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Cooking and Dining in Imperial Rome
by Apicius
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Chick-peas, {Rx} 207-9; p. 247

Chimneys on pies, {Rx} 141

Chipolata garniture, {Rx} 378

CHOENIX, a measure,—2 SEXTARII, {Rx} 52

Chops, {Rx} 261

CHOUX DE BRUXELLES AUX MARRONS, {Rx} 92

Christina, Queen of Sweden, eating Apician dishes, pp. 37, 38

CHRYSOMELUM, CHRYSOMALUM, a sort of quince

CIBARIA, victuals, provisions, food; same as CIBUS. Hence CIBARIAE LEGES, sumptuary laws; CIBARIUM VAS, a vessel or container for food; CIBARIUS, relating to food; also CIBATIO, victualling, feeding, meal, repast

CIBARIUM ALBUM, white repast, white dish, blancmange. Fr. BLANC MANGER, "white eating." A very old dish. Platina gives a fine recipe for it; in Apicius it is not yet developed. The body of this dish is ground almonds and milk, thickened with meat jelly. Modern cornstarch puddings have no longer a resemblance to it; to speak of "chocolate" blancmange as we do, is a barbarism. Platina is proud of his C.A. He prefers it to any Apician dessert. We agree with him; the incomplete Apicius in Platina's and in our days has no desserts worth mentioning. A German recipe of the 13th century (in "Ein Buch von guter Spise") calls C.A. "Blamansier," plainly a corruption of the French. By the translation of C.A. into the French, the origin of the dish was obliterated, a quite frequent occurrence in French kitchen terminology

CIBORIUM, a drinking vessel

CIBUS, food, victuals, provender

CICER, chick-pea, small pulse, {Rx} 207-209

Cicero, famous Roman, {Rx} 409

CICONIA, stork. Although there is no direct mention of the C. as an article of diet it has undoubtedly been eaten same as crane, egrets, flamingo and similar birds

CINARA, CYNARA, artichoke

CINNAMONUM, cinnamon

CIRCELLOS ISICATOS, a sausage, {Rx} 65

CITREA MALA, citron; see CITRUM

CITREUS, citron tree

CITRUM, CITRIUM, the fruit of the CITREUS, citron, citrus, {Rx} 23, 81, 168. The citron tree is also MALUS MEDICA. "MALUS QUAE CITRIA VOCANTUR"; CONDITURA MALORUM MEDICORUM, Ap. Book I.; Lister thinks this is a cucumber

CITRUS, orange or lemon tree and their fruits. It is remarkable that Apicius does not speak of lemons, one of the most indispensable fruits in modern cookery which grow so profusely in Italy today. These were imported into Italy probably later. The ancients called a number of other trees CITRUS also, including the cedar, the very name of which is a corruption of CITRUS

Classic Cookery, pp. 16-17

CLIBANUS, portable oven; also a broad vessel for bread-making, a dough trough

CNECON, {Rx} 16

CNICOS, CNICUS, CNECUS, bastard saffron; also the blessed thistle

CNISSA, smoke or steam arising from fat or meat while roasting

COCHLEAE, snails, also sea-snails, "cockles," periwinkles, {Rx} 323-25. —— LACTE PASTAE, milk-fed snails. COCHLEARIUM, a snail "farm," place where snails were raised and fattened for the table. Also a "spoonful," a measure of the capacity of a small shell, more properly, however, COCHLEAR, a spoon, a spoon-full, 1/4 cyathus, the capacity of a small shell, also, properly, a spoon for drawing snails out of the shells. COCHLEOLA, a small snail

COCOLOBIS, basil, basilica

COCTANA, COTANA, COTTANA, COTONA, a small dried fig from Syria

COCTIO, the act of cooking or boiling

COCTIVA CONDIMENTA, easy of digestion, not edible without cooking. COCTIVUS, soon boiled or roasted

COCTOR, cook, which see; same as COQUUS

COCULA, same as COQUA, a female cook

COCULUM, a cooking vessel

COCUS, COQUUS, cook, which see

Coelius, name of a person, erroneously attached to that of Apicius; also Caelius, p. 13

COLADIUM, —EDIUM, —ESIUM, —OESIUM, variations of COLOCASIUM, which see

Colander, illustration of a, p. 58

COLICULUS, CAULICULUS, a tender shoot, a small stalk or stem, {Rx} 87-92

COLO, to strain, to filter, cf. {Rx} 73

COLOCASIA, COLOCASIUM, the dasheen, or taro, or tanyah tuber, of which there are many varieties; the root of a plant known to the ancients as Egyptian Bean. Descriptions in the notes to the {Rx} 74, 154, 172, 200, 244 and 322

COLUM NIVARIUM, a strainer or colander for wine and other liquids. See illustration, p. 58

COLUMBA, female pigeon; COLUMBUS, the male; COLUMBULUS, —A, squab, {Rx} 220. Also used as an endearing term

Columella, writer on agriculture; —— on bulbs, {Rx} 307; —— mentioning Matius, {Rx} 167

COLYMBADES (OLIVAE), olives "swimming" in the brine; from COLYMBUS, swimming pool

Combination of dishes, {Rx} 46

Commentaries on Apicius, p. 272

Commodus, a Roman, {Rx} 197

Compote of early fruit, {Rx} 177

CONCHA, shellfish muscle, cockle scallop, pearl oyster; also the pearl itself, or mother-of-pearl; also any hollow vessel resembling a mussel shell (cf. illustration, p. 125) hence CONCHA SALIS PURI, a salt cellar. Hence also CONCHIS, beans or peas cooked "in the shell" or in the pod; and diminutives and variations: CONCHICLA FABA, (bean in the pod) for CONCHICULA, which is the same as CONCHIS and CONCICLA; {Rx} 194-98, 411. —— APICIANA, {Rx} 195; —— DE PISA, {Rx} 196; —— COMMODIANA, {Rx} 197; —— FARSILIS, {Rx} 199

CONCHICLATUS, {Rx} 199

CONCRESCO, grow together, run together, thicken, congeal, also curdle, etc., same as CONCRETIO, CONCRETUM

CONDIO, to salt, to season, to flavor; to give relish or zest, to spice, to prepare with honey or pepper, and also (since spicing does this very thing) to preserve

CONDITIO, laying up, preserving. CONDITIVUS, that which is laid up or preserved, same as CONDITUM

CONDITOR, one who spices. Ger. Konditor, a pastry maker

CONDIMENTARIUS, spice merchant, grocer

CONDIMENTUM, condiment, sauce, dressing, seasoning, pickle, anything used for flavoring, seasoning, pickling —— VIRIDE green herbs, pot herbs; cf. CONDITURA. —— PRO PELAMIDE, {Rx} 445; —— PRO THYNNO, {Rx} 446; —— IN PERCAM, {Rx} 447; —— IN RUBELLIONEM, {Rx} 448; —— RATIO CONDIENDI MURENAS, {Rx} 449; —— LACERTOS, {Rx} 456; —— PRO LACERTO ASSO, {Rx} 457; —— THYNNUM ET DENTICEM, {Rx} 458; —— DENTICIS, {Rx} 460; —— IN DENTICE ELIXO, {Rx} 461; —— AURATA, {Rx} 462; —— IN AURATAM ASSAM, {Rx} 463; —— SCORPIONES, {Rx} 464; —— ANGUILLAM, {Rx} 466; —— ALIUD —— ANGUILLAE, {Rx} 467

CONDITUM, preserved, a preserve; cf. CONDIO; —— MELIRHOMUM, {Rx} 2 —— ABSINTHIUM ROMANUM, {Rx} 3 —— PARADOXUM, {Rx} 1 —— VIOLARUM, {Rx} 5 —— Paradoxum, facsimile of Vat. Ms., p. 253

CONDITURA, a pickle, a preserve, sauce, seasoning, marinade; the three terms, C., CONDITUM and CONDIMENTUM are much the same in meaning, and are used indiscriminately. They also designate sweet dishes and desserts of different kinds, including many articles known to us as confections. Hence the German, KONDITOR, for confectioner, pastry cook. Nevertheless, a general outline of the specific meanings of these terms may be gathered from observing the nature of the several preparations listed under these headings, particularly as follows: —— ROSATUM, {Rx} 4; (cf. No. 5) —— MELLIS, {Rx} 17; —— UVARUM, {Rx} 20; —— MALORUM PUNICORUM, {Rx} 21; —— COTONIORUM, {Rx} 19; —— FICUUM, PRUNORUM, PIRORUM, {Rx} 20; —— MALORUM MEDICORUM, {Rx} 21; —— MORORUM, {Rx} 25; —— OLERUM, {Rx} 26; —— RUMICIS, {Rx} 27; —— LAPAE, {Rx} 27; —— DURACINORUM, {Rx} 29; —— PRUNORUM, etc., {Rx} 30 —in most of these instances corresponds to our modern "preserving"

CONGER, CONGRIO, CONGRUS, sea-eel, conger. CONGRUM QUEM ANTIATES BRUNCHUM APPELLANT,—Platina, cf. ANGUILLA. Plautus uses this fish name to characterize a very cunning person, a "slippery" fellow. A cook is thus called CONGRIO in one of his plays

CONILA, CUNILA, a species of the plant ORIGANUM, origany, wild marjoram. See SATUREIA

CONYZA, the viscous elecampane

Cook, COCUS, COQUUS is the most frequent form used, COCTOR, infrequent. COQUA, COCULA, female cook; though female cooks were few. The word is derived from COQUERE, to cook, which seems to be an imitation of the sound, produced by a bubbling mess

The cook's work place (formerly ATRIUM, the "black" smoky room) was the CULINA, the kitchen, hence in the modern Romance tongues CUISINE, CUCINA, COCINA. Those who work there are CUISINIERS, COCINEROS, the female a CUISINIERE, and so forth

The German and Swedish for "kitchen" are KUeCHE and KOeKET, but the words "cook" and "KOCH" are directly related to COQUUS

A self-respecting Roman cook, especially a master of the art, having charge of a crew, would assume the title of MAGIRUS, or ARCHIMAGIRUS, chief cook. This Greek—"MAGEIROS"—plainly shows the high regard in which Greek cookery stood in Rome. No American CHEF would think of calling himself "chief cook," although CHEF means just that. The foreign word sounds ever so much better both in old Rome and in new New York. MAGEIROS is derived from the Greek equivalent of the verb "to knead," which leads us to the art of baking. Titles and distinctions were plentiful in the ancient bakeshops, which plainly indicates departmentisation and division of labor

The PISTOR was the baker of loaves, the DULCIARIUS the cake baker, using honey for sweetening. Martial says of the PISTOR DULCIARIUS, "that hand will construct for you a thousand sweet figures of art; for it the frugal bee principally labors." The PANCHESTRARIUS, mentioned in Arnobius, is another confectioner. The LIBARIUS still another of the sweet craft. The CRUSTULARIUS and BOTULARIUS were a cookie baker and a sausage maker respectively

The LACTARIUS is the milkman; the PLACENTARIUS he who makes the PLACENTA, a certain pancake, also a kind of cheese cake, often presented during the Saturnalia. The SCRIBLITARIUS belongs here, too: in our modern parlance we would perhaps call these two "ENTREMETIERS." The SCRIBLITA must have been a sort of hot cake, perhaps an omelet, a pancake, a dessert of some kind, served hot; maybe just a griddle cake, baked on a hot stone, a TORTILLA—what's the use of guessing! but SCRIBLITAE were good, for Plautus, in one of his plays, Poenulus, shouts, "Now, then, the SCRIBLITAE are piping hot! Come hither, fellows!" Not all of them did eat, however, all the time, for Posidippus derides a cook, saying, CUM SIS COQUUS, PROFECTUS EXTRA LIMEN ES, CUM NON PRIUS COENAVERIS, "What? Thou art a cook, and hast gone, without dinner, over the threshold?"

From the FOCARIUS, the scullion, the FORNACARIUS, the fireman, or furnace tender, and the CULINARIUS, the general kitchen helper to the OBSONATOR, the steward, the FARTOR to the PRINCEPS COQUORUM, the "maitre d'hotel" of the establishment we see an organization very much similar to our own in any well-conducted kitchen

The Roman cooks, formerly slaves in the frugal days of the nation, rose to great heights of civic importance with the spread of civilization and the advance of luxury in the empire. Cf. "The Role of the Mageiroi in the Life of the Ancient Greeks" by E. M. Rankin, Chic., 1907, and "Roman Cooks" by C. G. Harcum, Baltimore, 1914, two monographs on this subject

Cookery, Apician, as well as modern c., discussed in the critical review of the Apicius book —— examples of deceptive c. in Apicius, {Rx} 6, 7, 9, 17, 229, 230, 384, 429 —— of flavoring and spicing, {Rx} 15, 277, 281, 369 —— deserving special mention for ingenuity and excellence, {Rx} 15, 21, 22, 72, 88, 177, 186, 212, 213, 214, 250, 287, 315, 428 —— modern Jewish, resembling Apicius, {Rx} 204 seq. —— examples of attempts to remove disagreeable odors, {Rx} 212-14, 229, 230, 292 —— removing sinews from fowl, {Rx} 213 —— utensils, p. 15

Coote, C. T., commentator, pp. 19, 273

COPA, a woman employed in eating places and taverns, a bar maid, a waitress, an entertainer, may be all that in one person. One of the caricatures drawn on a tavern wall in Pompeii depicts a COPA energetically demanding payment for a drink from a reluctant customer, p. 7

COPADIA, dainties, delicate bits, {Rx} 125, 179, 180, 271, 276, seq., 355

Copper in Vegetable Cookery, {Rx} 66

Copyists and their work, p. 14

COQUINA, cooking, kitchen. COQUINARIS, —IUS, relating to the kitchen. COQUO, —IS, COXI, COCTUM, COQUERE, to cook, to dress food, to function in the kitchen, to prepare food for the table. See cook

COR, heart

CORDYLA, CORDILLA, {Rx} 419, 423

CORIANDRUM, the herb coriander; CORIANDRATUM, flavored with c.; LIQUAMEN EX CORIANDRO, coriander essence or extract

Corn, green, {Rx} 99

CORNUM, cornel berry; "CORNA QUAE VERGILIUS LAPIDOSA VOCAT"—Platina

CORNUTUS, horn-fish, {Rx} 442

CORRUDA, the herb wild sparrage, or wild asparagus

CORVUS, a kind of sea-fish, according to some the sea-swallow. Platina describes it as a black fish of the color of the raven (hence the name), and ranks it among the best of fish, cf. STURNUS

COTANA, see COCTANA

COTICULA (CAUDA?), minor cuts of pork, either spareribs, pork chops, or pig's tails

COTONEA, a herb of the CUNILA family, wallwort, comfrey or black bryony

COTONEUM, COTONEUS, COTONIUS, CYDONIUS, quince-apple, {Rx} 163

COTULA, COTYLA, a small measure, 1/2 sextarius

COTURNIX, quail

COSTUM, COSTUS, costmary; fragrant Indian shrub, the root of burning taste but excellent flavor

Court-bouillon, {Rx} 37, 138

Cow-parsnips, p. 188, {Rx} 115-122, 183

COXA, {Rx} 288

Crabs, {Rx} 485; crabmeat croquettes, {Rx} 44

Cracklings, p. 285, {Rx} 255

Crane, {Rx} 212, 213, p. 265. Crane with turnips, {Rx} 214-17

CRATER, CRATERA, a bowl or vessel to mix wine and water; also a mixing bowl and oil container—see illustrations, p. 140

CRATICULA, grill, gridiron; illustration, p. 182

Creme renversee, {Rx} 129, 143

CREMORE, DE—, {Rx} 172

CRETICUM HYSOPUM, {Rx} 29, Cretan hyssop

CROCUS, —OS, —ON, —UM, saffron; hence CROCEUS, saffron-flavored, saffron sauce or saffron essence. CROCIS, a certain herb or flavor, perhaps saffron

Croquettes, {Rx} 42, seq.

Cucumber, CUCUMIS, {Rx} 82-84

CUCURBITA, pumpkin, gourd, {Rx} 73-80, 136

CULINA, kitchen; CULINARIUS, man employed in the kitchen; pertaining to the kitchen

CULTER, a knife for carving or killing; the blade from 9 to 13 inches long

CUMANA, earthen pot or dish; casserole, {Rx} 237

Cumberland sauce, {Rx} 345

CUMINUM, CYMINUM, cumin; CUMINATUM, —US, sauce or dish seasoned with cumin, {Rx} 39, 40. Aethiopian, Libyan, and Syriac cumin are named, {Rx} 178

CUNICULUS, rabbit, cony

CUNILAGO, a species of origany, flea-bane, wild marjoram, basilica

CUPELLUM, CUPELLA, dim., of CUPA, a small cask or tun. Ger. KUFE; a "cooper" is a man who makes them

CURCUMA ZEODARIA, turmeric

Custard, brain, {Rx} 27; —— nut, {Rx} 128, 142; —— of vegetables and brain, {Rx} 130; —— of elderberries, {Rx} 134; —— rose, {Rx} 135; see also {Rx} 301

Cutlets, {Rx} 261, 471-3

Cuttle-fish, {Rx} 42, 406-8

CYAMUS, Egyptian bean

CYATHUS, a measure, for both things liquid and things dry, which according to Pliny 21.109, amounted to 10 drachms, and, according to Rhem. Fann. 80., was the 12th part of a SEXTARIUS, roughly one twelfth pint. Also a goblet, and a vessel for mixing wine, {Rx} 131

CYDONIIS, PATINA DE, {Rx} 163, see also Malus

CYMA, young sprout, of colewort or any other herb; also cauliflower, {Rx} 87-9-92

CYPERUS, CYPIRUS, a sort of rush with roots like ginger, see MEDIUM

CYRENE, a city of Africa, famous for its Laser Cyrenaicum, the best kind of laser, which see. Also Kyrene

D

DACTYLIS, long, "finger-like" grape or raisin; —US, long date, fruit of a date tree, {Rx} 30

DAMA, a doe, deer, also a gazelle, antilope (DORCAS). In some places the chamois of the Alps is called DAMA

DAMASCENA [PRUNA], plum or prune from Damascus, {Rx} 30. Either fresh or dried

Danneil, E., editor, pp. 33-34, 35, 271

Dasheen, {Rx} 74, 152, 172, 216, 244, 322

Dates, stuffed, {Rx} 294

DAUCUM, —US, —ON, a carrot

DE CHINE, see Dasheen

"Decline of the West," p. 17

DECOQUO, to boil down

DEFRUTARIUS, one who boils wine; CELLA DEFRUTARIA, a cellar where this is done, or where such wine is kept

DEFRUTUM, DEFRICTUM, DEFRITUM, new wine boiled down to one half of its volume with sweet herbs and spices to make it keep. Used to flavor sauces, etc., see also Caramel color

DENTEX, a sparoid marine fish, "Tooth-Fish," {Rx} 157, 459-60

Dessert Dishes, illustrations, pp. 61, 125

Desserts, absent, p. 43

Desserts, Apician, {Rx} 143, 294, seq.

DIABOTANON PRO PISCE FRIXO, {Rx} 432

Diagram of Apician editions, p. 252

Didius Julianus, {Rx} 178

Dierbach, H. J., commentator, p. 273

Dining in Apician style, modern, p. 37 —— in Rome, compared with today, pp. 17, 18

Diocles, writer, {Rx} 409

Dionysos Cup, illustration, p. 141

Dipper, illustrated, p. 3

DISCUS, round dish, plate or platter

Disguising foods, {Rx} 133, pp. 33-4

Distillation, see Vinum

Dormouse, {Rx} 396

Dory, {Rx} 157, 462-5

Doves, p. 265

Drexel, Theodor, collector, pp. 257-8

Dubois, Urbain, chef, p. 16

Duck, p. 265, {Rx} 212-3; —— with turnips, {Rx} 214-7

DULCIA, sweets, cookies, confections, {Rx} 16, 216, 294-6 —RIUS, pastry cook, {Rx} 294

Dumas, Alexandre, cooking, p. 24

Dumpling of pheasant, {Rx} 48; —— and HYDROGARUM, {Rx} 49; —— with broth, plain, {Rx} 52, 181

DURACINUS, hard-skinned, rough-skinned fruit; —— PERSICA, the best sort of peach, according to some, nectarines, {Rx} 28

E

Early fruit, stewed, {Rx} 177

ECHINUS, sea-urchin, {Rx} 412-17

Economical methods: flavoring, {Rx} 15

EDO, to eat; great eater, gormandizer, glutton

EDULA, chitterlings

Eel, {Rx} 466-7

Egg Dish, illustration, p. 93

Eggs, {Rx} 326-28; —— fried, {Rx} 336; —— boiled, {Rx} 327; —— poached, {Rx} 328; —— scrambled with fish and oysters, {Rx} 159

Eglantine, {Rx} 171

Egyptian Bean, {Rx} 322; also see CYAMUS

EIERKAeSE, {Rx} 125, 301

ELAEOGARUM, {Rx} 33

Elderberry custard, {Rx} 135

ELIXO, to boil, boil down, reduce. —US, —UM, boiled down, sodden, reduced. According to Platina an ELIXUM simply is a meat bouillon as it is made today. ELIXATIO, a court-bouillon, liquid boiled down; ELIXATURA, a reduction

EMBAMMA, a marinade, a pickle or sauce to preserve food, to give it additional flavor; same as INTINCTUS, {Rx} 344

EMBRACTUM, EMPHRACTUM, a dish "covered over"; a casserole of some kind. E. BAIANUM, {Rx} 431

Endives, {Rx} 109

Enoche of Ascoli, medieval scholar, cf. Apiciana

Entrees, potted, {Rx} 54, 55; —— sauces, {Rx} 56; —— of fish, poultry and sausage, {Rx} 139; —— of fowl and livers, {Rx} 175

EPIMELES, careful, accurate; choice things. Title of Book I

Erasmus of Rotterdam, Dialogue, p. 273

ERUCA, the herb rocket, a colewort, a salad plant, a mustard plant

ERVUM, a kind of pulse like vetches or tares

ESCA, meat, food, victuals; ESCO, to eat

Escoffier, A. modern chef, writer, {Rx} 338

ESCULENTES, things good to eat

ESTRIX, she-glutton

ESUS, eating

Every Day Dishes, {Rx} 128, 142

EXCERPTA A VINIDARIO, p. 235

Excerpts from Apicius by Vinidarius, pp. 21, 234

EXCOQUO, to boil out, to melt, to render (fats)

F

FABA, bean, pulse. —— AEGYPTIACA, {Rx} 322; —— IN FRIXORIO, string beans in the frying pan, Fr.: HARICOTS VERTS SAUTES; —— VITELLIANA, {Rx} 189, 193

FABACIAE VIRIDES, green bean, {Rx} 202; —— FRICTAE, {Rx} 203; —— EX SINAPI, {Rx} 204

Fabricius, Albertus, bibliographer, pp. 258, seq., 268

"Fakers" of manuscripts, p. 13

FALSCHER HASE, {Rx} 384

FAR, corn or grain of any kind, also spelt; also a sort of coarse meal

Farce, forcemeat, {Rx} 131

FARCIMEN, sausage, {Rx} 62-64

FARCIO, to fill, to stuff; also to feed by force, cram, fatten

FARINA, meal, flour, {Rx} 173; —OSUS, mealy

FARNEI FUNGI, {Rx} 309

FARRICA, {Rx} 173

FASEOLUS, PHASEOLUS, a bean; Ger.: Fisole, {Rx} 207

FARSILIS, FARTILIS, a rich dish, something crammed or fattened, {Rx} 131

FARTOR, sausage maker; keeper of animals to be fattened, {Rx} 166, 366

FARTURA, the fattening of animals; also the dressing used to stuff the bodies in roasting, forcemeat, {Rx} 166, 366

FATTENING FOWL, {Rx} 166, 366

FENICOPTERO, IN, {Rx} 220, 231

FENICULUM, FOENI—, fennel

FENUM GRAECUM, FOEN—; the herb fenugreek, also SILICIA, {Rx} 206

FERCULUM, a frame or tray on which several dishes were brought in at once, hence a course of dishes

FERULA, a rod or branch, fennel-giant; —— ASA FOETIDA, same as LASERPITIUM

FICATUM, fed or stuffed with figs, {Rx} 259-60

FICEDULA, small bird, figpecker, {Rx} 132

FICUS, fig, fig tree, FICULA, small fig

Field herbs, {Rx} 107; Field salad, {Rx} 110; a dish of field vegetables, {Rx} 134

Fieldfare, a bird, {Rx} 497

Fig-fed pork, p. 285, {Rx} 259

Figpecker, a bird, {Rx} 132

Figs, to preserve, {Rx} 22

Filets Mignons, {Rx} 262

Filtering liquors, {Rx} 1

Financiere garniture, {Rx} 166, 378

Fine ragout of brains and bacon, {Rx} 147

Fine spiced wine, {Rx} 1

Fish cookery, "The Fisherman," title of Book X; —— boiled, {Rx} 432, 4, 5, 6, 455; —— fried, herb sauce, {Rx} 433; —— to preserve fried fish, {Rx} 13; —— with cold dressing, {Rx} 486; —— baked, {Rx} 476-7; —— balls in wine sauce, {Rx} 145, 164; —— fond, {Rx} 155; a dish of any kind of ——, {Rx} 149, 150, 156; —— au gratin, {Rx} 143; —— loaf, {Rx} 429; —— liver pudding, {Rx} 429; —— pickled, spiced, marinated, {Rx} 480; —— oysters and eggs, {Rx} 157; —— salt, any style, {Rx} 430, 431; —— stew, {Rx} 153, 432; —— sauce, acid, {Rx} 38-9

FISKE BOLLER, {Rx} 145, 41, seq.

Flaccus, a Roman, {Rx} 372

Flamingo, {Rx} 220, 231-2

Flavors and spices, often referred to, especially in text; instances of careful flavoring, {Rx} 15, 276-77. Flavoring with faggots, {Rx} 385, seq.

Florence Mss. Apiciana VI, VII, VIII, IX

FLORES SAMBUCI, elder blossoms

Fluvius Hirpinus, Roman, {Rx} 323, 396; a man interested in raising snails, dormice, etc., for the table

FOCUS, hearth, range; unusually built of brick, on which the CRATICULA stood. Cf. illustrations, p. 182

FOLIUM, leaf, aromatic leaves such as laurel, etc. —— NARDI, several kinds, nard leaf. The Indian nard furnishes nard oil, the Italian lavender

FONDULI, see SPHONDULI, {Rx} 114, 121

Food adulterations, pp. 33, 34

Food disguising and adulteration, p. 33, {Rx} 6, 7, 134, 147; —— displayed in Pompeii, p. 7

Forcemeats, {Rx} 42, 172

Fowl, p. 265; a dish of, {Rx} 470; —— and livers, {Rx} 174; various dishes and sauce, {Rx} 218, seq. Picking ——, {Rx} 233; Removing disagreeable odors from ——, {Rx} 229-30

French Dressing, {Rx} 112

French Toast, {Rx} 296

FRETALE, FRIXORIUM, FRICTORIUM, frying pan, illustrations, pp. 355, 366; cf. SARTAGO

FRICTELLA, fritter; "A FRICTO DICI NULLA RATIO OBSTAT"—Platina. Ger. "Frikadellen" for meat balls fried in the pan. "De OFFELLIS, QUAS VEL FRICTELLAS LICET APPELLARE"—Platina

FRICTORIUM, FRIXORIUM, same as FRETALE, frying pan

FRISILIS, FRICTILIS, FUSILIS, {Rx} 131

FRITTO MISTO (It.), {Rx} 46

Friture, (Fr.) frying fat, {Rx} 42, seq.

FRIXUS, roast, fried, also dried or parched, term which causes some confusion in the several editions

Frontispice, 2nd Lister Edition, illustration, p. 156

Fronto, a Roman, {Rx} 246, 374

FRUGES, farinaceous dishes

Fruit dishes, {Rx} 64, 72; Fruits, p. 210; —— dried, Summary, p. 370 —— Bowl illustration, pp. 61, 125

FRUMENTUM, grain, wheat or barley

Frying, {Rx} 42, seq.

Frying pans, illustrated, cf. FRETALE and SARTAGO

Fulda Ms., cf. Apiciana

FUNGUS, mushroom; —ULUS, small m.; see BOLETUS —— FARNEI, {Rx} 309, seq.

FURCA, a two-pronged fork; —ULA, —ILLA (dim.) a small fork. FUSCINA, —ULA, a three-pronged fork. Cf. "Forks and Fingerbowls as Milestones in Human Progress," by the author, Hotel Bulletin and The Nation's Chefs, Chicago, Aug., 1933, pp. 84-87

FURNUS, oven, bake oven. See illustration, p. 2

G

Galen, writer, {Rx} 396, 410

GALLINA, hen; —ULA, little hen; —ARIUS, poulterer

GALLUS, cock

Game of all kinds, sauce for, {Rx} 349 —— birds, {Rx} 218, seq.

GANONAS CRUDAS, fish, {Rx} 153

GARATUM, prepared with GARUM, which see

Gardener, The—Title of Book III, {Rx} 377

GARUM (Gr.: GARON) a popular fish sauce made chiefly of the scomber or mackerel, but formerly from the GARUS, hence the name, cf. p. 22, {Rx} 10, 33, 471

Mackerel is the oiliest fish, and plentiful, very well suited for the making of G.

G. was also a pickle made of the blood and the gills of the tunny and of the intestines of mackerel and other fish. The intestines were exposed to the sun and fermented. This has stirred up controversies; the ancients have been denounced for the "vile concoctions," but garum has been vindicated by modern science as to its rational preparation and nutritive qualities. Codfish oil, for instance, has long been known for its medicinal properties, principally Vitamin D; this is being increased today by exposure to ultraviolet rays (just what the ancients did). The intestines are the most nutritious portions of fish

G. still remains a sort of mystery. Its exact mode of preparation is not known. It was very popular and expensive, therefore was subject to a great number of variations in quality and in price, and to adulteration. For all these reasons GARUM has been the subject of much speculation. It appears that the original meaning of G. became entirely lost in the subsequent variations

In 1933 Dr. Margaret B. Wilson sent the author a bottle of GARUM ROMANUM which she had compounded according to the formulae at her disposal. This was a syrupy brown liquid, smelled like glue and had to be dissolved in water or wine, a few drops of the G. to a glass of liquid, of which, in turn, only a few drops were used to flavor a fish sauce, etc.

—— SOCIORUM, the best kind of G.; ALEXGARI VITIUM, the cheap kind of G., cf. ALEX, HALEC. OENOGARUM, G. mixed with wine; HYDROGARUM G. mixed with water; OLEOGARUM, G. mixed with oil; OXYGARUM, G. mixed with vinegar

GARUS, small fish from which the real GARUM was made

GELO, cause to freeze, to congeal; GELU, jelly GELU IN PATINA, gelatine: "QUOD VULGO GELATINAM VOCAMUS"—Platina

Georg, Carl, Bibliographer, p. 257

Gesamt-Katalog, bibliography, p. 261

Gesner, Conrad, Swiss scientist, bibliographer, polyhistor, see Schola Apitiana, p. 206

GETHYUM, —ON, same as PALLACANA, an onion

Giarratano, C., editor, Apiciana, pp. 18, 19, 26, 271, 273

GINGIBER, ginger; also ZINGIBER, faulty reading of the "G" by medieval scribes

GINGIDON, —IUM, a plant of Syria; according to Spengel the French carrot. Paulus Aegineta says: "BISACUTUM (SIC ENIM ROMANI GINGIDION APPELLANT) OLUS EST SCANDICI NON ABSIMILE," hence a chervil root, or parsnip, or oysterplant

GLANDES, any kernel fruit, a date, a nut, etc.

Glasse, Mrs. Hannah, writer, {Rx} 127

GLIS, pl. GLIRES, dormouse, a small rodent, very much esteemed as food. GLIRARIUM, cage or place where they were kept or raised, {Rx} 396

Gluttons, p. 11

Goat, wild, {Rx} 346, seq. —— liver, {Rx} 291-3

Gollmer, R., editor, Apiciana, pp. 18, 35, 270

GONG for slaves, illustration, p. 151

Goose, p. 265; white sauce for, {Rx} 228

Grapes, to keep, {Rx} 19

Greek influence on Roman cookery, p. 12, seq. —— Banquet, by Anacharsis, p. 8

Greek monographs, p. 43

Green beans, p. 247, {Rx} 202, 206

Greens, green vegetables, {Rx} 99

Grimod de la Reyniere, writer, p. 4, cf. Mappa

Gruel, p. 210; {Rx} 172, 200-1, seq. —— and wine, {Rx} 179-80

GRUS, crane; GRUEM, {Rx} 212-3; —— EX RAPIS, {Rx} 215-6

Gryphius, S., printer, Apiciana No. 6, facsimile of title, p. 263

Guegan, Bertrand, editor, p. 271, seq.

Guinea Hen, {Rx} 239, cf. "Turkey Origin," by the author, Hotel Bulletin and The Nation's Chefs, for February and March, 1935, Chicago

GULA, gluttony

GUSTUS, taste; also appetizers and relishes and certain entrees of a meal, Hors d'oeuvres. Cf. CENA, {Rx} 174-77

H

Habs, R., writer, p. 18

HAEDUS, HAEDINUS, kid, {Rx} 291-3, 355, seq. —— SYRINGIATUS, {Rx} 360; —— PARTHICUM, {Rx} 364; —— TARPEIANUM, {Rx} 363; —— LAUREATUM EX LACTE, {Rx} 365; —— LASARATUM, {Rx} 496

HALEC, see ALEC

HALIEUS, HALIEUTICUS, pertaining to fish; title of Book X, p. 356

Ham, fresh, p. 285, {Rx} 287-9

HAND-MILL, operated by Slaves, illustration, p. 60

HAPANTAMYNOS, {Rx} 497

Harcum, C. G., writer, see COQUUS

Hard-skinned peaches, to keep, {Rx} 28

Hare, B. VIII, {Rx} 382, seq. —— imitation, {Rx} 384; —— braised, {Rx} 382-3; —— different dressings, {Rx} 383; —— Stuffed, {Rx} 384, 91; —— white sauce for, {Rx} 385; —— lights of, {Rx} 386-7; —— liver, {Rx} 170; —— in its own broth, {Rx} 388; —— smoked Passenianus, {Rx} 389; —— tidbits, kromeskis, {Rx} 390; —— boiled, {Rx} 393; —— spiced sauce, {Rx} 393; —— sumptuous style, {Rx} 394; —— spiced, {Rx} 395

Haricot of lamb, {Rx} 355

HARPAGO, a meat hook for taking boiled meat out of the pot, with five or more prongs; hence "harpoon." Cf. FURCA

"Haut-gout" in birds, to overcome it, {Rx} 229-30

Headcheese, {Rx} 125

Heathcock, {Rx} 218, seq.

HELENIUM, plant similar to thyme(?); the herb elecampane or starwort

Heliogabalus, emperor, p. 11

HEMINA, a measure, about half a pint

Henry VIII, of England, edict on kitchens, p. 156

HERBAE RUSTICAE, {Rx} 107

Herbs, pot herbs, to keep, {Rx} 25

Hildesheim Treasure, found in 1868, a great collection of Roman silverware, now in the Kaiser Friedrich Museum, Berlin, our illustrations show a number of these pieces, p. 43

Hip, dog-briar, {Rx} 171

HIRCOSIS AVIBUS, DE, {Rx} 229-30

Hirpinus, Fluvius, Roman, {Rx} 323, 396, who raised animals for the table

HISPANUM, see Oleum

HOEDUS, see HAEDUS

HOLERA, pot herbs, {Rx} 25, 66; also OLERA and HOLISERA, from HOLUS

HOLUS, OLUS, kitchen vegetables, particularly cabbage, {Rx} 99

Home-made sweets, {Rx} 294

Honey cakes, {Rx} 16

Honey Refresher, {Rx} 2; —— cake, {Rx} 16; —— to renew spoiled, {Rx} 17; testing quality of, {Rx} 18; —— pap, {Rx} 181; see also Chap. XIII, Book VII

Horace, writer, pp. 3, 4, 273, {Rx} 455

HORDEUM, barley

Horned fish, {Rx} 442

Hors d'oeuvres, {Rx} 174; cf. GUSTUS

HORTULANUS, gardener, Hortolanus, pork, {Rx} 378

Horseradish, {Rx} 102

House of the Oven in Pompeii, illustration, p. 2

Humelbergius, Gabriel, editor, {Rx} 307; title page of his 1542 edition, p. 265

Hunter style, {Rx} 263

HYDROGARATA, foods, sauces prepared with GARUM (which see) and water, {Rx} 172

HYDROMELI, rain water and honey boiled down one third

HYPOTRIMA, —IMMA, a liquid dish, soup, sauce, ragout, composed of many spiced things, {Rx} 35

HYSITIUM, ISICIUM, a mince, a hash, a sausage, forcemeat, croquette, {Rx} 41-56. The term "croquette" used by Gollmer does not fully cover H.; some indeed, resemble modern croquettes and kromeskis very closely. The ancients, having no table forks and only a few knives (which were for the servants' use in carving) were fond of such preparations as could be partaken of without table ware. The reclining position at table made it almost necessary for them to eat H.; such dishes gave the cooks an opportunity for the display of their skill, inventive ability, their decorative and artistic sense. As "predigested" food, such dishes are decided preferable to the "grosses-pieces," which besides energetic mastication require skillful manipulation of fork and knife; such exercise was unwelcome on the Roman couches. Modern nations, featuring "grosses-pieces" do this at the expense of high-class cookery. The word, H., is probably a medieval graecification of INSICIUM. Cf. ISICIA

HYSSOPUS, the herb hyssop; H. CRETICUS, marjoram. Also Hysopum creticum, hyssop from the island of Creta, {Rx} 29

I

IECUR, JECUR, liver; {Rx} 291-3. IECUSCULUM, small (poultry, etc.) liver

Ihm, Max, writer, p. 19

Ill-smelling fish sauce, {Rx} 9; ditto birds, {Rx} 229-30

Indian peas, {Rx} 187

Ink-fish, {Rx} 405

INSICIA, chopped meat, sausage, forcemeat, dressing, stuffing for roasts, {Rx} 42; see Hysitia and Isicia; —ARIUS, sausage maker

INTINCTUS, a sauce, seasoning, brine or pickle in which meat, etc., is dipped. See EMBAMMA, {Rx} 344

INTUBUS, INTYBUS, —UM, chicory, succory, endive, {Rx} 109

INULA HELENIUM, the herb elecampane or starwort

ISICIA, see HYSITIA, {Rx} 41-54, 145 —— AMULATA AB AHENO, {Rx} 54; —— DE CAMMARIS, {Rx} 43; —— DE CEREBELLIS, {Rx} 45; —— DE LOLLIGINE, {Rx} 42; —— DE SPONDYLIS, {Rx} 46; —— DE PULLO, {Rx} 50; —— DE SCILLIS, {Rx} 43; —— HYDROGARATA, {Rx} 49; —— PLENA, {Rx} 48; —— SIMPLEX, {Rx} 52; —— DE TURSIONE, {Rx} 145

Italian Salad, {Rx} 123

IUS, JUS, any juice or liquid, or liquor derived from food, a broth, soup, sauce. IUSCELLUM, more frequently and affectionately, IUSCULUM, the diminutive of I. —— DE SUO SIBI, pan-gravy; such latinity as this proves the genuineness of the Apicius text, {Rx} 153; —— IN DIVERSIS AVIBUS, {Rx} 210-228; —— IN ELIXAM, {Rx} 271-7; —— IN VENATIONIBUS, {Rx} 349, seq. —— DIABOTANON, {Rx} 432; —— IN PISCE ELIXO, {Rx} 433-6; —— ALEXANDRINUM, {Rx} 437-9; —— CONGRO, {Rx} 440; —— IN CORNUTAM, {Rx} 441; —— IN MULLOS, {Rx} 442-3; —— PELAMYDE, {Rx} 444; —— IN PERCAM, {Rx} 446; —— IN MURENA, {Rx} 448, 449-52; —— IN PISCE ELIXO, {Rx} 454; —— IN LACERTOS ELIXOS, {Rx} 455; —— PISCE ASSO, {Rx} 456; —— THYNNO, {Rx} 457; —— ELIXO, {Rx} 458; —— IN DENTICE ASSO, {Rx} 459-60; —— IN PISCE AURATA, {Rx} 461-2; —— IN SCORPIONE, {Rx} 463; —— PISCE OENOGARUM, {Rx} 464-5; —— ANGUILLAM, {Rx} 466-7

J

Jardiniere, {Rx} 378

JECINORA, {Rx} 291

Jewish Cookery, compared with Apician, {Rx} 205

Johannes de Cereto de Tridino, Venetian printer, p. 261

John of Damascus, see Torinus edition of 1541, Basel

Julian Meal Mush, {Rx} 178

K

Keeping meat and fish, {Rx} 10-14, seq.

Kettner, writer, p. 38

Kid, p. 314, {Rx} 355, seq. —— liver, {Rx} 291-93; —— stew, {Rx} 355-8; —— roast, {Rx} 359-62; —— boned, {Rx} 360-1; —— Tarpeius, {Rx} 363-4; —— Prize, {Rx} 365; —— plain, {Rx} 366; —— laser, {Rx} 496

Kidney beans, {Rx} 207-8

King, Dr. W., writer, quoted: Introduction, pp. 38, 267

Kromeskis, {Rx} 44, 47, 60; cf. ISICIA and HYSITIA

Kyrene, Cyrene, City of Northern Africa, see Laser

L

Labor item in cookery, pp. 18, 24

LAC, milk; —— FISSILE, cottage cheese

LACERTUS, a sea-fish, not identified, {Rx} 147, 152, 455-7

LACTARIS, having milk, made of milk; —IUS, dairyman

LACTES, small guts, chitterlings

LACTUA, LACTUCULA, lettuce, {Rx} 105, 109-11

LAGANUM, a certain farinaceous dish; small cake made of flour and oil, a pan cake

LAGENA, —ONA, —OENA, —UNA, flask, bottle

Lamb, {Rx} 291-3, 355-65, 495-6; preparations same as Kid, which see

Lambecius, Petrus, writer, on "The Porker's Last Will," {Rx} 376

Lanciani, Rodolfo, writer, pp. 29, 30

Lancilotus, Blasius, co-editor, 1498-1503 editions, pp. 27-30, 41 —see also Tacuinus —facsimile of opening chapter, 1503, p. 232

Langoust, {Rx} 485

LANX, broad platter, dish, charger, {Rx} 455

LAPA, LAPATHUM, LAPADON, same as RUMEX, {Rx} 26

Larding, {Rx} 394

LARIDUM, LARDUM, {Rx} 147, 290; cf. SALSUM

LASER, LASERPITIUM, —ICIUM, the juice or distillate of the herb by that name, also known as SILPHIUM, SYLPHIUM, Greek, SYLPHION. Some agree that this is our present asa foetida, while other authorities deny this. Some claim its home is in Persia, while others say the best LASER came from Cyrene (Kyrene), Northern Africa. The center picture of the so-called Arkesilas-Bowl of Vulci at Paris, Cab. d. Med. 189, represents a picture as seen by the artist in Kyrene how King Arkesilas (VI. saec.) watches the weighing and the stowing away in the hold of a sailing vessel of a costly cargo of sylphium. It was an expensive and very much esteemed flavoring agent, and, for that reason, the plant which grew only in the wild state, was probably exterminated

There is much speculation, but its true nature will not be revealed without additional information

{Rx} 15, 31, 32, 34, 100; p. 22

Method of flavoring with laser-impregnated nuts, {Rx} 15

LASERATUS, LASARATUS, prepared or seasoned with LASER, or SILPHIUM

Latin title of Vehling translation, opposite title page

LAUREATUM, prepared with LAURUS; also in the sense of excellence in quality, {Rx} 365, 373

LAURUS CINNAMOMUM, cinnamon; —— NOBILIS, laurel leaf, bay leaf

La Varenne, French cook, p. 16

Laws, sumptuary, p. 25, {Rx} 166

Laxatives, {Rx} 4, 5, 6, 29, 34

Leeks, p. 188, {Rx} 93-6; —— and beans, {Rx} 96

LEGUMEN, leguminous plants; all kinds of pulse-peas, beans lentils, etc., Book V

LENS, LENTICULA, lentils, {Rx} 183-4

LEPIDIUM SATIVUM, watercress

LEPOREM MADIDUM, {Rx} 382, seq. —— FARSUM, {Rx} 384; —— PASSENIANUM, {Rx} 389; —— ISICIATUM, {Rx} 390; —— FARSILEM, {Rx} 391; —— ELIXIUM, {Rx} 392; —— SICCO SPARSUM, {Rx} 394; —— LEPORIS CONDITURA, {Rx} 393-5

LEPUS, hare; LEPUSCULUM, young hare; LEPORARIUM, a place for keeping hare; LEPORINUM MINUTAL, minced hare, Hasenpfeffer, {Rx} 382-395

Lettuce, B. V, {Rx} 105, 109-111; —— and endives, {Rx} 109; —— puree of, {Rx} 130

LEUCANTHEMIS, camomile

LEUCOZOMUS, "creamed," prepared with milk, {Rx} 250

Lex Fannia, {Rx} 166

Liaison, lie, {Rx} 54; cf. AMYLARE

LIBELLI, little ribs, spare ribs, also loin of pork, {Rx} 251

LIBRA, weight, 1 pound (abb. "lb." still in use); LIBRAE, balances, scales

LIBURNICUM, see oil, oleum

LIGUSTICUM, lovage (from Liguria) also LEVISTICUM; identical with garden lovage, savory, basilica, satury, etc.

LIQUORIBUS, DE, p. 370

LIQUAMEN, any kind of culinary liquid, depending upon the occasion. It may be interpreted as brine, stock, gravy, jus, sauce, drippings, marinade, natural juice; it must be interpreted in the broadest sense, as the particular instance requires. This much disputed term has been illustrated also in page 22. Also see {Rx} 9, 42

Liquids, Summary of, p. 370 —— thickening of, by means of flour, eggs, etc., called Liaison, cf. AMYLARE

Lister, Dr. Martinus, editor, edition of 1705, title page, ditto, verso of, ditto of 1709, p. 38; frontispice —— quoted in many foot notes, {Rx} 8, seq. —— assailing Torinus, p. 13, {Rx} 15, 26, 100, 205 —— edition, 1709, facsimile, p. 250

Liver kromeskis, {Rx} 44; fig-fed, of pig, {Rx} 259-60; —— and lungs, {Rx} 291-3; —— hash, {Rx} 293; —— of fish, see GARUM and Pollio

Lobster, {Rx} 398, 399, 400, 401, 2; in various ways

LOCUSTA, a langoust, spiny lobster, large lobster without claws; {Rx} 397-402, 485; —— ASSAE, {Rx} 398; —— ELIXAE, {Rx} 399, 401-2

Loins, p. 285, {Rx} 286

LOLIGO, LOLLIGO, calamary, cuttle-fish, {Rx} 42, 405

LOLIUM, LOLA, darnel, rye-grass, ray-grass, meal. The seeds of this grass were milled, the flour or meal believed to possess some narcotic properties, as stated by Ovid and Plautus, but recent researches have cast some doubt upon its reported deleterious qualities. Apicius, {Rx} 50, reads LOLAE FLORIS

LONGANO, a blood sausage, {Rx} 61. The LONGANONES PORCINOS EX IURE TARENTINO in {Rx} 140 is a part of the PATINA EX LACTE; a pork sausage made in Tarent of the straight gut, the rectum. Lister says they are cooked in Tarentinian sauce and are not unlike the sausage called APEXABO and HILLA. These sausages were in vogue before the Italians learned to make them; it was in Epirus, Greece, that they were highly developed. Their importation into Rome caused quite a stir, politically. Lister, {Rx} 50, p. 119, describes the sausage and calls the inhabitants of Tarent "most voluptuous, soft and delicate" because Juvenal, Sat. VI, v. 297, takes a shot at Tarent

This part of Italy, and especially Sicily, because in close contact with Greece was for many years much farther advanced in art of cookery than the North

Lucania, district of lower Italy whence came the Lucanian sausage, p. 172, {Rx} 61; see also LONGANO

LUCIUS FLUVIALIS, a river fish, perch, or pike, according to some; Platina also calls it LICIUS. Cf. MERULA

Lucretian Dish, {Rx} 151

Lucullus, Roman general, proverbial glutton, has a place here because of his importation into Rome of the cherry, which he discovered in Asia Minor. He cannot be expected to be represented in the Apicius book because he died 57 B.C.

LUCUSTA, see LOCUSTA

LUMBUS, loin, (Ger. LUMMEL), {Rx} 286; LUMBELLI, {Rx} 255

Lung, {Rx} 291-2

LUPINUS, lupine

LUPUS, fish, {Rx} 158

M

MACELLARIUS, MACELLINUS, market man, butcher

MACELLUM, market

MACERO, to soak, soften, steep in liquor, macerate; MACERATUM, food thus treated

MACTRA, trough for kneading dough

MAGIRUS, MAGEIROS, cook, see COQUUS

MALABATHRUM —THRON, {Rx} 32, 399

Mallows, {Rx} 86

MALUS, fruit tree, apple tree; —— PUNICORUM, pomegranate; —— ASSYRIA, —— CITRUS DECUMANA, one of the larger citrus fruits; —— MEDICA, citron tree; —— CYDONIA, quince tree

MALUM, fruit, an apple, but quinces, pomegranates, peaches, oranges, lemons, and other fruits were likewise designated by this name. {Rx} 18, 20. See also CITRUM

It is remarkable that Apicius does not specifically speak of lemons and oranges, fruits that must have grown in Italy at his time, that are so indispensable to modern cookery

MALUM PUNICUM, {Rx} 20, 21; —— CYDONIUM, {Rx} 21; —— GRANATUM, {Rx} 20; —— MEDICUM, {Rx} 24; —— ROSEUM, {Rx} 178, 171. This name, which according to Schuch simply stands for a rose-colored apple, has led to the belief that the ancients made pies, etc., of roses. Today a certain red-colored apple is known as "Roman Beauty." We concur in Schuch's opinion, remembering, however, that the fruit of the rose tree, namely the hip, dog-briar, or eglantine, is made into dainty confections on the Continent today. It is therefore quite possible that MALUM ROSEUM stands for the fruit of the rose

MANDUCO, to chew, to munch, to enjoy food by munching; a glutton

MAPPA, table napkin (Fr. nappe). M. is a Punic word, according to Quintil. 1, 5, 57

Each banquet guest brought with him from his own home such a napkin or cloth which he used during the banquet to wipe his mouth and hands. The ancients, evidently, were conscious of the danger of infection through the common use of napkins and table ware. Sometimes they used their napkins to wrap up part of the meal and to give it to their slaves to carry home in. Horace, Martial, Petronius attest to this fact. The banquet guests also employed their own slaves to wait on them at their Host's party. This custom and the individual napkin habit have survived until after the French revolution. Grimod de la Reyniere, in his Almanach des Gourmands, Paris, 1803, seq., describes how guests furnished their own napkins and servants for their own use at parties to which they were invited

This rather sensible custom relieved the host of much responsibility and greatly assisted him in defraying the expenses of the dinner. On the other hand it reveals the restrictions placed upon any host by the general shortage of table ware, table linen, laundering facilities in the days prior to the mechanical age

Marcellus, a Roman physician, {Rx} 29

Marinade, pickle; a composition of spices, vegetables, herbs, and liquids, such as vinegar, wine, to preserve meats for several days and to impart to it a special flavor, {Rx} 11, 236, 244, 394; cf. EMBAMMA

MARJORANA, marjoram

Marmites, illustrated, pp. 264, 284, 312, 342

MARRUBIUM, the plant horehound

Martial, writer, p. 10, {Rx} 307, 461 (on bulbs)

Martino, Maestro, p. 3, cf. Vehling: Martino and Platina, Exponents of Renaissance Cookery, Hotel Bulletin and The Nation's Chefs, Chicago, October, 1932, and Platina, Maestro nell'arte culinaria Un'interessante studio di Joseph D. Vehling, Cremona, 1935

Mason, Mrs., a writer, {Rx} 126

MASTIX, MASTICE, MASTICHE, the sweet-scented gum of the mastiche-tree; hence MASTICATUS, MASTICINUS for foods treated with M.

Matius, a writer, was a friend of Julius Caesar. His work is lost, {Rx} 167; apples named after him, ibid.

MAYONNAISE DE VOLAILLE EN ASPIC, {Rx} 126, 480

Meal mush, Book V, {Rx} 178

Measures, liquid. The following list is confined to terms used in Apicius PARTES XV equal 1 CONGIUS CONGIUS I equal 6 SEXTARII (1 S. equals about 1-1/2 pt. English) SEXTARII II equal 1 CHOENIX SEXTARIUS I equal 2 HEMINAS HEMINA I equal 4 ACETABULA ACETABULUM I equal 12 CYATHI (15 Attic drachms) CYATHUS I equal 1/12 SEXTARIUS (a cup) COCHLEAR I equal 1/4 CYATHUS (a spoonful) COTULA, COTYLA, same as HEMINA, same as 1/2 SEXTARIUS QUARTARIUS I equal 1/4 pint

Meat ball, {Rx} 261, seq. —— with laser, {Rx} 472-3; meat, boiled, stewed, {Rx} 271; keeping of, {Rx} 10, 13; how to make pickled meat sweet, {Rx} 12; to decorate or garnish, {Rx} 394, (see marinade); meat pudding, {Rx} 42; —— loaf, {Rx} 384, 172

Meat displayed in windows, p. 73; ancient —— diet, p. 31; ancient —— supply, p. 31

Meat diet, ancient, pp. 30, 31

Meat supply, ancient and modern, p. 31

Medicinal formulae in Apicius, {Rx} 4, 5, 6, 29, 34, 67, 68, 68, 70, 71, 108, 111, 307

MEDIUM, an iris or lily root which was preserved (candied) with honey, same as ginger, or fruit glace

Medlar, {Rx} 159; see MESPILA

Megalone, place where Torinus found the Apicius codex, p. 266

MEL, honey; MELLITUM, sweetened with honey —— PRAVUM, {Rx} 15; —— PROBANDUM, {Rx} 16; —— ET CASEUM, {Rx} 303

MELCAE, {Rx} 294, 303

MELEAGRIS, Turkey; cf. Vehling: "Turkey Origin," Hotel Bulletin and The Nation's Chefs, Chicago, February-March, 1935

MELIRHOMUM, MELIZOMUM, {Rx} 2

MELO, small melon, B. III, {Rx} 85; MELOPEPO, muskmelon

Melon, {Rx} 85

MENSA, repast, see CENA

MENTHA, MINTHA, mint; —— PIPERITA, peppermint

"Menu," cf. Brevis Ciborum, Excerpts of Vinidarius, p. 235

Merling, see MERULA

MERULA, MERLUCIUS, cf. LUCIUS, a fish called merling, whiting, also smelt; Fr. MERLAN; also blackbird. Platina discussed MERULA, the blackbird, the eating of which he disapproves. "There is little food value in the meat of blackbirds and it increases melancholia," says he. Perhaps because the bird is "black," {Rx} 419

MERUS, MERUM, pure, unmixed, "mere," "merely"; hence MERUM VINUM, —— OLEUM, pure wine, oil, etc.

MESPILA, medlar; Ger. MISPEL

Milan edition, Colophon, p. 260

Milk Toast, {Rx} 171

Mill operated by slaves, illustration, p. 60

Minced dishes, Book II

Mineral salts in vegetables, {Rx} 71, 96

MINUTAL, a "small" dish, a "minutely" cut mince; —— MARINUM, {Rx} 164; —— TARENTINUM, {Rx} 165; —— APICIANUM, {Rx} 166; —— MATIANUM, {Rx} 167; —— DULCE, {Rx} 168; —— EX PRAECOQUIS, {Rx} 169; —— LEPORINUM, {Rx} 170; —— EX ROSIS, {Rx} 171; —— of large fruits, {Rx} 169

MITULIS, IN, {Rx} 418

Mixing bowls, see Crater

Monk's Rhubarb, {Rx} 26

"Monkey," {Rx} 55

Moralists, ancient, see Review

MORETUM, salad, salad dressing of oil, vinegar, garlic, parsley, etc., cf. {Rx} 38

Morsels, {Rx} 261, seq., 309, seq.

MORTARIA, foods prepared in the mortar, MORTARIUM, {Rx} 38, 221

MORUS, mulberry; —— ALBA, white m. —— NIGRA, black m. Platina, DE MORIS, has a very pretty simile, comparing the various stages of ripening and colors of the mulberry to the blushing of Thysbes, the Egyptian girl, {Rx} 24

Moulds, {Rx} 384, 126

MUGIL, sea-mullet, {Rx} 159, 419, 424, 425

Mulberries, {Rx} 24

Mullet, see MULLUS, {Rx} 148, 428, 443-4

MULLUS, the fish mullet, {Rx} 148, 427, 442, 443, 482-4

MULSUM, mead, honey-wine; —— ACETUM, honey-vinegar

Munich Ms. XVIII Apiciana

MURENA, MURAENA, the sea fish murena, p. 356, {Rx} 448-53, 484

MUREX, shellfish, purple-fish

MURIA, brine, salt liquor, p. 22, {Rx} 30; cf. ALEC

Mush, {Rx} 178

Mushrooms, B. III, {Rx} 121, 309-14; —— Omelette, {Rx} 314

Muskrat, {Rx} 396

Mussels, {Rx} 418

MUSTEIS PETASONEM, {Rx} 289

MUSTEOS AFROS, {Rx} 295

MUSTUM, fresh, young, new; —— VINUM, must, new wine; —— OLEI, new oil

MYRISTICA, nutmeg

MYRRHIS ODORATA, myrrh, used for flavoring wine

MYRTUS, myrtle berry, often called "pepper" and so used instead of pepper

MYRTUS PIMENTA, allspice

N

NAPKINS, individual, see MAPPA

NAPUS, p. 188, a turnip, navew, {Rx} 100-1

NARDUS, nard, odoriferous plant; see FOLIUM

NASTURTIUM, the herb cress

NECHON, {Rx} 16

Neck, roast, {Rx} 270

NEPATA, cat-mint; —— MONTANA, mountain mint; see MENTHA

Nero, emperor, p. 11

Nettles, {Rx} 108

New York codex, No. I, Apiciana

Newton, Sir Isaac, scientist, Apiciana No. 8, p. 268

NITRIUM, {Rx} 66

Nonnus, writer, {Rx} 307, 396

NOVENDIALES, see CENA

NUCEA LASERIS, {Rx} 16; also see LASER

NUCLEUS, nut, kernel, {Rx} 92

NUCULA, dim. of NUX, small nut; also a certain muscular piece of meat from the hind leg of animals, Fr. NOIX DE VEAU, as of veal, Ger. KALBSNUSS, and a certain small part of the loin of animals, Fr. NOISETTE

NUMIDICUS, PULLUS, guinea hen, which see

Nut custard, turn-over, {Rx} 129, 143; —— porridge, {Rx} 297-9; —— pudding, {Rx} 298, 299, 230; —— meal mush, {Rx} 300

Nuts, Summary of, p. 236

NUX, p. 236, a nut, both hazel nut and walnut; —— JUGLANDIS, walnut; —— PINEIS, —— PINEA, pine nuts, pignolia; —— MUSCATA, nutmeg

O

OBLIGABIS, {Rx} 83; also see AMYLARE

OBSONARE, to provide, to buy for the table; to prepare or to give a dinner; from the Greek, OPSON

OBSONATOR, steward

OBSONIUM, OP—, a dish, a meal, anything eaten with bread

OCIMUM, —YMUM, —UMUM, OCINUM, basil, basilica; also a sort of clover

OENOGARUM, wine and GARUM (which see), a wine sauce, {Rx} 33, 146, 465; OENOGARATUM, a dish prepared with O.

OENOMELI, wine and honey

OENOPOLIUM, wine shop; a wine dealer's place, who, however, did a retail business. The TABERNA VINARIA seems to have been the regular wine restaurant, while the THERMOPOLIUM specialized in hot spiced wines. Like today in our complicated civilization, there were in antiquity a number of different refreshment places, each with its specialties and an appropriate name for the establishment

OENOTEGANON, {Rx} 479, 81

OFFA, OFFELLA, OFELLA, a lump or ball of meat, a "Hamburger Steak," a meat dumpling, any bit of meat, a morsel, chop, small steak, collop, also various other "dainty" dishes, consisting principally of meat

"INTER OS ET OFFAM MULTA INTERVENIUNT"—Cato; the ancient equivalent for our "'twixt cup and lip there is many a slip" {Rx} 261; —— APICIANA, {Rx} 262; —— APRUGNEA MORE, {Rx} 263; —— ALIAE, {Rx} 264-5; —— LASERATA, {Rx} 271; —— GARATAS, {Rx} 471-74; —— ASSAS, {Rx} 472, 473

Oil substitute, {Rx} 9; —— oil, to clarify for frying {Rx} 250 —— Liburnian, {Rx} 7

OLEUM, oil, olive oil; —— LIBURNICUM, {Rx} 7; HISPANUM, Spanish olive oil OLEATUS, moistened, mixed, dressed with oil, 103; —— MOLLE, vegetables strained, a puree, {Rx} 103-106; also HOLUS, etc.

OLIFERA, OLYRA, a kind of corn, spelt, {Rx} 99; see OLUS

OLIVA, olive, {Rx} 30, 91; to keep olives green, {Rx} 30

OLLA, a cook pot, a terra-cotta bowl; see also CACCABUS. OLLULA, a small O., a casserole, or cassolette. Sp. OLLA PODRIDA, "rotten pot"

OLUS, OLUSATRUM, OLUSTRUM, OLUSCULUM, OLERA, OLISERA, OLIFERA, OLISATRA, any herb, kitchen greens, pot herbs, sometimes cabbage, from OLITOR, the truck farmer, {Rx} 25, 67, 99, 103 OLUS ET CAULUS, cabbage and cale, {Rx}

OLUSATRUM, see OLUS

Omelette with sardines, {Rx} 146; —— with mushrooms, {Rx} 314; —— Soufflee, {Rx} 302

OMENTUM, caul, the abdominal membrane, used for sausage-making or to wrap croquettes (kromeskis) which then were OMENTATA, {Rx} 43, 47

Onions, {Rx} 304-8

OPERCULUM, a cover, lid, or dish with a cover

Opossum, {Rx} 396

ORIGANUM MARJORANA, marjoram; —— origany; —— VINUM, wine flavored with O.

ORYZA, rice, rice flour; see RISUM

OSPREON, OSPREOS, OSPRION, legumes, Title of Book V

Ostia, town, harbor of Rome; the OFFELLAE OSTIENSIS, {Rx} 261, are the ancient "Hamburgers"; this seems to confirm the assumption that the population of sea-port towns have a preference for meat balls

OSTREA, oyster, {Rx} 15, 410; —RIUM, oyster bed or pit, or place for keeping oysters

Ostrich, {Rx} 210-11

Oval pan, illustration, p. 159

Oval service dish, p. 43

Oven, ancient bakery in Pompeii, illustration, p. 2

OVIS SYLVATICA, OVIFERO, wild sheep, {Rx} 348-50

OVUM, egg; OVA SPHONGIA EX LACTE, {Rx} 302

OXALIS, sorrel

OXALME, acid pickle, vinegar and brine

Oxford Mss., Apiciana X, XI

OXYCOMIUM, pickled olive

OXYGALA, curdled with curds

OXYGARUM, vinegar and GARUM, which see, {Rx} 36, 37

OXYPORUS, easily digested, {Rx} 34

OXYZOMUM, seasoned with acid, vinegar, lemon, etc.

Oyster sauce, CUMINATUM, {Rx} 41

Oysters, how to keep, {Rx} 14, 410, 411 —— shipped by Apicius, p. 10

P

PALLACANA CEPA, shallot, young onion; cf. CEPA

Pallas Athene Dish, The Great, illustration, p. 158

PALMA, PALMITA, palm shoots

PALUMBA, wood pigeon, {Rx} 220

Pan with decorated handle, p. 73

Panada, {Rx} 127

PANAX, PANACEA, the herb all-heal; it contains a savory juice like LASER and FERULA

PANDECTES, —ER, a book on all sorts of subjects; Title of Book IV

PANIS, bread, PICENTINUS, {Rx} 126

Pans, kitchen, see illustrations, pp. 155, 159

Pap, {Rx} 172-3, 182

PAPAVER, poppy-seed; —— FICI, fig-seed

PARADOXON, CONDITUM, {Rx} 1

Parboiling, {Rx} 119

Paris Mss., Apiciana III, IV

Parrot, {Rx} 231-2

Parsnips, {Rx} 121-3

PARTHIA, {Rx} 191, 237, 364; a country of Asia

Partridge, {Rx} 218, seq., 499

Passenius, —anus, an unidentified Roman, {Rx} 389

PASSER, a sea-fish, turbot; also a sparrow which Platina does not recommend for the table

PASSUM, raisin wine

PASTINACA, —CEA, parsnip, carrot, {Rx} 121-3; also a fish, the sting-ray

Pastry, absent, p. 43

PATELLA, a platter or dish on which food was cooked and served, corresponding to our gratin dishes; a dish in general. In this sense it is often confused with PATINA, which see, so that it has become difficult to distinguish between the two terms —— THIROTARICA, {Rx} 144; —— ARIDA, {Rx} 145; —— EX OLISATRO, {Rx} 145a; —— SICCA, {Rx} 145

PATELLARIUS, pertaining to a PATELLA; also one who makes or sells dishes, and, in the kitchen, also a dishwasher; cf. PATINARIUS

PATINA, PATENA, a pot, pan, dish, plate; also food, eating, a dish, or cookery in general in which sense it corresponds to our "cuisine"

PATINARIUS, a glutton, gormandizer, also a pile of dishes, also the craftsman who makes and the merchant who sells dishes as well as the scullion who washes them

PATINA APICIANA, {Rx} 141; —— APUA, {Rx} 138-9, 146; —— DE ASPARAGIS, {Rx} 132-33; —— DE CYDONIIS, {Rx} 163; —— EX LACTE, {Rx} 140; —— EX LARIDIS ET CEREBELLIS, {Rx} 147; —— FRISILIS, {Rx} 131; —— EX RUSTICIS, {Rx} 134; —— DE ROSIS, {Rx} 136; —— DE LACERTIS, {Rx} 152; —— DE LUPO, {Rx} 158; —— DE PERSICIS, {Rx} 160; —— EX URTICA, {Rx} 162; —— EX SOLEIS, {Rx} 154; —— EX PISCIBUS, {Rx} 155-7, 486; —— MULLIS, {Rx} 148; —— QUIBUSLIBET, {Rx} 149; —— ALIA PISCIUM, {Rx} 150; —— SOLEARUM EX OVIS, {Rx} 487; —— QUOTIDIANA, {Rx} 122, 142; —— VERSATILIS, {Rx} 129, 143; —— ZOMORE, {Rx} 153; —— DE PIRIS, {Rx} 161; —— DE SORBIS, {Rx} 159; —— DE SAMBUCO, {Rx} 135; —— DE CUCURBITIS, {Rx} 137

PAVO, peacock, {Rx} 54

Peaches, a dish of, {Rx} 160

Peacock, Book VI, {Rx} 54

Pears, {Rx} 22, 161

Peas, p. 247, {Rx} 185-6, 190-2; —— a tempting dish of, {Rx} 192; —— Indian, {Rx} 187; —— puree of peas, cold, {Rx} 188; —— or beans a la Vitellius, {Rx} 189, 193; —— in the pod, Apician style, {Rx} 194-6; —— in the pod a la Commodus, {Rx} 197; puree of peas with brains and chicken, {Rx} 198

PECTINE, scallop, {Rx} 52

Peeling young vegetables, {Rx} 69

PELAMIS, young tunny, {Rx} 426, 444

Pennell, Elizabeth R., writer, pp. 17, 18, 257-58

PEPON, a kind of gourd, melon or pumpkin, {Rx} 85

Pepper, {Rx} 1; —— for other spices, {Rx} 143, 177, 295, seq.

PERCA, perch, {Rx} 446

Perch, {Rx} 446

PERDICE, IN, {Rx} 218

PERDRIX, partridge, {Rx} 218, seq., 499

PERNA, ham; pork forequarter or hindquarter, {Rx} 287, 288 —— APRUGNA, {Rx} 338

PERSICUM, peach, {Rx} 29, 160; —US, peach-tree

Persons named in recipes, pp. 11, 21

PETASO, fresh ham, hind leg of pork, {Rx} 289

Petits pois a la francaise, {Rx} 185

Petits sales, {Rx} 41, 147, 149, 150, 151

Petronius Arbiter, writer, pp. 3, 7, 11, 15

PETROSELINUM, parsley

PHARIAM, UVAM PASSAM, {Rx} 197

PHASEOLUS, FASEOLUS, green string beans, kidney bean, young bean and pod, both green and wax bean varieties. Ger. FISOLE and FASOLE, {Rx} 207

PHASIANUS, pheasant; —ARIUS, one who has care of or who raises pheasants, game-keeper, {Rx} 49, p. 265

Pheasant, dumplings of, {Rx} 48; — plumage as decoration, {Rx} 213

Phillipps, bibl. Apiciana I

PHOENICOPTERUS, Flamingo, {Rx} 220, 231-2

Picentinian bread, {Rx} 126

Pichon, Baron J., collector, pp. 257-8, Apiciana, Nos. 21-22, p. 272

Picking birds, {Rx} 233

Pie chimneys, {Rx} 141

Pig, see PORCELLUM

PIPER, pepper; —— NIGRUM, black p.; —— VIRIDUM, green p., {Rx} 134; "pepper" for other spices, {Rx} 143, 177, 295, seq. —ATUS, prepared with p.

PIPERITIS, pepperwort, Indian pepper, capsicum

PIPIO, a young bird, a squab; from the chirping or "peeping" sounds made by them; —— EXOSSATUS, boned squab

PIRUM, pear, {Rx} 160-1

PISA, —UM, peas, pea, {Rx} 185, seq., 190-2, 195-8; —— FARSILIS, {Rx} 186; —— INDICAM, {Rx} 187; —— FRIGIDA, {Rx} 188; —M VITELLIANAM, {Rx} 189, 193; —— ADULTERAM, {Rx} 192

PISCINA, fish pond, fish tank, which was found in every large Roman household to keep a supply of fresh fish on hand

PISCIS, fish; PISCES FRIXOS, {Rx} 476-7; —— SCORPIONES RAPULATOS, {Rx} 475; —— ASSOS, {Rx} 478; —— OENOTEGANON, {Rx} 479, 81; —— IN PISCIBUS ELIXIS, {Rx} 486; —— IN PISCE ELIXO, {Rx} 433, 434, 435, 436, 454; —— AURATA, {Rx} 461; —— ASSA, {Rx} 462; —— OENOGARUM, {Rx} 464-5

PISTACIUM, —EUM, pistache

PISTOR, baker, pastry cook, confectioner, see COQUUS

Pitch, for sealing of vessels, {Rx} 25

PLACENTA, a certain cake, a cheese cake

Plaster in bread, p. 39 —— for sealing of pots, {Rx} 23

Platina, Bartolomeo, humanist, writer, pp. 8, 9, 19, Apiciana No. 6, and often quoted in this index. Author of first printed Cookery book. Cf. Martino and Platina Exponents of Renaissance Cookery, by J. D. Vehling. Cf. Cibarium, Cornum, Corvus, Frictella, Merula, Morus, Passer, Ranae, Risum, Sturnus, Styrio, Thinca, Thymus, Zanzerella

Plato, writer, p. 12

Platters, Roast, p. 219; Athene, p. 158

Plautus, writer, p. 147; —— naming cooks, {Rx} 484; Plautian Latinity, {Rx} 153

Pliny, writer, p. 31, {Rx} 307, 396, 410

Plumage of birds as a decoration, {Rx} 213

Plums, {Rx} 22

Plutarch, writer, pp. 3, 66, 128

Poggio, medieval scholar, at Fulda, p. 20

POLEI, POLEGIUM, PULEIUM, penny-royal, flea-bane, flea-wort

POLENTA, peeled or pearled barley, {Rx} 178

Pollio, Roman, feeding human flesh to fish, {Rx} 484

POLYPODIUM, the herb fern or polypody

POLYPUS, the fish polypus, {Rx} 410

POLYTELES, POLI—, fine dishes, trimmed, set off; "Recherche" food; Title of Book VII

Pomegranates, to keep, {Rx} 20

Pompeii: Casa di Forno. See p. 2 —— destroyed, p. 3, seq. —— Wine Room, illustration, p. 124

Pompeii, city, description of, see Review. Innkeeper at —— advertising ham, {Rx} 287; objects, table ware, etc., found at P., see list of illustrations

POMUM, fruit of any tree, as apples, pears, peaches, cherries, figs, dates, nuts, also mulberries and truffles. Cf. MALUM, p. 370

PONTUS, Black Sea Region

PORCA, PORCUS, female and male swine; PORCELLUS, PORCELLINUS, young s., pig, {Rx} 336-81, 488-94; —— PORCELLUM FARSILEM, {Rx} 366, 367; —— ASSUM, {Rx} 369; —— ELIXUM, {Rx} 368; —— APICIANUM, {Rx} 370; —— VITELLIANUM, {Rx} 371; —— LAUREATUM, {Rx} 373; —— FRONTINIANUM, {Rx} 374; —— CELSINIANUM, {Rx} 376, 377; —— HORTULANUM, {Rx} 378; —— ELIXUM IUS FRIGIDUM, {Rx} 379; —— TRAIANUM, {Rx} 380; —— CORIANDRATUM, {Rx} 488; —— FLACCIANUM, {Rx} 372; —— OENOCOCTUM, {Rx} 489; —— EO IURE, {Rx} 490; —— THYMO SPARSUM, {Rx} 491; OXYZOMUM, {Rx} 492; —— LASARATUM, {Rx} 493; —— IUSCELLATUM, {Rx} 494; —— ASSUM TRACTOMELINUM, {Rx} 369; —— LACTE PASTUM, {Rx} 370; —— IN PORCELLO LACTANTE, {Rx} 381

Pork, p. 285; —— and onions a la Lucretius, {Rx} 151; —— skin, cracklings, {Rx} 251-55; —— udder, {Rx} 251; —— tenderloin, {Rx} 251-255; —— tails and feet, {Rx} 251; —— fig-fed, {Rx} 259; —— cutlets, Hunter Style, {Rx} 263; —— paunch, {Rx} 285; —— loin and kidneys, {Rx} 286; —— shoulder, {Rx} 287-88; —— fresh ham, {Rx} 289; —— bacon, {Rx} 290; —— Salt —— {Rx} 290; —— forcemeat, {Rx} 366

Porker, The ——'s Last Will and Testament, {Rx} 376

Porridge, Books IV, V, {Rx} 172, 178; —— and wine sauce, {Rx} 179; —— another, {Rx} 180

PORRUM, —US, leek, {Rx} 93, 96; "SECTILE ——"—Martial

PORTULACA, PORCILACA, purslane

POSCA, originally water and vinegar or lemon juice. It became an acid drink of several variations, made with wine, fruit juice, eggs and water

Pot Roast, {Rx} 270

Potherbs, to keep, {Rx} 25, 188, see OLUS

Potted Entrees, {Rx} 54

POTUS, drink

PRAECOQUO, —OCTUS, —OCIA, "cooked beforehand," also ripened too early, but the present kitchen term is "blanching," or "parboiling." Cf. PRAEDURO

PRAEDURO, to harden by boiling, to blanch, {Rx} 119

Preserves, several in Book I

Preserving (keeping of) meats, {Rx} 10-12; —— fried fish, {Rx} 13; —— fruit, figs, prunes, pears, etc., {Rx} 19-24, 28, 29, 30; —— grapes, {Rx} 19; —— honey cakes, {Rx} 16; —— mulberries, {Rx} 24; —— oysters, {Rx} 14; —— pomegranates, {Rx} 20; —— pot herbs, {Rx} 25; —— quinces, {Rx} 21; —— sorrel, sour dock, {Rx} 26; —— citron, {Rx} 23; —— truffles, {Rx} 27; —— vegetable puree, {Rx} 106

Press, wine illustration, p. 92

Processing, {Rx} 19-24

PRUNA, live, burning coal

PRUNUM, plum; —— DAMASCENUM, p. from Damascus, {Rx} 22; this variety came dried, resembling our large prunes. —— SILVESTRIS, sloe berry, which by culture and pruning has become the ancestor of plums, etc.

PTISANA, (better) TISANA, barley broth, rice broth, a gruel, {Rx} 173-3, 200-1; —— TARICHA, {Rx} 173

Pudding, {Rx} 60

PULLUS, PULLULUS, young animal of any kind but principally a pullet, chicken, {Rx} 51, 2-7, 213, 235-6, seq.; —— RAPTUS, note 1, {Rx} 140

PULLUM PARTHICUM, {Rx} 237; OXYZOMUM, {Rx} 238; —— NUMIDICUM, {Rx} 239; —— LASERATUM, {Rx} 240; —— ELIXUM, {Rx} 242; —— CUM CUCURBITIS, {Rx} 243; —— CUM COLOCASIIS, {Rx} 244; —— VARDANUM, {Rx} 245; —— FRONTONIANUM, {Rx} 246; —— TRACTOGALATUM, {Rx} 247; —— FARSILIS, {Rx} 248; LEUCOZOMUM, {Rx} 250

PULMENTARIUM, any food eaten with vegetables, pulse or bread, or a dish composed of these ingredients, {Rx} 67-71

PULMO, lung, {Rx} 29

PULPA, —MENTUM, {Rx} 42, 134; also PULMENTUM

PULS, —E, PULTICULUM, Books IV, V, a porridge, polenta, {Rx} 178, seq.; PULTES JULIANAE, {Rx} 178; —— OENOCOCTI, {Rx} 179; —— TRACTOGALATAE, {Rx} 181

PULTARIUS, a bowl, a "cereal" dish, {Rx} 104

Pumpkin, B. III, {Rx} 73-80; —— pie, {Rx} 137; —— fritters, {Rx} 176; —— like dasheens, {Rx} 74; —— Alexandrine Style, {Rx} 75; —— boiled, {Rx} 76; —— fried, {Rx} 77; —— 78; —— mashed, {Rx} 79; —— and chicken, {Rx} 80

Puree of lettuce, {Rx} 130

PYRETHRUM, —ON, Spanish camomile, pellitory

Q

QUARTARIUS, a measure (which see), 1/4 pint

Quenelles, {Rx} 131

Quinces, {Rx} 21, 162

R

Rabbit, {Rx} 54

Radishes, {Rx} 102

Ragout of brains and bacon, {Rx} 147; —— financiere, {Rx} 166

RAIA, the sea-fish ray, or skate; also whip-ray; p. 343, {Rx} 403-4; Raie au beurre noir, {Rx} 404

Raisins, {Rx} 30

RANAE, frogs, have been an article of diet for ages. Platina gives fine directions for their preparation. He recommends only frogs living in the water. RUBETAS ET SUB TERRA VIVENTES, UT NOXIAS REJICIO! AQUATILAS HAE SUNT DE QUIBUS LOQUOR

Platina skins the frogs, turns them in flour and fries them in oil; he adds fennel flower garnish and SALSA VIRIDA (green sauce, our ravigote or remoulade) on the side. No modern chef could do different or improve upon it. The fennel blossom garnish is a startling stroke of genius

Rankin, E. M., writer, see COQUUS

RAPA, RAPUM, rape, turnip, navew, {Rx} 26, 100-1

RAPHANUS SATIVUS, Horseradish, {Rx} 102

Ray, fish, {Rx} 403-4

RECOQUO, RECOCTUM, re-heated, warmed-up

Redsnapper, {Rx} 448

Reduction, {Rx} 145, 168

Reference to other parts of the book by Apicius, {Rx} 170, 166

Relishes, {Rx} 174-5

RENES, {Rx} 286

Reyniere, Grimod de la —— writer, p. 3, see MAPPA

RHOMBUS, fish, turbot

RHUS, a shrub called SUMACH, seed of which is used instead of salt

RISUM, rice, also ORYZA. The word RISUM is used by Platina who says: "RISUM, QUOD EGO ANTIQUO VOCABULO ORIZAM APPELLATUM PUTO." This is one of the many philologically interesting instances found in Platina and Aegineta of the evolution of a term from the antique to the medieval Latin and finally emerging into modern Italian. What better proof, if necessary, could be desired than this etymology for the authenticity of the Apicius book? Its age could be proven by a philologist if no other proof were at hand

Roasts, Roasting, p. 285, {Rx} 266-70

Roman Beauty Apple, {Rx} 136 —— excesses, p. 15

Roman Cook Stove, illustration, p. 182 —— economic conditions, p. 15

Roman Vermouth, {Rx} 3

ROSATUM, ROSATIUM, flavored with roses; —— VINUM, rose wine, {Rx} 4-6; —— without roses, {Rx} 6

Rose pie, see MALUM ROSEUM, also {Rx} 136, 171 —— custard, {Rx} 136; —— pudding, {Rx} 136; —— apple, {Rx} 136

Rose wine, {Rx} 4-6

ROSMARINUS, rosemary

Round sausage, {Rx} 65

Roux, {Rx} 172, see AMYLARE

RUBELLIO, fish, {Rx} 447

RUBRA TESTA, red earthen pot

RUMEX, sorrel, sour dock, monk's rhubarb, {Rx} 24

Rumohr, B., writer, pp. 3, 18

Rumpolt, Marx, cook, cf. Styrio

RUTA, rue; —— HORTENSIS, garden r.; —— SYLVESTRIS, wild r.; —— RUTATUS, prepared with r. Rue was very much esteemed because of its stimulating properties

Rye, {Rx} 99

S

SABUCO, see SAMBUCO

SACCARUM, SACCHARUM, sugar; distillate from the joints of the bamboo or sugar cane, coming from India, hence called "Indian Salt." It was very scarce in ancient cookery. Honey was generally used in place of sugar. Only occasionally a shipment of sugar would arrive in Rome from India, supposed to have been cane sugar; otherwise cane and beet sugar was unknown in ancient times. Any kind of sweets, therefore, was considered a luxury

SAL, salt. Laxative salt, {Rx} 29; "For many ills," ibid.

Sala, George Augustus, writer, p. 38

SALACACCABIA, SALACATTABIA, "salt" food boiled in the "caccabus," {Rx} 125-7, 468-70

Salad, {Rx} 109-11; —— dressing, {Rx} 112-3; Italian —— {Rx} 122

Salcisse, {Rx} 41

SALINUM, salt cellar

Salmasius, Codex of ——, see Apiciana, III

SALPA, a sea-fish like stock-fish

SALSAMENTUM IN PORCELLO, {Rx} 381

Salsicium, {Rx} 41

SALSUM, pickled or salt meat, especially bacon; {Rx} 10, 41, 147, 149, 150, 428, seq.; —— CRUDUM, {Rx} 151, cf. petits sales

Salt, laxative, {Rx} 29; "for many ills," ibid.; —— meat, to make sweet, {Rx} 12; —— fish, {Rx} 144, seq., 427, seq.; —— balls, {Rx} 145

SALVIA, SALVUS, sage

SAMBUCUS, elder-tree, or e.-berry; {Rx} 135

Sanitary measures, see MAPPA

SAPA, new wine boiled down

SAPOR, taste, savor, relish; —— ROSELLINUS, rose extract, prepared rose flavor

SARCOPTES, title of Book II

SARDA, SARDELLA, small fish, sardine, anchovy, {Rx} 146, 419, 420, 480; —— CONDITAE, {Rx} 480; SARDAM FARSILEM, {Rx} 419; —— Sardine omelette, {Rx} 146

Sarinus, Pompeiian innkeeper, p. 7

SARTAGO, frying pan, flat and round or oblong, of bronze or of iron; some were equipped with hinged handles, to facilitate packing or storing away in small places, in soldiers' knapsack, or to save space in the pantry. This, as well as the extension handle of some ancient dippers are ingenious features of ancient kitchen utensils. See also FRICTORIUM, and the illustrations of pans, pp. 155, 159

SATUREIA, savory, satury

Sauce pans, illustrations, pp. 155, 159, 73, 231

Sauces, ancient compared with modern, pp. 22, 24, 26, 27; —— for roasts, {Rx} 267-70; —— for partridge, {Rx} 499; —— crane and duck, {Rx} 215; —— for fowl, {Rx} 218-28

Sauces. Bread Sauce, {Rx} 274; Brine, {Rx} 284; —— for broiled fish, Alexandrine style, {Rx} 437-39; —— for boiled fish, {Rx} 433-6, 454; —— for broiled mullet, {Rx} 442-3; —— boiled meats, {Rx} 271-3; —— for roasts, {Rx} 267, seq.; English ——, {Rx} 267; —— for broiled murenas, {Rx} 448-51; Dill ——, {Rx} 283; Herb —— for fried fish, {Rx} 432; —— for Horned fish, {Rx} 441; —— for lacertus, {Rx} 455-7; —— perch, {Rx} 446; —— redsnapper, {Rx} 447; —— dory, {Rx} 461-2; —— for suckling pig, {Rx} 379; —— young tunny, {Rx} 444-5, 459; —— for tooth-fish, {Rx} 460-1, 486; —— shellfish, {Rx} 397; —— for venison, {Rx} 339, 349; —— for wild sheep or lamb, {Rx} 350; White ——, {Rx} 276, 277; Wine —— for fish, {Rx} 464; Tasty —— for conger, {Rx} 441; —— for tidbits, {Rx} 276-82; —— for sea-scorpion, {Rx} 463; —— for eel, {Rx} 440, 466-7

Saucisse, {Rx} 41

Sauerbraten-Einlage, {Rx} 11

Sausage, p. 172, {Rx} 41, 45, 60-65, 139, 165

Savonarola, Michaele, p. 273

Scalding poultry, {Rx} 233

Scallops, {Rx} 46

SCANDIUS, chervil

SCARUS, a certain sea-fish esteemed as a delicacy, a parrot-fish

SCHOLA APITIANA, Apiciana, Nos. 21, 22, 23, facsimile, p. 206

Schuch, C. Th. editor, Apiciana, Nos. 16-17, p. 34, 25, 270 seq.

Science confirming ancient methods, p. 32

SCILLA, SCYLLA, SQUILLA, a shell-fish, a sea-onion, {Rx} 43, 485

SCORPIO, a sea-scorpion, {Rx} 463, 475

SCRIBLITA, SCRIBILITA, pastry, some kind of pancake, extra hot. Plautus and Martial, hence Scriblitarius, cake baker, cf. Coquus

SCRUPULUM, SCRI—, a weight, which see

Sealing vessels to prevent air from entering, {Rx} 23, 25

Sea Barb, {Rx} 482-3; —— Bass, {Rx} 158, 447; —— Eel, {Rx} 484; —— food, p. 343; —— stew, Baian style, {Rx} 432; —— mullet, {Rx} 157; —— nettles, {Rx} 162; —— perch, {Rx} 447; —— pike, {Rx} 158; —— urchin, {Rx} 413-4; —— scorpion, {Rx} 475

Sea-scorpion with turnips, {Rx} 475

Sea water, {Rx} 8

Seasoning, see flavoring

Secrecy in recipes, pp. 29, 30

Seeds, Summary of, p. 236

SEL, see SIL

SEMINIBUS, DE, p. 236

Seneca, Roman philosopher, pp. 3, 11, 15

SEPIA, cuttle-fish, {Rx} 406-9

SERPYLLUM, wild thyme

Service berry, {Rx} 159 —— pan with decorated handle, illustration, p. 73 —— dish for eggs, p. 93

SESAMUM, sesame herb or corn

SESELIS, SEL, SIL, hartwort, kind of cumin

SETANIA, a kind of medlar, also a certain onion or bulb

SEXTARIUS, a measure, which see, {Rx} 1

Sforza Ms. Apiciana XIII

Shellfish, {Rx} 397, 412

Shell-shaped Dessert Dish, p. 125

Shircliffe, Arnold, Dedication, p. 273

Shore Dinner, {Rx} 46

Sicardus Ms. Apiciana XIV

Signerre Rothomag., editor, pp. 258, seq., also see Tacuinus

Signerre, Colophon, p. 260

SIL, see SESELIS

SILIGO, winter wheat, very hard wheat

SILIQUA, shell, pod, husk

SILPHIUM, SYLPHIUM, same as LASERPITIUM, which see, {Rx} 32

SILURUS, supposed to be the river fish sly silurus, or sheat-fish, also called the horn-pout, or catfish, {Rx} 426

SIMILA, —AGO, fine wheat flour

SINAPIS, mustard

"Singe," {Rx} 55

SION, —UM, plant growing in the marshes or on meadows, water-parsnip

SISYMBRIUM, water cress

SITULA, hot water kettle

Skate, {Rx} 403-4

Slang in ancient text, p. 19

Slaughter, cruel methods of, {Rx} 259, 260

Slaves grinding flour, illustration, p. 60

Sloe, see PRUNUM

Smelts, {Rx} 138-39

SMYRNION, —UM, a kind of herb, common Alexander

Snails, {Rx} 323-5

Soda, use of —— to keep vegetables green, {Rx} 66

Soft cabbage, {Rx} 103-6

SOLEA, flat fish, the sole, {Rx} 154, 487; SOLEARUM PATINA, ibid.

SORBITIO, from SORBEO, supping up, sipping, drinking, drought; any liquid food that may be sipped, a drink, a potion, a broth, a sherbet, Fr. SORBET

Sorrel, {Rx} 26

Sour Dock, {Rx} 26

Soups, {Rx} 178, seq.

Sow's womb, matrix, udder, belly, {Rx} 59, 172, 251-8

Soyer, Alexis, chef, 35

Sparrow, see PASSER

Spaetzli, {Rx} 247

Spelt, {Rx} 58-9

Spengler, O., writer, p. 17

SPICA, a "spike," ear of corn, top of plants, the plant spikenard, SPICA NARDI

Spiced Fruit, {Rx} 177

Spices, Summary of, pp. 234-5; spicing, ancient and modern, {Rx} 15, 276-77, 385, seq.

Spiny lobster, {Rx} 54, 485

Spoiling, to prevent food from—see Book I, and Preserving, to prevent birds from spoiling, {Rx} 229-30, 233

SPONDYLIUM, —ION, a kind of plant, cow-parsnip, or all-heal. Also called SPHONDYLIUM and FONDULUM. It is quite evident that this term is very easily confused with the foregoing, a mistake, which was made by Humelbergius and upheld by Lister and others. For comparison see {Rx} 46, 115-21, 183, 309, 431

SPONDYLUS, the muscular part of an oyster or other shellfish, scallop, for instance; also a species of bivalves, perhaps the scallop, {Rx} 46

SPONGIOLA, rose gall, also the roots of asparagus, clottered and grown close together

SPONGIOLUS, fungus growing in the meadows, a mushroom, cf. SPONDYLIUM and notes pertaining thereto

Sprats, {Rx} 138-9

Sprouts, cabbage ——, {Rx} 89-92

Squab, {Rx} 218-27, cf. Pipio

Squash, {Rx} 73-80

Squill, {Rx} 485

Squirrel, {Rx} 396

Stag, {Rx} 339-45

Starch, in forcemeats, sausage, etc., {Rx} 50

Starr, Frederick, see introduction

STATERAE, steelyards for measuring

Sternajolo, writer, Apiciana, No. 28, p. 273

Stewed Lacertus, {Rx} 152; —— meats, p. 285, {Rx} 356, seq.

Stewpots, illustrated, pp. 183, 209, 223, 235

String beans and chick-peas, {Rx} 209

STRUTHIO, ostrich, {Rx} 210-11

Studemund, W., writer, p. 19

Stuffed pumpkin fritters, {Rx} 176; —— chicken or pig, {Rx} 199; —— boned kid or lamb, {Rx} 360

STURNUS, a starling, stare; Platina condemns its meat as unfit, likewise that of the blackbird (cf. MERULA); he pronounces their flesh to be "devilish." "STURNI, QUOS VULGO DIABOLICAM CARNEM HABERE DICIMUS." Yet three-hundred years later, French authorities recommend this sort of food. Viger, La Nouvelle Maison Rustique, Paris, 1798, Vol. iii, p. 613, tells how to catch and fatten STURNI. "After a month [of forced feeding] they will be nice and fat and good to eat and to sell; there are persons who live of this trade." He praises the crow similarly

These instances are cited not only as a commentary upon the taste of the Southern people and their habits which have endured to this day but also to illustrate the singular genius of Platina. Also the following notes to STYRIO tend to show how far advanced was Platina in the matter of food as compared with the masters of the 18th century in France

STYRIO, STIRIO, STURIO, {Rx} 145, sturgeon; probably the same fish as known to the ancients as ACIPENSER or STURIO. (A. SIVE S. OBLONGO TEREDEQUE—Stephanus a Schonevelde, in Ichthyologia, Hamburg, 1624). There can be no doubt that the sturgeon or sterlet is meant by this term, for Platina calls the eggs of the fish "caviare." "OVA STIRIONIS CONDITUM QUOD CAUARE UOCANT." Eloquently he describes his struggle with the changing language. The efforts of this conscientious man, Platina, to get at the bottom of things no matter how trivial they may appear, are highly praiseworthy

He writes "DE STIRIONE. TRAHI PER TENEBRAS N{=U}C MIHI VIDEOR, QUANDO HOR{=U}, DE QUIBUS, DEINCEPS DICTURUS SUM, PISCI{=U}, NULLUS CERTUS UEL NOMINIS, UEL NATURAE EXISTAT AUTOR. NEGLIGENTIAE MAIORUM & INSCITIAE ID MAGIS, QUAM MIHI ASCRIBENDUM EST. VTAR EGO NOUIS NOMINIBUS NE DELICATORUM GULAE PER ME DICANT STETISSE, QUO MINUS INTEGRA UTERENTUR UOLUPTATE."

As for the rest, Platina cooks the sturgeon precisely in our own modern way: namely in water, white wine and vinegar. And: "SALEM INDERE MEMENTO!—don't forget the salt!"

Compare him with France 350 years later. As for caviare, A. Beauvilliers, in his L'Art du cuisinier, Paris, 1814, treats this "ragout" as something entirely new; yet Beauvilliers was the leading restaurateur of his time and a very capable cook, save Careme, the best. Beauvilliers has no use for caviare which he calls "Kavia." Says he: "LES RUSSES EN FONT UN GRAND CAS ET L'ACHETENT FORT CHER [The Russians make a big thing of this and buy it very dearly] CE RAGOUT, SELON MOI, NE CONVIENT QU' AUX RUSSES—this stew, according to my notion, suits only the Russians or those who have traveled thereabouts."

Shakespeare, in speaking about "Caviare to the General" apparently was more up-to-date in culinary matters than this Parisian authority. A search of the eight volumes (Vol. I, 1803) of the famous Almanach des Gourmands by Grimod de la Reyniere, Paris, 1803, seq., fails to reveal a trace of caviare

A German cook, a hundred years after Platina, Marx Rumpolt in "Ein new Kochbuch, Franckfort am Mayn, bey Johan Feyrabendt, 1587" on verso of folio XCVII, No. 9, gives an exact description of caviare and its mode of preparation. He calls it ROGEN VOM HAUSEN. The HAUSEN is the real large sturgeon, the Russian Beluga from which the best caviare is obtained. Rumpolt, whose book is the finest and most thorough of its kind in the middle ages, and a great work in every respect, remarks that caviare is good eating, especially for Hungarian gentlemen

"... SO ISSET MAN JN ROH / IST EIN GUT ESSEN / SONDERLICH FUeR EINEN VNGERISCHEN HERRN."

SUCCIDIA a side of bacon or salt pork

SUCCUM, SUCUM, {Rx} 172, 200

Suckling Pig, see PORCELLUS

Sugar and pork, {Rx} 151; use of —— in ancient Rome, see SACCARUM

Suidas, writer, p. 11

SUMEN, {Rx} 257; —— PLENUM, {Rx} 258

Sumptuary laws, p. 25, {Rx} 166

Sumptuous dishes, {Rx} 285

Sweet dishes, home-made, {Rx} 294-6

Sweet MINUTAL, {Rx} 168

SYRINGIATUS, {Rx} 360

T

TABLE, adjustable, illustration, p. 138; —— round, id., p. 122

Tacuinus, editor-printer, p. 258; quoted in recipes 8 seq.; Facs. of Title Page, 1503, p. 262; Facs. of opening chapter, p. 232

TAMNIS, —US, TAMINIUS, wild grape

TANACETUM, tansy

Taranto, Tarentum, city, {Rx} 165; —ian sausage, {Rx} 140; —— Minutal, {Rx} 165; see also LONGANO

Taricho, Tarichea, town, {Rx} 427, seq.

Taro, dasheen, {Rx} 74, 154, 172, 200, 244, 322; see COLOCASIA

Tarpeius, a Roman, {Rx} 363

TEGULA, tile for a roof, also a pan, a plate of marble or of copper; Ger. TIEGEL

Tempting Dish of Peas, A ——, {Rx} 192

TERENTINA, {Rx} 338

Tertullian, writer, p. 3

TESTA, —U, —UM, an earthen pot with a lid, a casserole

TESTICULA CAPONUM, {Rx} 166

TESTUDO, TESTA, turtle, tortoise. Platina praises the sea-turtle as good eating

TETRAPES, —US, four-footed animals; title of Book VIII

TETRAPHARMACUM, a course of four dishes, or a dish consisting of four meats. In modern language, a "Mixed Grill," a "Fritto Misto," a "Shore-Dinner"

THALASSA, the sea; title of Book IX, treating of fish

Theban ounce, {Rx} 3

THERMOPOLIUM, a tavern, specializing in hot drinks

THERMOSPODIUM, a hot-plate, a hot dish carrier, a BAIN-MARIS, illustrations, pp. 72, 90

THINCA, a fish, moonfish (?) "OLIM MENAM APPELLATAM CREDIDERIM"—Platina

Thudichum, Dr., writer, p. 18

THUS, TUS, frankincense, or the juice producing incense, Rosemary (?); also the herb ground-pine, CHAMAEPITYS, {Rx} 60

Thrush, p. 265, {Rx} 497

THYMBRIA, savory; see SISYMBRIUM, SATUREIA and CUNILA; also see THYMUS

THYMUS, thyme. Platina describes THYMUS and THYMBRIA with such a love and beauty that we cannot help but bestow upon him the laurels worn by the more well-known poets who became justly famous for extolling the fragrance of less useful plants such as roses and violets

THYNNUS, tunny-fish, {Rx} 426, 457-8

Tidbits, p. 285, {Rx} 261, seq.; —— of lamb or kid, {Rx} 355

TISANA, see PTISANA, {Rx} 172-3, 200-1

Title pages, Venice, 1503, 262; Lyons, p. 263; Zuerich, p. 265; London, p. 267

Toasting, {Rx} 129

Tooth-fish, {Rx} 157

Torinus, Albanus, editor of the Apicius and Platina editions of 1541, text, p. 14 —— quoted, {Rx} 1, 2, 8, seq., assailed by Lister, see L. —— facsimile of Title page 1541, p. 220

TORPEDO, —IN, —INE, {Rx} 403-4

TORTA, cake, tart; —— ALBA, cheese cake

Toulouse garnish, compared, {Rx} 378

TRACTOGALATUS, a dish prepared with milk and paste (noodles, spaetzli, etc.); —— PULLUS, a young chicken pie

TRACTOMELITUS, a dish prepared with honey paste; a gingerbread or honeybread composition

TRACTUM, {Rx} 181

Traianus, a Roman, {Rx} 380; also Traganus, Trajanus

Traube, writer, p. 19

Trimalchio, fictitious character by Petronius, whose "Banquet" is the only surviving description of a Roman dinner, unfortunately exaggerated because it was a satire on Nero, pp. 8, 11

Tripod, illustration, p. 40

TRITICUM, —EUS, —INUS, wheat, of wheat

TROPHETES, erroneously for AEROPTES, Gr. for fowl, title of Book VI

Truffles, {Rx} 27, 33, 315-321, 333; cf. TUBERA

TRULLA, any small deep vessel, also a dipper, ladle

TUBERA, "tubers"; TUBER CIBARIUM, —— TERRAE, truffle, a fungus, mushroom growing underground, {Rx} 27, 35, 315, seq., 321; T. CYCLAMINOS, "sow-bread," because swine, being very fond of T. dig them up. The truffle defies cultivation, grows wild and today is still being "hunted" by the aid of swine and dogs that are guided by its matchless aroma

TUCETUM, a delicate dish; particularly a dessert made of prunes

Tunny, fish, {Rx} 427, 458, 459; Baby, {Rx} 420, 424, 425, 426; Salt, {Rx} 427

TURDUS, thrush, {Rx} 497

Turkey, probably known to the ancients. See Guinea Hen and Meleagris

Turnips, {Rx} 100, 101

Turnover dish, {Rx} 129

TURTUR, "turtle" dove, {Rx} 218, seq., 498; —— ILLA, young t., an endearing term

TURSIO, TH—, {Rx} 145

TYROPATINA, {Rx} 301

TYROTARICUS, a dish made of cheese, salt fish, eggs, spices—ingredients resembling our "Long Island Rabbit," {Rx} 137, 143, 180, 439; see TARICA, {Rx} 144, 428

U

UDDER, {Rx} 251

UNCIA, ounce, equals 1/12 lb.; also inch, -/12

UNGELLAE, {Rx} 251-5 foot

Urbino, Duke of, p. 269

URNA, urn, pitcher, water bucket; —ULA, small vessel; also a liquid measure, containing half of an AMPHORA, of four CONGII, or twelve SEXTARII; see measures

URTICA, nettle; also sea-nettle, {Rx} 108, 162

U. S. Dept. of Agr. on Dasheens, {Rx} 322

UVA, grape, {Rx} 19; Uvam passam Phariam, {Rx} 97

V

Vaerst, Baron von, a writer, pp. 3, 8

Vanilla, {Rx} 15

VARIANTES LECTIONES, Apiciana No. 12

Varianus, Varius, Varus, Vardanus, Roman family name, {Rx} 245

Varro, a writer, {Rx} 70, 307, 396, p. 21

VAS, a vase, vat, vessel, dish, plate; —CULUM, a small v.; —— VITREUM, glass v., {Rx} 23

Vasavarayeyam, ancient Sanscrit book, p. 13

Vatican Mss. Apiciana, p. 254, seq., Incipit facsimile, p. 253

Veal Steak, p. 314, {Rx} 351, 2; —— Fricassee, {Rx} 353, 4

Vegetable Dinner, {Rx} 67-9, 71, 145, 188; —— puree, {Rx} 103-6; —— peeling of young v., {Rx} 66; to keep v. green, {Rx} 67, 188; —— and brain pudding, {Rx} 131

Vehling, J. D., see Introduction; V. collection, p. 257

VENERIS OSTIUM, {Rx} 307

Venison, {Rx} 339-45

VENTREM, AD ——, {Rx} 68, 69, 70, 71; —ICULUM, {Rx} 285

VERMICULI, "little worms," noodles, vermicelli

Vermouth, Roman, French, and Black Sea, different kinds of, {Rx} 3, seq.

VERVEX, a wether-sheep, mutton

VESTINUS, see Caseus, {Rx} 126

Vicaire, Georges, bibliographer, p. 18

VICIA, a kind of pulse, vetch

VICTUS, way of life, diet; —— TENUIS, reduced diet

Vinaigrette, {Rx} 113, 336, 341

Vinidarius, Excerpts of, pp. 12, 21, 234

VINUM, wine; —— CANDIDUM FACIES, {Rx} 8; many technical terms are given to wines, according to their qualities, such as ALBUM, CONDITUM, FUSCUM, NIGRUM, LIMPIDUM, ATRUM, DURUM, FULVUM, SANGUINEM, RUBENS, FIERI, BONUM, DULCE SUAVUM, FIRMUM, SALUBRE, DILUTUM, VAPIDUM, etc. These, as our modern terms, are employed to designate the "bouquet," color and other characteristics of wine. Then there are the names of the different brands coming from different parts, too numerous to mention. Furthermore there are wines of grapes, old and new, plain or distilled, raw or cooked, pure and diluted, natural or flavored, and the many different drinks made of grape wine with herbs and spices

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