Coronation Anecdotes
by Giles Gossip
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"Right trusty and well-beloved cousin, we greet you well. Whereas we have appointed the 23d day of April next for the solemnity of our royal coronation. These are, therefore, to will and command you, all excuses set apart, that you make your personal attendance on us, at the time above mentioned, furnished and appointed, as to your rank and quality appertaineth, there to do and perform such services as shall be required and belonging to you. And whereas we have also resolved, that the coronation of our Royal Consort the Queen shall be solemnized on the same day; we do further require the [Countess] your wife to make her personal attendance on our said Royal Consort, at the time, and in the manner aforesaid: whereof you and she are not to fail. And so we bid you heartily farewell. Given at our Court at Whitehall, the 21st day of March, in the first year of our reign, 1684-5."

In the "Explanation of the Sacred and Royal Habits, and other Ornaments, wherewith the King was invested," Sandford mentions a tablet which hung to the royal chair, and on which were "written, in the Old English letter, these verses"—

Si quid habent veri vel chronica cana fidesve, Clauditur hac cathedra nobilis ecce lapis, Ad caput eximus Jacob quondam patriarcha Quem posuit cernens numina mira poli: Quem tulit ex Scotis spolians quasi victor honoristhan Edwardus Primus, Mars velut armipotens, Scotorum domitor, notis validissimus Hector, Anglorum decus, et gloria militiae.

This must, therefore, have been destroyed since King James's coronation, for it is now lost. There is but one objection to ascribing the verses, with Mr. Taylor, to Edward the First's reign—would he have written "Edwardus Primus?"

The queen's crown of state, or that worn on her return from Westminster Hall, seems to have been the most valuable part of the regalia of that day. It is regularly set forth, in its component pearls and diamonds, as of "value 111,900l." (an immense sum at that period), and weighing only eighteen ounces ten pennyweights.

King James and his Queen slept at St. James's Palace on the vigil of St. George, "for the greater convenience of performing their devotions," &c.; and joined the peers and other dignitaries at the Palace of Westminster, by "half an hour after ten." Here the latter were marshalled according to their respective classes, four in a rank; placing the youngest on the left, pursuant to what had been before resolved on by his majesty in council, for "the greater glory of the solemnity:" and "note," says our accurate chronicler, "that at all former coronations the classes proceeded only by two abreast." The king and queen entered Westminster Hall at half past eleven o'clock precisely; when the dean of Westminster "having, early in the morning, with the assistance of the prebendaries, consecrated the holy oil for their majesties' anointing," (in what manner we are not informed), presented the regalia to the king. Then the queen's regalia were placed before her; and the several noblemen and gentlemen who were to bear the different symbols of royalty to the Abbey were summoned to receive them; the whole procession being ready to move forward exactly at noon.

Now came the stately pomp of England's royalty and nobility "through the New Palace Yard into King Street, and so through the Great Sanctuary unto the west door of the collegiate church of St. Peter," as depicted by Sandford in "nineteen sculptures following," or, as modern book-manufacturers would say, in thirty-eight well-executed folio plates, which give the exact appearance of "each degree and order of person in the same," and really form an admirable memorial of such a procession.

The twelve principal ceremonies assigned by this writer to the Abbey are the same in substance with the modern observances. It is noticed by Mr. Taylor that Sandford is the author who first terms the presentation of the monarch to the people, and their reply, "the recognition."

The king sat down in St. Edward's chair; and the archbishop, assisted by the dean of Westminster, "reverently put the crown on the king's head" at three of the clock precisely. The queen, having been first anointed on her head and breast, was now crowned and enthroned, and the procession returned to the Hall at "five of the clock."

The first course of the "ambigue" appears to have consisted of "ninety-nine dishes of the most excellent and choicest of all sorts of cold meats, both flesh and fish, excellently well dressed, and ordered all manner of ways;" and the whole feast of 1445 dishes, of the placing of which we have a numbered scheme (a folio plate), and catalogues corresponding. Could this provoking volume present its viands to some of our other senses in equal perfection with that in which "the first course of hot meat served up to their majesties' table" meets the eye, it were more reasonable to detain the reader over this part of the work; but, at the late hour of the morning at which we write this, it is too much to dwell on the "cocks' combs," and "petty-toes" and "turkeys-a-la-royale," and "partridges by the dozen," with which it abounds.

The appearance of the champion and the challenge were exactly according to modern usage.

Sandford concludes with an abstract of the record of the Court of Claims, giving both those which were admitted and those which were rejected. The following is a form of judgment respecting the office of lord great chamberlain:—

"Quarum quidem petitionum consideratione matura habita, eo quod idem Comes de Lyndsey modo existit in possessione et executione officii praedicti, et quod Robertus non ita pridem Carolum Primum faelicissimae memoriae, tunc Regem Angliae, de advisamento Dominorum in Parliamento; quod quidem officium Montague nuper Comes Lyndsey pater ejus, cujus haeres ipse est executus est in coronatione Caroli Secundi nuper Regis Angliae. Ideo consideratum est per commissionarios praedictos quod clameum praedicti Comitis de Lyndsey ad officium praedictum eidem Comiti de Lyndsey allocetur, exercendum praedicto die Coronationis; et quod clameum praedicti Comitis Derbiae non allocetur; sed quoad feoda et vadia per dictum Comitem de Lyndsey clamata, clameum ejus quoad poculum de Assay non allocatur, eo quod non constabat praedictis commissionariis Magnum Angliae Camerarium dictum poculum aliqua precedenti coronatione habuisse. Sed quod alia clamea praedicta eidem Comiti de Lyndsey allocantur.

"Et postea et ante coronationem praedietam dicta quadraginta Virgatae Velveti eidem Comiti deliberatae fuere: et pro reliquis feodis praedictis compositio facta est cum praedicto Comiti, pro ducentis libris sterlingorum, et praedictus Comes de Lyndsey officium Magni Camerarii Angliae in die Coronationis adimplevit."

And thus the reader has a summary of the contents of this important work.

James II. boasts, in his Memoirs, of having saved the country 60,000l. by the omission (for the first time) of the royal procession through the city, at his coronation.

The coronation of WILLIAM and MARY presented the singular feature of a joint sovereignty over these realms, conferred by public consent. The only alteration this made in the ceremonial was, that another symbol of sovereign power, the orb, was required, and presented in due form to the queen as well as to the king. The new-modelling of the coronation oath, at this period, we have before noticed[109].

It is certainly remarkable that neither of our married queens regnant, MARY or ANNE, should have obtained the coronation of their husbands: in neither case was conjugal influence wanted; but the superior force of the people's jealousy of foreign sway was, perhaps, wisely deferred to: in neither reign were other subjects of strife wanted between the crown and the people.

The princes of the illustrious House now seated on the throne have affected no novelties in their coronation ceremonies—except, perhaps, that they have endeavoured to simplify and abridge them. GEORGE I. ascended the throne at the age of fifty-five, and was crowned at Westminster, on the 20th of October, 1714. His consort, the Princess Sophia Dorothy of Zell, having fallen under his displeasure for alleged infidelity to her marriage vows, and having been, it is said, divorced from him by the Hanoverian law, was never brought into this country; and never, therefore, acknowledged Queen of England. GEORGE II. was crowned with his consort, at Westminster, on the 11th day of October, 1727.

Our late beloved monarch had the happiness of exhibiting to his people the splendid spectacles of his marriage and coronation within the same month of September, 1761. On the 8th of July, in that year, the king first announced to the privy council his intention of demanding in marriage the Princess Charlotte of Mecklenberg, sister of the reigning Duke Adolphus IV., and on the same day signed a proclamation for the assembling of the Court of Claims, and for his own coronation. The queen, being detained by contrary winds, did not arrive in this country until the 6th of September; on the 8th the nuptial ceremony was performed; on the 11th a second proclamation directed that her majesty should be united with her royal consort in the pending coronation ceremonies. These so far varied from that august ceremonial which has recently occupied the public attention, as the presence of a queen consort in the procession to the Abbey, and at the royal feast; her personal attendants; and the body of the peeresses, may be thought to give additional interest and splendour to the scene. The queen entered Westminster Hall the same hour as his majesty, and occupied a chair of state at his left hand, while the regalia were presented by the Dean of Westminster and his attendants. In the procession to the Abbey her majesty's vice-chamberlain took his place immediately following the gentlemen who personated the Dukes of Aquitaine and Normandy, and was succeeded by the other part of the queen's state in the following order:—

The Queen's Vice-Chamberlain, (Lord Viscount Cantalupe,)

Two Gentlemen Ushers.

The Ivory Rod with The Queen's Lord The Sceptre with the the Dove, borne by the Chamberlain, (Duke Cross, borne by the Earl of Northampton, of Manchester,) Duke of Rutland, in his robes of estate. in his robes, with his in his robes of estate. coronet and staff in his hands.

Two Serjeants at { The Queen's Crown, borne by } Two Serjeants at Arms, { the Duke of Bolton, } Arms, with their gilt collars { in his robes of estate. } with their gilt collars and maces. { } and maces.

G G e A Baron of + + -+ +A Baron of e n the Cinque-Ports, Dr. Dr. the Cinque-Ports, n t supporting the Thomas THE John supporting the t l Canopy. Hayter, QUEEN, Thomas, Canopy. l e Lord Lord e m Bishop of in her Royal Bishop of m e Norwich, Robes of Lincoln, e n in his Rochet, Crimson Velvet; in his Rochet, n supporter on her supporter P A Baron, do. to the Queen. head a circlet to the Queen. A Baron, do. P e + + + + e n A Baron, do. of Gold, adorned with A Baron, do. n s s i Jewels; going under i o o n A Baron, do. a Canopy of A Baron, do. n e e r Cloth of Gold: her Train r s s , A Baron, do. borne by Her Royal A Baron, do. , c Highness the c a a r A Baron, do. Princess Augusta, A Baron, do. r r r y in her Robes of y i i n A Baron, do. Estate, assisted by A Baron, do. n g g Six Earls' daughters. t t h A Baron of Lady Jane Steuart. Ldy. Mary Douglas A Baron of h e the Cinque-Ports, Lady Elizabeth Lady Heneage the Cinque-Ports e i supporting the Montague. Finch. supporting the i r Canopy. Lady Mary Grey. L. Selina Hastings. Canopy. r + -+ -+ g g i THE PRINCESS AUGUSTA, i l l t her coronet borne by the Marquess of Carnarvon. t A Duchess of Ancaster, Mistress of the Robes. A x x e Two Women of Her Majesty's Bed-Chamber. e s s . .

The peeresses preceded their respective lords—each rank of the peerage being classed together; that is, the baronesses preceding the barons, the viscountesses the viscounts, and so forth. In the Abbey the queen first ascended the theatre, and stood opposite her chair until the king was seated. His majesty was then anointed and crowned: when the order for the queen's coronation prescribed as follows:—

The anthem being ended, the Archbishop of Canterbury goes to the altar; and the queen arising from her chair on the south side of the area where she sat during the time the king was anointed and crowned, being supported by two bishops, goes towards the altar, attended by the ladies who bear her train, the ladies of the bedchamber, &c., and kneels before it; when the archbishop, being at the north side of the altar, says the following prayer:—

(Omnipotens sempiterne Deus.)

Almighty and everlasting God, the fountain of all goodness, give ear, we beseech thee, to our prayers, and multiply thy blessings upon this thy servant, whom in thy name, with all humble devotion, we consecrate our queen. Defend her always with thy mighty hand, protect her on every side, that she may be able to overcome all her enemies; and that with Sarah and Rebecca, Leah and Rachel, and all other blessed and honourable women, she may multiply and rejoice in the fruit of her womb, to the honour of the kingdom and the good government of thy church, through Christ our Lord, who vouchsafed to be born of a virgin that he might redeem the world, who liveth and reigneth with thee, in unity of the Holy Ghost, world without end.

This being done, the queen arises and goes to the faldstool, between king Edward's chair and the steps of the altar, where the groom of the stole to her majesty, and the ladies of the bedchamber, take off her circle or coronet. Then the queen kneels down, and the archbishop pours the holy oil on the crown of her head, in form of a cross, saying these words:—"In the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, let the anointing of this oil increase thine honour, and the grace of God's Holy Spirit establish thee for ever and ever. Amen."—The ladies then open her apparel for the anointing on the breast, which the archbishop also performs, using the same words. After which, he says this prayer:

(Omnipotens sempiterne Deus.)

Almighty and everlasting God, we beseech thee of thy abundant goodness poor out the spirit of thy grace and blessing upon this thy servant queen——; that as by the imposition of our hands she is this day crowned queen, so she may, by thy sanctification, continue always thy chosen servant, through Christ our Lord.

One of the ladies in attendance (having first dried the place anointed with fine cotton wool) then closes the queen's robes at her breast, and after puts a linen coif upon her head; which being done, the archbishop puts the ring (which he receives from the master of the jewel-house) on the fourth finger of her right hand, saying,

Receive this ring, the seal of a sincere faith, that you may avoid all infection of heresy, and by the power of God compel barbarous nations, and bring them to the knowledge of the truth.

His grace then takes the crown from off the altar, and reverently sets it upon the queen's head, saying,

Receive the crown of glory, honour, and joy; and God, the crown of the faithful, who by our episcopal hands, though most unworthy, hath this day set a crown of pure gold upon thy head, enrich you with wisdom and virtue, that after this life you may meet the everlasting Bridegroom our Lord Jesus Christ, who, with the Father and the Holy Ghost, liveth and reigneth for ever and ever. Amen.

The queen being crowned, all the peeresses put on their coronets; the archbishop then puts the sceptre into her majesty's right hand, and the ivory rod into her left, and says the following prayer:

(Omnium Domine, fons bonorum.)

O Lord, the fountain of all good things, and the giver of all perfection, grant unto this thy servant ——— our queen, that she may order aright the high dignity she hath obtained, and with good works establish the glory thou hast given her, through Christ our Lord. Amen.

The queen being thus anointed and crowned, and having received all her royal ornaments, the choirs sing an anthem, commonly from Psalm xlv. ver. 1, "My heart is inditing of a good matter," &c. As soon as this is begun, the queen rises from her faldstool, and, being supported by the two bishops, and attended as before, goes up to the theatre: as she approaches the king, she bows herself reverently to his majesty sitting upon his throne; and so is conducted to her own throne on the left hand of the king, where she reposes till the anthem is ended.

The dignity of the monarch, as well as his humility on this august occasion, have been celebrated by the late Bishop Newton. "The king's whole behaviour at the coronation," he says, "was justly admired and commended by every one, and particularly his manner of seating himself on the throne after his coronation. No actor in the character of Pyrrhus, in the Distressed Mother,—not even Booth himself, who was celebrated for it in the Spectator[110],—ever ascended the throne with so much grace and dignity. There was another particular which those only could observe who sat near the Communion-Table, as did the prebendaries of Westminster. When the king approached the communion-table, in order to receive the sacrament, he inquired of the archbishop, Whether he should not lay aside his crown? The archbishop asked the Bishop of Rochester, but neither of them knew, nor could say, what had been the usual form. The king determined within himself that humility best became such a solemn act of devotion, and took off the crown, and laid it aside during the administration."

That one of the last of the unfortunate race of the Stuarts, Prince Charles, was in London, if not present at the coronation feast, on this occasion, seems to be a fact pretty well established. The Gentleman's Magazine, 1764, (p. 28,) speaks of it as "publicly said, That the young Pretender himself came from Flanders to see the coronation; that he was in Westminster Hall (?) during the ceremony, and in London two or three days before and after it, under the name of Mr. Brown." And Mr. Hume thus writes to one of his literary friends:—"What will surprise you more, Lord Marshal, a few days after the coronation of the present king, told me, that he believed the young Pretender was at that time in London, or, at least, had been so very lately, and had come over to see the show of the coronation, and had actually seen it. I asked my lord the reason for this strange fact. 'Why,' says he, 'a gentleman told me so who saw him there, and whispered in his ear—'Your royal highness is the last of all mortals whom I should expect to see here.'—'It was curiosity that led me,' said the other: 'but I assure you,' added he, 'that the person who is the cause of all this pomp and magnificence, is the man I envy the least.'" A report recently found its way to the public papers, which we have not been able to trace to any authentic source, that a glove was actually thrown from an upper seat in the Hall, as a gage to the king's champion, at this period: that the champion receiving it from his attendants, asked, 'who was his fair foe?' and that the rumour of the day soon connected it with the appearance, and attributed it to the romantic dispositions of the young Chevalier.

Of the late coronation we shall at once consult the best feelings of our own mind, and of the community, by presenting the most copious account we have been able to collect:—



His Most Excellent Majesty


On Thursday the 19th day of July, 1821.


{Their R. H. the Dukes of { the Blood Royal, in their { robes of estate, having { their coronets, and the { Field Marshals their batons, { in their hands. {The Peers in their robes of { estate, having their coronets { in their hands. They were to assemble in {His R. H. Prince Leopold, the House of Lords { in the full habit of the { Order of the Garter, having { his cap and feathers { in his hand. {The Archbishops and Bishops, { vested in their { rochets, having their { square caps in their { hands.

In his place near the Bar {The Gentleman Usher of { the Black Rod.

In the space below the Bar {The Train-bearers of the of the House of Lords { Princes of the Blood { Royal.

{The Attendants on the Lord { High Steward, on the { Lord Chancellor, the Lord In the space below the Bar { High Constable, and on of the House of Lords { the Lord Chamberlain { of the Household. {The Gentlemen Ushers of the { White and Green Rods, { all in their proper habits.

{The Lord Chief Justice of { the King's Bench. {The Master of the Rolls. {The Vice-Chancellor. {The Lord Chief Justice of { the Common Pleas. {The Lord Chief Baron. {The Barons of the Exchequer, { and Justices of both In the Painted Chamber { Benches. and adjacent rooms, near {The Gentlemen of the Privy the House of Lords { Chamber. {The Attorney and Solicitor { General. {Serjeants at Law. {Masters in Chancery. {The Lord Mayor, Aldermen, { Recorder, & Sheriffs { of London. {King's Chaplains, having { dignities. {Six Clerks in Chancery.

{The Knights Grand Crosses { of the Order of the Bath, In the Chamber formerly { in the full habit of the the House of Lords { Order, wearing their collars; { their caps and feathers { in their hands.

{The Knights Commanders { of the said Order, in { their full habits; their { caps and feathers in their In the Chamber formerly { hands. the House of Lords {The Officers of the said { Order, in their mantles, { chains, and badges.

{The Treasurer and Comptroller { of the Household. {The Vice-Chamberlain. {The Marquis of Londonderry, { in the full habit of In the Chamber formerly { the Garter, having his called the Prince's Chamber { cap and feathers in his or Robing Room, near { hand. the former House of {The Register of the said Lords { Order, in his mantle, { with his book. {Privy Councillors, not { being Peers or Knights { Grand Crosses of the { Bath. { Clerks of the Council in { Ordinary.

In his Majesty's Robing {The Train-bearers of his Chamber, near the south { Majesty. entrance into Westminster {Master of the Robes. Hall {Groom of the Robes.

{Lords and Grooms of the { Bedchamber. In the room of Chairman of {Keeper of the Privy Purse. Committees, adjoining the {Equerries and Pages of House of Lords { Honour. {Gentlemen Ushers & Aides-de-Camp.

In the Witness-room, adjoining {Physicians, Surgeons, and the House of Lords { Apothecaries.

{Officers of the Band of Gentlemen { Pensioners, with { their Corps, and the Serjeants In the House of Commons { at Arms. and the Lobbies {The Officers of the Yeomen { of the Guard, with their { Corps.

In the Lobby between the {The Kings, Heralds, and House of Lords and the { Pursuivants of Arms. Painted Chamber

In Westminster Hall, at the {Sixteen Barons of the lower end, near the great { Cinque Ports. north door

In Westminster Hall, near {The Knight Marshall and the north door { his two Officers.

In Westminster Hall, at the {His Majesty's Band. lower end

Without the north door of {All who are to precede the Westminster Hall { Knight Marshal in the { procession.

* * * * *

His Majesty was, during these preliminary arrangements, in his chamber, near the south entrance into Westminster Hall.

The peers were then called over in the House of Lords by deputy Garter; and proceeded to the Hall, where the other persons appointed to walk in the procession had been previously marshalled on the right and left by the officers of arms; leaving an open passage in the middle, so that the procession with the regalia might pass uninterruptedly up the Hall.

His Majesty, preceded by the great officers of state, entered the Hall a few minutes after ten, and took his seat in the chair of state at the table, when a gun was fired. The deputy lord great chamberlain, the lord high constable, and the deputy earl marshal, ascended the steps, and placed themselves at the outer side of the table.

The lord high steward, the great officers, deputy Garter, and black rod, arranged themselves near the chair of state; the royal train-bearers on each side of the throne.

The lord chamberlain, assisted by officers of the Jewel-office, then brought the sword of state to the lord high constable, who delivered it to the deputy lord great chamberlain, by whom it was laid upon the table; then Curtana, or the sword of mercy, with the two swords of justice, being in like manner presented, were drawn from their scabbards by the deputy lord great chamberlain, and laid on the table before his Majesty; after which the gold spurs were delivered, and also placed on the table. Immediately after, a procession, consisting of the dean and prebendaries of Westminster, in their surplices and rich copes, proceeded up the Hall, from the lower end thereof, in manner following:—

Procession with, and Delivery of, the Regalia.

Serjeant of the Vestry, in a scarlet mantle.

Children of the King's Chapel, in scarlet mantles, four abreast.

Children of the Choir of Westminster, in surplices, four abreast.

Gentlemen of the King's Chapel, in scarlet mantles, four abreast.

Choir of Westminster, in surplices, four abreast.

Sub-Dean of the Chapel Royal.

Two Pursuivants of Arms.

Two Heralds.

The two provincial Kings of Arms.

The Dean of Westminster, carrying St. Edward's Crown on a cushion of cloth of gold.

First Prebendary of Westminster, carrying the Orb.

Second Prebendary, carrying the Sceptre with the Dove.

Third Prebendary, carrying the Sceptre with the Cross.

Fourth Prebendary, carrying St. Edward's Staff.

Fifth Prebendary, carrying the Chalice and Patina.

Sixth Prebendary, carrying the Bible.

In this procession they made their reverences, first at the lower end of the Hall, secondly about the middle, where both the Choirs opening to the right and left a passage, through which the officers of arms passing opened likewise on each side, the seniors placing themselves nearest towards the steps: then the dean and prebendaries having come to the front of the steps, made their third reverence. This being done, the dean and prebendaries being come to the foot of the steps, deputy Garter preceding them (he having waited their coming there), ascended the steps, and approaching near the table before the King, made their last reverence. The dean then presented the crown to the lord high constable, who delivered it to the deputy lord great chamberlain, and it was by him placed on the table before the King. The rest of the regalia was severally delivered by each prebendary, on his knee, to the dean, by him to the lord high constable, by him to the deputy lord great chamberlain, and by him laid on the table. The regalia being thus delivered, the prebendaries and dean returned to the middle of the hall. His Majesty having commanded deputy Garter to summon the noblemen and bishops who were to bear the regalia, the deputy lord great chamberlain, then taking up the several swords, sceptres, the orb, and crown, placed them in the hands of those by whom they were to be carried.

I. St. Edward's staff, by the Marquess of Salisbury. II. The spurs, by Lord Calthorpe, as deputy to the Baroness Grey de Ruthyn. III. The sceptre with the cross, by the Marquess Wellesley. IV. The pointed sword of temporal justice, by the Earl of Galloway. V. The pointed sword of spiritual justice, by the Duke of Northumberland. VI. Curtana, or sword of mercy, by the Duke of Newcastle. VII. The sword of state, by the Duke of Dorset. VIII. The sceptre with the dove, by the Duke of Rutland. IX. The orb, by the Duke of Devonshire. X. St. Edward's crown, by the Marquess of Anglesey, as lord high steward. XI. The patina, by the Bishop of Gloucester. XII. The chalice, by the Bishop of Chester. XIII. The Bible, by the Bishop of Ely.

The two bishops who are to support his Majesty were then summoned by deputy Garter, and, ascending the steps, placed themselves on each side of the king.


The second gun was then fired, and the procession moved upon the blue cloth spread on the platform from the throne in Westminster Hall to the great steps in the Abbey church; the following anthem, "O Lord, grant the king a long life," &c. being sung in parts, in succession, with his Majesty's band playing, the sounding of trumpets, and the beating of drums, until the arrival in the Abbey.


The King's Herb-woman with her six Maids, strewing the way with herbs.

Messenger of the College of Arms, in a scarlet cloak, with the arms of the College embroidered on the left shoulder.

The Dean's Beadle of Westminster, with his staff.

The High Constable of Westminster, with his staff, in a scarlet cloak.

Two Household Fifes with banners of velvet fringed with gold, and five Household Drummers in royal livery, drum-covers of crimson velvet, laced and fringed with gold.

The Drum-Major, in a rich livery, and a crimson scarf fringed with gold.

Eight Trumpets in rich liveries: banners of crimson damask embroidered and fringed with gold, to the silver trumpets.

Kettle-Drums, drum-covers of crimson damask, embroidered and fringed with gold.

Eight Trumpets in liveries, as before.

Serjeant Trumpeter, with his mace.

The Knight Marshal, attended by his Officers.

The Six Clerks in Chancery.

The King's Chaplains having dignities.

The Sheriffs of London.

The Aldermen and Recorder of London.

Masters in Chancery.

The King's Serjeants at Law.

The King's Ancient Serjeant.

The King's Solicitor Gen. The King's Attorney Gen.

Gentlemen of the Privy Chamber.

Serj. of the Vestry of the Chapel Royal. Serj. Porter.

Children of the Choir of Westminster, in surplices.

Children of the Chapel Royal, in surplices, with scarlet mantles over them.

Choir of Westminster, in surplices.

Gentlemen of the Chapel Royal, in scarlet mantles.

Sub-Dean of the Chapel Royal, in a scarlet gown.

Prebendaries of Westminster, in surplices and rich copes.

The Dean of Westminster, in a surplice and rich cope.

Pursuivants of Scotland and Ireland, in their tabards.

His Majesty's Band.

Officers attendant on the Knights Commanders of the Bath, in their mantles, chains and badges.

Knights Grand Crosses of the Bath (not Peers), in the full habit of their order, caps in their hands.

A Pursuivant of Arms, in his tabard.

Barons of the Exchequer and Justices of both benches.

The Lord Chief Baron The Lord Chief Justice of the Exchequer. of the Common Pleas.

The Vice Chancellor. The Master of the Rolls.

The Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench.

The Clerks of the Council in Ordinary.

Privy Counsellors, not Peers.

Register of the Order of the Garter.

Knights of the Garter (not Peers), in the full habit and collar of the order, caps in their hands.

His Majesty's Vice Chamberlain.

Comptroller of His Treasurer of His Majesty's Majesty's Household, bearing the crimson Household. bag with the medals.

A Pursuivant of Arms, in his tabard.

Heralds of Scotland and Ireland, in their tabards and collars of SS.

The Standard of Hanover, borne by the Earl of Mayo.

Barons, in their robes of estate, their coronets in their hands.

A Herald, in his tabard and collar of SS.

The Standard of Ireland, The Standard of Scotland, borne by borne by the Lord Beresford. Earl of Lauderdale.

The Bishops of England and Ireland, in their rochets, with their caps in their hands.

Two Heralds, in their tabards and collars of SS.

Viscounts, in their robes of estate, their coronets in their hands.

Two Heralds, in their tabards and collars of SS.

The Standard of England, borne by Lord Hill.

Earls, in their robes of estate, their coronets in their hand.

Two Heralds, in their tabards and collars of SS.

The Union Standard, borne by Earl Harcourt.

Marquesses, in their robes of estate, their coronets in their hands.

The Lord Chamberlain of His Majesty's Household, in his robes of estate, his coronet in his hand, attended by an officer of the Jewel-Office in a scarlet mantle, with a crown embroidered on his left shoulder, bearing a cushion, on which are placed the ruby ring and the sword to be girt about the King.

The Lord Steward of His Majesty's Household, in his robes of estate, his coronet in his hand.

The Royal Standard, borne by the Earl of Harrington.

King of Arms of Gloucester King Hanover King the Order of of Arms, in his of Arms in his St. Michael and tabard, crown tabard, crown St. George, in his in his hand. in his hand. tabard, crown in his hand.

Dukes, in their robes of estate, their coronets in their hands.

Ulster King of Clarenceux King of Norroy King of Arms, in his Arms, in his Arms, in his tabard, crown tabard, crown tabard, crown in his hand. in his hand. in his hand.

The Lord Privy Seal, in The Lord President of the his robes of estate, Council, in his robes of coronet in his hand. estate, coronet in his hand.

Archbishops of Ireland.

The Archbishop of York, in his rochet, cap in his hand.

The Lord High Chancellor, in his robes of estate, with his coronet in his hand, bearing his purse, and attended by his Pursebearer.

The Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, in his rochet, cap in his hand.

Two Serjeants at Arms.


St. Edward's Staff, The Gold Spurs, The Sceptre with borne by the borne by the the Cross, Marquess of Salisbury. Lord Calthorpe. borne by the Marquess Wellesley.

The third Sword, Curtana, borne by The second Sword, borne by the the Duke of borne by the Earl of Galloway. Newcastle. Duke of Northumberland.

Two Serjeants at Arms.

Usher of the Green Rod. Usher of the White Rod.

The The Garter Principal Gentleman Lord Mayor Lord Lyon of King Usher of the of London, Scotland, in of Arms, in Black Rod, in his gown, his tabard, his tabard, bearing his collar, and carrying his bearing his rod. jewel, bearing crown and crown and the City sceptre. sceptre. mace.

The Deputy Lord Great Chamberlain of England, in his robes of estate, his coronet and his white staff in his hand.

His Royal Highness the Prince Leopold, in the full habit of the Order of the Garter, carrying in his right hand his baton as Field Marshal, and, in his left, his cap and feathers; his train borne by a Page.

His Royal Highness the Duke of Gloucester, in his robes of estate, carrying, in his right hand, his baton as Field Marshal, and in his left his coronet; his train borne by a Page.

His Royal Highness the Duke of Cambridge, in his robes of estate, carrying, in his right hand, his baton as Field Marshal, and his coronet in his left; and his train borne by a Page.

His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex, in his robes of estate, with his coronet in his hand, and his train borne by a Page.

His Royal Highness the Duke of Clarence, in his robes of estate, with his coronet in his hand, and his train borne by a Page.

His Royal Highness the Duke of York, in his robes of estate, carrying, in his right hand, his baton as Field Marshal, and his coronet in his left, and his train borne by a Page.

The High Constable of Ireland The High Constable of Scotland, in his robes, coronet in his robes, coronet in his hand, with his in his hand, with his staff. staff.

Two Serjeants at Arms.

The Deputy Earl The Sword The Lord High Constable Marshal of State, of England, in his with his staff. borne by robes, his coronet in the Duke of his hand, with his staff; Dorset. attended by a Page carrying his baton of Field Marshal.

Two Serjeants at Arms.

The Sceptre St. Edward's The Orb, with the Crown, carried by Dove, carried by the Duke carried by the Lord High of Devonshire. A Gentleman the Duke Steward in A Gentleman carrying the of Rutland. his robes. carrying the Staff of the Coronet of the Lord High The Patina, The Bible, The Chalice, Lord High Steward. borne by borne by borne by Steward. the Bishop the Bishop the Bishop of Gloucester. of Ely. of Chester.


Supporter: In the Royal Robes, Supporter: Lord wearing a cap Lord Bishop of of estate, adorned Bishop of Oxford, with jewels, Lincoln for the under a canopy for the Lord of cloth of gold, Lord Twenty Bishop of borne by Sixteen Bishop of Twenty Gentlemen Bath and Barons of the Durham. gentlemen Pensioners, Wells. Cinque Ports. pensioners, with the His Majesty's train with the Standard borne by Eight Lieutenant. Bearer. Eldest Sons of Peers, assisted by the Master of the Robes, and followed by the Groom of the Robes.

Captain of the Gold Stick of the Captain of the Yeomen of Life Guards in Band of the Guard, in his Waiting, in his Gentlemen robes of estate; robes; Pensioners, in coronet in his coronet in his his robes hand. hand. of estate; coronet in his hand.

Lords of the Bedchamber.

The Keeper of His Majesty's Privy Purse.

Grooms of the King's Bedchamber.

Equerries and Pages of Honour.


Gentlemen Ushers.

Physicians, Surgeons, Apothecaries.

Ensign of the Yeomen of Lieutenant of the Yeomen the Guard. of the Guard.

His Majesty's Pages in full State Liveries.

His Majesty's Footmen in full State Liveries.

Exons of the Yeomen Yeomen of Exons of the Yeomen of the Guard. the Guard. of the Guard.

Gentleman Harbinger of the Band of Gentlemen Pensioners.

Clerk of the Cheque Clerk of the Cheque to to the Yeomen of the Guard. the Gentlemen Pensioners.

Yeomen of the Guard, to close the Procession.

On the arrival of the procession at the Abbey, the Herb-woman and her Maids, and the Serjeant-Porter, remained at the entrance within the great west door.


The King entered the west door of the Abbey church at eleven o'clock, and was received with the undermentioned anthem, which was sung by the choir of Westminster, who, with the dean and prebendaries, quitted the procession a little before, and went to the left side of the middle aisle, and remained there till his Majesty arrived, and then followed in the procession next to the regalia.


Psalm cxxii. verses 1, 5, 6, 7. "I was glad when they said unto me, we will go into the House of the Lord. For there is the seat of judgment, even the seat of the House of David. O pray for the peace of Jerusalem; they shall prosper that love thee. Peace be within thy walls, and plenteousness within thy palaces."

Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost.

As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.

During the above his Majesty passed through the body of the church, and through the choir up the stairs to the theatre. He then passed his throne and made his humble adoration, and afterwards knelt at the faldstool set for him before his chair; at the same time his Majesty used some short private prayer: he then sat down (not on his throne, but in his chair before and below his throne) and reposed himself.


When the King was thus placed, the archbishop turned to the east part of the theatre; then, together with the lord chancellor, lord great chamberlain, lord high constable, and earl marshal (Garter king at arms preceding them), went to the other three sides of the theatre, in the order, south, west, and north, and at each side addressed the people in a loud voice; the King at the same time standing up by his chair, turned and showed himself to the people at each of the four sides of the theatre, while the archbishop spoke as follows:—


"I here present unto you King George the Fourth, the undoubted king of this realm: wherefore all you that come this day to do your homage, are ye willing to do the same?"

This was answered by the loud and repeated acclamations of the persons present, expressive of their willingness and joy, at the same time they cried out—

"God save King George the Fourth!"

Then the trumpets sounded.


The archbishop in the meantime went to the altar and put on his cope, and placed himself at the north side of the altar; as did also the bishops who took part in the office.

The officers of the wardrobe, &c. here spread carpets and cushions on the floor and steps of the altar.

And here, first the Bible, paten, and cup, were brought and placed upon the altar. The King then, supported by the two bishops of Durham and Bath, and attended by the dean of Westminster, the lords carrying the regalia before him, went down to the altar, and knelt upon the steps of it, and made his first oblation, uncovered.

Here the pall, or altar-cloth of gold, was delivered by the master of the great wardrobe to the lord great chamberlain, and by him, kneeling, it was presented to his Majesty. The treasurer of the household then delivered a wedge of gold of a pound weight to the lord great chamberlain, which he, kneeling, delivered to his Majesty. The King then (uncovered) delivered them to the archbishop.

The archbishop received them one after another (standing) from his Majesty, and laid the pall reverently upon the altar. The gold was received into the basin; and, with like reverence, was placed upon the altar.

Then the archbishop said the following prayer, the King still kneeling:—

O God, who dwellest in the high and holy place, with them also who are of an humble spirit; mercifully look down upon this thy humble servant, GEORGE our King, here humbling himself before thee at thy footstool, and graciously receive these oblations which, in humble acknowledgment of thy sovereignty over all, and of thy great bounty to him in particular, he hath now offered up unto thee, through Jesus Christ, our only Mediator and Advocate. Amen.

When the King had thus offered his oblation, he went to his chair set for him on the south side of the altar, and knelt at his faldstool, and the Litany commenced, which was read by two bishops, vested in copes, and kneeling at a faldstool above the steps of the theatre, on the middle of the east side; the choir read the responses.

In the meantime the lords who carried the regalia, except those who bore the swords, approached the altar, and each presented what he carried to the archbishop, who delivered them to the dean of Westminster, who placed them on the altar. They then retired to the places and seats appointed for them.

The bishops, and the people with them, then said the Lord's Prayer.

The Communion service was read; the people, kneeling, made the responses to the ten commandments, which were delivered by the archbishop.

Then the archbishop, standing as before, said the following Collect for the King:—

Let us pray.

Almighty God, whose kingdom is everlasting and power infinite: have mercy upon the whole church, and so rule the heart of thy chosen servant George our king and governor, that he (knowing whose minister he is) may above all things seek thy honour and glory; and that we and all his subjects (duly considering whose authority he hath) may faithfully serve, honour, and humbly obey him, in thee and for thee, according to thy blessed word and ordinance, through Jesus Christ our Lord, who with thee and the Holy Ghost, liveth and reigneth ever one God, world without end. Amen.

The following epistle was then read by one of the bishops:—

1 Pet. ii. 13.

Submit yourselves to man for the Lord's sake: whether it be to the king as supreme; or unto governors, as unto them that are sent by him for the punishment of evil-doers, and for the praise of them that do well. For so is the will of God, that with well doing, ye may put to silence the ignorance of foolish men: as free, and not using your liberty for a cloke of maliciousness, but as the servants of God. Honour all men. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honour the king.

The Gospel was then read by another bishop, the King and the people standing.

St. Matth. xxii. 15.

Then went the Pharisees, and took counsel how they might entangle him in his talk. And they sent out unto him their disciples, with the Herodians, saying, Master, we know that thou art true, and teachest the way of God in truth, neither carest thou for any man, for thou regardest not the person of men: tell us therefore, What thinkest thou? Is it lawful to give tribute unto Caesar, or not? But Jesus perceived their wickedness, and said, Why tempt ye me, ye hypocrites? Show me the tribute money. And they brought unto him a penny. And he saith unto them, Whose is this image and superscription? They say unto him, Caesar's. Then saith he unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar, the things which are Caesar's: and unto God, the things that are God's. When they had heard these words, they marvelled, and left him, and went their way.

Then the Archbishop read the Nicene Creed; the King and the people standing as before.

I believe in one God the Father, &c. &c.

At the end of the Creed, the archbishop of York preached the sermon in the pulpit placed against the pillar at the north-east corner of the theatre. The King listened to the same sitting in his chair on the south side of the altar, over against the pulpit.

The Sermon.

His text was the 23d chapter of the Second Book of Samuel, and the 3d and 4th verses.

"He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God. And he shall be as the light of the morning, when the sun riseth, even a morning without clouds."

Such, observed his Grace, were the words of a pious Prince, whose opinions had been matured by experience. A steady adherence to the maxims there laid down could scarcely fail to preserve from error, and would at once inspire the subject with a reverence for the sovereign, and impress the sovereign with a sense of those obligations which bound him to render justice to the people. The duties of kings were of a particular nature, and the subject was one of more than common importance upon a day like the present, which was to be marked by the solemnization of that contract by which the king bound himself to rule with justice and equity. The highest station, and the most exalted rank, were not free from the infirmities of nature; and it therefore behoved the sovereign not to forget that he was himself but the minister of a higher authority, and that it was his duty so to exert the power which resided in him, as to secure the love and attachment of his people. The history of all nations would show that the people were not ungrateful under the administration of good kings. It was true, that it was the disposition of human nature to imagine grievances where in reality none existed; but still there were many real grievances which a king had the power and ought to have the disposition to relieve. The text which he had just read naturally led to the consideration of what were the principles which constituted a good government. In a moral point of view, no distinction could be drawn between the duties due from one individual to another, and those due from a monarch to his people. It ought not to be forgotten that natural equity demanded the same degree of observance with regard to the contract entered into with a whole people, as it did to those obligations into which individuals entered with regard to each other. There was no higher duty incumbent upon kings than that of selecting proper persons to represent them in the different departments of state. Upon that step how much of the happiness of the people would depend! It was a proud reflection, that no nation stood more high in the estimation of surrounding nations, or was more admired for its morality, its attention to religious duties, the justice of its measures, or the soundness of its general policy, than our own. He insisted that it was necessary to preserve and to encourage that feeling by a reciprocal attention, on the parts both of the monarch and of the people, to those duties which were due from each. If such an attention was not given, it would be in vain to expect national happiness; and however successful we might be in our dealings with foreign nations, still it ought not to be forgotten that the apparent prosperity of a nation ought not to be regarded as an evidence of the happiness of its people. But, above all, it was necessary that the king should seek to secure respect to himself and obedience to the laws, by displaying in his own person an example of good conduct. It was the province of the monarch to reflect that he was responsible not only for his own actions, but also for that evil which the direct influence of his own example might accomplish. Well, therefore, had it been said in the words of his text, "He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God." A good government would secure to itself a due observance of its own rights, and would also afford to the people the protection of its wisdom and power. His Grace, after some general remarks on the duties of kings, proceeded to observe, that the House of Hanover had always been distinguished by its devotion to the interests of true religion. Our late venerable sovereign had presented a striking example of royal goodness by the attention which had always marked both his public and private conduct; and we were bound to hope (upon looking to the past) that the sovereign who was now about to receive the imperial crown of his ancestors would be equally remarkable for the exemplary discharge of the duties of royalty. Nor ought it to be forgotten that the illustrious individual, to whom he had alluded, had not been unused to the functions of government; and that he had given proofs of such capacity and disposition as enabled us to form good hopes of the future. At the time when he had first been called to the exercise of the supreme power, he had found the country involved in a war which threatened its existence—a war which had not been engaged in on our part for the purposes of aggrandisement, but for the defence and preservation of our rights. Under his superintendence that war had been concluded, and its conclusion had been marked by exertions unparalleled in the history of any nation. Under such auspices, therefore, it was right to anticipate all those blessings which could arise on one hand from the protection of a just and wise monarch, and on the other from the affections of a loyal and happy people. "Let us then adore that Almighty Providence which has conferred upon us such a sovereign; let us implore that blessings may be multiplied on his head, and that his reign may be prosperous and happy."

His Grace commenced the Sermon at a quarter past twelve, and ended it at about a quarter to one.

The King was uncovered during the offering and the service that followed; when the sermon commenced he put on his cap of crimson velvet turned up with ermine, and remained covered to the end of it.

On his Majesty's right hand stood the bishop of Durham, and beyond him, on the same side, the lords that carried the swords. On his Majesty's left hand stood the bishop of Bath and Wells, and the lord great chamberlain.

On the north side of the altar sat the archbishop in a purple velvet chair; the bishops were placed on forms along the north side of the wall, betwixt the King and the pulpit. Near the archbishop stood garter, king at arms. On the south side, east of the King's chair, nearer to the altar, stood the dean of Westminster, the rest of the bishops who took part in the church service, and the prebendaries of Westminster.


When the Sermon ended, the archbishop went to the King, and standing before him, (his Majesty, on Thursday, the 27th of April, 1820, in the presence of the two Houses of Parliament, made and signed the declaration against popery,) administered the coronation oath, first asking the King—

Sir; is your Majesty willing to take the oath?

The King answered:—I am willing.

The archbishop then ministered these questions; and the King, having a copy of the printed form and order of the coronation service in his hands, answered each question severally, as follows:—

Arch. Will you solemnly promise and swear to govern the people of this United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the dominions thereto belonging, according to the statutes in Parliament agreed on, and the respective laws and customs of the same?

King. I solemnly promise so to do.

Arch. Will you to your power cause law and justice, in mercy, to be executed in all your judgments?

King. I will.

Arch. Will you to the utmost of your power maintain the laws of God, the true profession of the Gospel, and the Protestant Reformed Religion established by law? And will you maintain and preserve inviolably the settlement of the United Church of England and Ireland, and the doctrine, worship, discipline, and government thereof, as by law established within England and Ireland, and the territories thereunto belonging? And will you preserve unto the bishops and clergy of England and Ireland, and to the United Church committed to their charge, all such rights and privileges, as by law do, or shall appertain to them, or any of them?

King. All this I promise to do.

Then the King, arising out of his chair, supported as before, and assisted by the lord great chamberlain, the sword of state being carried before him, went to the altar, and there being uncovered, made his solemn oath in the sight of all the people, to observe the premises; laying his right hand upon the Holy Gospel in the great Bible, which was before carried in the procession, and was now brought from the altar by the archbishop, and tendered to him as he knelt upon the steps, saying these words:—

The things which I have here before promised, I will perform and keep.

So help me God.

Then the King kissed the book, and signed the oath.


(In the morning early, care was taken that the ampula was filled with oil, and the spoon laid ready upon the altar of the Abbey church.)

The King having thus taken his oath, returned again at the chair; and kneeling at his faldstool, the archbishop begun the hymn Veni, Creator Spiritus, and the choir sang it out.


Come, Holy Ghost, our souls inspire, And warm them with thy heav'nly fire. Thou who th' anointing Spirit art, To us thy sevenfold gifts impart. Let thy bless'd unction from above Be to us comfort, life, and love. Enable with celestial light The weakness of our mortal sight: Anoint our hearts, and cheer our face, With the abundance of thy grace: Keep far our foes, give peace at home; Where thou dost dwell, no ill can come: Teach us to know the Father, Son, And Spirit of both, to be but one, That so, through ages all along, This may be our triumphant song; In thee, O Lord, we make our boast, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.

This being ended, the archbishop said this prayer:—

O Lord, Holy Father, who by anointing with oil didst of old make and consecrate kings, priests, and prophets, to teach and govern thy people Israel: bless and sanctify thy chosen servant George, who by our office and ministry is now to be anointed with this oil, and consecrated King of this realm: strengthen him, O Lord, with the Holy Ghost the Comforter; Confirm and stablish him with thy free and princely spirit, the spirit of wisdom and government, the spirit of counsel and ghostly strength, the spirit of knowledge and true godliness, and fill him, O Lord, with the spirit of thy holy fear, now and for ever. Amen.

This prayer being ended, the choir sang:


Zadok the priest, and Nathan the prophet, anointed Solomon King; and all the people rejoiced, and said, God save the King! Long live the King! May the King live for ever! Amen. Hallelujah!

In the meantime the King, rising from his devotions, went before the altar, supported and attended as before.

The King sat down in his chair, placed in the midst of the area over against the altar, with the faldstool before it, wherein he was anointed. Four knights of the garter held over him a rich pall of silk, or cloth of gold; the dean of Westminster took the ampula and spoon from off the altar, poured some of the holy oil into the spoon, and with it the archbishop anointed the King, in the form of a cross:

1. On the crown of the head, saying,

Be thy head anointed with holy oil, as kings, priests, and prophets were anointed.

2. On the breast, saying,

Be thy breast anointed with holy oil.

3. On the palms of both the hands, saying,

Be thy hands anointed with holy oil:

And as Solomon was anointed king by Zadok the priest, and Nathan the prophet, so be you anointed, blessed, and consecrated King over this people, whom the Lord your God hath given you to rule and govern, in the name of the father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen.

Then the dean of Westminster laid the ampula and spoon upon the altar, and the King kneeling down at the faldstool, and the archbishop standing on the north side of the altar, said this prayer or blessing over him:—

Our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, who by his Father was anointed with the oil of gladness above his fellows, by his holy anointing pour down upon your head and heart the blessing of the Holy Ghost, and prosper the works of your hands: that by the assistance of his heavenly grace you may preserve the people committed to your charge in wealth, peace, and godliness; and after a long and glorious course of ruling this temporal kingdom wisely, justly, and religiously, you may at last be made partaker of an eternal kingdom, through the merits of Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

This prayer being ended, the King arose, and sat down again in his chair, and the dean of Westminster wiped and dried all the places anointed, with fine linen, or fine bombast wool, delivered to him by the lord great chamberlain.


Then the spurs were brought from the altar by the dean of Westminster, and delivered to a nobleman thereto appointed by the King, who, kneeling down, presents them to His Majesty, who forthwith sent them back to the altar.

Then the lord who carried the sword of state, returned the said sword to the officers of the Jewel-house, which was thereupon deposited in the traverse in King Edward's chapel; he received thence, in lieu thereof, another sword, in a scabbard of purple velvet, provided for the King to be girt withal, which he delivered to the archbishop; and the archbishop, laying it on the altar, said the following prayer:—

Hear our prayers, O Lord, we beseech thee, and so direct and support thy servant King GEORGE, who is now to be girt with this sword, that he may not bear it in vain; but may use it as the minister of God, for the terror and punishment of evil-doers, and for the protection and encouragement of those that do well, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

Then the archbishop took the sword from off the altar, and (the bishops assisting, and going along with him) delivered it into the King's right hand, and he holding it, the archbishop said:—

Receive this kingly sword, brought now from the altar of God, and delivered to you by the hands of us the bishops and servants of God, though unworthy.

The King stood up, the sword was girt about him by the lord great chamberlain, and then, the King sitting down, the archbishop said:—

Remember him of whom the royal Psalmist did prophesy, saying, "Gird thee with thy sword upon thy thigh, O thou most mighty, good luck have thou with thine honour, ride on prosperously, because of truth, meekness, and righteousness;" and be thou a follower of him. With this sword do justice, stop the growth of iniquity, protect the holy Church of God, help and defend widows and orphans, restore the things that are gone to decay, maintain the things that are restored, punish and reform what is amiss, and confirm what is in good order: that doing these things, you may be glorious in all virtue; and so represent our Lord Jesus Christ in this life, that you may reign for ever with him in the life which is to come. Amen.

Then the King, rising up, ungirded his sword, and, going to the altar, offered it there in the scabbard, and then returned and sat down in his chair: and the chief peer offered the price of it, namely, a hundred shillings, and having thus redeemed it, received it from off the altar by the dean of Westminster, and drew it out of the scabbard, and carried it naked before his Majesty during the rest of the solemnity.


Then the King arising, the dean of Westminster took the armill from the master of the great wardrobe, and put it about his Majesty's neck, and tied it to the bowings of his arms, above and below the elbows, with silk strings; the archbishop standing before the King, and saying:—

Receive this armill as a token of the divine mercy embracing you on every side.

Next the robe royal, or purple robe of state, of cloth of tissue, lined or furred with ermines, was by the master of the great wardrobe delivered to the dean of Westminster, and by him put upon the King, standing; the crimson robe which he wore before being first taken off by the lord great chamberlain: the King having received it, sat down, and then the orb with the cross was brought from the altar by the dean of Westminster, and delivered into the King's hand by the archbishop, pronouncing this blessing and exhortation:—

Receive this imperial robe and orb, and the Lord your God endue you with knowledge and wisdom, with majesty and with power from on high; the Lord clothe you with the robe of righteousness, and with the garments of salvation. And when you see this orb set under the cross, remember that the whole world is subject to the power and empire of Christ our Redeemer. For He is the Prince of the kings of the earth; King of kings, and Lord of lords: so that no man can reign happily, who deriveth not his authority from him, and directeth not all his actions according to his laws.


Then the master of the Jewel-house delivered the King's ring to the archbishop, in which a table jewel was enchased; the archbishop put it on the fourth finger of his Majesty's right hand, and said:—

Receive this ring, the ensign of kingly dignity, and of defence of the Catholic faith; and as you are this day solemnly invested in the government of this earthly kingdom, so may you be sealed with that spirit of promise, which is the earnest of an heavenly inheritance, and reign with Him who is the blessed and only Potentate, to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.

The King delivered his orb to the dean of Westminster, to be by him laid upon the altar; and then the dean of Westminster brought the sceptre and rod to the archbishop; and the lord of the manor of Worksop (who claimed to hold an estate by the service of presenting to the King a right hand glove on the day of his coronation, and supporting the King's right arm whilst he holds the sceptre with the cross) delivered to the King a pair of rich gloves, and in any occasion happening afterwards, supported his Majesty's right arm, or held his sceptre by him.

The gloves being put on, the archbishop delivered the sceptre, with the cross, into the King's right hand, saying,

Receive the royal sceptre, the ensign of kingly power and justice.

And then he delivered the rod, with the dove, into the King's left hand, and said,

Receive the rod of equity and mercy: and God, from whom all holy desires, all good counsels, and all just works do proceed, direct and assist you in the administration and exercise of all those powers he hath given you. Be so merciful, that you be not too remiss; so execute justice, that you forget not mercy. Punish the wicked, protect the oppressed; and the blessing of him who was ready to perish shall be upon you; thus in all things following His great and holy example, of whom the prophet David said, "Thou lovest righteousness, and hatest iniquity; the sceptre of thy kingdom is a right sceptre;" even Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.


The archbishop, standing before the altar, took the crown into his hands, and laying it again before him upon the altar, said,

O God, who crownest thy faithful servants with mercy and loving-kindness; look down upon this thy servant GEORGE our King, who now in lowly devotion boweth his head to thy Divine Majesty; and as thou dost this day set a crown of pure gold upon his head, so enrich his royal heart with thy heavenly grace; and crown him with all princely virtues, which may adorn the high station wherein thou hast placed him, through Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom be honour and glory, for ever and ever. Amen.

Then the King sat down in king Edward's chair; the archbishop, assisted with other bishops, came from the altar; the dean of Westminster brought the crown, and the archbishop taking it of him, reverently put it upon the King's head. At the sight whereof the people, with loud and repeated shouts, cried, "God save the King!" and the trumpets sounded, and, by a signal given, the great guns at the Tower were shot off.

The noise ceasing, the archbishop rose and said,

Be strong and of good courage: observe the commandments of God, and walk in his holy ways: fight the good fight of faith, and lay hold on eternal life; that in this world you may be crowned with success and honour, and when you have finished your course, you may receive a crown of righteousness, which God the righteous Judge shall give you in that day. Amen.

Then the choir sung this short anthem.


The King shall rejoice in thy strength, O Lord: exceeding glad shall he be of thy salvation. Thou hast presented him with the blessings of goodness, and hast set a crown of pure gold upon his head. Hallelujah. Amen.

As soon as the King was crowned, the peers, &c. put on their coronets and caps.


The dean of Westminster took the Holy Bible, which was carried in the procession, from off the altar, and delivered it to the archbishop, who, with the rest of the bishops going along with him, presented it to the King, first saying these words to him:—

Our Gracious King; we present unto your Majesty this book, the most valuable thing that this world affordeth. Here is wisdom; this is the royal law; these are the lively oracles of God. Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear the words of this book; that keep, and do, the things contained in it. For these are the words of eternal life, able to make you wise and happy in this world, nay wise unto salvation, and so happy for evermore, through faith which is in Christ Jesus; to whom be glory for ever. Amen.

Then the King delivered back the Bible to the archbishop, who gave it to the dean of Westminster, to be reverently placed again upon the holy altar.


And now the King having been thus anointed and crowned, and having received all the ensigns of royalty, the archbishop solemnly blessed him, and all the bishops standing about him, with the rest of the peers, with a loud and hearty Amen.

The Lord bless and keep you: the Lord make the light of his countenance to shine for ever upon you, and be gracious unto you: the Lord protect you in all your ways, preserve you from every evil thing, and prosper you in every thing good. Amen.

The Lord give you a faithful senate, wise and upright counsellors and magistrates, a loyal nobility, and a dutiful gentry; a pious and learned and useful clergy; an honest, industrious, and obedient commonalty. Amen.

In your days may mercy and truth meet together, and righteousness and peace kiss each other; may wisdom and knowledge be the stability of your times, and the fear of the Lord your treasure. Amen.

The Lord make your days many, and your reign prosperous; your fleets and armies victorious: and may you be reverenced and beloved by all your subjects, and ever increase in favour with God and man. Amen.

The glorious Majesty of the Lord our God be upon you: may he bless you with all temporal and spiritual happiness in this world, and crown you with glory and immortality in the world to come. Amen.

The Lord give you a religious and victorious posterity to rule these kingdoms in all ages. Amen.

Then the archbishop turned to the people, and said:—

And the same Lord God Almighty grant, that the clergy and nobles assembled here for this great and solemn service, and together with them all the people of the land, fearing God, and honouring the King, may by the merciful superintendency of the Divine Providence, and the vigilant care of our gracious Sovereign, continually enjoy peace, plenty, and prosperity, through Jesus Christ our Lord; to whom, with the Eternal Father, and God the Holy Ghost, be glory in the church world without end. Amen.

The blessing being thus given, the King sat down in his chair, vouchsafed to kiss the archbishop and bishops assisting at his coronation, they kneeling before him one after another.

Then the choir began to sing the Te Deum, and the King went up to the theatre on which the throne is placed, all the bishops, great officers, and other peers, attending him, and then he sat down and reposed himself in his chair, below the throne.


Te Deum.

We praise thee, O God; we acknowledge thee to be the Lord.

All the earth doth worship thee: the Father everlasting.

To thee all angels cry aloud: the heavens, and all the powers therein.

To thee Cherubin and Seraphin: continually do cry,

Holy, holy, holy: Lord God of Sabaoth.

Heaven and earth are full of the majesty of thy glory.

The glorious company of the Apostles: praise thee.

The goodly fellowship of the Prophets: praise thee.

The noble army of Martyrs: praise thee.

The holy Church throughout all the world: doth acknowledge thee;

The Father: of an infinite Majesty;

Thine honourable, true, and only Son;

Also the Holy Ghost: the Comforter.

Thou art the King of glory: O Christ.

Thou art the everlasting Son: of the Father.

When thou tookest upon thee to deliver man: thou didst not abhor the virgin's womb.

When thou hadst overcome the sharpness of death: thou didst open the kingdom of heaven to all believers.

Thou sittest at the right hand of God: in the glory of the Father.

We believe that thou shalt come: to be our judge.

We therefore pray thee, help thy servants: whom thou hast redeemed with thy precious blood.

Make them to be numbered with thy saints: in glory everlasting.

O Lord save thy people: and bless thine heritage.

Govern them: and lift them up for ever.

Day by day we magnify thee.

And we worship thy name: ever world without end.

Vouchsafe, O Lord: to keep us this day without sin.

O Lord, have mercy upon us: have mercy upon us.

O Lord, let thy mercy lighten upon us: as our trust is in thee.

O Lord, in thee have I trusted: let me never be confounded.


The Te Deum being ended, the King was lifted up into his throne by the archbishop and bishops, and other peers of the kingdom. And being inthronized or placed therein, all the great officers, those that bore the swords, and the sceptres, and the rest of the nobles, stood round about the steps of the throne, and the archbishop standing before the King, said,

Stand firm, and hold fast, from henceforth, the seat and imperial dignity which is this day delivered unto you in the name, and by the authority of Almighty God, and by the hands of us the bishops and servants of God, though unworthy; and as you see us to approach nearer to God's altar, so vouchsafe the more graciously to continue to us your royal favour and protection. And the Lord God Almighty, whose ministers we are, and the stewards of his mysteries, establish your throne in righteousness, that it may stand fast for evermore, like as the sun before Him, and as the faithful witness in heaven. Amen.


The exhortation being ended, all the peers present did homage publicly and solemnly unto the King upon the theatre, and in the meantime the treasurer of the household threw among the people medals of gold and silver, as the King's princely largess or donative.

The archbishop first knelt down before his Majesty's knees, and the rest of the bishops knelt on either hand, and about him; and they did their homage together, for the shortening of the ceremony, the archbishop saying:

I Charles archbishop of Canterbury [and so every one of the rest, I N. bishop of N. repeating the rest audibly after the archbishop] will be faithful and true, and faith and truth will bear, unto you our Sovereign Lord, and your heirs, kings of the united kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. And I will do, and truly acknowledge the service of the lands which I claim to hold of you, as in right of the church.

So help me God.

Then the archbishop kissed the King's left cheek, and so the rest of the bishops present after him.

After which the other peers of the realm did their homage in like manner, the dukes first by themselves, and so the marquesses, the earls, the viscounts, and the barons, severally; the first of each order kneeling before his Majesty, and the rest with and about him, all putting off their coronets, and the first of each class beginning, and the last saying after him:—

I N. duke, or earl, &c. of N. do become your liege man of life and limb, and of earthly worship, and faith and truth I will bear unto you, to live and die, against all manner of folks.

So help me God.

The peers having done their homage, they stood all together round about the King; and each class or degree going by themselves, or (as it was at the coronation of King Charles the First and Second) every peer one by one, in order, put off their coronets, singly ascended the throne again, and stretching forth their hands, touched the crown on his Majesty's head, as promising by that ceremony to be ever ready to support it with all their power, and then every one of them kissed the King's cheek.

While the peers were thus doing their homage, and the medals thrown about, the King delivered his sceptre with the cross to the lord of the manor of Worksop, to hold; and the other sceptre, or rod, with the dove, to the lord that carried it in the procession.

And the bishops that supported the King in the procession also eased him, by supporting the crown, as there was occasion.


While the medals were scattered, and the homage of the lords performed, the choir sung this anthem, with instrumental music of all sorts, as a solemn conclusion of the King's coronation.


Blessed be thou, Lord God of Israel, our Father, for ever and ever. Thine, O Lord, is the greatness and the power, and the victory, and the majesty; for all that is in the heaven and the earth are thine. Thine is the kingdom, O Lord; and thou art exalted as head over all. Both riches and honour come of thee, and thou reignest over all; and in thine hand is power and might; and in thine hand it is to make great, and to give strength unto all. Now, therefore, our God, we thank thee, and praise thy glorious name.

At the end of this anthem the drums beat, and the trumpets sounded, and all the people shouted, crying out,

God save King George the Fourth!

Long live King George!

May the King live for ever!

The solemnity of the King's coronation being thus ended, the archbishop left the King in his throne, and went down to the altar.


Then the Offertory began, the archbishop reading these sentences:—

Let your light so shine before men that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven.

Charge them who are rich in this world, that they be ready to give, and glad to distribute; laying up in store for themselves a good foundation against the time to come, that they may attain eternal life.

The King descended from his throne, supported and attended as before; and went to the steps of the altar, and knelt down there.

And first the King offered bread and wine for the Communion, which were brought out of king Edward's chapel, and delivered into his hands, the bread upon the paten by the bishop that read the Epistle, and the wine in the chalice by the bishop that read the Gospel; these were by the archbishop received from the King, and reverently placed upon the altar, and decently covered with a fair linen cloth, the archbishop first saying this prayer:—

Bless, O Lord, we beseech thee, these thy gifts, and sanctify them unto this holy use, that by them we may be made partakers of the body and blood of thine only begotten Son Jesus Christ, and fed unto everlasting life of soul and body: and that thy servant King GEORGE may be enabled to the discharge of his weighty office, whereunto of thy great goodness thou hast called and appointed him. Grant this, O Lord, for Jesus Christ's sake, our only Mediator and Advocate. Amen.

Then the King kneeling, as before, made his second Oblation, offering a mark weight of gold, which the treasurer of the household delivered to the lord great chamberlain, and he to His Majesty. And the archbishop came to him, and received it in the basin, and placed it upon the altar. After which the bishop said:—

O God, who dwellest in the high and holy place, with them also who are of an humble spirit; look down mercifully upon this thy servant GEORGE, our King, here humbling himself before thee at thy footstool; and graciously receive these oblations, which in humble acknowledgment of thy sovereignty over all, and of thy great bounty to him in particular, he has now offered up unto thee, through Jesus Christ, our only Mediator and Advocate. Amen.

Then the King returned to his chair, and knelt down at his faldstool; the archbishop said:—

Let us pray for the whole state of Christ's church militant here on earth.

Almighty and ever-living God, who by thy holy Apostle hast taught us to make prayers and supplications, and to give thanks for all men: we humbly beseech thee most mercifully to receive these our prayers which we offer unto thy Divine Majesty, beseeching thee to inspire continually the universal church with the spirit of truth, unity, and concord: and grant that all they that do confess thy holy name, may agree in the truth of thy holy word, and live in unity and godly love. We beseech thee also to save and defend all Christian kings, princes, and governors; and especially thy servant GEORGE our King, that under him we may be godly and quietly governed: and grant unto his whole council, and to all that are put in authority under him, that they may truly and indifferently minister justice, to the punishment of wickedness and vice, and to the maintenance of thy true religion and virtue. Give grace, O heavenly Father, to all bishops and curates, that they may both by their life and doctrine set forth thy true and lively word, and rightly and duly administer thy holy sacraments: and to all thy people give thy heavenly grace, and especially to this congregation here present, that with meek heart and due reverence they may hear and receive thy holy word, truly serving thee in holiness and righteousness all the days of their life. And we most humbly beseech thee of thy goodness, O Lord, to comfort and succour all them who in this transitory life are in trouble, sorrow, need, sickness, or any other adversity. And we also bless thy holy name, for all thy servants departed this life in thy faith and fear; beseeching thee to give us grace so to follow their good examples, that with them we may be partakers of thy heavenly kingdom. Grant this, O Father, for Jesus Christ's sake, our only Mediator and Advocate. Amen.


Ye that do truly and earnestly repent you of your sins, and are in love and charity with your neighbours, and intend to lead a new life, following the commandments of God, and walking from henceforth in his holy ways; draw near with faith, and take this holy Sacrament to your comfort; and make your humble confession to Almighty God, meekly kneeling upon your knees.


Almighty God, Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Maker of all things, Judge of all men; we acknowledge and bewail our manifold sins and wickedness, which we from time to time most grievously have committed, by thought, word, and deed, against thy divine Majesty, provoking most justly thy wrath and indignation against us. We do earnestly repent, and are heartily sorry for these our misdoings; the remembrance of them is grievous unto us; the burden of them is intolerable. Have mercy upon us, have mercy upon us, most merciful Father; for thy Son our Lord Jesus Christ's sake, forgive us all that is past, and grant that we may ever hereafter serve and please thee, in newness of life, to the honour and glory of thy name, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.


Almighty God our heavenly Father, who of his great mercy hath promised forgiveness of sins to all them that with hearty repentance, and true faith, turn unto him; have mercy upon you, pardon and deliver you from all your sins, confirm and strengthen you in all goodness, and bring you to everlasting life, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

After which was said,

Hear what comfortable words our Saviour saith unto all that truly turn to him.

Come unto me, all that travail and are heavy laden, and I will refresh you. St. Matt. xi. 28.

So God loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son to the world, and that all that believe in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. St. John, iii. 16.

Hear also what St. Paul saith:

This is a true saying, and worthy of all men to be received, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners. 1 Tim. i. 15.

Hear also what St. John saith:

If any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous, and he is the propitiation for our sins. 1 John, ii. 1.

After which the archbishop proceeded, saying,

Arch. Lift up your hearts.

Answ. We lift them unto the Lord.

Arch. Let us give thanks unto our Lord God.

Answ. It is meet and right so to do.

Then the archbishop turned to the Lord's table, and said,

It is very meet, right, and our bounden duty, that we should at all times, and in all places, give thanks unto thee, O Lord, Holy Father, Almighty everlasting God:

Who hast at this time given us thy servant our sovereign King GEORGE, to be the Defender of the Faith, and the protector of thy people:

Therefore with angels and archangels, and with all the company of heaven, we laud and magnify thy glorious name, evermore praising thee, and saying, Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of hosts, heaven and earth are full of thy glory. Glory be to thee, O Lord most high. Amen.


We do not presume to come to this thy table, O merciful God, trusting in our own righteousness, but thy manifold great mercies. We are not worthy so much as to gather up the crumbs under thy table. But thou art the same God, whose property is always to have mercy; grant us therefore, gracious God, so to eat the flesh of thy dear Son, Jesus Christ, to drink his blood, that our sinful bodies may be made clean by his body, our souls washed through his most precious blood. That we may evermore dwell with him, and he with us. Amen.


Almighty God, our heavenly Father, who of thy tender mercy didst give thine only Son Jesus Christ to suffer death upon the cross for our redemption, who made there (by his one oblation of himself once offered) a full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice, oblation, and satisfaction for the sins of the whole world, and did institute, and in his holy Gospel command us to continue a perpetual memory of that his precious death to his coming again; hear us, O merciful Father, we most humbly beseech thee; and grant that we, receiving these thy creatures of bread and wine, according to thy Son our Saviour Jesus Christ's holy institution, in remembrance of his death and passion, may be partakers of his most holy body and blood: who in the same night that he was betrayed took bread[111], and when he had given thanks, he brake it[112], and gave it to his disciples, saying, Take, eat[113], this is my body which is given for you, do this in remembrance of me. Likewise, after supper[114] he took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of this, for this[115] is my blood of the New Testament, which is shed for you and for many for the remission of sins: do this, as oft as ye shall drink it, in remembrance of me. Amen.

When the archbishop, and dean of Westminster, with the bishops' assistants, namely, the preacher, and those who read the Litany, and the Epistle and Gospel, had communicated in both kinds, the archbishop administered the bread, and the dean of Westminster the cup, to the King.

At the delivery of the bread, was said,

The body of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was given for thee, preserve thy body and soul unto everlasting life. Take and eat this in remembrance that Christ died for thee, and feed on him in thy heart by faith with thanksgiving.

At the delivery of the cup,

The blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was shed for thee, preserve thy body and soul unto everlasting life. Drink this in remembrance that Christ's blood was shed for thee, and be thankful.

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