of the king my lord are lost which Elimelech is destroying, even all the country of the king; so let the king my lord send help to his country. I say: I will go down to the king my lord, and shall I not see the tears of the king my lord? but the enemy are strong against me, and I have not been able to go down to the king my lord. So let the king incline towards my face and despatch a garrison to me, and I will go down and see the tears of the king my lord. Since by the life of the king, when the Commissioner departed, I say: The provinces of the king are being destroyed, (yet) thou dost not listen to me. All the governors are destroyed, no governor remains to the king my lord. May the king turn his face to the men and send the troops of the king my lord. No provinces remain unto the king; the Khabiri have wasted all the provinces of the king. If troops come this year, the provinces of the king my lord will be preserved; but if no troops come, the provinces of the king my lord will be destroyed.—To the Secretary of the king my lord, Ebed-Tob thy servant: make a clear report of my words to the king my lord that all the provinces of the king my lord are being destroyed."

II. "To the king my lord, my Sun-god, thus speaks Ebed-Tob thy servant: At the feet of the king my lord seven times seven I prostrate myself. Behold, the king my lord has established his name at the rising of the sun and the setting of the sun. They have uttered slanders against me. Behold, I am not a governor, a dependent of the king my lord. Behold, I am the king's friend, and I pay tribute to the king, even I. Neither my father nor my mother, but the arm of the Mighty King has established me in the house of my father. [When the governor of the king my lord] came to me, I gave him 13 prisoners (?) and 10 slaves. Suta (Seti) the Commissioner of the king came to me; I gave 21 slavewomen and 20 male prisoners into the hands of Suta as a present for the king my lord. May the king give counsel to his country! The country of the king is being destroyed, all of it. Hostilities are being carried on against me. Behold, the mountains of Seir (see Josh, xv. 10) as far as Gath-Carmel have united against all the other governors and are at war with myself. If one looks, shall not one see the tears of the king my lord because war has been made upon me? While there were ships in the midst of the sea the arm of the Mighty King possessed Naharaim and Babylonia, but now the Khabiri possess the cities of the king (of Egypt). Not a single governor remains (among them) to the king my lord; all are destroyed. Behold, Turbazu has been slain in the gate of the city of Zilu (Zelah), and the king does nothing. Behold, Zimrida of Lachish has been thrown to the ground by (his) servants and murdered. Yaptikh-Addu (Jephthah-Hadad) has been slain in the gate of the city of Zilu, and the king does nothing.... Let the king [my lord] send help [to his country], let the king turn his face [to his servants]. Let him despatch troops to the country [of Jerusalem]. [Behold], if no troops come this year, all the provinces of the king my lord will be utterly destroyed. They do not tell to the face of the king my lord that the country of the king my lord is destroyed and all the governors are destroyed. If no troops come this year, let the king send a Commissioner, and let him come to me with allies, and we will die with the king our lord.—To the Secretary of the king my lord, Ebed-Tob thy servant: At thy feet [I prostrate myself]. Make a clear report of these my words to the king my lord that thy faithful servant am I."

III. "To the king my lord thus speaks Ebed-Tob thy servant: at the feet of my lord the king seven times seven I prostrate myself. Behold, has not Malchiel revolted to the sons of Labai and the sons of Arzai to demand the country of the king for themselves? As for the governor who does this deed, why does not the king question him? Behold, Malchiel and Tagi (the father-in-law of Malchiel) are they who have done this, since they have taken the city of Rubute (Rabbah, Josh. xv. 60).... There is no royal garrison. May the king live for ever! Verily Puru (Pa-Hor) has gone down to him; he has left me and is in the city of Gaza. But let the king remember him and send fifty men as a garrison to defend the country. All the country of the king has revolted. Send Yikhbil-Khamu, and let him consider the country of the king. To the Secretary of the king, Ebed-Tob thy servant: make a clear report of my words to the king: 'Abundant good fortune be unto thee! I am thy servant.'"

IV. "To the king my lord thus speaks Ebed-Tob thy servant: at the feet of the king my lord seven times seven I prostrate myself. [Behold the deed] which Malchiel and Suardatum have done against the country of the king my lord, hiring (?) the forces of the cities of Gezer, of Gath, and of Keilah, and occupying the country of the city of Rubute (Rabbah). The country of the king has gone over to the Khabiri. And now at this moment the city of the mountain of Jerusalem (Uru-salim), whose name is Bit-Bir (the temple of the god Bir), the city of the king, is separated from the locality of the men of Keilah. Let the king listen to Ebed-Tob thy servant, and let him despatch troops that I may restore the country of the king to the king. But if no troops arrive, the country of the king is gone over to the Khabiri. This is the deed of Suardatum and Malchiel. But may the king send help to his country."

V. The commencement is lost.—"And now as to the city of Jerusalem, if this country belongs to the king, why is it that Gaza is made the seat of the garrison for the king? Behold, the country of the city of Gath-Carmel has fallen away to Tagi and the men of Gath. He is in Bit-Sani, and we have effected that they should give Labai and the country of the Bedawin (Suta) to the Khabiri. Malchiel has sent to Tagi and takes his sons as servants. He has granted all their requests to the men of Keilah, and we have delivered the city of Jerusalem. The garrison whom thou sentest by the hand of Khapi (Apis), the son of Miyaria (Meri-Ra) Hadad-el has taken and has established in his house in Gaza."

VI. "To the king my lord thus speaks Ebed-Tob thy servant: at the feet of the king my lord seven times seven I prostrate myself. [Let the king listen to] the words [of his servant which] have been conveyed to [him].... Let the king know that all the provinces have united in hostility against me, and let the king send help to his country. Behold, the country of the cities of Gezer, of Askalon and of Lachish have given them food, oil, and whatever they wanted; so let the king send help to the troops and despatch troops against the men who have committed sin against the king my lord. If troops come this year, then there will remain both provinces and governors to the king my lord; but if no troops arrive, there will remain no provinces or governors to the king my lord. Behold, this country of the city of Jerusalem neither my father nor my mother has given to me; the arm of the Mighty King gave it to me, even to me. Behold, this is the deed of Malchiel and the deed of the sons of Labai, who have given the country of the king to the Khabiri. Behold, O king my lord, be just towards me as regards the Babylonians; let the king ask the Commissioners whether they have acted violently (?). But they have taken upon themselves a very grievous sin. They have taken their goods and ... let the king ask (them); they had abundance of food, abundance of oil and abundance of clothes, until Pauru the Commissioner of the king came up to the country of the city of Jerusalem, and Adai revolted, together with the garrison and the dependents upon the king. Let the king know that (Pauru) said to me: Adai has revolted from me, do not leave the city. This [year] send me a garrison and a royal Commissioner. Let thy favour be towards me. I have sent to the king my lord 5000 prisoners and ... tribute-bearers. The caravans of the king have been robbed in the field of Ajalon. Let the king my lord know that I am not able to send a caravan to the king my lord according to thy instructions. Behold, the king has established his name in the country of Jerusalem for ever, and he cannot forsake the territory of the city of Jerusalem.—To the Secretary of the king my lord, Ebed-Tob thy servant. At thy feet I fall: I am thy servant. Make a clear report of my words to the king my lord, that I am the vassal of the king. Abundance of good fortune to thee!—And thou hast performed deeds I cannot enumerate against the men of the land of Cush. ... bana is not slain. There are Babylonians in my house. Let the king my lord ask in regard to them..."

* * * * *

LETTER OF SUWARDATUM TO AMENOPHIS IV.

"To the king my lord, my gods, my Sun-god, thus speaks Suwardata thy servant, the dust of thy feet: at the feet of the king my lord, my gods, my Sun-god, seven times seven I prostrate myself. The king my lord directed me to make war in the city of Keilah; I made war; it is (now) at peace with me; my city is restored to me. Why does Ebed-Tob send to the men of Keilah, saying: 'Take silver and march after me'? And the king my lord knows that Ebed-Tob has taken my city out of my hand. Again let the king my lord inquire whether I have taken a man, or an ox, or an ass from him or his jurisdiction. Again Labai is the conspirator who had taken our cities, and now Labai has taken Ebed-Tob, and they have taken our cities. And the king knows. To his servant let him grant power, for I did not know they had done anything until the king had sent an account of it to his servant."

* * * * *

LETTER FROM LABAI TO AMENOPHIS IV.

"To the king my lord and my Sun-god thus (speaks) Labai thy servant and the dust of thy feet: at the feet of the king my lord and my Sun-god, seven times seven I prostrate myself. I have heard the words which the king has sent to me, and here am I, and the king apportions his country unto me. Behold, I am a faithful servant of the king, and I have not sinned, and I have not offended, and I do not withhold my tribute, and I do not refuse the requests of the Commissioner that is set over me. Behold, they have slandered me, and the king my lord will not be hard on my offence. Again it is an offence in me that I have entered the city of Gezer and ordered the city to assemble, saying, 'The king has taken my property and the property of Malchiel.' How could I know what Malchiel has done against me? Again the king has written to Bin-Sumya; he does not know that Bin-Sumya has marched along with the Bedawin, and lo, I have delivered him into the hand of Adda-dan. Again, if the king sends for my wife, how shall I withhold her; and if the king writes to myself, 'Plunge an iron sword in thy heart and die,' how shall I not perform the commandment of the king?"



IV

THE MOABITE STONE

(See page 112)

1. I am Mesha the son of Chemosh-melech, king of Moab, the Dibonite.

2. My father reigned over Moab thirty years, and I reigned

3. after my father. I made this monument to (the god) Chemosh at Korkhah, as a monument

4. of salvation, for he saved me from all invaders, and let me see my desire upon all my enemies. Omri

5. was king of Israel, and he oppressed Moab many days, for Chemosh was angry with his

6. land. His son followed him, and he also said: I will oppress Moab. In my days [Chemosh] said:

7. I will see my desire on him and his house, and Israel shall surely perish for ever. Omri took the land of

8. Medeba (Numb. xxi. 30), and [Israel] dwelt in it during his days and half the days of his son, altogether forty years. But there dwelt in it

9. Chemosh in my days. I built Baal-Meon (Josh. xiii. 17) and made therein the reservoirs; I built

10. Kirjathain (Numb, xxxii. 37). The men of Gad dwelt in the land of Ataroth (Numb, xxxii. 3) from of old, and the king of Israel built there

11. (the town) of Ataroth; but I made war against the town and took it. And I slew all the [people]

12. of the town, for the pleasure of Chemosh and Moab. I took from thence the Ariel (champion) of (the god) Doda and tore

13. him before Chemosh in Kerioth (Jer. xlviii. 24). And I placed therein the men of Sharon and the men

14. of Me-khereth. And Chemosh said unto me: Go, seize Nebo upon Israel; and

15. I went in the night and fought against it from the break of dawn till noon; and I took

16. it, and slew all (therein), 7000 men, [boys], women, [girls],

17. and female slaves, and devoted them to Ashtor-Chemosh. And I took from it the Ariels of Yahveh, and tore them before Chemosh. And the king of Israel had built

18. Jahaz (Isa. xv. 4), and dwelt in it, whilst he waged war against me, (but) Chemosh drove him out before me. And

19. I brought from Moab 200 men, all chiefs, and carried them to Jahaz, which I took

20. to add to it Dibon. I built Korkhah, the wall of the forests and the wall

21. of the citadel: I built its gates and I built its towers. And

22. I built the temple of Moloch, and I made sluices of the water-ditches in the middle

23. of the town. And there was no cistern in the middle of the town of Korkhah, and I said to all the people: Make for

24. yourselves every man a cistern in his house. And I dug the canals for Korkhah by means of the prisoners

25. of Israel. I built Aroer and I made the road in [the province of] the Arnon. [And]

26. I built Beth-Bamoth, for it was destroyed. I built Bezer (Deut. iv. 43), for [it was] in ruins.

27. [And all the chiefs] of Dibou were fifty, for all Dibon was subject (to me); and I placed

28. 100 [chiefs] in the towns which I added to the land. I built

29. Beth-Medeba (Numb. xxi. 30), and Beth-diblathain (Jer. xlviii. 22), and Beth-baal-meon, and transported thereto the ...

30. [and the shepherds] of the flocks of the land. And at Horonaim (Isa. xv. 5) there dwelt...

31. ... And Chemosh said unto me: Go down, make war upon Horonaim. I went down [and made war]

32. [and took the city]; and Chemosh dwelt in it in my days. I went up from thence ...

33. ... And I ...



VII

THE TREATY BETWEEN RAMSES II. AND THE HITTITES (Brugsch's Translation)

(See page 79)

In the year 21, in the month of Tybi, on the 21st day of the month, in the reign of King Ramessu Mi-Amun, the dispenser of life eternally and for ever, the worshipper of the divinities Amun-Ra (of Thebes), Hor-em-khu (of Heliopolis), Ptah (of Memphis), Mut the lady of the Asher Lake (at Karnak), and Khonsu the peace-loving, there took place a public sitting on the throne of Horus among the living, resembling his father, Hor-em-khu in eternity, in eternity, evermore.

On that day the king was in the city of Ramses, presenting his peace-offerings to his father Amun-Ra and to the gods Hor-em-khu-Tum, the lord of Heliopolis (On), and to Amun of Ramessu Mi-Amun, to Ptah of Ramessu Mi-Amun, and to Sutekh, the strong, the son of Nut the goddess of heaven, that they might grant to him many thirty years' jubilee feasts, and innumerable happy years, and the subjection of all peoples under his feet for ever.

Then came forward the ambassador of the king and the governor [of his house, by name ..., and presented the ambassadors] of the great king of the Hittites, Khata-sir, who were sent to Pharaoh to propose friendship with the king Ramessu Mi-Amun, the dispenser of life, eternally and for ever, just as his father, the Sun-god [dispenses it] each day.

This is the copy of the contents of the silver tablet which the great king of the Hittites, Khata-sir, had caused to be made, and which was presented to the Pharaoh by the hand of his ambassador Tar-tisubu and his ambassador Rames, to propose friendship to the king Ramessu Mi-Amun, the bull among the princes, who places his boundary-marks where it pleases him in all lands.

The treaty which had been proposed by the great king of the Hittites, Khata-sir, the powerful, the son of Mar-sir, the great king of the Hittites, the powerful, the grandson of Sapalili, the great king of the Hittites, the powerful, on the silver tablet, to Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great prince of Egypt, the powerful—this was a good treaty for friendship and concord, which assured peace [and established concord] for a longer period than was previously the case for a long time. For it was the agreement of the great prince of Egypt in common with the great king of the Hittites that the god should not allow enmity to exist between them, on the basis of a treaty.

To wit, in the times of Mutal, the great king of the Hittites, my brother, he was at war with [Meneptah Seti I.] the great prince of Egypt.

But now, from this very day forward, Khata-sir, the great king of the Hittites, shall look upon this treaty so that the agreement may remain which the Sun-god Ra has made, which the god Sutekh has made, for the people of Egypt and for the people of the Hittites, that there should be no enmity between them for evermore.

And these are the contents:—

Khata-sir, the great king of the Hittites, is in covenant with Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great prince of Egypt, from this very day forward, that there may subsist a good friendship and a good understanding between them for evermore.

He shall be my ally; he shall be my friend. I will be his ally; I will be his friend, for ever.

To wit: in the time of Mutal, the great king of the Hittites, his brother Khata-sir, after his murder, placed himself on the throne of his father as the great king of the Hittites I strove for friendship with Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great prince of Egypt, and it is [my wish] that the friendship and the concord may be better than the friendship and the concord which before existed, and which was broken.

I declare: I, the great king of the Hittites, will hold together with [Ramessu Mi-Amun] the great prince of Egypt, in good friendship and good concord. The sons of the sons of the great king of the Hittites will hold together and be friends with the sons of the sons of Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great prince of Egypt.

In virtue of our treaty for concord, and in virtue of our agreement [for friendship, let the people] of Egypt [be bound in friendship] with the people of the Hittites. Let a like friendship and a like concord subsist in such measure for ever.

Never let enmity rise between them. Never let the great king of the Hittites invade the land of Egypt, if anything has been plundered from it (i.e. the land of the Hittites). Never let Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great prince of Egypt, overstep the boundary [of the land of the Hittites], if anything shall have been plundered from [the land of Egypt].

The just treaty which existed in the times of Sapalili, the great king of the Hittites, likewise the just treaty which existed in the times of Mutal, the great king of the Hittites, my brother, that will I keep.

Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great prince of Egypt, declares that he will keep it. [We have come to an understanding about it] with one another at the same time from this day forward, and we will fulfil it, and will act in a righteous manner.

If another shall come as an enemy to the lands of Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great prince of Egypt, then let him send an embassy to the great king of the Hittites to this effect: "Come and make me stronger than him." Then shall the great king of the Hittites [assemble his warriors], and the king of the Hittites [shall come] and smite his enemies. But if it should not be the wish of the great king of the Hittites to march out in person, then he shall send his warriors and his chariots that they may smite his enemies. Otherwise [he would incur] the wrath of Ramessu Mi-Amun [the great prince of Egypt. And if Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great prince of Egypt, should banish for a crime] subjects from his country, and they should commit further crime against him, then shall the king of the Hittites come forward to kill them. The great king of the Hittites shall act in common with [the great prince of Egypt].

[If another should come as an enemy to the lands of the great king of the Hittites, then shall he send an embassy to the great prince of Egypt with the request that] he would come in great power to kill his enemies; and if it be the intention of Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great prince of Egypt, (himself) to come, he shall [smite the enemies of the great king of the Hittites. If it is not the intention of the great prince of Egypt to march out in person, then he shall send his warriors and his two-] horse chariots, while he sends back the answer to the people of the Hittites.

If any subjects of the great king of the Hittites have offended him, then Ramessu Mi-Amun [the great prince of Egypt, shall not receive them in his land, but shall advance to kill them] ... the oath with the wish to say, I will go ... until ... Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great prince of Egypt, living for ever ... that he may be given for them (?) to the lord, and that Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great prince of Egypt, may speak according to his agreement for evermore ...

[If servants shall flee away] out of the territories of Ramessu Mi-Amun [the great prince of Egypt, to betake themselves to] the great king of the Hittites, the great king of the Hittites shall not receive them, but the great king of the Hittites shall give them up to Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great prince of Egypt [that they may be punished].

If servants of Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great prince of Egypt, leave his country and betake themselves to the land of the Hittites, to make themselves servants of another, they shall not remain in the land of the Hittites [but shall be given up] to Ramessu Mi-Amuu, the great prince of Egypt.

If, on the other hand, there should flee away [servants of the great king of the Hittites, in order to betake themselves to] Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great prince of Egypt [in order to stay in Egypt], then those who have come from the land of the Hittites in order to betake themselves to Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great prince of Egypt, shall not be [received] by Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great prince of Egypt, (but) the great prince of Egypt, Ramessu Mi-Amun, [shall deliver them up to the great king of the Hittites].

[And if there shall leave the land of the Hittites persons] of skilled mind, so that they come to the land of Egypt to make themselves servants of another, then Ramessu Mi-Amun shall not allow them to settle, he shall deliver them up to the great king of the Hittites.

When this [treaty] shall be known [by the inhabitants of the land of Egypt and of the land of the Hittites, then shall they not offend against it, for all that stands written upon] the silver tablet, these are words which will have been approved by the company of the gods, among the male deities and among the female deities, among those namely of the land of the Hittites, and by the company of the gods, among the male deities and among the female deities, among those namely of the land of Egypt. They are witnesses for me [to the validity] of these words.

This is the catalogue of the gods of the land of the Hittites:—

[Sutekh of the city of] Tump (Tennib). Sutekh of the land of the Hittites. Sutekh of the city of Arnema. Sutekh of the city of Zaranda, Sutekh of the city of Pairaka. Sutekh of the city of Khisasap. Sutekh of the city of Sarsu. Sutekh of the city of Aleppo. Sutekh of the city of ... [Sutekh of the city of ...] Sutekh of the city of Sarpina. Astartha of the land of the Hittites. The god of the land of Zaiath-Khirri. The god of the land of Ka ... The god of the land of Kher ... The goddess of the city of Akh ... [The goddess of the city of ... ] and of the land of A ... ua. The goddess of the land of Zaina. The god of the land of ... nath ... er.

[I have invoked these male and these] female [deities of the land of the Hittites; these are the gods] of the land, as [witnesses to] my oath. [With them have been associated the male and the female deities] of the mountains and of the rivers of the land of the Hittites, the gods of the land of Kazawadana (Cappadocia), Amun, Ra, Sutekh, and the male and female deities of the land of Egypt, of the earth, of the sea, of the winds, and of the storms.

With regard to the commandment which the silver tablet contains for the people of the Hittites and for the people of Egypt, he who shall not observe it shall be given over [to the vengeance] of the company of the gods of the Hittites, and shall be given over [to the vengeance of the] company of the gods of Egypt, [he] and his house and his servants.

But he who shall observe these commandments which the silver tablet contains, whether he be of the people of the Hittites or [of the people of the Egyptians], because he has not neglected them, the company of the gods of the land of the Hittites, and the company of the gods of the land of Egypt shall secure his reward and preserve life [for him] and his servants, and those who are with him and with his servants.

If there flee away [one] of the inhabitants [from the land of Egypt], or two, or three, and they betake themselves to the great king of the Hittites, the great king of the Hittites shall take them and send them back to Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great prince of Egypt.

Now with regard to the inhabitant of the land of Egypt who is delivered up to Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great prince of Egypt, his fault shall not be avenged upon him, his house shall not be taken away, nor his wife nor his children. He shall not be put to death, neither shall he be mutilated in his eyes, nor in his ears, nor in his mouth, nor on the soles of his feet, so that thus no crime shall be brought forward against him.

In the same way shall it be done if inhabitants of the land of the Hittites take to flight, be it one alone or two or three, to betake themselves to Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great king of Egypt; Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great king of Egypt, shall cause them to be seized, and they shall be delivered up to the great prince of the Hittites.

With regard to him who is delivered up, his crime shall not be brought forward against him. His house shall not be destroyed, nor his wife, nor his children; he shall not be put to death, he shall not be mutilated in his eyes, nor in his ears, nor on his mouth, nor on the soles of his feet, nor shall any accusation be brought forward against him.

That which is in the middle of this silver tablet and on its front side is a likeness of the god Sutekh embracing the great prince of the Hittites, surrounded by an inscription to this effect: "The seal of the god Sutekh the sovereign of heaven," and "The seal of the writing made by Khata-sir, the great and powerful prince of the Hittites, the son of Mar-sir, the great and powerful prince of the Hittites." That which is in the middle of the frame is the seal of Sutekh the sovereign of heaven. That which is on the other side (of the tablet) is the likeness of the god of the Hittites embracing the great princess of the Hittites, surrounded by an inscription to the following effect: "The seal of the Sun-god of the city of Iranna, the lord of the earth," and "The seal of Puu-khipa, the great princess of the land of the Hittites, the daughter of the land of Qazawadana, the [servant of the goddess Iskhara of] Iranna, the regent of the earth; the servant of the goddess." That which is in the middle of the frame is the seal of the Sun-god of Iranna, the lord of all the earth.



VIII

THE TRAVELS OF A MOHAR

A SATIRICAL ACCOUNT OF A TOURIST'S MISADVENTURES IN CANAAN, WRITTEN IN THE TIME OF RAMSES II., THE PHARAOH OF THE OPPRESSION

(See page 189)

I will portray for thee the likeness of a Mohar; I will let thee know what he does. Thou hast not gone to the land of the Hittites, nor hast thou beheld the land of Aupa. The appearance of Khatuma thou knowest not. Likewise the land of Igadai, what is it like? The Zar (Plain) of Sesostris and the city of Aleppo are on none of its sides. How is its ford? Thou hast not taken thy road to Kadesh (on the Orontes) and Tubikhi (the Tibhath of 1 Chr. xviii. 8), neither hast thou gone to the Shasu (Bedawin) with numerous foreign soldiers, neither hast thou trodden the way to the Magharat (the caves of the Magoras near Beyrout), where the heaven is dark in the daytime. The place is planted with maple trees, oaks, and acacias, which reach up to heaven, full of beasts, bears and lions, and surrounded by Shasu in all directions. Thou hast not gone up to the mountain of Shaua (in the northern Lebanon), neither hast thou trodden it; there thy hands hold fast to the [rein] of thy chariot; a jerk has shaken thy horses in drawing it. I pray thee, let us go to the city of Beeroth (cisterns). Thou must hasten to its ascent, after thou hast passed over its ford in front of it.

Do thou explain the attraction to be a Mohar! Thy chariot lies there [before] thee; thy [strength] has fallen lame; thou treadest the backward path at eventide. All thy limbs are ground small. Thy [bones] are broken to pieces. Sweet is [sleep]. Thou awakest. There has been a time for a thief in this unfortunate night. Thou wast alone, in the belief that the brother could not come to the brother. Some grooms entered into the stable; the horse kicks out; the thief goes back in the night; thy clothes are stolen. Thy groom wakes up in the night; he sees what has happened to him; he takes what is left, he goes to the evil-doers, he mixes himself up with the tribes of the Shasu. He acts as if he were an Amu (Asiatic). The enemies come, they [feel about] for the robber. He is discovered, and is immovable from terror. Thou awakest, thou findest no trace of them, for they have carried off thy property.

Become (again) a Mohar, who is fully accoutred. Let thy ear be full of that which I relate to thee besides.

The town 'Hidden'—such is the meaning of its name Gebal—what is its state? Its goddess (we will speak of) at another time. Thou hast not visited it. Be good enough to look out for Beyrout, Sidon, and Sarepta. Where are the fords of the land of Nazana? The land of Usu (Palaetyrus), what is its state? They speak of another city in the sea, Tyre the haven is her name. Drinking water is brought to her in boats. She is richer in fish than in sand. I will tell thee of something else. Dangerous is it to enter into Zorah. Thou wilt say it is burning with a very painful sting (?) Mohar, come! Go forward on the way to the land of Pa-Kakina. Where is the road to Achshaph? Towards no city. Pray look at the mountain of User. How is its crest? Where is the mountain of Shechem? Who can surmount it? Mohar, whither must you take a journey to the city of Hazor? How is its ford? Let me (choose) the road to Hamath, Dagara, (and) Dagar-el. Here is the road where all Mohars meet. Be good enough to spy out its road, cast a look on Ya ... When one goes to the land of Adamim, to what is one opposite? Do not draw back, but instruct us! Guide us that we may know, thou leader!

I will name to thee other cities besides these. Thou hast not gone to the land of Takhis, Kafir-Malona, Tamnah, Kadesh, Dapul, Azai, Har-Nammata, nor hast thou beheld Kirjath-eneb near Beth-Sopher (Kirjath-Sepher or Debir); nor dost thou know Adullam (and) Zidiputha, nor dost thou know any better the name of Khalza in the land of Aupa, the bull on its frontiers (?). Here is the place where all the mighty warriors are seen. Be good enough to look and see how Qina is situated, and tell me about Rehob. Describe Beth-sha-el (Bethel) along with Tarqa-el. The ford of the land of the Jordan, how is it crossed? Teach me to know the passage in order to enter into the city of Megiddo which lies in front of it. Verily thou art a Mohar, well skilled in the work of the strong hand. Pray, is there found a Mohar like thee, to place at the head of the army, or a seigneur who can beat thee in shooting?

Drive along the edge of the precipice, on the slippery height, over a depth of 2000 cubits, full of rocks and boulders. Thou takest thy way back in a zigzag, thou bearest thy bow, thou takest the iron in thy left hand. Thou lettest the old men see, if their eyes are good, how, worn-out with fatigue, thou supportest thyself with thy hand. Il est perdu, le chameau, le Mohar! Eh bien![18] Make to thyself a name among the Mohars and the knights of the land of Egypt. Let thy name be like that of Qazirnai the lord of Aser, because he discovered lions in the interior of the balsam-forest of Baka at the narrow passes, which are rendered dangerous by the Shasu who lie in ambush among the trees. (The lions) measured fourteen cubits by five cubits. Their noses reached to the soles of their feet. Of a grim appearance, without softness, they cared not for caresses. Thou art alone, no stronger one is with thee, no armee is behind thee, no Ariel (see 2 Sam. xxiii. 20, Isa. xxix. 1) who prepares the way for thee, and gives thee counsel on the road before thee. Thou knowest not the road. The hair on thy head stands on end; it bristles up. Thy soul is given into thy hands. Thy path is full of rocks and boulders, there is no way out near; it is overgrown with creepers and wolf's-foot. Abysses are on one side of thee, the mountain and the wall of rock on the other. Thou drivest in against it. The chariot jumps on which thou art. Thou art troubled to hold up thy horses. If it falls into the abyss, the pole drags thee down too. Thy ceintures are pulled away. They fall down. Thou shacklest the horse, because the pole is broken on the path of the narrow pass. Not knowing how to tie it up, thou understandest not how it is to be repaired. The essieu is left on the spot, as the load is too heavy for the horses. Thy courage has evaporated. Thou beginnest to run. The heaven is cloudless. Thou art thirsty; the enemy is behind thee; a trembling seizes thee; a twig of thorny acacia worries thee; thou thrustest it aside; the horse is scratched, till at length thou findest rest.

Explain thou thy attraction to be a Mohar!

Thou comest into Joppa. Thou findest the date-palm in full bloom in its time. Thou openest wide the aperture of thy mouth in order to eat. Thou findest that the maid who keeps the garden is fair. She does whatever thou wantest of her.... Thou art recognised, thou art brought to trial, and owest thy preservation to being a Mohar. Thy girdle of the finest stuff, thou payest it as the price of a bad rag. Thou sleepest every evening with a rug of fur over thee. Thou sleepest a deep sleep, for thou art weary. A thief takes thy bow and thy sword from thy side; thy quiver and thy armour are broken to pieces in the darkness; thy pair of horses run away. The groom takes his course over a slippery path that rises in front of him. He breaks thy chariot in pieces; he follows thy foot-tracks. [He finds] thy equipments, which had fallen on the ground, and had sunk into the sand, leaving only an empty space.

Prayer does not avail thee; even when thy mouth says: "Give food in addition to water that I may reach my goal in safety," they are deaf and will not hear. They say not yes to thy words. The iron-workers enter into the smithy; they rummage in the workshops of the carpenters; the handi-craftsmen and soldiers are at hand; they do whatever thou requirest. They put together thy chariot: they put aside the parts of it that have been made useless; thy spokes are faconne quite new; thy wheels are put on, they put the courroies on the axles and on the hinder part; they splice thy yoke, they put on the box of thy chariot; the [workmen] in iron forge the ...; they put the ring that is wanting on thy whip, they replace the lunieres upon it.

Thou goest quickly onward to fight on the battlefield, to do the deeds of a strong hand and of firm courage.

Before I wrote I sought me out a Mohar who knows his power, who leads the jeunesse, a chief in the armee [who goes forward] even to the end of the world.

Answer me not, "That is good, this is bad;" repeat not to me thy opinion. Come, I will tell thee all which lies before thee at the end of thy journey.

I begin for thee with the palace of Sesostris (Ramses II.). Thou hast not set foot in it by force. Thou hast not eaten the fish in the brook of .... Thou hast not washed thyself in it. With thy permission I will remind thee of Huzana (near El-Arish); where is its fortress? Come, I pray thee, to the palace of the land of Uzi, of Sesostris Osymandyas in his victories, to Saz-el together with Absaqbu. I will inform thee of the land of Ainin (the Two Springs), the customs of which thou knowest not. The land of the lake of Nakhai and the land of Rehoburtha (Rehoboth, Gen. xxvi. 22) thou hast not seen since thou wast born, O Mohar. Rapih (the modern boundary between Egypt and Turkey) is widely extended. What is its wall like? It extends for a mile in the direction of Gaza.

[Footnote 18: By the use of French words and expressions Brugsch endeavours to represent the Canaanitish terms which the Egyptian writer has affectedly introduced into his work.]



IX

THE NEGATIVE CONFESSION OF THE EGYPTIANS

(Sir P. Le Page Renouf's Translation)

(See page 186)

The 125th chapter of the Book of the Dead contains the confession which the soul of the dead man was required to make before Osiris and the forty-two divine judges of the dead, before he could be justified and admitted to the Paradise of Aalu:—

Said on arriving at the Hall of Righteousness, that N (the soul of the dead man) may be loosed from all the sins which he hath committed, and that he may look upon the divine countenances.

He saith:—Hail to thee, mighty God, lord of Righteousness!

I am come to thee, O my Lord! I have brought myself that I may look upon thy glory. I know thee, and I know the name of the forty-two gods who make their appearance with thee in the Hall of Righteousness; devouring those who harbour mischief and swallowing their blood, upon the day of the searching examination in the presence of Un-neferu (Osiris).

Verily "Thou of the Pair of Eyes, Lord of Righteousness," is thy name.

Here am I; I am come to thee; I bring to thee Right and have put a stop to Wrong.

I am not a doer of wrong to men.

I am not one who slayeth his kindred.

I am not one who telleth lies instead of truth.

I am not conscious of treason.

I am not a doer of mischief.

I do not exact as the first-fruits of each day more work than should be done for me.

My name cometh not to the Bark of the god who is at the Helm.

I am not a transgressor against the God.

I am not a tale-bearer.

I am not a detractor.

I am not a doer of that which the gods abhor.

I hurt no servant with his master.

I cause no famine.

I cause not weeping.

I am not a murderer.

I give not orders for murder.

I cause not suffering to men.

I reduce not the offering in the temples.

I lessen not the cakes of the gods.

I rob not the dead of their funereal food.

I am not an adulterer.

I am undefiled in the sanctuary of the god of my domain.

I neither increase nor diminish the measures of grain.

I am not one who shorteneth the palm's length.

I am not one who cutteth short the field's measurement.

I put not pressure upon the beam of the balance.

I snatch not the milk from the mouth of infants.

I drive not the cattle from their pastures.

I net not the birds of the manors of the gods.

I catch not the fish of their ponds.

I stop not the water at its appointed time.

I divide not an arm of the water in its course.

I extinguish not the lamp during its appointed time.

I do not defraud the Divine Circle of their sacrificial joints.

I drive not away the cattle of the sacred estate.

I stop not a god when he cometh forth.

I am pure, I am pure, I am pure, I am pure!



X

LETTERS OF KHAMMURABI OR AMMURAPI (THE AMRAPHEL OP GEN. xiv. 1) TO SIN-IDINNAM, KING OF LARSA (THE ELLASAR OF GENESIS)

I. "To Sin-idinnam thus says Khammurabi: The goddesses of the land of Emudbalum restored your courage to you on the day of the defeat of Kudur-Laghghamar (Chedor-laomer). Because they have supported you among the army of thy hand, turn back the army and let them restore the goddesses to their own seats."

II. "To Sin-idinnam thus says Khummarabi: When you have seen this letter you will understand in regard to Amil-Samas and Nur-Nintu, the sons of Gisdubba, that if they are in Larsa or in the territory of Larsa you will order them to be sent away, and that one of your servants on whom you can depend shall take them and bring them to Babylon."

III. "To Sin-idinnam thus says Khammurabi: As to the officials who have resisted you in the accomplishment of their work, do not impose upon them any additional task, but oblige them to do what they ought to have performed, and then remove them from the influence of him who has brought them."

Sin-idinnam seems to have been the legitimate prince of Larsa, who had been expelled from his dominions by the Elamite invader Eri-Aku or Arioch, and had taken refuge at the court of Khammurabi in Babylon. After the overthrow of the Elamites, Sin-idinnam was restored by Khammurabi to his ancestral principality.



XI

THE BABYLONIAN ACCOUNT OF THE DELUGE

1. Sisuthros spake thus unto him, even to Gilgames:

2. 'Let me reveal unto thee, O Gilgames, the tale of my preservation,

3. and the oracle of the gods let me declare unto thee.

4. The city of Surippak, which, as thou knowest, is built [on the bank] of the Euphrates,

5. this city was (already) old when the gods within it

6. set their hearts to cause a flood, even the great gods

7. [as many as] exist: Anu the father of them,

8. the warrior Bel their prince,

9. Bir their throne-bearer, En-nugi (Hades) their chief.

10. Ea the lord of wisdom conferred with them, and

11. repeated their words to the reed-bed: 'Reed-bed, O reed-bed! Frame, O frame!

12. Hear, O reed-bed, and understand, O frame!

13. O man of Surippak, son of Ubara-Tutu,

14. frame the house, build a ship: leave what thou canst; seek life!

15. Resign (thy) goods, and cause thy soul to live,

16. and bring all the seed of life into the midst of the ship.

17. As for the ship which thou shalt build,

18. ... cubits shall be in measurement its length;

19. and ... cubits the extent of its breadth and its height.

20. Into the deep [then] launch it.'

21. I understood and spake to Ea my lord:

22. 'As for the building of the ship, O my lord, which thou hast ordered thus,

23. I will observe and accomplish it.

24. [But what] shall I answer the city, the people and the old men?'

25. [Ea opened his mouth and] says, he speaks to his servant, even to me:

26. ['If they question thee] thou shalt say unto them:

27. Since (?) Bel is estranged from me and

28. I will not dwell in your city, I will not lay my head [in] the land of Bel;

29. but I will descend into the deep; with [Ea] my lord will I dwell.

30. (Bel) will rain fertility on you,

31. [flocks] of birds, shoals of fish.'

Lines 32 to 42 are lost.

43. On the fifth day I laid the plan of it (i.e. the ship);

44. in its hull (?) its walls were 10 gar (120 cubits?) high;

45. 10 gar were the size of its upper part.'

Another version of the account of the Deluge, of which a fragment has been preserved, puts a wholly different speech into the mouth of Ea, and gives the hero of the story the name of Adra-Khasis. This fragment is as follows:—

'I will judge him above and below, [But] shut [not thou thy door] [until] the time that I shall tell thee of. [Then] enter the ship, and close the door of the vessel. [Bring into] it thy corn, thy goods, [thy] property, thy [wife], thy slaves, thy handmaids, and the sons of [thy] people, the [cattle] of the field, the beasts of the field, as many as I appoint ... I will tell thee of (the time), and the door [of thy ship] shall preserve them.' Adra-Khasis opened his mouth and says, he speaks to Ea [his] lord:

'[O my lord,] none has ever made a ship [on this wise] that it should sail over the land.' ...

Here the fragment is broken off. The other version proceeds thus:—

46. 'I fashioned its side, and closed it in;

47. I built six storeys (?), I divided it into seven parts;

48. its interior I divided into nine parts.

49. I cut worked (?) timber within it.

50. I looked upon the rudder and added what was lacking.

51. I poured 6 sars of pitch over the outside;

52. [I poured] 3 sars of bitumen over the inside;

53. 3 sars of oil did the men carry who brought it ...

54. I gave a sar of oil for the workmen to eat;

55. 2 sars of oil the sailors stored away.

56. For the [workmen?] I slaughtered oxen;

57. I killed [sheep?] daily.

58. Beer, wine, oil and grapes

59. [I distributed among] the people like the waters of a river, and

60. [I kept] a festival like the festival of the new year.

61. ... I dipped my hand [in] oil:

62. [I said to] Samas (the Sun-god): 'The storeys (?) of the ship are complete;

63. the ... is strong, and

64. the oars (?) I introduced above and below.'

65. [Those who should be saved?] went two-thirds of them.

66. With all I had I filled it; with all the silver I possessed I filled it;

67. with all the gold I possessed I filled it;

68. with all that I possessed of the seed of life of all kinds I filled it.

69. I brought into the ship all my slaves and my handmaids,

70. the cattle of the field, the beasts of the field, the sons of my people, all of them did I bring into it.

71. The Sun-god appointed the time and

72. utters the oracle: 'In the night will I cause the heavens to rain destruction;

73. enter the ship, and close thy door.'

74. That time drew near whereof he uttered the oracle:

75. 'On this night will I cause the heavens to rain destruction.'

76. I watched with dread the dawning of the day;

77. I feared to behold the day.

78. I entered into the ship and closed my door.

79. When I had closed the ship, to Buzur-sadi-rabi the sailor

80. I entrusted the palace with all its goods.

81. Mu-seri-ina-namari (the waters of the morning at dawn)

82. arose from the horizon of heaven, a black cloud;

83. the storm-god Rimmon thundered in its midst, and

84. Nebo and Merodach the king marched in front;

85. the throne-bearers marched over mountain and plain;

86. the mighty god of death lets loose the whirlwind;

87. Bir marches causing the storm (?) to descend;

88. the spirits of the underworld lifted up (their) torches,

89. with the lightning of them they set on fire the world;

90. the violence of the storm-god reached to heaven;

91. all that was light was turned to [darkness].

92. In the earth like ... [men] perished (?)

Two lines are lost here.

95. Brother beheld not his brother, men knew not one another. In the heaven

96. the gods feared the deluge, and

97. hastened to ascend to the heaven of Anu.

98. The gods cowered like a dog who lies in a kennel.

99. Istar cried like a woman in travail,

100. the great goddess spoke with a loud voice:

101. 'The former generation is turned to clay.

102. The evil which I prophesied in the presence of the gods,

103. when I prophesied evil in the presence of the gods,

104. I prophesied the storm for the destruction of my people.

105. What I have home, where is it?

106. Like the spawn of the fish it fills the deep.'

107. The gods wept with her because of the spirits of the underworld;

108. the gods sat dejected in weeping,

109. their lips were covered ...

110. Six days and nights

111. rages the wind; the flood and the storm devastate.

112. The seventh day when it arrived the flood ceased, the storm

113. which had fought like an army

114. rested, the sea subsided, and the tempest of the deluge was ended.

115. I beheld the deep and uttered a cry,

116. for the whole of mankind was turned to clay;

117. like the trunks of trees did the bodies float.

118. I opened the window and the light fell upon my face;

119. I stooped, and sat down weeping;

120. over my face ran my tears.

121. I beheld a shore beyond the sea;

122. twelve times distant rose a land.

123. On the mountain of Nizir the ship grounded;

124. the mountain of the country of Nizir held the ship and allowed it not to float.

125. One day and a second day did the mountain of Nizir hold it.

126. A third day and a fourth day did the mountain of Nizir hold it.

127. A fifth day and a sixth day did the mountain of Nizir hold it.

128. When the seventh day came I sent forth a dove and let it go.

129. The dove went and returned; a resting-place it found not and it turned back.

130. I sent forth a swallow and let it go; the swallow went and returned;

131. a resting-place it found not and it turned back.

132. I sent forth a raven and let it go;

133. the raven went and saw the going down of the waters, and

134. it approached, it waded, it croaked and did not turn back.

135. Then I sent forth (everything) to the four points of the compass; I offered sacrifices;

136. I built an altar on the summit of the mountain.

137. I set libation-vases seven by seven;

138. beneath them I piled up reeds, cedar-wood and herbs.

139. The gods smelt the savour, the gods smelt the sweet savour;

140. the gods gathered like flies over the sacrificer.

141. Already at the moment of her coming, the great goddess

142. lifted up the mighty bow which Anu had made according to his wish (?).

143. 'These gods,' (she said), 'by my necklace, never will I forget!

144. Those days, I will think of them and never will forget them.

145. Let the gods come to my altar;

146. (but) let not Bel come to my altar,

147. since he did not take counsel but caused a flood and counted my men for judgment.'

148. Already at the moment of his coming, Bel

149. saw the ship and stood still;

150. he was filled with wrath at the gods, the spirits of heaven, (saying):

151. 'Let no living soul come forth, let no man survive in the judgment!'

152. Bir opened his mouth and says, he speaks to the warrior Bel:

153. 'Who except Ea can devise a speech?

154. for Ea understands all kinds of wisdom.'

155. Ea opened his mouth and speaks, he says to the warrior Bel:

156. 'Thou art the seer of the gods, O warrior!

157. Why, O why didst thou not take counsel, but didst cause a deluge?

158. (Let) the sinner bear his own sin, (let) the evil-doer bear his own evil-doing.

159. Grant (?) that he be not cut off, be merciful that he be not [destroyed].

160. Instead of causing a deluge, let lions come and minish mankind;

161. instead of causing a deluge, let hyaenas come and minish mankind;

162. instead of causing a deluge, let there be a famine and let it [devour] the land;

163. instead of causing a deluge, let the plague-god come and minish mankind!

164. I did not reveal (to men) the oracle of the great gods,

165. but sent a dream to Adra-khasis and he heard the oracle of the gods.'

166. Then Bel again took counsel and ascended into the ship.

167. He took my hand and caused me, even me, to ascend,

168. he took up my wife (also, and) caused her to bow at my side;

169. he turned to us and stood between us; he blessed us (saying):

170. 'Hitherto Sisuthros has been mortal, but

171. henceforth Sisuthros and his wife shall be like unto the gods, even unto us, and

172. Sisuthros shall dwell afar at the mouth of the rivers,'

173. Then he took us afar, at the mouth of the rivers he made us dwell.



XII

THE BABYLONIAN EPIC OF THE CREATION

TABLET I.

When the heaven above was not yet named or the earth beneath had recorded a name, the primaeval (ristu) deep was their generator, Mummu-Tiamat (the chaos of the sea) was the mother of them all. Their waters were embosomed together, and the corn-field was unharvested, the reed-bed was ungrown. When the gods had not yet appeared, any one of them, by no name were they recorded, no destiny [was fixed]. Then the great gods were created, Lakhmu and Lakhamu issued forth [the first], until they grew up [when] Ansar and Kisar (the upper and lower firmaments) were created. Long were the days, extended [was the time, till] the gods [Anu, Bel, and Ea were born], Ansar [and Kisar gave them birth].

* * * * *

The deep [opened] its mouth [and said,] to [Tiamat], the glorious, [it spake]: While their path ... I will overthrow their path ... Let lamentations arise, let complaining [be made] [When] Tiamat [undertakes] this [work]

* * * * *

Their way shall be difficult ... [Then] the god Mummu answered [his] father the deep:

* * * * *

Their way [shall be overthrown], the light shall be darkened, let [it be] as the night! The deep [heard] him and [his] countenance was lightened; evil planned they against the gods.

* * * * *

Tiamat, the mother of the gods, lifted up herself against them, gathering her forces, madly raging. The gods united themselves together with her, until (all) that had been created marched at her side. Banning the day they followed Tiamat, wrathful, devising mischief, untiring (?) day and night, prepared for the conflict, fiercely raging, they gathered themselves together and began the battle. The mother of the deep (?) (Khubur), the creatress of them all, added victorious weapons, creating monstrous serpents, with sharp fangs, unsparing in their attack. With poison for blood she filled their bodies. Horrible adders she clothed with terror, she decked them with fear, and raised high their ... 'May their appearance ... Make huge their bodies that none may withstand their breast!' She created the adder, the horrible serpent, the Lakhamu, the great monster, the raging dog, the scorpion-man, the dog-days, the fish-man and the (Zodiacal) ram, who carry weapons that spare not, who fear not the battle, insolent of heart, unconquerable by the enemy. Moreover that she might create (?) eleven such-like monsters, among the gods, her sons, whom she had summoned together, she raised up Kingu, and magnified him among them: 'To march before the host, be that thy duty! Order the weapons to be uplifted and the onset of battle!' That he might be the first in the conflict, the leader in victory, she took his hand and set him on a throne: 'I have uttered the spell for thee; exalt thyself among the gods, assume dominion over all the gods! Highly shalt thou be exalted, thou that art alone my husband; thy name shall be magnified over [all the world]!' Then she gave to him the tablets of destiny, and laid them on his breast: 'Let thy command be obeyed, let the word of thy mouth be established!' When Kingu had exalted himself, and made himself like Anu (the god of heaven), she determined for the gods her sons their destiny: 'The opening of your mouth shall quench the fire; The exalted of Kidmuri (i.e. Kingu) shall dissolve its flame.'

* * * * *

TABLET II.

(Begins with a speech of Ansar to Merodach.)

"Tiamat our mother has risen up against us, gathering her forces, madly raging. The gods have united themselves together with her, until (all) that has been created marches at her side. Banning the day they have followed Tiamat, wrathful, devising mischief, untiring (?) day and night, prepared for the conflict, fiercely raging, they have gathered themselves together and begun the battle. The mother of the deep (?), the creatress of them all, has added victorious weapons, creating monstrous serpents, with sharp fangs, unsparing in their attack. With poison for blood she has filled their bodies. Horrible adders she has clothed with terror, she has decked them with fear, and raised high their ... 'May their appearance ... may their bodies be huge so that none may withstand their breast!' She has created the adder, the horrible serpent, the Lakh-amu, the great monster, the raging dog, the scorpion-man, the dog-days, the fish-man (Aquarius), and the (Zodiacal) ram, who carry weapons that spare not, who fear not the battle, insolent of heart, unconquerable by the enemy. Moreover that she may create (?) eleven such-like monsters, among the gods, her sons, whom she has summoned together, she has raised up Kingu and magnified him among them. 'To march before the host,' (she has said,) 'be that thy duty! Order the weapons to be uplifted and the onset of battle!' That he may be the first in the conflict, the leader in victory, she has taken his hand and seated him on a throne: 'I have uttered the spell for thee; exalt thyself among the gods, assume dominion over all the gods! Highly shalt thou be exalted, thou that art alone my husband; thy name shall be magnified over [all the world]!' Thereupon she has given him the tablets of destiny and laid them on his breast: 'Let thy command be obeyed, let the word of thy mouth be established!' When Kingu had exalted himself, and made himself as Anu, she determined for the gods her sons their destiny: 'The opening of your mouth shall quench the fire; the exalted of Kidmuri shall dissolve its flame!' [When Merodach heard this, his heart] was grievously troubled, he ... ... and his lips he bit; .....his heart grew angry ......his cry. ......[he determined on] battle. [Then spake he to] his father (Ea): 'Be not troubled; ......thou shalt become the lord of the deep. ......with Tiamat will I contend.'"

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Merodach [heard] the words of his father, in the fulness (?) of his heart he said to his father: 'O lord of the gods, offspring (?) of the great gods, if indeed I am your avenger, Tiamat to overpower and you to rescue, make ready an assembly, prepare a banquet(?). Enter joyfully into Ubsugina (the seat of oracles) all together. With my mouth like you will I give the oracle. What I create shall never be changed, the word of my lip shall never go back or be unfulfilled!'

TABLET III.

Thereupon Ansar opened his mouth, to [Gaga] his [messenger] he uttered the word: 'O angel [Gaga] who rejoicest my heart, [to Lakhmu and Lakh]amu will I send thee; [the command of my heart] thou shalt gladly hear(?): 'Ansar, your son, has sent me, the wish of his heart he has caused me to know. Tiamat our mother has risen up against us, gathering her forces, madly raging. The gods, all of them, have united themselves unto her, all whom she has created march at her side. Banning the day they have followed Tiamat, wrathful, devising mischief, untiring (?) day and night, prepared for the conflict, fiercely raging, they have gathered themselves together and begin the fray. The mother of the deep (?), the creatress of them all, has given them victorious weapons, creating monstrous serpents with sharp fangs, unsparing in the onset. With poison for blood she has filled their bodies. Horrible adders she has clothed with terror, she has decked them with fear, and raised high their ... 'May their appearance ... May their bodies grow huge so that none may stand before them!' She has created the adder, the horrible serpent, the Lakhamu, the great monster, the raging dog, the scorpion-man, the dog-days, the fish-man and the ram, who carry weapons that spare not, who fear not the conflict, insolent of heart, unconquerable by the enemy. Moreover that she may have eleven such monsters, among the gods, her sons, whom she has summoned together, she has raised up Kingu and magnified him among them: 'To march before the host, be that thy duty! Order the weapons to be uplifted and the onset of battle!' That he may be first in the conflict, the leader in victory, she has taken his hand and set him on a throne: 'I have uttered the spell for thee, exalt thyself among the gods, assume dominion over all the gods! Highly shalt thou be exalted, thou that art alone my husband; thy name shall be magnified over [all the world]!' Then she gave him the tablets of destiny, and laid them on his breast: 'Let thy command be obeyed; let the word of thy mouth be established!' When Kingu had exalted himself and made himself as Anu she determined for the gods her sons their destiny: 'The opening of your mouth shall quench the fire, the exalted of Kidmuri shall dissolve its flame.' I sent forth Anu, but he would not meet her; Ea was terrified and turned back. Then I bade Merodach, the counsellor of the gods, your son; to attack Tiamat his heart urged him. He opened his mouth and spake unto me: 'If I am indeed your avenger, Tiamat to overpower, you to rescue, make ready an assembly, prepare a banquet (?). Enter joyfully into Ubsugina, all together. With my mouth, like you, will I then pronounce an oracle, what I create shall never be changed; the word of my lip shall never go back or be unfulfilled.' Hasten therefore and determine at once for him his destiny that he may go forth and meet your mighty foe!' Lakhmu and Lakhamu heard this and lamented, the gods of heaven, all of them, bitterly grieved: 'Foolish are they who thus desire battle (?); nor can we understand the [design] of Tiamat.' Then they came together and marched ... the great gods, all of them, who determine [destinies]. They came before (?) Ansar, they filled [his abode], they crowded one on the other in the gathering ... they sat down to the feast, [they devoured] the food; they eat bread, they drank [wine], with sweet honey wine they filled themselves, they drank beer, and delighted their soul (?) ....they ascended into their [seats], to determine the destiny of Merodach their avenger.

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TABLET IV.

Then they set him on a princely throne; before his fathers he seated himself as ruler. 'Yea, thou art glorious among the great gods, thy destiny has no rival, thy name (?) is Anu; from this day forward unchanged be thy command, high and low entreat thy hand! Let the word of thy mouth be established, thy judgment never be violated, let none among the gods overpass thy bounds! as an adornment has (thy hand) founded the shrine of the gods, may the place of their gathering (?) become thy home. O Merodach, thou art he that avenges us, we give unto thee the sovereignty over the multitudes of the universe. Thou givest counsel, let thy word be exalted; may thy weapons be victorious, may thine enemies tremble! O lord, be gracious to the soul of him who putteth his trust in thee, but pour out the soul of the god who has hold of evil.' Then place they in their midst a robe; they spake to Merodach their first-born: 'May thy destiny, O lord, excel that of the gods; command destruction and creation, and so it shall be done. Set thy mouth that it may destroy the robe; bid it return and the robe shall be restored!' He spake and with his mouth destroyed the robe; he spake to it again, and the robe was re-created. When the gods his fathers beheld (the power) of the word of his mouth, they rejoiced, they saluted Merodach the king, they bestowed upon him the sceptre, the throne and reign, they gave him a weapon unrivalled, consuming the hostile: 'Go,' (they said,) 'and cut off the life of Tiamat, let the winds carry her blood to secret places.' (Thus) the gods, his fathers, determined for Bel his destiny, they showed his path, and they bade him listen and take the road. He made ready the bow and used it as his weapon; he made the club swing, he fixed its seat; then he lifted up the weapon which he caused his right hand to hold; the bow and the quiver he hung at his side. He set the lightning before him, with glancing flame he filled its body. He made also a net to enclose the dragon Tiamat. He seized the four winds that they might not issue out of it, the south wind, the north wind, the east wind (and) the west wind; he made them enter the net, the gift of his father Anu. He created the evil wind, the hostile wind, the storm, the tempest, the four winds, the seven winds, the whirlwind, the unending wind: he caused the winds he had created to issue forth, seven in all, confounding the dragon Tiamat, as they swept after him. Then Bel lifted up the Deluge, his mighty weapon: he rode in a chariot incomparable, (and) terrible. He stood firm, and harnessed four horses to its side, [steeds] that spare not, spirited and swift, [with sharp] teeth, that carry poison, which know how to sweep away [the opponent]. [On the right] ... mighty in battle, on the left they open ... ......before thee. [Bring to the feast] the gods, all of them, [let them sit down and] satisfy themselves with food, [let them eat bread], let them drink wine, [let them ascend to their seats?] and determine the future. [Go now,] Gaga, approach before them, deliver unto them [the message I entrust to] thee: 'Ansar, your son, has sent me, the wish of his heart he has caused me to know. Tiamat, our mother, has risen up against us, gathering her forces, madly raging. The gods, all of them, have united themselves unto her, even those who created you march at her side. Banning the day they have followed Tiamat, wrathful, devising mischief, untiring(?) day and night, prepared for the conflict, fiercely raging, they have gathered themselves together and begin the battle. The mother of the deep(?), the creatress of them all, has given them victorious weapons, creating monstrous serpents, with sharp fangs, unsparing in their attack. With poison for blood she has filled their bodies. Horrible adders she has clothed with terror, she has decked them with fear, and raised high their.... 'May their appearance,' (she has said).... 'Let their bodies grow huge so that none may stand before them!' She has created the adder, the horrible serpent, the Lakh-amu, the great monster, the raging dog, the scorpion-man, the dog-days, the fish-man and the ram, who carry weapons that spare not, who fear not the fight, insolent of heart, unconquerable by the enemy. Moreover that she may have eleven such monsters, among the gods, her sons, whom she has summoned together, she has raised up Kingu and magnified him among them. 'To march before the host, be that thy duty! Order the weapons to be uplifted and the onset of battle!' That he may be the first in the conflict, the leader in victory, she has taken his hand and set him on a throne: 'I have uttered the spell for thee,' (she has said); 'exalt thyself among the gods, assume dominion over all the gods! Highly shalt thou be exalted, thou that art alone my husband; thy name shall be magnified over [all the world]!' Thereupon she has given him the tablets of destiny, and laid them on his breast: 'Let thy command be obeyed, let the word of thy mouth be established!' When Kingu had exalted himself and made himself like Anu she fixed for the gods, her sons, their destiny 'The opening of your mouth shall quench the fire; the exalted of Kidmuri shall dissolve its flame.' I sent forth Anu, but he would not meet her; Ea was terrified and turned back. Then I sent forth Merodach, the counsellor of the gods, your son; to attack Tiamat his heart urged him. He opened his mouth and said unto me: 'If I indeed am your avenger, Tiamat to overpower and you to rescue, make ready an assembly, prepare a banquet (?). Enter joyfully into Ubsugina all together. With my mouth like you will I pronounce the oracle. What I create shall never be changed, the word of my lip shall never go back or be unfulfilled!' Hasten therefore and determine for him at once his destiny, that he may go forward and meet your powerful foe!' Then went Gaga and completed his journey unto Lakhmu and Lakhamu the gods, his fathers, he prostrated himself and kissed the ground at their feet, he bowed himself and stood up and spake unto them: ... clothed with fear; with lustre and terror he covered his head. He directed also his way, he made his path descend, to the place where Tiamat [stood] he turned his countenance; with his lip he kept back ... his finger holds the.... On that day they extolled him, the gods extolled him, the gods, his fathers, extolled him, the gods extolled him. Then Bel drew near, eager for the struggle with Tiamat, looking for victory over Kingu her husband. When she beheld him, her resolution was destroyed, her understanding was overthrown, her plans confounded. And the gods, his helpers, who marched beside him beheld (how Merodach) the prince amazes their eyes. He laid judgment on Tiamat, yet she turned not her neck; with her hostile lips she uttered defiance: 'Let the gods, O Bel, enter on battle behind thee, [behold,] they are gathered together to where thou art.' Bel [launched] the Deluge, his mighty weapon; against Tiamat, who had raised herself (?), thus he sent it. 'Thou wert mighty [below,' he cries,] 'exalted above, yet thy heart [has urged thee] to begin the strife, [to lead the gods from] their fathers to [thy side]; [thou hast gathered them around thee] and raisest thyself [against us], [thou hast made] Kingu thy husband [and hast bestowed on] him divine power. ... thou hast devised evil, [against the] gods, my fathers, hast thou directed thy enmity. [May] thy host be fettered, thy weapons be restrained! Stand up, and I and thou will fight together.' When Tiamat heard this, she uttered her former spells, she repeated her command. Tiamat also cried out vehemently with a loud voice. From her roots she rocked herself completely. She uttered an incantation, she cast a spell, and the gods of battle demand for themselves their arms. Then Tiamat attacked Merodach the counsellor of the gods; in combat they joined; they engaged in battle. Then Bel opened his net and enclosed her; the evil wind that seizes behind he sent before him. Tiamat opened her mouth to swallow it; he made the evil wind to enter so that she could not close her lips. The violence of the winds tortured her stomach, and her heart was prostrated, and her mouth was torn open. He swung the club; he shattered her stomach; he cut out her entrails; he divided her heart; he overpowered her and ended her life; he threw down her corpse; he stood upon it. When Tiamat who marched before them was conquered, he dispersed her forces, her host was overthrown, and the gods her allies who marched beside her trembled and feared and turned their backs. They fled away to save their lives; they clung to one another, fleeing helplessly. He followed them and broke their arms; he flung his net and they are caught in the snare. Then filled they the world with their lamentations; they bear their sin and are shut up in prison, and the elevenfold creatures are troubled with fear. The host of spirits (?) who marched beside them (?) he throws into fetters and [binds] their hands, and [tramples] their opposition under him. And the god Kingu who [had been made leader over] them, he bound him also and did to him as to the [other] gods. And he took from him the tablets of destiny [that were on] his breast; he sealed them with his pen and hung them from his own breast. From the time he had bound and overmastered his foes he led the illustrious foe captive like an ox, bringing to full completion the victory of Ansar over his antagonists. The warrior Merodach (thus) performed the purpose of Ea. Over the gods in bondage he strengthened his watch, and he turned backwards Tiamat whom he had overpowered. Then Bel trampled on the body of Tiamat; with his club that spares not he smote her skull, he broke it and caused her blood to flow; the north wind bore it away to secret places. Then his fathers beheld, they rejoiced and were glad; they bade peace-offerings to be brought to him. And Bel rested; his body he fed; he strengthened his mind (?), he formed a clever plan, and he stripped her like a fish of her skin in two halves; one half he took and with it overshadowed the heavens; he stretched out the skin, he appointed watchers bidding them that her waters should not issue forth; he lit up the sky, the sanctuary rejoiced, and he set it over against the deep, the seat of Ea. Then Bel measured the form of the deep; as a palace like unto it he made E-Sarra (the upper firmament). The palace of the upper firmament, which he created as heaven, he caused Anu, Bel and Ea to inhabit as their stronghold.

TABLET V.

He made the stations of the great gods; he fixed the stars, even the twin-stars, to correspond with them; he ordained the year, appointing the signs of the Zodiac over it; for each of the twelve months he fixed three stars, from the day when the year issues forth to its close. He established the station of Jupiter that they might know their bounds, that they might not err, that they might not go astray in any way. He established the station of Bel and Ea along with himself. He opened also the gates on either side, the bolts he strengthened on the left hand and on the right, and in their midst he set the zenith. He illuminated the Moon-god that he might watch over the night, and ordained him for a guardian of the night that the time might be known, (saying): 'Month by month, without break, make full thine orb; at the beginning of the month, when the night begins, shine with thy horns that the heaven may know. On the seventh day, halve thy disk; stand upright on the Sabbath with the [first] half. At the going down of the sun [rise] on the horizon; stand opposite it [on the fourteenth day] in full splendour (?). [On the 15th] draw near to the path of the sun; [on the 21st] stand upright against it for the second time."

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TABLET VI. (?)

The gods in their assembly created [the beasts], they made perfect the mighty [monsters]; they caused the living creatures of the [field] to come forth, the cattle of the field, the wild beasts of the field, and the creeping things of the [field]; [they fixed their habitations] for the living creatures [of the field] [and] adorned [the dwelling-places] of the cattle and creeping things of the city; [they created] the multitude of creeping things, all the offspring [of the earth]!



XIII

A SUMERIAN ACCOUNT OF THE CREATION FROM THE CITY OF ERIDU

The glorious temple, the temple of the gods, in the holy place (of Eridu) had not yet been made; no reed had been brought forth, no tree had been created; no brick had been made, no roof had been formed; no house had been built, no city had been constructed; no city had been made, no dwelling-place prepared. Nippur had not been built, E-kur (the temple of Nippur) had not been constructed. Erech had not been built, E-Ana (the temple of Erech) had not been constructed. The deep had not been created, Eridu had not been constructed. The glorious temple, the temple of the gods, its seat had not been made. All lands were sea. When within the sea there arose a movement, on that day Eridu was built, E-Sagila was constructed, E-Sagila where the god Lugal-du-azaga dwells within the deep. Babylon was built, E-Sagila was completed. The gods and the spirits of the earth were created all together. The holy city (Eridu), the seat of the joy of their hearts, they proclaimed supreme. Merodach bound together a reed-bed on the waters; dust he made, and he poured it out on the reed-bed. That the gods might dwell in a seat of the joy of their hearts, he formed mankind. The goddess Aruru created the seed of mankind along with him. He made the beasts of the field and the living creatures of the desert He made the Tigris and Euphrates and set them in their place; he declared their names to be good. The ussu-plant, the dittu-plant of the marshland, the reed and the forest he created. He created the verdure of the plain, the lands, the marshes, and the greensward also, oxen, and calves, the wild ox and its young, the sheep and the lamb, meadows and forests also. The he-goat and the gazelle brought forth (?) to him. Then Merodach heaped up an embankment at the edge of the sea; ... as it had not before been made, ... he caused it to exist. [Bricks] he made in their place, ... roofs he constructed; [houses he built], cities he constructed; [cities he made], dwelling-places he prepared; [Nippur he built], E-kur he constructed; [Erech he built], E-Ana he constructed.

THE END

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