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Cooking and Dining in Imperial Rome
by Apicius
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[69] ANOTHER LAXATIVE ALITER AD VENTREM [1]

SCRUB AND WASH BUNDLES OF BEETS BY RUBBING THEM WITH A LITTLE SODA [2]. TIE THEM IN INDIVIDUAL BUNDLES, PUT INTO WATER TO BE COOKED, WHEN DONE, SEASON WITH REDUCED MUST OR RAISIN WINE AND CUMIN, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER, ADD A LITTLE OIL, AND WHEN HOT, CRUSH POLYPODY AND NUTS WITH BROTH, ADD THIS TO THE RED-HOT PAN, INCORPORATING IT WITH THE BEETS, TAKE OFF THE FIRE QUICKLY AND SERVE.

[1] This formula wanting in Tor.

[2] V. Ingenious method to skin tender root vegetables, still in vogue today. We remove the skin of tender young root vegetables, carrots, beets, etc., by placing them in a towel, sprinkling them with rock salt and shaking them energetically. The modern power vegetable peeler is really built on the same principle, only instead of salt (which soon melts) carborundum or rough concrete surfaces are used, against which surfaces the vegetables are hurled by the rotary motion; often enough, too much of the skin is removed, however.

[70] BEETS A LA VARRO BETACEOS VARRONIS [1]

VARRO BEETS, THAT IS, BLACK ONES [2] OF WHICH THE ROOTS MUST BE CLEANED WELL, COOK THEM WITH MEAD AND A LITTLE SALT AND OIL; BOIL THEM DOWN IN THIS LIQUOR SO THAT THE ROOTS ARE SATURATED THEREBY; THE LIQUID ITSELF IS GOOD DRINKING. IT IS ALSO NICE TO COOK A CHICKEN IN WITH THEM.

[1] G.-V. Betacios; Tor. B. Varrones. Probably named for Varro, the writer on agriculture.

[2] Roots on the order of parsnips, salsify, oysterplant.

[71] ANOTHER LAXATIVE ALITER AD VENTREM

ANOTHER VEGETABLE DISH, PROMOTING GOOD HEALTH; WASH CELERY, GREENS AND ROOTS, AND DRY IT IN THE SUN: THEN ALSO COOK THE TENDER PART AND HEAD OF LEEKS IN A NEW [1] POT, ALLOWING THE WATER TO BOIL DOWN ONE THIRD OF ITS VOLUME. THEREUPON GRIND PEPPER WITH BROTH AND HONEY IN EQUAL AMOUNTS PROPERLY MEASURED, MIX IT IN THE MORTAR WITH THE WATER OF THE COOKED CELERY, STRAIN, BOIL AGAIN AND USE IT TO MASK THE [cooked] CELERY WITH. IF DESIRED, ADD [the sliced root of the] CELERY TO IT [2].

[1] V. "new," i.e., cook leeks in a separate sauce pan; NOT together with the celery, which, as the original takes for granted, must be cooked also.

[2] V. We would leave the honey out, make a cream sauce from the stock, or, adding bouillon, tie same with a little flour and butter, and would call the dish Stewed Celery and Leeks. The ancient method is entirely rational because the mineral salts of the vegetables are preserved and utilized (invariably observed by Apicius) which today are often wasted by inexperienced cooks who discard these precious elements with the water in which vegetables are boiled.



III

[72] ASPARAGUS ASPARAGOS

ASPARAGUS [Tor. IN ORDER TO HAVE IT MOST AGREEABLE TO THE PALATE] MUST BE [peeled, washed and] DRIED [1] AND IMMERSED IN BOILING WATER BACKWARDS [2] [3].

[1] V. Must be dried before boiling because the cold water clinging to the stalks is likely to chill the boiling water too much in which the asparagus is to be cooked. Apicius here reveals himself as the consummate cook who is familiar with the finest detail of physical and chemical changes which food undergoes at varying temperatures.

The various editions all agree: asparagos siccabis; Schuch, however, says: "For the insane siccabis I substitute siciabis, isiciabis, prepare with sicio [?] and cook." He even goes on to interpret it cucabis from the Greek kouki, cocoanut milk, and infers that the asparagus was first cooked in cocoanut milk and then put back into water, a method we are tempted to pronounce insane.

[2] V. Backwards! G.-V. rursum in calidam; Tac. rursus in aquam calidam; Tor. ac rursus ...

This word has caused us some reflection, but the ensuing discovery made it worth while. Rursus has escaped the attention of the other commentators. In this case rursus means backwards, being a contraction from revorsum, h.e. reversum. The word is important enough to be observed.

Apicius evidently has the right way of cooking the fine asparagus. The stalks, after being peeled and washed must be bunched together and tied according to sizes, and the bunches must be set into the boiling water "backwards," that is, they must stand upright with the heads protruding from the water. The heads will be made tender above the water line by rising steam and will be done simultaneously with the harder parts of the stalks. We admit, we have never seen a modern cook observe this method. They usually boil the tender heads to death while the lower stalks are still hard.

Though this formula is incomplete (it fails to state the sauce to be served, also that the asparagus must be peeled and bunched, that the water must contain salt, etc.) it is one of the neatest formulae in Apicius. It is amusing to note how the author herein unconsciously reveals what a poor literateur but what a fine cook he is. This is characteristic of most good practitioners. One may perfectly master the vast subject of cookery, yet one may not be able to give a definition of even a single term, let alone the ability to exactly describe one of the many processes of cookery. Real poets often are in the same predicament; none of them ever explained the art satisfactorily.

[3] G.-V. add to the formula callosiores reddes—give back [eliminate] the harder ones. This sentence belongs to the next article. And Torinus, similar to Humelbergius, renders this sentence ut reddas ad gustum calliores—to render the harder ones palatable—the squash and pumpkin namely—and we are inclined to agree with him.



IV

[73] PUMPKIN, SQUASH CUCURBITAS

TO HAVE THE HARDER ONES PALATABLE, DO THIS: [1] [Cut the fruit into pieces, boil and] SQUEEZE THE WATER OUT OF THE BOILED FRUIT AND ARRANGE [the pieces] IN A BAKING DISH. PUT IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, CUMIN AND SILPHIUM, THAT IS, A VERY LITTLE OF THE LASER ROOT AND A LITTLE RUE, SEASON THIS WITH STOCK, MEASURE A LITTLE VINEGAR AND MIX IN A LITTLE CONDENSED WINE, SO THAT IT CAN BE STRAINED [2] AND POUR THIS LIQUID OVER THE FRUIT IN THE BAKING DISH; LET IT BOIL THREE TIMES, RETIRE FROM THE FIRE AND SPRINKLE WITH VERY LITTLE GROUND PEPPER.

[1] Cf. note 3 to No. 72.

[2] List. Ut coloretur—to give it color; Tor. ut ius coletur—from colo—to strain, to filter.

Cf. also note 2 to No. 55.

[74] PUMPKIN LIKE DASHEENS ALITER CUCURBITAS IURE COLOCASIORUM [1]

BOIL THE PUMPKIN IN WATER LIKE COLOCASIA; GRIND PEPPER, CUMIN AND RUE, ADD VINEGAR AND MEASURE OUT THE BROTH IN A SAUCEPAN. THE PUMPKIN PIECES [nicely cut] WATER PRESSED OUT [are arranged] IN A SAUCEPAN WITH THE BROTH AND ARE FINISHED ON THE FIRE WHILE THE JUICE IS BEING TIED WITH A LITTLE ROUX. BEFORE SERVING SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER [2].

[1] V. Colocasia Antiquorum belonging to the dasheen or taro family, a valuable tuber, again mentioned in No. 172, 216, 244 and 322. Cf. various notes, principally that to No. 322. Also see U. S. Dept. of Agr. Farmer's Bulletin No. 1396, p. 2. This is a "new" and commercially and gastronomically important root vegetable, the flavor reminding of a combination of chestnuts and potatoes, popularly known as "Chinese potatoes" which has been recently introduced by the U. S. Government from the West Indies where it received the name, Dasheen, derived from de Chine—from China.

[2] Tor. continues without interruption into the next formula.

[75] PUMPKIN, ALEXANDRINE STYLE ALITER CUCURBITAS MORE ALEXANDRINO

PRESS THE WATER OUT OF THE BOILED PUMPKIN, PLACE IN A BAKING DISH, SPRINKLE WITH SALT, GROUND PEPPER, CUMIN, CORIANDER SEED, GREEN MINT AND A LITTLE LASER ROOT; SEASON WITH VINEGAR. NOW ADD DATE WINE AND PIGNOLIA NUTS GROUND WITH HONEY, VINEGAR AND BROTH, MEASURE OUT CONDENSED WINE AND OIL, POUR THIS OVER THE PUMPKIN AND FINISH IN THIS LIQUOR AND SERVE, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER BEFORE SERVING.

[76] BOILED PUMPKIN ALITER CUCURBITAS ELIXATAS

[Boiled Pumpkin] STEWED IN BROTH WITH PURE OIL.

[77] FRIED PUMPKIN ALITER CUCURBITAS FRICTAS

[Fried pumpkin served with] SIMPLE WINE SAUCE AND PEPPER.

[78] ANOTHER WAY, BOILED AND FRIED ALITER CUCURBITAS ELIXATAS ET FRICTAS

BOILED PUMPKIN FRIED IS PLACED IN A BAKING PAN. SEASON WITH CUMIN WINE, ADD A LITTLE OIL; FINISH ON THE FIRE AND SERVE.

[79] ANOTHER WAY, MASHED CUCURBITAS FRICTAS TRITAS

FRIED [1] PUMPKIN, SEASONED WITH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, ORIGANY, ONION, WINE BROTH AND OIL: STEW THE PUMPKIN [in this] IN A BAKING DISH, TIE THE LIQUID WITH ROUX [mash] AND SERVE IN THE DISH.

[1] V. Baking the fruit reduces the water contents, renders the puree more substantial. G.-V. Tritas—mashed. Tor. connects tritas up with pepper, hence it is doubtful whether this dish of pumpkin is mashed pumpkin.

[80] PUMPKIN AND CHICKEN CUCURBITAS CUM GALLINA

[Stew the pumpkin with a hen, garnish with] HARD-SKINNED PEACHES, TRUFFLES; PEPPER, CARRAWAY, AND CUMIN, SILPHIUM AND GREEN HERBS, SUCH AS MINT, CELERY, CORIANDER, PENNYROYAL, CRESS, WINE [1] OIL AND VINEGAR.

[1] Tor. Vinum vel oleum; List. vinum, mel, oleum.



V

[81] CITRON CITRIUM [1]

FOR THE PREPARATION OF CITRON FRUIT WE TAKE SILER [2] FROM THE MOUNTAINS, SILPHIUM, DRY MINT, VINEGAR AND BROTH.

[1] List. Citrini—a lemon or cucumber squash.

[2] Tor. Silerem; List. sil, which is hartwort, a kind of cumin or mountain fennel.



VI

[82] CUCUMBERS CUCUMERES

[Stew the] PEELED CUCUMBERS EITHER IN BROTH [1] OR IN A WINE SAUCE; [and] YOU WILL FIND THEM TO BE TENDER AND NOT CAUSING INDIGESTION.

[1] Usually cucumbers are parboiled in water and then finished in broth; most often after being parboiled they are stuffed with forcemeat and then finished in broth.

[83] CUCUMBERS ANOTHER WAY ALITER CUCUMERES RASOS

[Peeled cucumbers are] STEWED WITH BOILED BRAINS, CUMIN AND A LITTLE HONEY. ADD SOME CELERY SEED, STOCK AND OIL, BIND THE GRAVY WITH EGGS [1] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] Tor. bis obligabis—tie twice—for which there is no reason, except in case the sauce should curdle. List. oleo elixabis—fry in oil—obviously wrong, as the materials for this stew are already cooked. Sch. ovis obligabis—bind with eggs—which is the thing to do in this case.

[84] ANOTHER CUCUMBER RECIPE ALITER CUCUMERES

CUCUMBERS, PEPPER, PENNYROYAL, HONEY OR CONDENSED MUST, BROTH AND VINEGAR; ONCE IN A WHILE ONE ADDS SILPHIUM.

Sounds like a fancy dressing for raw sliced cucumbers, though there are no directions to this effect.



VII

[85] MELON-GOURD AND MELONS PEPONES ET MELONES

PEPPER, PENNYROYAL, HONEY OR CONDENSED MUST, BROTH AND VINEGAR; ONCE IN A WHILE ONE ADDS SILPHIUM.

Same as 84; which confirms above theory. It is quite possible that melons were eaten raw with this fancy dressing. Many people enjoy melons with pepper and salt, or, in salad form with oil and vinegar. Gourds, however, to be palatable, must be boiled and served either hot or cold with this dressing.



VIII

[86] MALLOWS MALVAS

THE SMALLER MALLOWS [are prepared] WITH GARUM [1], STOCK [2] OIL AND VINEGAR; THE LARGER MALLOWS [prepare] WITH A WINE SAUCE, PEPPER AND STOCK, [adding] CONDENSED WINE OR RAISIN WINE.

[1] Tor. Garum; List. Oenogarum.

[2] Liquamen—depending upon the mode of serving the mallows, hot or cold.



IX

[87] YOUNG CABBAGE, SPROUTS [1] CYMAS ET CAULICULOS [2]

[Boil the] SPROUTS; [1] [season with] CUMIN [3], SALT, WINE AND OIL; IF YOU LIKE [add] PEPPER, LOVAGE, MINT, RUE, CORIANDER; THE TENDER LEAVES OF THE STALKS [stew] IN BROTH; WINE AND OIL BE THE SEASONING.

[1] Including, perhaps, cauliflower and broccoli.

[2] List. Cimae & Coliculi. Nunc crudi cum condimentis nunc elixati inferentur. Served sometimes raw with dressing, sometimes boiled.

[3] Cumin or carraway seed is still used today in the preparation of the delicious "Bavarian" cabbage which also includes wine and other spices.

[88] ANOTHER WAY ALITER

CUT THE STALKS IN HALF AND BOIL THEM. THE LEAVES ARE MASHED AND SEASONED WITH CORIANDER, ONION, CUMIN, PEPPER, RAISIN WINE, OR CONDENSED WINE AND A LITTLE OIL.

Very sensible way of using cabbage stalks that are usually thrown away. Note the almost scientific procedure: the stalks are separated from the leaves, split to facilitate cooking; they are cooked separately because they require more time than the tender greens.

Our present method appears barbarous in comparison. We quarter the cabbage head, and either boil it or steam it. As a result either the tender leaves are cooked to death or the stems are still hard. The overcooked parts are not palatable, the underdone ones indigestible. Such being the case, our boiled cabbage is a complete loss, unless prepared the Apician way.

[89] ANOTHER WAY ALITER

THE COOKED [1] STALKS ARE PLACED IN A [baking] DISH; MOISTEN WITH STOCK AND PURE OIL, SEASON WITH CUMIN, SPRINKLE [2] WITH PEPPER, LEEKS, CUMIN, AND GREEN CORIANDER [all] CHOPPED UP.

[1] Tor. Coliculi assatisaute, fried; (Remember: Choux de Bruxelles saute) List. elixati—boiled. G.-V. Cauliculi elixati.

[2] Tor. Superasperges; G.-V. piper asperges.

Sounds like a salad of cooked cabbage. The original leaves us in doubt as to the temperature of the dish.

[90] ANOTHER WAY ALITER

THE VEGETABLE, SEASONED AND PREPARED IN THE ABOVE WAY IS STEWED WITH PARBOILED LEEKS.

[91] ANOTHER WAY ALITER

TO THE SPROUTS OR STALKS, SEASONED AND PREPARED AS ABOVE, ARE ADDED GREEN OLIVES WHICH ARE HEATED LIKEWISE.

[92] ANOTHER WAY ALITER

PREPARE THE SPROUTS IN THE ABOVE WAY, COVER THEM WITH BOILED SPELT AND PINE NUTS [1] AND SPRINKLE [2] WITH RAISINS.

[1] The nuts should not astonish us. The French today have a delicious dish, Choux de Bruxelles aux Marrons—Brussels Sprouts with Chestnuts. Sprouts and chestnuts are, of course, cooked separately; the lightly boiled sprouts are saute in butter; the chestnuts parboiled, peeled, and finished in stock with a little sugar or syrup, tossed in butter and served in the center of the sprouts.

The Apician formula with cereal and raisins added is too exotic to suit our modern taste, but without a question is a nutritious dish and complete from a dietetic point of view.

[2] Tor. Superasperges; G.-V. piper asperges.



X

[93] LEEKS PORROS

WELL MATURED LEEKS [1] ARE BOILED WITH A PINCH OF SALT [2] IN [combined] WATER AND OIL [3]. THEY ARE THEN STEWED IN OIL AND IN THE BEST KIND OF BROTH, AND SERVED.

[1] Tor. Poros bene maturos; G.-V. maturos fieri.

[2] One of the rare instances where Apicius mentions salt in cookery, i.e., salt in a dry form. Pugnum salis—a fist of salt—he prescribes here. Usually it is liquamen—broth, brine—he uses.

[3] Tor. is correct in finishing the sentence here. G.-V. continue et eximes., which is the opening of the next sentence, and it makes a difference in the formula.

[94] ANOTHER WAY TO COOK LEEKS ALITER PORROS

WRAP THE LEEKS WELL IN CABBAGE LEAVES, HAVING FIRST COOKED THEM AS DIRECTED ABOVE [1] AND THEN FINISH THEM IN THE ABOVE WAY.

[1] Tor. in primis—first; List., G.-V. in prunis—hot embers.

[95] ANOTHER WAY ALITER PORROS

COOK THE LEEKS WITH [laurel] BERRIES [1], [and otherwise treat them] AND SERVE AS ABOVE.

[1] Tor. Porros in bacca coctos; List. in cacabo—cooked in a casserole; Sch. bafa embama—steeped, marinated (in oil); G.-V. in baca coctos. Another way to read this: baca et fabae—with beans—is quite within reason. The following formula, 96, is perhaps only a variant of the above.

Brandt: with olives, referring to No. 91 as a precedent.

[96] LEEKS AND BEANS ALITER PORROS

AFTER HAVING BOILED THE LEEKS IN WATER, [green string] BEANS WHICH HAVE NOT YET BEEN PREPARED OTHERWISE, MAY BE BOILED [in the leek water] [1] PRINCIPALLY ON ACCOUNT OF THE GOOD TASTE THEY WILL ACQUIRE; AND MAY THEN BE SERVED WITH THE LEEKS.

[1] Apicius needed no modern science of nutrition to remind him of the value of the mineral salts in vegetables.



XI

[97] BEETS BETAS

TO MAKE A DISH OF BEETS THAT WILL APPEAL TO YOUR TASTE [1] SLICE [the beets, [2] with] LEEKS AND CRUSH CORIANDER AND CUMIN; ADD RAISIN WINE [3], BOIL ALL DOWN TO PERFECTION: BIND IT, SERVE [the beets] SEPARATE FROM THE BROTH, WITH OIL AND VINEGAR.

[1] Sentence in Tor.; wanting in List. et al.

[2] List. No mention of beets is made in this formula; therefore, it may belong to the foregoing leek recipes. V. This is not so. Here the noun is made subject to the first verb, as is practiced frequently. Moreover, the mode of preparation fits beets nicely, except for the flour to which we object in note 3, below. To cook beets with leeks, spices and wine and serve them (cold) with oil and vinegar is indeed a method that cannot be improved upon.

[3] Tac., Tor., List., G.-V. uvam passam, Farinam—raisins and flour—for which there is no reason. Sch. varianam—raisin wine of the Varianian variety; Bas. Phariam. V. inclined to agree with Sch. and Bas.

[98] ANOTHER WAY ALITER BETAS ELIXAS

COOK THE BEETS WITH MUSTARD [seed] AND SERVE THEM WELL PICKLED IN A LITTLE OIL AND VINEGAR.

V. Add bay leaves, cloves, pepper grains, sliced onion and a little sugar, and you have our modern pickled beets.



XII

[99] GREEN VEGETABLES, POT HERBS OLISERA [1]

[The greens] TIED IN HANDY BUNDLES, COOKED AND SERVED WITH PURE OIL; ALSO PROPER WITH FRIED FISH.

[1] Tac. Olisera; Tor. Olifera (sev mauis olyra) Tor. is mistaken. Hum., List. Olisatra; (old Ms. note in our Hum. copy: "Alessandrina uulgo") from olusatrumolus—pot herbs, cabbage, turnips. G.-V. Holisera, from holus, i.e. olus and from olitor one who raises pot herbs.



XIII

[100] TURNIPS OR NAVEWS RAPAS SIVE NAPOS

[Turnips are] COOKED [soft, the water is] SQUEEZED [out; then] CRUSH A GOOD AMOUNT OF CUMIN AND A LITTLE RUE, ADD PARTHICAN [1] LASER OR [2] VINEGAR, STOCK, CONDENSED WINE AND OIL [3] HEAT MODERATELY AND SERVE.

[1] i.e. Persian laser; List. laser, Parthicum; (the comma makes a difference!) Sch. particum—a part.

[2] Tac., Tor. vel acetum; List. G.-V. mel, acetum. Another comma; and "honey" instead of "or." V. We doubt this: the vinegar is an alternative, for it takes the place of the more expensive Persian laser (which was an essence of the laser root, often diluted with vinegar).

[3] List., G.-V. oleum modice: fervere; Tor. & oleum, quae modice fervere facias. Again note Lister's punctuation here and in the foregoing notes. The misplaced commas and colons raise havoc with the formulae everywhere. Torinus, who in his preface complains that his authority has no punctuation whatsoever and thereby indicates that it must have been a very ancient copy, (at least prior to the 1503 Tac. ed.) is generally not far from the mark. It is also doubtful that the variants are by him, as is claimed by List. In this instance, indeed, Tor. is again correct.

[101] ANOTHER WAY [1] ALITER RAPAS SIVE NAPOS

[The turnips are] BOILED, SERVED DRESSED WITH OIL, TO WHICH, IF DESIRED, YOU MAY ADD VINEGAR [2].

[1] Tor. ad delitias—delightful.

[2] V. Presumably served cold, as a salad; cf. No. 122.



XIV

[102] RADISHES RAPHANOS

PEPPER THE RADISHES WELL; OR, EQUALLY WELL: GRATE IT WITH PEPPER AND BRINE.

Sch., G.-V. Rafanos; Raphanos agria,—a kind of horseradish; Plinius: h.e. raphanus sylvestris.



XV

[103] SOFT CABBAGE OLUS MOLLE

THE CABBAGE IS COOKED WITH POT HERBS IN SODA WATER; PRESS [the water out] CHOP IT VERY FINE: [now] CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, DRY SATURY WITH DRY ONIONS, ADD STOCK, OIL AND WINE.

[104] ANOTHER MASHED GREEN VEGETABLE ALTER OLUS MOLLE [EX APIO]

COOK CELERY IN SODA WATER, SQUEEZE [water out] CHOP FINE. IN THE MORTAR CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, ONION [and mix with] WINE AND STOCK, ADDING SOME OIL. COOK THIS IN THE BOILER [1] AND MIX THE CELERY WITH THIS PREPARATION.

[1] in pultario. The pultarius is a pot in which cereals were boiled; from puls—porridge, pap.

[105] ANOTHER MASHED VEGETABLE ALITER OLUS MOLLE [EX LACTUCIS]

COOK THE LETTUCE LEAVES WITH ONION IN SODA WATER, SQUEEZE [the water out] CHOP VERY FINE; IN THE MORTAR CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, DRY MINT, ONION; ADD STOCK, OIL AND WINE.

[106] TO PREVENT MASHED VEGETABLES FROM TURNING OLUS MOLLE NE ARESCAT [1]

IT WILL BE REQUIRED ABOVE ALL TO CLEAN THE VEGETABLES WELL, TO CUT OFF ALL DECAYED PARTS AND TO COVER [the cooked vegetables] WITH WORMWOOD WATER.

[1] Tor. ne ... exarescat, the difference in the meaning is immaterial.



XVI

[107] FIELD HERBS HERBAE RUSTICAE

FIELD AND FOREST [1] HERBS ARE PREPARED [2] [either raw] WITH STOCK [3] OIL AND VINEGAR [as a salad, [4]] OR AS A COOKED DISH [5] BY ADDING PEPPER, CUMIN AND MASTICH BERRIES.

[1] Tor. ac sylvestres; V. German, Feldsalat.

[2] Tor. parantur; wanting in other editions.

[3] Liquamine, here interpreted as brine.

[4] Tac., Sch., et al. a manu; Tor. vel manu—because eaten with the hand.

[5] Tor. vel in patina.



XVII

[108] NETTLES URTICAE

THE FEMALE NETTLES, WHEN THE SUN IS IN THE POSITION OF THE ARIES, IS SUPPOSED TO RENDER VALUABLE SERVICES AGAINST AILMENTS OF VARIOUS KINDS [1].

[1] Tac., List., Sch., et al. adversus aegritudinem.

Barthius: Quam aegritudinem? etc., etc.

Tor. plurifarias!

Reinsenius: ad arcendum morbum, etc., etc.

Hum. scilicet quamcunque hoc est ... etc., etc., etc.

G.-V. si voles.

V. This innocent little superstition about the curative qualities of the female nettle causes the savants to engage in various speculations.

Nettles are occasionally eaten as vegetables on the Continent.



XVIII

[109] ENDIVES AND LETTUCE INTUBA ET LACTUCAE

ENDIVES [are dressed] WITH BRINE, A LITTLE OIL AND CHOPPED ONION, INSTEAD OF THE REAL LETTUCE [1] IN WINTER TIME THE ENDIVES ARE TAKEN OUT OF THE PICKLE [2] [and are dressed] WITH HONEY OR VINEGAR.

[1] Hum. pro lactucis uere; Tor. p. l. accipint; G.-V. p. l. vero (separated by period)—all indicating that endives are a substitute for lettuce when this is not available.

[2] Cf. {Rx} No. 27, also Nos. 22 and 23.

[110] LETTUCE SALAD, FIELD SALAD AGRESTES LACTUCAE [1]

[Dress it] WITH VINEGAR DRESSING AND A LITTLE BRINE STOCK; WHICH HELPS DIGESTION AND IS TAKEN TO COUNTERACT INFLATION [2].

[1] Tor. sic; Hum. agri l.; Tac. id.; Sch. and G.-V. have acri as an adjective to vinegar, the last word in the preceding formula.

[2] List. and Hum. continuing: "And this salad will not hurt you"; but Tor., Sch. and G.-V. use this as a heading for the following formula.

[111] A HARMLESS SALAD NE LACTUCAE LAEDANT

[And in order that the lettuce may not hurt you take (with it or after it) the following preparation] [1] 2 OUNCES OF GINGER, 1 OUNCE OF GREEN RUE, 1 OUNCE OF MEATY DATES, 12 SCRUPLES OF GROUND PEPPER, 1 OUNCE OF GOOD HONEY, AND 8 OUNCES OF EITHER AETHIOPIAN OR SYRIAN CUMIN. MAKE AN INFUSION OF THIS IN VINEGAR, THE CUMIN CRUSHED, AND STRAIN. OF THIS LIQUOR USE A SMALL SPOONFUL MIX IT WITH STOCK AND A LITTLE VINEGAR: YOU MAY TAKE A SMALL SPOONFUL AFTER THE MEAL [2].

[1] Tac. and Tor. Ne lactucae laedant [take it] cum zingiberis uncijs duabus, etc. Hum., List., G.-V. cumini unc. II. They and Sch. read the cum of Tac. and Tor. for cumini, overlooking the fact that the recipe later calls for Aethopian or Syrian cumin as well. This shifts the weights of the various ingredients from the one to the other, completely upsetting the sense of the formula.

[2] Goll. ignores this passage completely.

V. This is another of the medical formulae that have suffered much by experimentation and interpretation through the ages. It seems to be an aromatic vinegar for a salad dressing, and, as such, a very interesting article, reminding of our present tarragon, etc., vinegars. To be used judiciously in salads.

Again, as might be expected, the medicinal character of the formula inspires the medieval doctors to profound meditation and lively debate.

Cf. {Rx} Nos. 34 and 108.



XIX

[112] CARDOONS CARDUI

CARDOONS [are eaten with a dressing of] BRINY BROTH, OIL, AND CHOPPED [hard] EGGS.

V. Precisely as we do today: French dressing and hard boiled eggs. We do not forget pepper, of course. Perhaps the ancient "briny broth" contained enough of this and of other ingredients, such as fine condiments and spices to make the dressing perfect.

[113] ANOTHER [Dressing for] CARDOONS ALITER CARDUOS

RUE, MINT, CORIANDER, FENNEL—ALL GREEN—FINELY CRUSHED; ADD PEPPER, LOVAGE, AND [1] BRINE AND OIL [2].

[1] Tac. and Tor. vel.; List., Sch., G.-V. mel—honey—which would spoil this fine vinaigrette or cold fines herbes dressing. However, even nowadays, sugar is quite frequently added to salad dressings.

[2] Gollmer claims that this dressing is served with cooked cardoons, the recipe for which follows below. This is wanting in Tor.

[114] BOILED CARDOONS ALITER CARDUOS ELIXOS

[Are served with] PEPPER, CUMIN, BROTH AND OIL.



XX

[115] (COW-) PARSNIPS [?] SPONDYLI VEL FONDULI [1]

COW-PARSNIPS ARE FRIED [and eaten] WITH A SIMPLE WINE SAUCE.

[1] Tac. Spondili uel fonduli and Sphon ...; Tor. as above; Hum. Spongioli uel funguli; List., id.; Sch. Sfondili uel funguli; G.-V. Sphondyli uel funduli.

Cf. note to Nos. 46, 121, 122.

[116] ANOTHER WAY ALITER

BOIL THE PARSNIPS IN SALT WATER [and season them] WITH PURE OIL [1], CHOPPED GREEN CORIANDER AND WHOLE PEPPER.

[1] Tac. Oleo mero; Other editors: Oleo, mero. V. The comma is misplaced.

[117] ANOTHER WAY ALITER

PREPARE THE BOILED PARSNIPS WITH THE FOLLOWING SAUCE: CELERY SEED, RUE, HONEY, GROUND PEPPER, MIXED WITH RAISIN WINE, STOCK AND A LITTLE OIL; BIND THIS WITH ROUX [bring to a boiling point, immerse parsnips] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[118] ANOTHER WAY [Puree of Parsnips] [1] ALITER

MASH THE PARSNIPS, [add] CUMIN, RUE, STOCK, A LITTLE CONDENSED WINE, OIL, GREEN CORIANDER [and] LEEKS AND SERVE; GOES WELL WITH SALT PORK [2].

[1] Again faulty punctuation obscures the text. Carefully compare the following: Tac. and Tor. Spondylos teres, cuminum, etc. Hum., List. and G.-V. S. teres cuminum, i.e. crush the cumin. Sch. S. tores—dry, parch!

[2] Inferes pro salso—serve with salt pork or bacon, or, instead of—Salsum—salt pork. Dann. Well seasoned with salt! Sch. infares pro salsa. For further confirmation of salsum cf. {Rx} Nos. 148-152.

[119] ANOTHER WAY ALITER

BOIL THE PARSNIPS [sufficiently, if] HARD [1] [then] PUT THEM IN A SAUCE PAN AND STEW WITH OIL, STOCK, PEPPER, RAISIN WINE, STRAIN [2] AND BIND WITH ROUX.

[1] Tor. praeduratos; List. praedurabis. How can they be hardened? It may perhaps stand for "parboil." We agree with Tor. that the hard ones (praeduratos) must be cooked soft.

[2] Tor. and Tac. Colabis—strain; List. and G.-V. Colorabis—color. No necessity for coloring the gravy, but straining after the binding with roux is important which proves Tor. correct again. Cf. note 1 to {Rx} No. 73 and note 2 to {Rx} No. 55.

[120] ANOTHER WAY ALITER [1]

FINISH [marinate] THE PARSNIPS IN OIL AND BROTH, OR FRY THEM IN OIL, SPRINKLE WITH SALT AND PEPPER, AND SERVE.

[1] Ex G.-V. wanting in Tor. and List. Found in Sch. also. V. Procedure quite in accordance with modern practice. We envelope the p. in flour or frying batter.

[121] ANOTHER WAY ALITER [1]

BRUISE THE BOILED PARSNIPS [scallops, muscular part of shellfish] ELIMINATE THE HARD STRINGS; ADD BOILED SPELT AND CHOPPED HARD EGGS, STOCK AND PEPPER. MAKE CROQUETTES OR SAUSAGE FROM THIS, ADDING PIGNOLIA NUT AND PEPPER, WRAP IN CAUL [or fill in casings] FRY AND SERVE THEM AS AN ENTREE DISH IN A WINE SAUCE.

[1] V. This formula is virtually a repetition of {Rx} No. 46, all the more bewildering because of the divergence of the term (Cf. {Rx} No. 115), which stands for "scallops" or the muscular part of any bivalve, at least in the above formula.

The Graeco-Latin word for cow-parsnip is spondylium, sphondylium, spondylion. It is almost certain that the preceding parsnips formulae are in the right place here. They are in direct line with the other vegetables here treated—the shellfish—spondylus—would be out of place in this chapter, Book III, The Gardener. All the recipes, with the exception of the above, fit a vegetable like parsnips. Even Lister's and Humelberg's interpretation of the term, who read spongioli—mushrooms—could be questioned under this heading, Book III.

It is barely possible that this entire series of formulae, Spondyli uel fonduli ({Rx} Nos. 115-121) does belong to Book II among the scallop hysitia, though we are little inclined to accept this theory.

Cf. {Rx} No. 122 which appears to be a confirmation of the view expressed above.



XXI

[122] CARROTS AND PARSNIPS CAROTAE ET PASTINACAE

CARROTS OR PARSNIPS ARE FRIED [and served] WITH A WINE SAUCE.

V. Exactly like {Rx} No. 115, which may be a confirmation that spondyli stands for cow-parsnips.

[123] ANOTHER WAY ALITER

THE CARROTS [are cooked] SALTED [and served] WITH PURE OIL AND VINEGAR.

V. As a salad. "Italian Salad" consists of a variety of such cooked vegetables, nicely dressed with oil and vinegar, or with mayonnaise. Cf. {Rx} No. 102.

[124] ANOTHER WAY ALITER

THE CARROTS [are] BOILED [and] SLICED, STEWED WITH CUMIN AND A LITTLE OIL AND ARE SERVED. AT THE SAME TIME [1] [here is your opportunity] MAKE A CUMIN SAUCE [from the carrot juice] FOR THOSE WHO HAVE THE COLIC [2].

[1] Ex Tor. wanting elsewhere.

[2] Tac. coliorum; Tor. cuminatum colicorum; List. c. coloratum—colored; G.-V. c. colorium.

END OF BOOK III

EXPLICIT APICII CEPURICA DE OLERIBUS LIBER TERTIUS [Tac.]



{Illustration: THERMOSPODIUM OF PLAIN DESIGN

Water and food heater for everyday purposes. Charcoal fuel. Foods were kept on top in pans, dishes or pots, and were thus carried from the kitchen into the dining room. They were also used for food service in hotel rooms, supplied from adjacent tavern kitchens, as some hotels had no food preparation facilities. This handy apparatus was designed for general utility, as it also served as a portable stove on chilly days in living rooms that were not heated from the central heating plant found in larger houses. Ntl. Mus. Naples, 73882; Field M. 24179.}



APICIUS

Book IV



{Illustration: ROMAN WINE PRESS

Reconstruction in Naples, in the new section of the National Museum.}



{Illustration: A DISH FOR THE SERVICE OF EGGS

Hildesheim Treasure}



BOOK IV. MISCELLANEA

Lib. IV. Pandecter [1]

CHAP. I. BOILED DINNERS. CHAP. II. DISHES OF FISH, VEGETABLES, FRUITS, AND SO FORTH. CHAP. III. FINELY MINCED DISHES, OR ISICIA. CHAP. IV. PORRIDGE, GRUEL. CHAP. V. APPETIZING DISHES.



I

[125] BOILED DINNER SALACATTABIA [2]

PEPPER, FRESH MINT, CELERY, DRY PENNYROYAL, CHEESE [3], PIGNOLIA NUTS, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, YOLKS OF EGG, FRESH WATER, SOAKED BREAD AND THE LIQUID PRESSED OUT, COW'S CHEESE AND CUCUMBERS ARE ARRANGED IN A DISH, ALTERNATELY, WITH THE NUTS; [also add] FINELY CHOPPED CAPERS [4], CHICKEN LIVERS [5]; COVER COMPLETELY WITH [a lukewarm, congealing] BROTH, PLACE ON ICE [and when congealed unmould and] SERVE UP [6].

[1] Read: Pandectes—embracing the whole science.

[2] Read: Salacaccabia—from salsa and caccabus—salt meat boiled in the pot. Sch. Sala cottabia; G.-V. cattabia.

[3] Sch. casiam instead of caseum.

[4] Sch. Copadiis porcinis—small bits of pork; List. cepas aridas puto—"shallots, I believe"; Lan. capparis; Vat., G.-V. id.

[5] Dann. Chicken meat.

[6] This dish if pork were added (cf. Sch. in note 4 above) would resemble our modern "headcheese"; the presence of cheese in this formula and in our word "headcheese" is perhaps not accidental; the cheese has been eliminated in the course of time from dishes of this sort while the name has remained with us. "Cheese" also appears in the German equivalent for custard—Eierkaese.

[126] APICIAN JELLY SALACATTABIA APICIANA

PUT IN THE MORTAR CELERY SEED, DRY PENNYROYAL, DRY MINT, GINGER, FRESH CORIANDER, SEEDLESS RAISINS, HONEY, VINEGAR, OIL AND WINE; CRUSH IT TOGETHER [in order to make a dressing of it]. [Now] PLACE 3 PIECES OF PICENTIAN BREAD IN A MOULD, INTERLINED WITH PIECES OF [cooked] CHICKEN, [cooked] SWEETBREADS OF CALF OR LAMB, CHEESE [1], PIGNOLIA NUTS, CUCUMBERS [pickles] FINELY CHOPPED DRY ONIONS [shallots] COVERING THE WHOLE WITH [jellified] BROTH. BURY THE MOULD IN SNOW UP TO THE RIM; [unmould] SPRINKLE [with the above dressing] AND SERVE [2].

[1] List. caseum Vestinum—a certain cheese from the Adriatic coast.

[2] The nature of the first passage of this formula indicates a dressing for a cold dish. The dish was probably unmoulded when firm, and the jelly covered with this dressing, though the original does not state this procedure. In that case it would resemble a highly complicated chicken salad, such as we make today—mayonnaise de volaille en aspic, for instance. We recall the artistic molds for puddings and other dishes which the ancients had which were nicely suited for dishes such as the above.

The Picentian bread—made of spelt—was a celebrated product of the bakeries of Picentia, a town of lower Italy, near the Tuscan sea, according to Pliny.

Cf. {Rx} No. 141.

[127] OTHER SALACACCABIA ALITER

HOLLOW OUT AN ALEXANDRINE LOAF OF BREAD, SOAK THE CRUMBS WITH POSCA [a mixture of water, wine, vinegar or lemon juice] AND MAKE A PASTE OF IT. PUT IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, HONEY [1] MINT, GARLIC, FRESH CORIANDER, SALTED COW'S CHEESE, WATER AND OIL. WINE [2] POURED OVER BEFORE SERVING [3].

[1] Wanting in Tor.

[2] G.-V. insuper nivem—chilled on snow (like the preceding formula). Tac. insuper vinum; Sch. id.

[3] A panada as is found in every old cookery book. Today it remains as a dressing for roast fowl, etc. Quoting from "A Collection of Receipts in Cookery, Physick and Surgery," London, 1724:

"Panada for a Sick or Weak Stomach. Put the crumbs of a Penny White-Loaf grated into a Quart of cold Water, set both on the Fire together with a blade of Mace: When 'tis boil'd smooth, take it off the fire and put in a bit of Lemon-peel, the juice of a Lemon, a glass of Sack [Spanish Wine] and Sugar to your Taste. This is very Nourishing and never offends the Stomach. Some season with butter and Sugar, adding Currants which on some occasions are proper; but the first is the most grateful and innocent."

Mrs. Glasse, a quarter century later, in her famous book [The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy, London, 1747, 1st ed.] omits the wine, but Mrs. Mason, at about the same time, insists on having it with panada.

The imaginary or real relation between the sciences of cookery and medicine is illustrated here.



II

DISHES OF FISH, VEGETABLES, FRUITS AND SO FORTH PATINAE PISCIUM, HOLERUM & POMORUM

[128] EVERYDAY DISH PATINA QUOTIDIANA [1]

MAKE A PASTE OF STEWED BRAINS [calf's, pig's, etc.] SEASON WITH PEPPER, CUMIN, LASER, BROTH, THICKENED WINE, MILK AND EGGS [2] POACH IT OVER A WEAK FIRE OR IN A HOT WATER [BATH].

[1] Tac. quottidiana; List. cottidiana.

[2] List. ovis—with eggs, which is correct. Tor. holus; Lan. olus—herbs, cabbage.

Cf. {Rx} No. 142.

[129] ANOTHER DISH, WHICH CAN BE TURNED OVER [A Nut Custard] ALITER PATINA VERSATILIS

THE DISH, CALLED TURN-OVER, IS THUS MADE [1] CRUSH VERY FINE WALNUTS AND HAZELNUTS [2] TOAST THEM AND CRUSH WITH HONEY, MIX IN PEPPER, BROTH, MILK AND EGGS AND A LITTLE OIL [3].

[1] Tor.

[2] List. torres eas—toast them (wanting in Tor.) which is the thing to do. Cf. No. 143, practically a repetition of this. Cf. 301.

[3] This laconic formula indicates a custard poached, like in the preceding, in a mould, which, when cooled off, is unmoulded in the usual way. This patina versatilis is in fact the modern creme renversee, with nuts.

It is characteristic of Apicius for incompleteness and want of precise directions, without which the experiment in the hands of an inexperienced operator would result in failure.

[130] ANOTHER ALITER PATINA

ANOTHER DISH IS MADE OF THE [1] STRUNKS OF LETTUCE CRUSHED WITH PEPPER, BROTH, THICKENED WINE, [add] WATER AND OIL, AND COOK THIS; BIND WITH EGGS, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE [2].

[1] Tor.

[2] Very much like a modern soup, puree of lettuce.

[131] VEGETABLE AND BRAIN PUDDING PATINA FRISILIS [1]

TAKE VEGETABLES, CLEAN AND WASH, SHRED [2] AND COOK THEM [3] COOL THEM OFF AND DRAIN THEM. TAKE 4 [calf's] BRAINS, REMOVE [the skin and] STRINGS AND COOK THEM [4] IN THE MORTAR PUT 6 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER, MOISTEN WITH BROTH AND CRUSH FINE; THEN ADD THE BRAINS, RUB AGAIN AND MEANWHILE ADD THE VEGETABLES, RUBBING ALL THE WHILE, AND MAKE A FINE PASTE OF IT. THEREUPON BREAK AND ADD 8 EGGS. NOW ADD A GLASSFUL [5] OF BROTH, A GLASSFUL OF WINE, A GLASSFUL OF RAISIN WINE, TASTE THIS PREPARATION. OIL THE BAKING DISH THOROUGHLY [put the mixture in the dish] AND PLACE IT IN THE HOT PLATE, (THAT IS ABOVE THE HOT ASHES) [6] AND WHEN IT IS DONE [unmould it] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE [7].

[1] List. frictilis; Vat. Ms. fusilis; G.-V. id.; Lan. frisilis.

Patina frisilis remains unexplained. None of the various readings can be satisfactorily rendered. If the vegetables had remained whole the dish might be compared to a chartreuse, those delightful creations by the Carthusian monks who compelled by the strictest rules of vegetarianism evolved a number of fine vegetable dishes. On the other hand, the poached mixture of eggs and brains is akin to our farces and quenelles; but in modern cookery we have nothing just like this patina frisilis.

[2] Wanting in List.

[3] and [4] Wanting in Tor.

[5] Cyathum.

[6] Sentence in () ex Tor.

[7] This and some of the following recipes are remarkable for their preciseness and completeness.

[132] ANOTHER COLD ASPARAGUS [and Figpecker] DISH ALITER PATINA DE ASPARAGIS FRIGIDA

COLD ASPARAGUS PIE IS MADE IN THIS MANNER [1] TAKE WELL CLEANED [cooked] ASPARAGUS, CRUSH IT IN THE MORTAR, DILUTE WITH WATER AND PRESENTLY STRAIN IT THROUGH THE COLANDER. NOW TRIM, PREPARE [i.e. cook or roast] FIGPECKERS [2] [and hold them in readiness]. 3 [3] SCRUPLES OF PEPPER ARE CRUSHED IN THE MORTAR, ADD BROTH, A GLASS OF WINE, PUT THIS IN A SAUCEPAN WITH 3 OUNCES OF OIL, HEAT THOROUGHLY. MEANWHILE OIL YOUR PIE MOULD, AND WITH 6 EGGS, FLAVORED WITH {OE}NOGARUM, AND THE ASPARAGUS PREPARATION AS DESCRIBED ABOVE; THICKEN THE MIXTURE ON THE HOT ASHES. THEREUPON ARRANGE THE FIGPECKERS IN THE MOULD, COVER THEM WITH THIS PUREE, BAKE THE DISH. [When cold, unmould it] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] Tor.

[2] Lan. and Tac. ficedulas curtas tres; Tor. curtas f.—three figpeckers cut fine. G.-V. F. curatas. Teres in ... (etc.)—Prepared F.

[3] List. six; G.-V. id.

[133] ANOTHER ASPARAGUS CUSTARD ALIA PATINA DE ASPARAGIS

ASPARAGUS PIE IS MADE LIKE THIS [1] PUT IN THE MORTAR ASPARAGUS TIPS [2] CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, GREEN CORIANDER, SAVORY AND ONIONS; CRUSH, DILUTE WITH WINE, BROTH AND OIL. PUT THIS IN A WELL-GREASED PAN, AND, IF YOU LIKE, ADD WHILE ON THE FIRE SOME BEATEN EGGS TO IT TO THICKEN IT, COOK [without boiling the eggs] AND SPRINKLE WITH VERY FINE PEPPER.

[1] Tor.

[2] Reference to wine wanting in Tor. We add that the asparagus should be cooked before crushing.

[134] A DISH OF FIELD VEGETABLES PATINA EX RUSTICIS [1]

BY FOLLOWING THE ABOVE INSTRUCTIONS YOU MAY MAKE [2] A PIE OF FIELD VEGETABLES, OR OF THYME [3] OR OF GREEN PEPPERS [4] OR OF CUCUMBERS OR OF SMALL TENDER SPROUTS [5] SAME AS ABOVE, OR, IF YOU LIKE, MAKE ONE UNDERLAID WITH BONELESS PIECES OF FISH OR OF CHICKEN [combined with any of the above vegetables] [6].

[1] Tor. Patina ex oleribus agrestibus.

[2] Tor. wanting in other texts.

[3] Sch., G.-V. tamnis—wild wine; List. cymis cuminis; Lan., Tac. tinis; Vat. Ms. tannis. Thyme is hardly likely to be the chief ingredient of such a dish; the chances are it was used for flavoring and that the above enumerated vegetables were combined in one dish.

[4] List., G.-V., Goll.—mustard; Dann. green mustard. Tor. sive pipere viridi—green peppers, which we accept as correct, gastronomically at least.

[5] Goll., Dann. cabbage, the originals have coliculis—small tender sprouts on the order of Brussels sprouts or broccoli, all belonging to the cabbage family.

[6] Pulpa—boneless pieces of meat, also fruit puree; pulpamentum—dainty bits of meat.

[135] ELDERBERRY CUSTARD OR PIE PATINA DE SAMBUCO [1]

A DISH OF ELDERBERRIES, EITHER HOT OR COLD, IS MADE IN THIS MANNER [2] TAKE ELDERBERRIES [3] WASH THEM; COOK IN WATER, SKIM AND STRAIN. PREPARE A DISH IN WHICH TO COOK THE CUSTARD [4] CRUSH 6 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER WITH A LITTLE BROTH; ADD THIS TO THE ELDERBERRY PULP WITH ANOTHER GLASS OF BROTH, A GLASS OF WINE, A GLASS OF RAISIN WINE AND AS MUCH AS 4 OUNCES OF OIL. PUT THE DISH IN THE HOT BATH AND STIR THE CONTENTS. AS SOON AS IT IS GETTING WARM, QUICKLY BREAK 6 EGGS AND WHIPPING THEM, INCORPORATE THEM, IN ORDER TO THICKEN THE FLUID. WHEN THICK ENOUGH SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE UP.

[1] G.-V. Sabuco.

[2] Tor. wanting in other texts.

[3] Hum. semen de sambuco—E. seed.

[4] List. Place the berries in a dish; to their juice add pepper, (etc.).

[136] ROSE PIE, ROSE CUSTARD OR PUDDING PATINA DE ROSIS

TAKE ROSES FRESH FROM THE FLOWER BED, STRIP OFF THE LEAVES, REMOVE THE WHITE [from the petals and] PUT THEM IN THE MORTAR; POUR OVER SOME BROTH [and] RUB FINE. ADD A GLASS OF BROTH AND STRAIN THE JUICE THROUGH THE COLANDER. [This done] TAKE 4 [cooked calf's] BRAINS, SKIN THEM AND REMOVE THE NERVES; CRUSH 8 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER MOISTENED WITH THE JUICE AND RUB [with the brains]; THEREUPON BREAK 8 EGGS, ADD 1 [1] GLASS OF WINE, 1 GLASS OF RAISIN WINE AND A LITTLE OIL. MEANWHILE GREASE A PAN, PLACE IT ON THE HOT ASHES [or in the hot bath] IN WHICH POUR THE ABOVE DESCRIBED MATERIAL; WHEN THE MIXTURE IS COOKED IN THE BAIN MARIS [2] SPRINKLE IT WITH PULVERIZED PEPPER AND SERVE [3].

[1] List., G.-V. 1-1/2 glass.

[2] Hot water bath.

[3] Tor. continues {Rx} No. 135 without interruption or caption, and describes the above recipe. He reads: De thoris accipies rosas, but List. insists that de thoris be read de rosis; Lan., Tac. de toris; V. de thoris may be read "fresh from the flower bed."

Cf. {Rx} Nos. 167 and 171 in which case the "rose" may stand for rosy apple, or "Roman Beauty" apple. "Rose apple" also is a small pimento, size of a plum.

[137] PUMPKIN PIE PATINA DE CUCURBITIS [1]

AND PUMPKIN PIE IS MADE THUS [2] STEWED AND MASHED PUMPKIN IS PLACED IN THE PAN [or pie dish] SEASONED WITH A LITTLE CUMIN ESSENCE. ADD A LITTLE OIL; HEAT [bake] AND SERVE [3].

[1] Dann. Cucumber Dish.

[2] Tor. Wanting in other texts.

[3] Modern English recipes for stewed pumpkin resemble this Apician precept, but America has made a really palatable dish from pumpkin by the addition of eggs, cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger—spices which the insipid pumpkin needs. The ancient original may have omitted the eggs because Apicius probably expected his formula to be carried out in accordance with the preceding formulae. Perhaps this is proven by the fact that Tor. continues the Rose Pie recipe with et cucurbita patina sic fiet.

[138] SPRATS OR SMELTS AU VIN BLANC PATINA DE APUA [1]

CLEAN THE SMELTS [or other small fish, filets of sole, etc. of white meat] MARINATE [i.e. impregnate with] IN OIL, PLACE IN A SHALLOW PAN, ADD OIL, BROTH [2] AND WINE. BUNCH [3] [fresh] RUE AND MARJORAM AND COOK WITH THE FISH. WHEN DONE REMOVE THE HERBS, SEASON THE FISH WITH PEPPER AND SERVE [4].

[1] Ex List. and G.-V. wanting in Tor.

[2] Liquamen, which in this case corresponds to court bouillon, a broth prepared from the trimmings of the fish, herbs, and wine, well-seasoned and reduced.

[3] Our very own bouquet garni, a bunch of various aromatic herbs, inserted during coction and retired before serving.

[4] Excellent formula for fish in white wine, resembling our ways of making this fine dish.

This again illustrates the laconic style of the ancient author. He omitted to say that the fish, when cooked, was placed on the service platter and that the juices remaining in the sauce pan were tied with one or two egg yolks, diluted with cream, or wine, or court bouillon, strained and poured over the fish at the moment of serving. This is perhaps the best method of preparing fish with white meat of a fine texture. Pink or darker fish do not lend themselves to this method of preparation.

[139] SMELT PIE, OR, SPRAT CUSTARD PATINA DE ABUA SIVE APUA [1]

BONELESS PIECES OF ANCHOVIES OR [other small] FISH, EITHER ROAST [fried] BOILED, CHOP VERY FINE. FILL A CASSEROLE GENEROUSLY WITH THE SAME [season with] CRUSHED PEPPER AND A LITTLE RUE, ADD SUFFICIENT BROTH AND SOME OIL, AND MIX IN, ALSO ADD ENOUGH RAW EGGS SO THAT THE WHOLE FORMS ONE SOLID MASS. NOW CAREFULLY ADD SOME SEA-NETTLES BUT TAKE PAIN THAT THEY ARE NOT MIXED WITH THE EGGS. NOW PUT THE DISH INTO THE STEAM SO THAT IT MAY CONGEAL [but avoid boiling] [2]. WHEN DONE SPRINKLE WITH GROUND PEPPER AND CARRY INTO THE DINING ROOM. NOBODY WILL BE ABLE TO TELL WHAT HE IS ENJOYING [3].

[1] Tac., Tor. sic. List., G.-V. p. de apua sine apua—a dish of anchovies (or smelts) without anchovies. Tor. formula bears the title patina de apua, and his article opens with the following sentence: patin de abua sive apua sic facies. He is therefore quite emphatic that the dish is to be made with the abua or apua (an anchovy) and not without apua, as List. has it. Lan. calls the dish: P. de apabadiade, not identified.

[2] Tor. impones ad uaporem ut cum ouis meare possint—warning, get along with the eggs, i.e. beware of boiling them for they will curdle, and the experiment is hopelessly lost. List. however, reads meare possint thus: bullire p.—boil (!) It is quite plain that Tor. has the correct formula.

[3] et ex esu nemo agnoscet quid manducet. Dann. renders this sentence thus: "Nobody can value this dish unless he has partaken of it himself." He is too lenient. We would rather translate it literally as we did above, or say broadly, "And nobody will be any the wiser." List. dwells at length upon this sentence; his erudite commentary upon the cena dubia, the doubtful meal, will be found under the heading of cena in our vocabulary. List. pp. 126-7. List. undoubtedly made the mistake of reading sine for sive. He therefore omitted the apua from his formula. The above boastful sentence may have induced him to do so.

The above is a fish forcemeat, now seldom used as an integral dish, but still popular as a dressing for fish or as quenelles. The modern fish forcemeat is usually made of raw fish, cream and eggs, with the necessary seasoning. The material is poached or cooked much in the same manner as prescribed by the ancient recipe.

[140] A RICH ENTREE OF FISH, POULTRY AND SAUSAGE IN CREAM PATINA EX LACTE

SOAK [pignolia] NUTS, DRY THEM, AND ALSO HAVE FRESH SEA-URCHINS [1] READY. TAKE A DEEP DISH [casserole] IN WHICH ARRANGE THE FOLLOWING THINGS [in layers]: MEDIUM-SIZED MALLOWS AND BEETS, MATURE LEEKS, CELERY, STEWED TENDER GREEN CABBAGE, AND OTHER BOILED GREEN VEGETABLES [2], A DISJOINTED [3] CHICKEN STEWED IN ITS OWN GRAVY, COOKED [calf's or pig's] BRAINS, LUCANIAN SAUSAGE, HARD BOILED EGGS CUT INTO HALVES, BIG TARENTINIAN SAUSAGE [4] SLICED AND BROILED IN THE ASHES, CHICKEN GIBLETS OR PIECES OF CHICKEN MEAT. BITS OF FRIED FISH, SEA NETTLES, PIECES OF [stewed] OYSTERS AND FRESH CHEESE ARE ALTERNATELY PUT TOGETHER; SPRINKLE IN BETWEEN THE NUTS AND WHOLE PEPPER, AND THE JUICE AS IS COOKED FROM PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED AND SILPHIUM. THIS ESSENCE, WHEN DONE, MIX WITH MILK TO WHICH RAW EGGS HAVE BEEN ADDED [pour this over the pieces of food in the dish] SO THAT THE WHOLE IS THOROUGHLY COMBINED, STIFFEN IT [in the hot water bath] AND WHEN DONE [garnish with] FRESH MUSSELS [sea-urchins, poached and chopped fine] SPRINKLE PEPPER OVER AND SERVE.

[1] Sea-urchins, wanting in Tor.

[2] Sentence wanting in G.-V.

[3] Pullum raptum, in most texts; G.-V. p. carptum—plucked. Of course! Should raptum be translated literally? A most atrocious way of killing fowl, to be sure, but anyone familiar with the habits of the ancients, particularly with those of the less educated element, should not wonder at this most bestial fashion, which was supposed to improve the flavor of the meat, a fashion which, as a matter of fact still survives in the Orient, particularly in China.

[4] Vat. Ms. Tarentino farsos; Tor. cooks the sausage in the ashes—coctos in cinere; List. in cinere legendum jecinora—chicken giblets. Lister's explanation of the Tarentinian sausage is found in the vocabulary, v. Longano.

[141] APICIAN DISH PATINA APICIANA [1]

THE APICIAN DISH IS MADE THUS: TAKE SMALL PIECES OF COOKED SOW'S BELLY [with the paps on it] PIECES OF FISH, PIECES OF CHICKEN, THE BREASTS OF FIGPECKERS OR OF THRUSHES [slightly] COOKED, [and] WHICHEVER IS BEST. MINCE ALL THIS VERY CAREFULLY, PARTICULARLY THE FIGPECKERS [the meat of which is very tender]. DISSOLVE IN OIL STRICTLY FRESH EGGS; CRUSH PEPPER AND LOVAGE, POUR OVER SOME BROTH AND RAISIN WINE, PUT IT IN A SAUCEPAN TO HEAT AND BIND WITH ROUX. AFTER YOU HAVE CUT ALL IN REGULAR PIECES, LET IT COME TO THE BOILING POINT. WHEN DONE, RETIRE [from the fire] WITH ITS JUICE OF WHICH YOU PUT SOME IN ANOTHER DEEP PAN WITH WHOLE PEPPER AND PIGNOLIA NUTS. SPREAD [the ragout] OUT IN SINGLE LAYERS WITH THIN PANCAKES IN BETWEEN; PUT IN AS MANY PANCAKES AND LAYERS OF MEAT AS IS REQUIRED TO FILL THE DISH; PUT A FINAL COVER OF PANCAKE ON TOP AND SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AFTER THOSE EGGS HAVE BEEN ADDED [which serve] TO TIE THE DISH. NOW PUT THIS [mould or dish] IN A BOILER [steamer, hot water bath, allow to congeal] AND DISH IT OUT [by unmoulding it]. AN EXPENSIVE SILVER PLATTER WOULD ENHANCE THE APPEARANCE OF THIS DISH MATERIALLY.

[1] Cf. {Rx} No. 126.

[142] AN EVERY-DAY DISH PATINA QUOTIDIANA [1]

PIECES OF COOKED SOW'S UDDER, PIECES OF COOKED FISH, CHICKEN MEAT AND SIMILAR BITS, MINCE UNIFORMLY, SEASON WELL AND CAREFULLY [2]. TAKE A METAL DISH [for a mould]. BREAK EGGS [in another bowl] AND BEAT THEM. IN A MORTAR PUT PEPPER, LOVAGE AND ORIGANY [3], WHICH CRUSH; MOISTEN [this] WITH BROTH, WINE, RAISIN WINE AND A LITTLE OIL; EMPTY IT INTO THE BOWL [with the beaten eggs, mix] AND HEAT IT [in the hot water bath]. THEREUPON WHEN [this is] THICKENED MIX IT WITH THE PIECES OF MEAT. NOW PREPARE [alternately] LAYERS OF STEW AND PANCAKES, INTERSPERSED WITH OIL [in the metal mould reserved for this purpose] UNTIL FULL, COVER WITH ONE REAL GOOD PANCAKE [4], CUT INTO IT A VENT HOLE FOR CHIMNEY ON THE SURFACE [bake in hot water bath and when done] TURN OUT UPSIDE DOWN INTO ANOTHER DISH. SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] List. cottidiana; G.-V. cotidiana. Everyday Dish, in contrast to the foregoing Apician dish which is more sumptuous on account of the figpeckers or thrushes. In the originals these two formulae are rolled into one. Cf. {Rx} No. 128.

[2] G.-V. Haec omnia concides; Tor. condies; List. condies lege concides which we dispute. Condies—season, flavor—is more correct in this place; concides—mince—is a repetition of what has been said already.

[3] Origany wanting in G.-V.

[4] List. superficie versas in discum insuper in superficium pones; Sch. a superficie versas indusium super focum pones; G.-V. in discum; Tor. unum uero laganum fistula percuties a superficie uersas in discum in superficiem praeterea pones—which we have translated literally above, as we believe Tor. to be correct in this important matter of having a chimney on top of such a pie.

[143] NUT CUSTARD TURN-OVER [1] PATINA VERSATILIS VICE DULCIS

PIGNOLIA NUTS, CHOPPED OR BROKEN NUTS [other varieties] ARE CLEANED AND ROASTED AND CRUSHED WITH HONEY. MIX IN [beat well] PEPPER, BROTH, MILK, EGGS, A LITTLE HONEY [2] AND OIL. [Thicken slowly on fire without boiling, fill in moulds, taking care that the nuts do not sink to the bottom, bake in hot water bath, when cold unmould].

[1] Practically the only recipe in Apicius fairly resembling a modern "dessert." This is practically a repetition of {Rx} No. 129, which see.

[2] Tor. modico melle; List. m. mero—pure wine and also pure honey, i.e. thick honey for sweetening. Wine would be out of place here. This is an excellent example of nut custard, if the "pepper" and the "broth" (liquamen), of the original, in other words spices and brine, or salt, be used very sparingly. For "pepper" nutmeg or allspice may be substituted, as is used today in such preparations. The oil seems superfluous, but it is taking the place of our butter. This very incomplete formula is characteristic because of the absence of weights and measures and other vital information as to the manipulation of the materials. None but an experienced practitioner could make use of this formula in its original state.

Goll. adds toasted raisins, for which there is no authority.

The text now proceeds without interruption to the next formula.

[144] TYROTARICA [1] PATELLA THIROTARICA [2]

TAKE ANY KIND OF SALT FISH [3] COOK [fry or broil it] IN OIL, TAKE THE BONES OUT, SHRED IT [and add] PIECES OF COOKED BRAINS, PIECES OF [other, fresh (?)] FISH, MINCED CHICKEN LIVERS [4] AND [cover with] HOT SOFT [i.e. liquefied] CHEESE. HEAT ALL THIS IN A DISH; [meanwhile] GRIND PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, SEEDS OF RUE WITH WINE, HONEY WINE AND OIL; COOK ALL ON A SLOW FIRE; BIND [this sauce] WITH RAW EGGS; ARRANGE [the fish, etc.]. PROPERLY [incorporate with the sauce] SPRINKLE WITH CRUSHED CUMIN AND SERVE [5].

[1] G.-V., List., Vat. Ms. Thyrotarnica; cf. notes to {Rx} Nos. 427, 428.

[2] Tor.

[3] Tor. Wanting in other texts.

[4] List., G.-V. here add hard boiled eggs, which is permissible, gastronomically.

[5] Modern fish au gratin is made in a similar way. Instead of this wine sauce a spiced cream sauce and grated cheese are mixed with the bits of cooked fish, which is then baked in the dish.

Brains, chicken, etc., too, are served au gratin, but a combination of the three in one dish is no longer practiced. However, the Italian method of baking fish, etc., au gratin a l'Italienne contains even more herbs and wine reduction than the above formula.

[145] SALT FISH BALLS IN WINE SAUCE [1] PATELLA ARIDA [2]

DRY PIECES OF SALT TURSIO [3] ARE BONED, CLEANED [soaked in water, cooked] SHREDDED FINE AND SEASONED WITH GROUND PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, PARSLEY, CORIANDER, CUMIN, RUE SEEDS AND DRY MINT. MAKE FISH BALLS OUT OF THIS MATERIAL AND POACH THE SAME IN WINE, BROTH AND OIL; AND WHEN COOKED, ARRANGE THEM IN A DISH. THEN MAKE A SAUCE [utilizing the broth, the court bouillon in which the balls were cooked] SEASON WITH PEPPER, LOVAGE, SATURY, ONIONS AND WINE AND VINEGAR, ALSO ADD BROTH AND OIL AS NEEDED, BIND WITH ROUX [4] [pour over the balls] SPRINKLE WITH THYME AND GROUND PEPPER [5].

[1] Reminding us of the Norwegian fiske boller in wine sauce, a popular commercial article found canned in delicatessen stores.

[2] List. patella sicca—dry, perhaps because made of dried fish.

[3] List. isicia de Tursione; G.-V. Thursione. Probably a common sturgeon, or porpoise, or dolphin. List. describes it as "a kind of salt fish from the Black Sea; a malicious fish with a mouth similar to a rabbit"; Dann. thinks it is a sturgeon, but in Goll. it appears as tunny. The ancients called the sturgeon acipenser; but this name was gradually changed into styrio, stirio and sturio, which is similar to tursio (cf. styrio in the vocabulary). The fish in question therefore may have been sturgeon for which the Black Sea is famous.

[4] List., G.-V. ovis obligabis—tie with eggs—certainly preferable to the Tor. version.

[5] Tor. thyme.

The above is an excellent way of making fish balls, it being taken for granted, of course, that the salt fish be thoroughly soaked and cooked in milk before shaping into balls. The many spices should be used very moderately, some to be omitted entirely. We read between the lines of the old formula that the Tursio had a long journey from Pontus to Rome; fish however dry acquires a notorious flavor upon such journeys which must be offset by herbs and spices.

It is quite possible that the ancients made a reduction of the herbs and spices mentioned in this formula; in fact, the presence of vinegar leads us to believe this, in which case this formula would be nothing but a very modern sauce. The herbs and spices in a reduction are crushed and boiled down in vinegar and wine, and strained off, they leave their finest flavor in the sauce.

[146] VEGETABLE DINNER PATELLA EX OLISATRO [1]

[Any kind of vegetables or herbs] BLANCHED OFF IN WATER WITH [a little] SODA; SQUEEZE [out the water] ARRANGE IN A SAUCEPAN. GRIND PEPPER, LOVAGE, CORIANDER, SATURY, ONION WITH WINE, BROTH, VINEGAR AND OIL; ADD [this] TO THE VEGETABLES, STEW [all until nearly done] AND TIE WITH ROUX. SPRINKLE WITH THYME, FINELY GROUND PEPPER AND SERVE. ANY KIND OF VEGETABLE [2] MAY BE PREPARED IN THE ABOVE MANNER, IF YOU WISH.

[1] Wanting in Tac. and Tor. G.-V. patellam ex holisatro.

[2] It is worth noting that Tor. and Tac. omit this recipe entirely and that Tor. concludes the preceding formula with the last sentence of the above formula, except for the difference in one word. Tor. et de quacunque libra [List. et al. herba] si volueris facies ut demonstratum est supra. This might mean that it is optional (in the preceding formula) to shape the fish into one pound loaves instead of the small fish balls, which is often done in the case of forcemeats, as in veal, beef, ham loaves, or fish pie.

We are inclined to accept the reading of Torinus, for the above way of preparing "any kind of vegetables or herbs" is somewhat farfetched. Furthermore, the vegetable dish would more properly belong in Book III.

Just another example of where readings by various editors are different because of the interpretations of one word. In this case one group reads libra whereas the other reads herba.

[147] A DISH OF SARDINES PATELLA DE APUA [1]

SARDINE LOAF (OR OMELETTE) IS MADE IN THIS MANNER [2] CLEAN THE SARDINES [of skin and bones]; BREAK [and beat] EGGS AND MIX WITH [half of the] FISH [3]; ADD TO THIS SOME STOCK, WINE AND OIL, AND FINISH [the composition] BY HEATING IT. WHEN DONE TO A POINT, ADD [the remaining part of the] SARDINES TO IT, LET IT STAND A WHILE [over a slow fire to congeal] CAREFULLY TURN OVER [dish it up] MASK WITH A WARM [4] WINE SAUCE, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] G.-V. Patina de apua fricta—same as aphya, fried fresh small fish of the kind of anchovies, sardines, sprats.

In experimenting with this formula we would advise to use salt and oil judiciously if any at all. We have no knowledge of the ancient apua fricta other than our making of modern sardines which is to fry them in oil as quickly as possible after the fish has left the water, for its meat is very delicate. For an omelette, our modern sardines, including kippered smelts, sprotten, and similar smoked and processed fish, contain sufficient salt and fat to season the eggs of an omelette.

[2] Tor. Sentence wanting in other texts.

[3] Tor. cum aqua; List., G.-V. cum apua. Perhaps a typographical error in Tor. A little water is used to dilute the eggs of an omelette, but Apicius already prescribes sufficient liquids (stock or brine, wine) for that purpose.

[4] Tor. et in calore {oe}nogarum perfundes; List., G.-V. ut coloret—to keep the omelette in the pan long enough to give it "color." We prefer the Torinus version because an omelette should have no or very little color from the fire (the eggs thus browned are indigestible) and because hot {oe}nogarum (wine-fish sauce, not in List.) is accompanying this dish, to give additional savour and a finishing touch.

[148] FINE RAGOUT OF BRAINS AND BACON PATINA EX LARIDIS [1] ET CEREBELLIS

THE DISH OF BACON AND BRAINS IS MADE IN THIS MANNER [2] STRAIN [or chop fine] HARD BOILED EGGS [3] WITH PARBOILED BRAINS [calf's or pig's] THE SKIN AND NERVES OF WHICH HAVE BEEN REMOVED; ALSO COOK CHICKEN GIBLETS, ALL IN PROPORTION TO THE FISH [4] PUT THIS AFORESAID MIXTURE IN A SAUCEPAN, PLACE THE COOKED BACON IN THE CENTER, GRIND PEPPER AND LOVAGE AND TO SWEETEN ADD A DASH OF MEAD, HEAT, WHEN HOT STIR BRISKLY WITH A RUE WHIP AND BIND WITH ROUX.

[1] G.-V. lagitis; Tor. laridis and largitis; Vat. Ms. lagatis; List. pro lagitis ... legendum Lacertis. The lacertus, according to List., is a much esteemed salt fish; not identified. List. et al. seem to be mistaken in their reading of lacertis for laridis. This work stands for salt pork, from laridum and lardum (French, lard; the English lard is applied to the rendered fat of pork in general). Cf. notes to {Rx} No. 41.

[2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

[3] oua dura; Sch. o. dua—two eggs.

[4] This formula would be intelligible and even gastronomically correct were it not for this word "fish." However, we cannot accept Lister's reading lacertis. We prefer the reading, laridis, bacon. The French have another term for this—petits sales. Both this and the Torinus term are in the plural. They are simply small strips of bacon to which Torinus again refers in the above formula, salsum, coctum in media pones—put the bacon, when done, in the center (of the dish). Regarding salsum also see note to {Rx} No. 41.

The above dish resembles ragout fin en coquille, a popular Continental dish, although its principal ingredients are sweetbreads instead of brains.

[149] BROILED MULLET PATINA EX PISCIBUS MULLIS [1]

A DISH OF MULLET CONSISTS OF [2] SCALED SALT MULLET PLACED IN A CLEAN PAN WITH ENOUGH OIL [3] AS IS NECESSARY FOR COOKING; WHEN DONE ADD [a dash of honey-] WINE OR RAISIN WINE, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] List., G.-V. mullorum loco salsi—salt mullet.

[2] Tor. wanting in other texts.

[3] List. liquamen—broth, brine, which would be worse than carrying owls to Athens. As a matter of fact, the mullet if it be what List. says, loco salsi—salted on the spot, i.e. as caught, near the sea shore, requires soaking to extract the salt.

[150] A DISH OF ANY KIND OF SALT FISH PATINA EX PISCIBUS QUIBUSLIBET [1]

ANOTHER FISH DISH IS THUS MADE [2] FRY ANY KIND OF CURED [3] FISH, CAREFULLY TREATED [soaked and cleaned] PLACE IN A PAN, COVER WITH SUFFICIENT OIL, LAY [strips of] COOKED SALT [4] [pork or bacon—petits sales] OVER THE CENTER, KEEP IT HOT, WHEN REAL HOT, ADD A DASH OF HONEY WINE TO THE GRAVY AND STIR IT UP [5].

[1] Ex Tor.; G.-V. P. piscium loco salsi.

[2] Tor.; sentence wanting in other texts.

[3] Tor. duratoshard—no sense here, probably a misprint of the d. List. curatos—carefully treated, "cured," processed.

[4] Salsum coctum, cf. notes to {Rx} No. 148; Goll., Dann.—sprinkle [the fish] with salt.... Like Lister's error in the preceding formula it would be a great blunder to add salt to a cured fish already saturated with salt to the utmost. Cf. also note 2 to {Rx} Nos. 41, 148.

[5] Virtually a repetition of {Rx} No. 149, except for the addition of the pork.

[151] ANOTHER FISH DISH, WITH ONIONS ALIA PISCIUM PATINA

ANOTHER FISH DISH MAKE AS FOLLOWS [1] CLEAN ANY KIND OF FISH AND PLACE IT PROPERLY IN A SAUCEPAN WITH SHREDDED DRY ASCALONIAN ONIONS [shallots] OR WITH ANY OTHER KIND OF ONIONS, THE FISH ON TOP. ADD STOCK AND OIL AND COOK. WHEN DONE, PUT BROILED BACON IN THE CENTER, GIVE IT A DASH OF VINEGAR, SPRINKLE WITH [finely chopped] SAVORY AND GARNISH WITH [the] ONIONS.

[1] Tor., sentence wanting in other texts.

[152] A LUCRETIAN DISH PATINA LUCRETIANA [1]

CLEAN YOUNG ONIONS, REJECTING THE GREEN TOPS, AND PLACE [2] THEM IN A SAUCEPAN WITH A LITTLE BROTH, SOME OIL AND WATER, AND, TO BE COOKED [with the onions] PLACE SALT PORK [3] IN THE MIDST [of the scallions]. WHEN NEARLY DONE, ADD A SPOON OF HONEY [4] A LITTLE VINEGAR AND REDUCED MUST, TASTE IT, IF INSIPID ADD MORE BRINE [broth] IF TOO SALTY, ADD MORE HONEY, AND SPRINKLE WITH SAVORY [5].

[1] Dann. Named for Lucretius Epicuraeus, a contemporary of Cicero. List. ab authore cui in usu fuit sic appellata.

[2] G.-V. concides. Not necessary.

[3] salsum crudum—salt pork, i.e. not smoked or cured bacon. Dann. raw salt; Goll. salt. Impossible, of course! Cf. notes to {Rx} Nos. 41, 147, 149.

[4] To glaze the pork, no doubt; reminding us of our own use of sugar to glaze ham or bacon, and of the molasses added to pork (and beans).

[5] G.-V. coronam bubulam. In experimenting with this formula omit salt completely. Instead of honey we have also added maple syrup once. To make this a perfect luncheon dish a starch is wanting; we have therefore added sliced raw potatoes and cooked with the rest, to make it a balanced meal, by way of improving upon Lucretius. Since the ancients had no potatoes we have, on a different occasion, created another version by added sliced dasheens (colocasia, cf. {Rx} Nos. 74, 216, 244, 322). It is surprising that the ancients who used the colocasium extensively did not combine it with the above dish.

[153] STEWED LACERTUS FISH PATINA DE LACERTIS [1]

CLEAN AND WASH [soak] THE FISH [2] [cook and flake it] BREAK AND BEAT EGGS, MIX THEM WITH THE FISH, ADD BROTH, WINE AND OIL. PLACE THIS ON THE FIRE, WHEN COOKED [scrambled] ADD SIMPLE FISH WINE SAUCE [3] TO IT, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE [4].

[1] Ex List. wanting in Tor. G.-V. P. de lagitis; cf. note to {Rx} No. 148.

[2] Remembering that List. reads lagitis for lacertis, this formula appears to be an antique "Scrambled Eggs and Bacon." Cf. notes to {Rx} Nos. 42, 148-150.

[3] Oenogarum, cf. {Rx} No. 147, the Sardine Omelette.

[4] To cook the eggs as described above would be disastrous. The fish, if such was used, was probably first poached in the broth, wine and oil, and when done, removed from the pan. The fond, or remaining juice or gravy, was subsequently tied with the egg yolks, and this sauce was strained over the fish dressed on the service platter, the {oe}nogarum sparingly sprinkled over the finished dish. This would closely resemble our modern au vin blanc fish dishes; the {oe}nogarum taking the place of our meat glace.

Another interpretation of this vexatious formula is that if fish was used, the cooked fish was incorporated with the raw beaten eggs which were then scrambled in the pan. In that event this formula resembles closely the sardine omelette.

[154] A FISH STEW PATINA ZOMORE [1]

THE ZOMORE FISH DISH IS MADE AS FOLLOWS [2] TAKE RAW GANONAS [3] AND OTHER [fish] WHICHEVER YOU LIKE, PLACE THEM IN A SAUCE PAN, ADDING OIL, BROTH, REDUCED WINE, A BUNCH [4] OF LEEKS AND [green] CORIANDER; WHILE THIS COOKS, CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE AND A BUNCH OF ORIGANY WHICH CRUSH BY ITSELF AND DILUTE WITH THE JUICE [5] OF THE FISH. NOW DISSOLVE [break and beat egg yolks for a liaison] PREPARE AND TASTE THE DISH, BINDING [the sauce with the yolks] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] List. Zomoteganite—"a dish of fish boiled in their own liquor"; G.-V. zomoteganon; Lan. zomoreganonas; Vat. Ms. zomonam Ganas.

[2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

[3] ganonas crudas—an unidentified fish.

[4] "Bouquet garni."

[5] ius de suo sibi—old Plautian latinity. Cf. H. C. Coote, cit. Apiciana; the proof of the antiquity and the genuineness of Apicius.

[155] SOLE IN WHITE WINE PATINA EX SOLEIS [1]

A DISH OF SOLE IS THUS MADE [2] BEAT THE SOLE [3] PREPARE [4] AND PLACE THEM IN A [shallow] SAUCE PAN, ADD OIL, BROTH AND WINE, AND POACH THEM THUS; NOW CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY AND ADD OF THE FISH JUICE; THEN BIND THE SAUCE WITH RAW EGGS [yolks] TO MAKE A GOOD CREAMY SAUCE OF IT; STRAIN THIS OVER THE SOLE, HEAT ALL ON A SLOW FIRE [to fill it with live heat] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE [5].

[1] G.-V. P. solearum.

[2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

[3] Beat, to make tender, to be able to remove the skin.

[4] Tor. curatos—trim, skin, remove entrails, wash.

[5] One of the best of Apician accomplishments. Exactly like our modern sole au vin blanc, one of the most aristocratic of dishes. Cf. {Rx} No. 487, Excerpta, XIX.

[155a] FISH LIQUOR PATINA EX PISCIBUS

A LIQUOR [in which to cook fish] IS MADE BY TAKING [1] ONE OUNCE OF PEPPER, ONE PINT OF REDUCED WINE, ONE PINT OF SPICED WINE AND TWO OUNCES OF OIL.

[1] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

[156] A DISH OF LITTLE FISH PATINA DE PISCICULIS [1]

TAKE RAISINS, PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, ONIONS, WINE, BROTH AND OIL, PLACE THIS IN A PAN; AFTER THIS HAS COOKED ADD TO IT THE COOKED SMALL FISH, BIND WITH ROUX AND SERVE.

[1] Smelts, anchovies, whitebait.

[157] A DISH OF TOOTH FISH, DORY OR SEA MULLET AND OYSTERS PATINA DE PISCIBUS DENTICE, AURATA ET MUGILE [1]

TAKE THE FISH, PREPARE [clean, trim, wash] AND HALF BROIL OR FRY THEM; THEREUPON SHRED THEM [in good-sized] PIECES: NEXT PREPARE OYSTERS; PUT IN A MORTAR 6 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER, MOISTEN WITH BROTH AND CRUSH. ADD A SMALL GLASS OF BROTH, ONE OF WINE TO IT; PUT IN A SAUCE PAN 3 OUNCES OF OIL AND THE [shelled] OYSTERS AND LET THEM POACH WITH WINE SAUCE. WHEN THEY ARE DONE, OIL A DISH ON WHICH PLACE THE ABOVE MENTIONED FISH PIECES AND STEWED OYSTERS, HEAT AGAIN, AND WHEN HOT, BREAK 40 [2] EGGS [whip them] AND POUR THEM OVER THE OYSTERS, SO THAT THEY CONGEAL. SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE. [3].

[1] dentex—"tooth-fish"; aurata—"gilt"—dory, red snapper; mugilis—Sea Mullet, according to some.

[2] G.-V. ova XI—11 eggs. Tac. ova Xl, which may be read XL—forty.

[3] This dish may be allowed to congeal slowly; if done quickly it may become a dish of scrambled eggs with fish and oysters.

[158] SEA BASS, OR BARRACUDA PATINA DE LUPO [1]

GRIND PEPPER, CUMIN, PARSLEY, RUE, ONIONS, HONEY, BROTH, RAISIN WINE AND DROPS OF OIL [2].

[1] G.-V. p. de pisce lupo—wolf, because of its voracity; a sea fish, sea pike, or sea bass; perhaps akin to our barracuda, wolfish both in appearance and character. Sch. Perca labrax Lin.

[2] The cleaned fish is cut into convenient portions or fillets, placed in an oiled pan, the ingredients spread over; it is either poached in the oven or cooked under the open fire.

Schuch here inserts his {Rx} Nos. 153 to 166 which more properly belong among the Excerpta of Vinidarius and which are found at the end Book X by Apicius.

[159] A DISH OF SORB-APPLE, HOT OR COLD PATINA DE SORBIS CALIDA ET FRIGIDA

TAKE MEDLARS, CLEAN THEM; CRUSH THEM IN THE MORTAR AND STRAIN THROUGH COLANDER. 4 COOKED [calf's or pork] BRAINS, SKINNED AND FREED FROM STRINGY PARTS, PUT IN THE MORTAR WITH 8 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER, DILUTE WITH STOCK AND CRUSH, ADDING THE MEDLAR PULP AND COMBINE ALL; NOW BREAK 8 EGGS AND ADD A SMALL GLASS OF BROTH. OIL A CLEAN PAN AND PLACE IT IN THE HOT BATH OR IN THE HOT ASHES; AFTER YOU HAVE FILLED IT WITH THE PREPARATION, MAKE SURE THAT THE PAN GETS ENOUGH HEAT FROM BELOW; LET IT CONGEAL, AND WHEN DONE SPRINKLE WITH A LITTLE FINE PEPPER AND SERVE.

Sch. {Rx} No. 166.

[160] A DISH OF PEACHES [1] PATINA DE PERSICIS

CLEAN HARD-SKINNED PEACHES AND SLICE, STEW THEM; ARRANGE IN A DISH, SPRINKLE WITH A LITTLE OIL AND SERVE WITH CUMIN-FLAVORED WINE [2].

[1] Tor. is not sure whether this is a Persian fish or peaches—persica.

[2] Dann. Pepper, for which there is no authority.

Sch. {Rx} No. 167.

[161] A DISH OF PEARS PATINA DE PIRIS

A DISH OF PEARS IS MADE THIS WAY: [1] STEW THE PEARS, CLEAN OUT THE CENTER [remove core and seeds] CRUSH THEM WITH PEPPER, CUMIN, HONEY, RAISIN WINE, BROTH AND A LITTLE OIL; MIX WITH EGGS, MAKE A PIE [custard] OF THIS, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

Sch. {Rx} No. 168.

[162] A DISH OF SEA-NETTLES PATINA DE URTICA [1]

A DISH OF SEA-NETTLES, EITHER HOT OR COLD, IS MADE THUS: [2] TAKE SEA-NETTLES, WASH AND DRAIN THEM ON THE COLANDER, DRY ON THE TABLE AND CHOP FINE. CRUSH 10 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, ADD 2 SMALL GLASSES OF BROTH AND 6 OUNCES OF OIL. HEAT THIS IN A SAUCE PAN AND WHEN COOKED TAKE IT OUT AND ALLOW TO COOL OFF. NEXT OIL A CLEAN PAN, BREAK 8 EGGS AND BEAT THEM; COMBINE THESE WITH THE ABOVE PREPARATIONS, PLACE THE PAN ON HOT ASHES TO GIVE IT HEAT FROM BELOW, WHEN DONE [congealed] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] G.-V. p. urticarum calida et frigida.

[2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

[163] A DISH OF QUINCES PATINA DE CYDONIIS [1]

A DISH OF QUINCES IS MADE AS FOLLOWS: [2] QUINCES ARE COOKED WITH LEEKS, HONEY AND BROTH, USING HOT OIL, OR THEY ARE STEWED IN HONEY [3].

[1] G.-V. p. de Cydoneis.

[2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

[3] This latter method would appeal to our modern notion of preparing fruits of this sort; we use sugar syrup to cook them in and flavor with various spices, adding perhaps a little wine or brandy.



III

OF FINELY CHOPPED, MINCED MEATS DE MINUT ALIBUS [1]

[164] A MINCE OF SEA FOOD MINUTAL MARINUM

PLACE THE FISH IN SAUCE PAN, ADD BROTH OIL AND WINE [and poach it]. ALSO FINELY CHOP LEEK HEADS [the white part only of leeks] AND [fresh] CORIANDER. [When cool, mince the fish fine] FORM IT INTO SMALL CAKES [2] ADDING CAPERS [3] AND SEA-NETTLES WELL CLEANED. THESE FISH CAKES COOK IN A LIQUOR OF PEPPER, LOVAGE AND ORIGANY, CRUSHED, DILUTED WITH BROTH AND THE ABOVE FISH LIQUOR WHICH SKIM WELL, BIND [with roux or eggs] STIR [strain] OVER THE CAKES, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] G.-V. minutal de piscibus vel Isiciis.

[2] Tac. G.-V. isiciola ... minuta—resembling our modern quenelles de poisson—tiny fish dumplings.

[3] Tac. cum caparis; Tor. c. capparibus; Vat. Ms. concarpis; List. G.-V. concerpis.

[165] TARENTINE MINUTAL MINUTAL TARENTINUM [1]

FINELY CHOP THE WHITE PART OF LEEKS AND PLACE IN A SAUCE PAN; ADD OIL [fry lightly] AND BROTH; NEXT ADD SMALL SAUSAGE TO BE COOKED LIKEWISE. TO HAVE A GOOD TARENTINE DISH, THEY MUST BE TENDER. THE MAKING OF THESE SAUSAGE WILL BE FOUND AMONG THE ISICIA [Nos. 60-66] [2]. ALSO MAKE A SAUCE IN THE FOLLOWING MANNER: CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE AND ORIGANY, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, ADD OF THE ABOVE [sausage] GRAVY, WINE, RAISIN WINE; PUT IN A SAUCE PAN TO BE HEATED, WHEN BOILING, SKIM CAREFULLY, BIND, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] G.-V. Terentinum, for which there is no reason. Tarentum, town of lower Italy, now Taranto, celebrated for its wine and luxurious living.

[2] Such references to other parts of the book are very infrequent.

[166] APICIAN MINUTAL MINUTAL APICIANUM

THE APICIAN MINUTAL IS MADE AS FOLLOWS: [1] OIL, BROTH WINE, LEEK HEADS, MINT, SMALL FISH, SMALL TIDBITS [2] COCK'S FRIES OR CAPON'S KIDNEYS [3] AND PORK SWEETBREADS; ALL OF THESE ARE COOKED TOGETHER [4] NOW CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, GREEN CORIANDER, OR SEEDS, MOISTENED WITH BROTH; ADD A LITTLE HONEY, AND OF THE OWN LIQUOR [5] OF THE ABOVE MORSELS, WINE AND HONEY TO TASTE; BRING THIS TO A BOILING POINT SKIM, BIND, STIR WELL [strain, pour over the morsels] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE [6].

[1] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

[2] isitiaquenelles, dumplings of some kind, mostly fine forcemeats.

[3] testiculi caponum; the capon has no testiculi, these organs having been removed by an operation when the cock is young. This operation is said to have been first performed by a Roman surgeon with the intention of beating the Lex Fannia, or Fannian law, sponsored by a fanatic named Fannius. It prohibited among other restrictions the serving of any fowl at any time or repast except a hen, and this hen was not to be fattened. Note the cunning of the law: The useful hen and her unlaid eggs could be sacrificed while the unproductive rooster was allowed to thrive to no purpose, immune from the butcher's block. This set the shrewd surgeon to thinking; he transformed a rooster into a capon by his surgical trick. The emasculated bird grew fat without his owner committing any infraction of the Roman law against fattening chickens. Of course the capon, being neither hen nor rooster, was perfectly safe to eat, for he was within the law. Thus he became a huge success as an ancient "bootleg" chicken.

[4] These integral parts must be prepared and poached separately and merely heated together before the final service.

[5] Again the Plautian colloquialism ius de suo sibi.

[6] This dish is worthy of Apicius. It is akin to our Ragout Financiere, and could pass for Vol-au-vent a la Financiere if it were served in a large fluffy crust of puff paste.

[167] MINUTAL A LA MATIUS [1] MINUTAL MATIANUM

PUT IN A SAUCE PAN OIL, BROTH FINELY CHOPPED LEEKS, CORIANDER, SMALL TID-BITS, COOKED PORK SHOULDER, CUT INTO LONG STRIPS INCLUDING THE SKIN, HAVE EVERYTHING EQUALLY HALF DONE. ADD MATIAN APPLES [2] CLEANED, THE CORE REMOVED, SLICED LENGTHWISE AND COOK THEM TOGETHER: MEANWHILE CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, GREEN CORIANDER, OR SEEDS, MINT, LASER ROOT, MOISTENED WITH VINEGAR, HONEY AND BROTH AND A LITTLE REDUCED MUST, ADD TO THIS THE BROTH OF THE ABOVE MORSELS, VINEGAR TO TASTE, BOIL, SKIM, BIND [strain over the morsels] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] Named for Matius, ancient author, or because of the Matian apples used in this dish, also named for the same man. Plinius, Nat. Hist. lib. XV, Cap. 14-15, Columella, De re Rustica, lib. XII, Cap. XLIIII.

This is not the first instance where fruits or vegetables were named for famous men. Beets, a certain kind of them were named for Varro, writer on agriculture. Matius, according to Varro, wrote a book on waiters, cooks, cellar men and food service in general, of which there is no trace today. It was already lost during Varro's days.

[2] Cf. note 1, above. This illustrates the age-old connection of pork and apples.

[168] SWEET MINUTAL MINUTAL DULCE [1]

IN A SAUCE PAN PUT TOGETHER OIL, BROTH, COCTURA [2] FINELY CUT LEEK HEADS AND GREEN CORIANDER, COOKED PORK SHOULDER, SMALL TID-BITS. WHILE THIS IS BEING COOKED, CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, CORIANDER OR [its] SEEDS, GREEN RUE, LASER ROOT, MOISTENED WITH VINEGAR, REDUCED MUST AND THE GRAVY OF THE ABOVE MORSELS; ADD VINEGAR TO TASTE: WHEN THIS [sauce] IS COOKED, HOLLOW OUT CITRON SQUASH [3] CUT IN DICE, BOIL AND PLACE THEM TOGETHER WITH THE REST IN THE DISH, SKIM, BIND [strain] THE SAUCE [pour it over the morsels] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] G.-V. m. ex citriis.

[2] At this late point Apicius commences to use the term coctura which does not designate any particular ingredient but rather stands for a certain process of cookery, depending upon the ingredients used in the dish. We would here interpret it as the frying of the leeks in oil, etc. In another instance coctura may mean our modern reduction.

[3] The fruit to be used here has not been satisfactorily identified. The texts have citrium and citrum—a sweet squash or cucumber—perhaps even a melon, but not the citron, the mala citrea as read by List. This specimen is hard to identify because of the many varieties in the cucumber, squash and the citrus families. Citrus, as a matter of fact, is but a corruption of cedrus, the cedar tree.

We are not sure whether this fruit is to be stuffed with the ragout and then baked, as is often the custom to do with such shells; the texts prescribes distinctly to hollow out the fruit.

The title, implying a "sweet dish" is obviously wrong.

It may be remarked here that Apicius makes no mention of that marvelous citrus fruit, the lemon, nor of the orange, both of which are indispensable to modern cookery.

[169] MINUTAL OF FRUIT MINUTAL EX PRAECOQUIS

IN A SAUCE PAN PUT OIL, BROTH AND WINE, FINELY CUT SHALLOTS, DICED COOKED PORK SHOULDER. WHEN THIS IS COOKED, CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, DRY MINT, DILL, MOISTEN WITH HONEY, BROTH, RAISIN WINE [and] A LITTLE VINEGAR, SOME OF THE GRAVY OF THE ABOVE MORSELS, ADD FRUITS THE SEEDS OF WHICH HAVE BEEN TAKEN OUT, LET BOIL, WHEN THOROUGHLY COOKED, SKIM, BIND, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE [1].

[1] This, rather than {Rx} No. 168, deserves the title, Sweet Minutal, for it is practically the same, with the addition of the fruit.

[170] MINUTAL OF HARE'S LIVERS MINUTAL LEPORINUM

THE WAY TO MAKE A MINUTAL OF HARE'S GIBLETS MAY BE FOUND AMONG THE HARE RECIPES [1].

[170a] IN A SAUCE PAN PUT OIL, BROTH AND WINE, FINELY CUT SHALLOTS, DICED COOKED PORK SHOULDER. WHEN THIS IS COOKED, CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, DRY MINT, DILL, MOISTEN WITH HONEY, BROTH, RAISIN WINE [and] A LITTLE VINEGAR, SOME OF THE GRAVY OF THE ABOVE MORSELS, ADD SEEDLESS FRUITS, LET BOIL, WHEN THOROUGHLY COOKED, SKIM, BIND, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] {Rx} No. 386, Book VIII is one of these recipes. This is one of the few instances where the ancient original makes any reference to any other part of the Apicius book.* After this bare reference, the original proceeds to repeat the text of the preceding formula verbatim.

* Cf. {Rx} No. 165.

Brandt suggests a new title for [170a] ANOTHER SWEET MINUTAL.

The G.-V. version differs but little from {Rx} No. 169.

[171] RED APPLE MINUTAL MINUTAL EX ROSIS [1]

MAKE THIS THE SAME WAY AS DESCRIBED IN THE FOREGOING, ONLY ADD MORE RAISIN WINE.

[1] List. Roses; Tor. Rosatium; this term, medieval Latin, does not exist in the ancient language.

Sch. mala rosea—rosy or red apple, most likely to be the correct interpretation. Cf. {Rx} Nos. 136 and 167.

The above title has led to the belief that the ancients made pies, etc., of roses, an idea that was much ridiculed in England after the publication of Lister's work in 1705.

We concur with Schuch's interpretation that rosy apples were used, remembering, however, that the fruit of the rose tree, the hip, dog-briar, eglantine is also made into dainty confections on the Continent today. It is therefore entirely possible that this recipe calls for the fruit of the rose tree.



IV

GRUELS TISANAM VEL SUCUM

[172] BARLEY BROTH, PAP, PORRIDGE, GRUEL TISANA SIVE CREMORE [1]

CRUSH BARLEY, SOAKED THE DAY BEFORE, WELL WASHED, PLACE ON THE FIRE TO BE COOKED [in a double boiler] WHEN HOT ADD ENOUGH OIL, A BUNCH OF DILL, DRY ONION, SATURY AND COLOCASIUM [2] TO BE COOKED TOGETHER BECAUSE FOR THE BETTER JUICE, ADD GREEN CORIANDER AND A LITTLE SALT; BRING IT TO A BOILING POINT. WHEN DONE TAKE OUT THE BUNCH [of dill] AND TRANSFER THE BARLEY INTO ANOTHER KETTLE TO AVOID STICKING TO THE BOTTOM AND BURNING, MAKE IT LIQUID [by addition of water, broth, milk] STRAIN INTO A POT, COVERING THE TOPS OF THE COLOCASIA. NEXT CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, A LITTLE DRY FLEA-BANE, CUMIN AND SYLPHIUM [3] STIR IT WELL AND ADD VINEGAR, REDUCED MUST AND BROTH; PUT IT BACK INTO THE POT, THE REMAINING COLOCASIA FINISH ON A GENTLE FIRE [4].

[1] Tor. ptisana siue Cremore.

[2] G.-V. Col{oe}fium; Tor. col{oe}sium and colesium (the different readings perhaps on account of the similarity of the "long" s with the f). Tor. spells this word differently every time he is confronted with it. Tac., Lan. coledium—unidentified. List. colocasium, which see in notes to {Rx} Nos. 74, 200, 216, 244, and 322, also Sch. p. 95.

[3] List. sil frictum; Tor. silphium f.

[4] Tor. continuing without interruption. This formula is reported in {Rx} No. 200.

[173] ANOTHER TISANA TISANA TARICHA [1]

THE CEREAL [2] IS SOAKED; CHICKPEAS, LENTILS AND PEAS ARE CRUSHED AND BOILED WITH IT; WHEN WELL COOKED, ADD PLENTY OF OIL. NOW CUT GREEN HERBS, LEEKS, CORIANDER, DILL, FENNEL, BEETS, MALLOWS, CABBAGE STRUNKS, ALL SOFT AND GREEN AND FINELY CUT, AND PUT IN A POT. THE CABBAGE COOK [separately. Also] CRUSH FENNEL SEED, ORIGANY, SYLPHIUM AND LOVAGE, AND WHEN CRUSHED, ADD BROTH TO TASTE, POUR THIS OVER THE PORRIDGE, STIR IT TOGETHER AND USE SOME FINELY CHOPPED CABBAGE STEMS TO SPRINKLE ON TOP [2].

[1] Variants: barrica, farrica; List. legendum, puto, Taricam; id. est Salsam. Cf. {Rx} 144, 149, 426-8. Lan., Tor., G.-V. barricam, not identified. Sch. farrica—corn spelt; probably not far from the mark. We would venture to suggest that our "farina" is the thing here used, or any ordinary corn meal.

[2] This formula is repeated in {Rx} No. 201.



V

HORS D'{OE}UVRES, APPETIZERS, RELISHES GUSTUM

[174] "MOVEABLE" APPETIZERS GUSTUM VERSATILE

THE MOVEABLE [1] APPETIZERS ARE THUS MADE: [2] SMALL WHITE BEETS, MATURE LEEKS, CELERY ROOTS [3] STEWED COCKLES [4] GINGER [5] CHICKEN GIBLETS, SMALL FOWL [6] SMALL MORSELS COOKED IN THEIR OWN LIQUOR [7]. OIL A PAN, LINE IT WITH MALLOW LEAVES AND A COMPOSITION OF DIFFERENT VEGETABLES, AND, IF YOU HAVE ROOM ENOUGH, BULBS, DAMASCUS PLUMS, SNAILS, TID-BITS [8] SHORT LUCANIAN SAUSAGE SLICED; ADD BROTH, OIL, WINE, VINEGAR PUT ON THE FIRE TO HEAT AND SO COOK THEM. MEANWHILE CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, GINGER, A LITTLE TARRAGON, MOISTEN IT AND LET IT COOK. BREAK SEVERAL EGGS IN A DISH, USE THE REMAINING LIQUOR IN THE MORTAR TO MIX IT WITH THE SAUCE IN THE DISH AND TO BIND IT. WHEN THIS IS DONE, MAKE A WINE SAUCE FOR IT AS FOLLOWS: CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, MOISTENED WITH BROTH, RAISIN WINE TO TASTE; IN A SMALL SAUCE PAN PUT A LITTLE OIL [with the other ingredients] HEAT, AND BIND WITH ROUX WHEN HOT. NOW [unmould] UPSET THE DISH ON A PLATTER, REMOVE THE MALLOW LEAVES, POUR OVER THE WINE SAUCE, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE [9].

[1] Moveable, either because it is one show piece that is carried from one guest to another, or, as here indicated, a dish that is to be unmoulded or turned out of its mould or pan before service.

[2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

[3] Celery roots, i.e. the thick bulbs. G.-V. apios, bulbos—celery, onions; note the comma after apios.

[4] Periwinkles, also snails.

[5] Tac., Lan. gingibera; Tor. zinziber; Vat. Ms. gibera; G.-V. Gigeria; Hum. id.—giblets. Wanting in List.

[6] List. avicellas; Vat. Ms. aucellare and scellas; Tac., Lan. id.; Tor. pullorum axillas—chicken wings (?); G.-V. ascellas.

[7] ex iure.

[8] isitia—quenelles of forcemeat, etc.

[9] An extremely complicated composition of varied morsels, definite instructions lacking, however. It is not clear whether the dish was served hot (in which case the dish would not stand up long) or whether served cold, jellyfied. Moreover, the title gustumhors d'{oe}uvres—is not consistent either with similar creations by Apicius or with our own notions of such dishes. This title may merely suggest that such a dish was to be served at the beginning of a repast. This recipe presents an instance of the difficulty to render the text and its variants in a manner acceptable to our modern palates.

We are of the opinion that the above recipe is a contraction of two or more formulae, each of which, separately, might make acceptable hot appetizers.

[175] VEGETABLE RELISH [1] GUSTUM DE OLERIBUS [2]

FOR THIS VEGETABLE DISH BOIL BULBS [3] [in] BROTH, OIL, AND WINE; WHEN DONE [add] LIVER OF SUCKLING PIG [4] CHICKEN LIVERS AND FEET AND SMALL BIRDS [5] CUT IN HALVES, ALL TO BE COOKED WITH THE BULBS. WHEN DONE, CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, MOISTENED WITH BROTH, WINE, RAISIN WINE TO SWEETEN IT. ADD OF THE OWN LIQUOR OF THE MORSELS, RETIRE THE ONIONS, WHEN DONE [group the morsels together in the service dish] BIND [the sauce] WITH ROUX IN THE LAST MOMENT [strain over the morsels] AND SERVE.

[1] An entremet of fowl and livers.

[2] a misnomer, as vegetables play the least part in this dish.

[3] Onions, etc.

[4] jecinora porcelli; Sch. iscinera porcellum.

[5] Tor. axillas and scellas; see note 6 to {Rx} 174.

[176] STUFFED PUMPKIN FRITTERS GUSTUM DE CUCURBITIS FARSILIBUS

A DISH OF STUFFED PUMPKIN [1] IS MADE THUS: [2] PEEL AND CUT THE PUMPKIN LENGTHWISE INTO OBLONG PIECES WHICH HOLLOW OUT AND PUT IN A COOL PLACE. THE DRESSING FOR THE SAME MAKE IN THIS WAY: CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE AND ORIGANY, MOISTENED WITH BROTH; MINCE COOKED BRAINS AND BEAT RAW EGGS AND MIX ALL TOGETHER TO FORM A PASTE; ADD BROTH AS TASTE REQUIRES. STUFF THE ABOVE PREPARED PIECES OF PUMPKIN THAT HAVE NOT BEEN FULLY COOKED WITH THE DRESSING; FIT TWO PIECES TOGETHER AND CLOSE THEM TIGHT [holding them by means of strings or skewers]. [Now poach them and] TAKE THE COOKED ONES OUT AND FRY THEM [3]. [The proper] WINE SAUCE [for this dish] MAKE THUS: CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE MOISTENED WITH WINE, RAISIN WINE TO TASTE, A LITTLE OIL, PLACE IN PAN TO BE COOKED; WHEN DONE BIND WITH ROUX. COVER THE FRIED PUMPKIN WITH THIS SAUCE, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE [4].

[1] Dann. cucumbers, for which there is no authority. Cucumbers lend themselves equally well for a dish of this kind; they are often stuffed with a forcemeat of finely minced meats, mushrooms, eggs, breadcrumbs, or simply with raw sausage meat, cooked as above, and served as a garnish with entrees.

[2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

[3] Presumably in deep fat or oil, a procedure which would require previous breading in bread crumbs or enveloping in frying batter.

[4] Whether you like pumpkin and brains or not—Apicius in this dish reveals himself as the consummate master of his art that he really is—a cook for cooks; Moreover, the lucidity of his diction in this instance is equally remarkable. It stands out in striking contrast to his many other formulae which are so obscured. Many of them perhaps were precepts of likewise striking originality as this one just cited.

[177] COMPOTE OF EARLY FRUIT GUSTUM DE PRAECOQUIS

CLEAN HARD-SKINNED EARLY FRUITS [1] REMOVE THE SEEDS AND KEEP THEM COLD IN A PAN. CRUSH PEPPER [2] DRY MINT, MOISTENED WITH BROTH, ADDING HONEY, RAISIN WINE, WINE AND VINEGAR; POUR THIS OVER THE FRUIT IN THE PAN, ADDING A LITTLE OIL. STEW SLOWLY ON A WEAK FIRE, THICKEN [the juice] WITH ROUX [rice flour or other starch diluted with water] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER [2] AND SERVE [3].

[1] Lister praises the early green fruit and the use thereof, and, as a physician, recommends imitation of the above as follows: In aliis plurimis locis hujus fructus mentio fit; ususque mirabilis fuit; & certe propter salubritatem, nostram imitationem meretur.

[2] We do not like the "pepper" in this connection and we venture to suggest that in this case the term probably stands for some other kind of aromatic seed less pungent than the grain known to us as "pepper" and one more acceptable to the fine flavor of fruit, namely pimiento, allspice for instance, or clove, or nutmeg, or a mixture of these. "Pepper" formerly was a generic term for all of these spices but was gradually confined to the grain pepper of black and white varieties.

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