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Creative Evolution
by Henri Bergson
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Releasing cause, 73, 74, 115, 118-9, 120

Repetition and generalization, 230-1, 232 and fabrication, 44-5, 46, 155-8 and intellect, 156-7, 199, 214-6 of states, 5-6, 7-8, 28-9, 30, 36, 45-6, 47 in the vital and in the mathematical order, 225, 226, 230, 231

Representation and action, 143-4, 145, 180 classes of: qualities, forms, acts, 302-3, 314 and consciousness, 143-4 of motion, 159-60, 303-4, 305, 306-7, 308, 313, 315, 344-5 of the Nought, 273-80, 281-4, 289-317, 327

Represented or internalized action distinguished from externalized action, 144-7, 158-9, 165

Reproduction and individuation, 13, 14

Resemblance. See Similarity

Reservoir, organism a, of energy, 115, 116, 125-6, 245, 246, 254

Rest and motion in Zeno, 308-12

Retrogression in evolution, 133, 134

Retrospection the function of intellect, 47-8, 237

Reversed psychology: intuitional cosmology, 208

Rhizocephala and animal mobility, 111

Rhumbler, 34 note

Rhythm of duration, 11-2, 127-8, 300-1, 345-7 intelligence adopts the, of action, 305-6 of perception, 299-300, 301 and quality, 301 scanning the, of the universe the function of science, 346-7 of science must coincide with that of action, 320 of the universe untranslatable into scientific formulae, 337

Rings of arthropods, 132-3

Ripening, creative evolution as, 47-8, 340-1

Romanes, 139

Roule, 27 note

Roy (Le), Ed., 218 note

Salamandra maculata, vision in, 75

Salensky, 75 note

Same, function of intellect connecting same with same, 199-200, 233, 270

Samter and Heymons, 72 note

Saporta (De), 112 note

Savage's sense of distance and direction, 212

Skepticism or dogmatism the dilemma of any systematic metaphysics, 195-6, 197, 230-1

Schisms in the primitive impulsion of life, 254-5, 257. See Divergent lines of evolution

Scholasticism, 370

Science and action, 93, 195, 198, 328-9 ancient, and modern, 329-37, 342-5, 357 astronomy, ancient and modern, 334-5, 336 cartesian geometry and ancient geometry, 333-4 cinematographical character of modern, 329, 330, 336-7, 340-1, 342, 345-8 conventionality of a certain aspect of, 206-7 and deduction, 212-3 and discontinuity, 161-2 function of, 92, 167-8, 173-4, 176-7, 193-4, 195-6, 198-9, 328-9, 346-7 Galileo's influence on modern, 333-4, 335 and instinct, 169, 170, 173-4, 175, 193-5 and intelligence, 176, 177, 193-6 Kepler's influence on modern, 334 and matter, 194-5, 206-7, 208 modern. See Modern science object of, 195-6, 220, 221, 251, 270-1, 273, 296-8, 306-7, 328-9, 332-3, 335-6, 347-8 and perception, 168 and philosophy, 175-6, 196-7, 208-9, 344, 370 physical. See Physics and reality. See Reality and science and time, 8-13, 20, 335-8 unity of, 195-6, 197, 228-9, 230, 321-2, 323, 344-5, 347-8, 349, 354, 355-6, 359-60, 362-3

Scientific concepts, 338-40 explanation and philosophical explanation, 168 formulae, 337 geometry, 161, 211 knowledge, 193-4, 196-7, 198, 199, 207, 208, 218

Sclerosis and ageing, 19

Scolia, paralyzing instinct in, 172

Scope of action indefinitely extended by intelligent instruments, 141 of Galileo's physics, 357, 370

Scott, 63 note

Sea-urchin and individuality, 13

Seailles, 29 note

Secondary instincts, 139, 168

Sectioning of becoming in the philosophy of ideas, 317-8 of matter by perception, 206-7, 249, 251

Sedgwick, 260 note

Seeing and willing, coincidence of, in intuition, 237

Selection, natural, 54, 56-7, 59-60, 61-2, 63, 64, 68, 95-6, 169, 170

Self, coincidence of, with, 199 existence of, means change, 1 ff. knowledge of, 1 ff.

Senescence, 15-23, 26-7, 42-3

Sensation and space, 202

Sense-perception. See Perception

Sensible flux, 316-7, 318, 321, 322, 327, 343, 345 intuition and ultra-intellectual, 360-1 object, apogee of, 342-3, 344-5, 349 reality, 314, 317, 319, 327, 328, 352

Sensibility, forms of, 361

Sensitive plant, in illustration of mobility in plants, 109

Sensori-motor system. See Nervous system

Sensuous manifold, 205, 221, 232, 235, 236

Sentiment, poetic, in illustration of individuation, 258, 259

Serkovski, 259 note

Serpula, in illustration of identical evolution in divergent lines, 96

Sexual cells, 14, 26, 27, 79-81

Sexuality parallel in plants and animals, 58-60, 119-21

Shaler, N.S., 133 note, 184 note

Sheath, calcareous, in illustration of animal tendency to mobility, 130-1

Signs, function of, 158, 159, 160 the instrument of science, 329-30

Sigwart, 287 note

Silurian epoch, failure of certain species to evolve since, 102

Similarity among individuals of same species the type of generality, 224-6, 228-9, 230-1 and mechanical causality, 44, 45

Simultaneity, to measure time is merely to count simultaneities, 9, 336, 337, 341

Sinuousness of evolution, 71, 98, 102, 212-3

Sitaris, unconscious knowledge of, 146, 147

Situation and magnitude, problems of, 211

Sketching movements, function of consciousness, 207-8

Sleep, 129-31, 135, 181

Snapshot, in illustration of intellectual representation of motion, 305, 306, 313, 315, 344 See View of reality, Cinematographical character, etc. form defined as a, of transition, 301-2, 317, 318, 321-2, 345

Social instinct, 101, 140, 158, 171-2 life, 138, 140, 158, 265 and pedagogical character of negation, 287-97

Societies, 101, 131-2, 158, 171-2, 259

Society and the individual, 260, 265

Solar energy stored by plants, released by animals, 246, 254 systems, 241-4, 246 note, 256, 270 systems, life in other, 256

Solid, concepts analogous to solids, ix intellect as a solid nucleus, 193, 194 the material of construction and the object of the intellect, 153, 154, 161, 162, 251

Solidarity between brain and consciousness, 180, 262 of the parts of matter, 203, 207-8, 241, 271

Solidification operated by the understanding, 249

[Greek: soma] in Aristotle, 350

Somnambulism and consciousness, 144, 145, 159

Soul and body, 350 and cell, 269 creation of, 270

Space and action, 203 in ancient philosophy, 318, 319 and concepts, 160-1, 163, 174-5, 176-7, 188-9, 257-9 geometrical, 203 homogeneity of, 156, 212 and induction, 216 in Kant's philosophy, 205, 206, 207, 244 in Leibniz's philosophy, 351 and matter, 189, 202-13, 244, 257, 264, 361-2, 368 and time in Kant's philosophy, 205-6 unity and multiplicity determinations of, 357-9 See Extension

Spatiality atmosphere of, bathing intelligence, 205 degradation of the extra-spatial, 207 and distinctness, 203, 207, 244, 250, 257-9 and geometrical space, 203, 211, 213, 218 and mathematical order, 208, 209

Special instincts and environment, 138, 168, 192-3, 194 and recollections, 167, 168, 180 as variations on a theme, 167, 172, 264

Species, articulate, 133 evolution of, 247, 255, 269 and external finality, 128-9, 130-1, 132, 266 fossil, 102 human, as goal of evolution, 266, 267 human, styled homo faber, 139 and instinct, 140, 167, 170-2, 264 and life, 167 similarity within, 223-6, 228-9, 230-1

Speculation, dead-locks in, xii, 155, 156, 312, 313-4 object of philosophy, 44, 152, 196, 198, 220, 225-6, 227, 251, 270-1, 273, 297-8, 306-7, 317, 347-8

Spencer, Herbert, xi, xiv, 78-9, 153, 188, 189, 190, 364, 365

Spencer's evolutionism, correspondence between mind and matter in, 368 cosmogony in, 188 imprint of relations and laws upon consciousness in, 188 matter in, 365, 367 mind in, 365, 367

Spheres, concentric, in Aristotle's philosophy, 328

Sphex, paralyzing instinct in, 172-5

Spiders and paralyzing hymenoptera, 172

Spinal cord, 110

Spinoza, the adequate and the inadequate, 353 cause, 277 dogmatism, 356, 357 eternity, 353 extension, 350 God, 351, 357 intuitionism, 347 mechanism, 348, 352, 355, 356 time, 362

Spirit, 251, 269, 270

Spirituality and materiality, 128-9, 201-3, 316-7, 208-9, 210-1, 212-3, 217, 218, 219, 222-3, 237, 238, 245, 247-8, 249, 251, 254, 256, 257, 259, 261, 267, 270-1, 272, 276, 343

Spontaneity of life, 86, 237. See Freedom and mechanism, 40 in vegetables, 109 and the willed order, 224

Sport (biol.), 63

Starch, in the function of vegetable kingdom, 114

States of becoming, 1, 13, 163, 247-8, 299, 300, 307

Static character of the intellect, 155-6, 163, 274, 298 views of becoming, 273

Stehasny, 124 note

Steam-engine and bronze, parallel as epoch-marking, 138-9

Stentor and individuality, 260

Stoics, 316

Storing of solar energy by plants, 246, 253-6

Strain of bow and indivisibility of motion, 308

Stream, duration as a, 39, 338

Structure and function. See Function and structure identical, in divergent lines of evolution, 55, 60, 61-2, 63, 69, 73-4, 75, 76-7, 83, 86, 87, 118-9

Subject and attribute, 147-8

Substance, albuminoid, 120-1 continuity of living, 162 organic, 121, 131, 140, 142, 149, 162-3, 195-7 note, 255, 267 in Spinoza's philosophy, 350 ternary substances, 121

Substantives, adjectives, verbs, correspond to the three classes of representation, 302-4

Substitution essential to representation of the Nought, 281, 283-4, 289-90, 291, 294, 296

Success of physics, 218, 219-20 and superiority, 133, 264-5

Succession in time, 10, 339, 340, 341, 345. Cf. Juxtaposition

Successors of Kant, 363, 364

Sudden mutations, 28, 62-3, 64-5, 68-9

Sun, 115, 241, 323

Superaddition of existence upon nothingness, 276 of order upon disorder, 236, 275

Superimposition. See Measurement of qualities, in induction, 216

Superiority, evolutionary, 133-5, 173, 174-5

Superman, 267

Supraconsciousness, 261

Survival of the fit, 169. See Natural selection

Swim, learning to, as instinctive learning, 193, 194

Symbol, the concept is a, 161, 209, 341-2 of reality, xi, 30-1, 71, 88-9, 93, 195-6, 210, 240, 342, 360-1, 369-70

Symbolic knowledge of life, 199, 342, 360

Symbolism, 176, 180, 360

Sympathetic or intuitive knowledge, 209, 210, 342

Sympathy, instinct is, 164, 168, 172-8, 342-3. See Divination, Feeling, Inspiration

Systematic metaphysics, dilemma of, 195, 196, 230-1 contrasted with intuitional, 191-2, 193-4, 238, 269, 270, 277, 346-8 postulate of, 190, 195

Systematization of physics, Liebniz's philosophy, 347

Systems, isolated, 9-13, 203, 214, 215, 241, 242, 342, 347-9

Tangent and curve, analogy with deduction and the moral sphere, 214 analogy with physico-chemistry and life, 31

Tarakevitch, 124 note

Teleology. See Finalism

Tendency, antagonistic tendencies of life, 13, 98, 103, 113, 135, 150 antagonistic tendencies in development of nervous system, 124-5 complementary tendencies of life, 51, 103, 135, 150, 168, 246 to dissociation, 260 divergent tendencies of life, 54, 89, 99, 101, 107-8, 109-10, 112, 116-8, 134, 135, 150, 181, 246, 254-8 to individuation, 13 life a tendency to act on inert matter, 96 toward mobility in animals, 109, 110, 113, 127-8, 129-33, 135, 181, 182 the past exists in present tendency, 5 to reproduce, 13 of species to change, 85-86 mathematical symbols of tendencies, 22, 23 toward systems, in matter, 10 transmission of, 80-1 a vital property is a, 13

Tension and extension, 236, 245 and freedom, 200-2, 207-8, 223, 237, 239, 300-2 matter the inversion of vital, 239 of personality, 199-200, 201, 207-8, 237, 239, 300

Ternary substances, 121

Theology consequent upon philosophy of ideas, 316

Theoretic fallacies, 263, 264 knowledge and instinct, 177, 268 knowledge and intellect, 155, 177, 179, 238, 270, 342, 343

Theorizing not the original function of the intellect, 154-5

Theory of knowledge, xiii, 178, 180, 184-5, 197, 204, 207-8, 209, 228-9, 231 of life, xiii, 178, 180, 197

Thermodynamics, 241-2. See Conservation of energy, Degradation of energy

Thesis and antithesis, 205

Thing as distinguished from motion, 187, 202, 247-8, 249, 299-300 as distinguished from relation, 147, 148, 150, 152, 158-9, 159-60, 161, 187, 202, 352, 356-7 and mind, 206 as solidification operated by understanding, 249

Thing-in-itself, 205, 206, 230-1, 312

Timaeus, 318 note

Time and the absolute, 240, 241, 297-8, 339, 343-4 abstract, 21, 22, 37, 39 articulations of real, 331-3 as force, 16, 45-6, 47, 51, 103, 339 homogeneous, 17, 18, 163-4, 331-3 as independent variable, 20, 335-7 interval of, 9, 22, 23 as invention, 341-2 in Leibniz's philosophy, 351, 352, 362 and logic, 4, 277 and simultaneity, 9, 336, 337, 341 in modern science 321-37, 341-5 and space in Kant, 205 and space in ancient philosophy, 318, 319. See Duration

Tools and intellect, 137-41, 150-1. See Implement

Torpor, in evolution, 109, 111, 113, 114 note, 120, 128-35, 181, 292

Tortoise, Achilles and the, in Zeno, 311

Touch, science expresses all perception as touch, 168 is to vision as intelligence to instinct, 169

Track laid by motion along its course, 309-12, 337

Transcendental Aesthetic, 203

Transformation, 32, 72, 73, 131, 231, 263

Transformism, 23-5

Transition, form a snapshot view of, 301-2, 316-7, 318, 321, 344-5

Transmissibility of acquired characters, 75-84, 87, 168, 169, 172-3, 225-6, 230-1

Transmission of the vital impetus, 26, 27, 79, 85, 87, 88, 93-4, 110, 126-7, 128, 230, 231, 246, 255, 256, 257, 259, 270

Trigger-action of motor mechanisms, 272

Triton, Regeneration in, 75

Tropism and psychical activity, 35 note

Truth seized in intuition, 318-20

Unconscious effort, 170 instinct, 142-3, 144, 145-6, 147, 166 knowledge, 145-8, 150-1

Unconsciousness, two kinds of, 144

Undefinable, reality, 13, 48

Understanding, absoluteness of, 153-4, 190-1, 197-8, 199, 200 and action, ix, xi, 179 genesis of the, ix-xv, 49, 189, 207-8, 257-9, 359, 361-2 and geometry, ix, xii and innateness of categories, 147, 148-9 and intuition, 46-7 and life, ix-xv, 13, 32-3, 46-50, 88-9, 101, 147-8, 149, 152, 162-5, 173-4, 176-7, 178, 195-201, 213, 220, 222-3, 224, 226, 257-9, 261, 266, 270, 271, 313, 361-2, 365 and inert matter, 166, 168, 179, 194-5, 198, 205-6, 207, 219, 355 and the ready-made, xiii, 48, 237, 250, 251, 273, 311, 321, 328-9, 354, 358 and the solid, ix unlimited scope of the, 149, 150, 152 See Intellect, Intelligence, Concept, Categories, Frames of the understanding, Logic

Undone, automatic and determinate evolution is action being, 249

Unfolding cause, 73, 74

Unforeseeableness of action, 47 of duration, 6, 164, 340-2 of evolution, 47, 48, 52, 86, 224 of invention, 164 of life, 164, 184 and the willed order, 224, 342-3 See Foreseeing

Unification as the function of the intellect, 152, 154, 357-8

Uniqueness of phases of duration, 164

Unity of extension, 154 of knowledge, 195-6 of life, 106-7, 250, 268, 271 of mental life, 268 and multiplicity as determinations of space, 351-3 of nature, 104-5, 189-90, 191, 195-6, 197, 199, 322, 352, 356-8 of the organism, 176-7 of science, 195-6, 197, 228-9, 230, 321, 322, 344-5, 347, 359-60, 362-3

Universal interaction, 188, 189 life, consciousness coextensive with, 186, 257, 270

Universe, continuity of, 346 Descartes's, 346 physical, and the idea of disorder, 233, 275 duration of, 10, 11, 241 evolution of, 241, 246 note growth of, 342-3, 344 movement of, in Aristotle, 323 mutability of, 244, 245 as organism, 31, 241 as realization of plan, 40 rhythm of, 337, 339, 346-7 states of, considered by science, 336, 337 as unification of physics, 348-9, 357

Unknowable, the, of evolutionism, xi the, in Kant, 204, 205, 206

Unmaking, the nature of the process of materiality, 245, 248, 249, 251, 272, 342-3

Unorganized bodies, 7-8, 14, 20, 21, 186. See inert matter instruments, 137-9, 140-1, 150-1 matter, cleft between, and the organized, 190, 191, 196, 197-9 matter, imitation of the organized by, 33-4, 35, 36 matter and science, 194-6 matter. See inert matter

Unwinding cause, 73 of immutability in Greek philosophy, 325, 352

Upspringing of invention, 164

Utility, 4-5, 150, 152, 154-5, 158-9, 160, 168, 187, 195-6, 247-8, 297-8, 328-9, 330

Vanessa levana and Vanessa prorsa, transformation of, 72

Variable, time as an independent, 20, 336

Variation, accidental, 55, 63-4, 68, 85, 168-9 of color, in lizards, 72, 74 by deviation, 82-3, 84 of evolutionary type, 23-4, 72 note, 131-2, 137-8, 167, 169, 171-2, 264 insensible, 63, 68 interest as cause of, 131-2 in plants, 85-86

Vegetable kingdom. See Plants

Verb, relation expressed by, 148

Verbs, substantives and adjectives, 303

Verse and prose, in illustration of the two kinds of order, 221, 232

Vertebrate, ix, 126, 130, 131-4, 141

Vibrations, matter analyzed into elementary, 201

Vicious circle, apparent, of intuitionism, 192-4, 196-7 of intellectualism, 194, 197, 318-9, 320

View, intellectual, of becoming, 4, 90-1, 273, 298-9, 304, 305, 310, 326-7 intellectual, of matter, 203, 240, 250, 254, 255 of reality, 206

Vignon, P., 35 note

Virtual actions, 12. See Possible action geometry, 212

Vise, consciousness compressed in a, 179

Vision of God, in Alexandrian philosophy, 322 in molluscs. See Eye of molluscs, etc. in Salamandra maculata, 75

Vital activity, 134-6, 139, 140, 166-9, 246, 247-8 current, 26, 27, 53-5, 80, 85, 87, 88, 96-105, 118-9, 120, 230-1, 232, 239, 257, 266, 270 impetus, 50-1, 53-5, 85, 87, 88, 98-105, 118-9, 126-7, 128, 131-2, 141-2, 148-9, 150, 218, 230-1, 232, 247-8, 250, 252, 254-5, 261 order, cause in, 34, 35, 94-5, 164 order, finality and, 223-5, 226 order, generalization in the, and in the mathematical order contrasted, 225, 226, 230-1 order, and the geometrical order, 222-3, 225, 226, 230, 231, 235, 236, 330-1 order, imitation of physical order by vital, 230 principle, 42, 43, 225, 226 order, repetition in the vital and the mathematical orders contrasted, 225, 226, 230, 231 process, 166-7

Vitalism, 42, 43

Void, representation of, 273, 274, 275, 277-8, 281, 283-4, 289-90, 291, 292, 294, 296, 298

Voisin, 80

Volition and cerebral mechanism, 253-4

Voluntary activity, 110, 252

Vries (de), 24, 63 note, 85

Wasps, instinct in, 140, 172

Weapons and intellect, 137

Weismann, 26, 78, 80-1

Will and caprice, 47 and cerebral mechanism, 252 current of, penetrating matter, 237 insertion of, into reality, 305-6, 307 and relaxation, 201, 207-8 and mechanism in disorder, 233 tension of, 199, 201, 207-8

Willed order, mutual contingency of willed order and mathematical order, 231-3 unforeseeability in the, 224, 342-3

Willing, coincidence of seeing and, in intuition, 237

Wilson, E.B., 36

Wolff, 75 note

Words and states, 4, 302-3 three classes of, corresponding to three classes of representation, 302-3, 313-4

World, intelligible, 162-3 principle: conciousness, 237, 261

Worms, in illustration of ambiguity of primitive organisms, 130

Yellow-winged sphex, paralyzing instinct in, 172

Zeno on motion, 308-13

Zone of potentialities surrounding acts, 179-80, 181, 264

Zoology, 128-9

Zoospores of algae, in illustration of mobility in plants, 112

THE END

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