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Chips From A German Workshop, Vol. V.
by F. Max Mueller
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Planets. Latin. French. Sanskrit. 1 Saturn 1 Dies Saturni Samedi (dies Saui-vara sabbati) 2 Jupiter 6 Dies Solis Dimanche Ravi-vara (dominicus) 3 Mars 4 Dies Lunae Lundi Soma-vara 4 Sun 2 Dies Martis Mardi Bhauma-vara 5 Venus 7 Dies Mercurii Mercredi Brihaspati-vara 7 Moon 3 Dies Veneris Vendredi Sukra-vara

Planets. Old Norse. Anglo-Saxon. English. 1 Saturn 1 laugardagr saetres daeg Saturday (washing day) 2 Jupiter 6 sunnadagr sunnan daeg Sunday 3 Mars 4 manadagr monan daeg Monday 4 Sun 2 tysdagr tives daeg Tuesday 5 Venus 7 odhinsdagr vodenes daeg Wednesday 6 Mercury 5 thorsdagr thunores daeg Thursday 7 Moon 3 friadagr frige daeg Friday

Planets. Old-High Middle-High German. German. German. 1 Saturn 1 sambaztag (sunnun samztac (sunnen Samstag aband) abent) (Sonnabend) 2 Jupiter 6 sunnun dag sunnen tac Sonntag 3 Mars 3 manin tac (?) man tac Montag 4 Sun 2 ziuwes tac (cies zies tac (zies Dienstag dac) tac) 5 Venus 7 wuotanes tac (?) mittwoch Mittwoch (mittawecha) 6 Mercury 5 donares tac donres tac Donnerstag 7 Moon 3 fria dag fritac Freitag

After the names of the week-days had once been settled, we have no difficulty in tracing their migration towards the East and towards the West. The Hindus had their own peculiar system of reckoning days and months, but they adopted at a later time the foreign system of counting by weeks of seven days, and assigning a presiding planetary deity to each of the seven days, according to the system described above. As the Indian name of the planet Mercury was Budha, the dies Mercurii was naturally called Budha-vara but never Buddha-vara; and the fact that the mother of Mercury was called Maia, and the mother of Buddha Maya, could, therefore, have had no bearing whatever on the name assigned to the Indian Wednesday.(56) The very Buddhists, in Ceylon, distinguish between buddha, the enlightened, and budha, wise, and call Wednesday the day of Budha, not of Buddha.(57) Whether the names of the planets were formed in India independently, or after Greek models, is difficult to settle. The name of Budha, the knowing or the clever, given to the planet Mercury, seems, however, inexplicable except on the latter hypothesis.

Having traced the origin of the Sanskrit name of the dies Mercurii, Budha-vara, let us now see why the Teutonic nations, though perfectly ignorant of Buddhism, called the same day the day of Wodan.

That the Teutonic nations received the names of the week-days from their Greek and Roman neighbors admits of no doubt. For commercial and military arrangements between Romans and Germans some kind of lingua franca must soon have sprung up, and in it the names of the week-days must have found their place. There would have been little difficulty in explaining the meaning of Sun-day and Mon-day to the Germans, but in order to make them understand the meaning of the other names, some explanations must have been given on the nature of the different deities, in order to enable the Germans to find corresponding names in their own language. A Roman would tell his German friend that dies Veneris meant the day of a goddess who represented beauty and love, and on hearing this the German would at once have thought of his own goddess of love, Freyja, and have called the dies Veneris the day of Freyja or Friday.(58)

If Jupiter was described as the god who wields the thunderbolt, his natural representative in German would be Donar,(59) the Anglo-Saxon Thunar, the Old Norse Thor; and hence the dies Jovis would be called the day of Thor, or Thursday. If the fact that Jupiter was the king of the gods had been mentioned, his proper representative in German would, no doubt, have been Wuotan or Odin.(60) As it was, Wuotan or Odin was chosen as the nearest approach to Mercury, the character which they share in common, and which led to their identification, being most likely their love of travelling through the air,(61) also their granting wealth and fulfilling the wishes of their worshippers, in which capacity Wuotan is known by the name of Wunsch(62) or Wish. We can thus understand how it happened that father and son changed places, for while Mercurius is the son of Jupiter, Wuotan is the father of Donar. Mars, the god of war, was identified with the German Tiu or Ziu, a name which, though originally the same as Zeus in Greek or Dyaus in Sanskrit, took a peculiarly national character among the Germans, and became their god of war.(63)

There remained thus only the dies Saturni, the day of Saturn, and whether this was called so in imitation of the Latin name, or after an old German deity of a similar name and character, is a point which for the present we must leave unsettled.

What, however, is not unsettled is this, that if the Germans, in interpreting these names of Roman deities as well as they could, called the dies Mercurii, the same day which the Hindus had called the day of Budha (with one d), their day of Wuotan, this was not because "the doctrines of the gentle ascetic existed in the bosom of Odin or his followers, while dwelling near the roots of the Caucasus," but for very different and much more tangible reasons.

But, apart from all this, by what possible process could Buddha and Odin have ever been brought together in the flesh? In the history of ancient religions, Odin belongs to the same stratum of mythological thought as Dyaus in India, Zeus in Greece, Jupiter in Italy. He was worshipped as the supreme deity during a period long anterior to the age of the Veda and of Homer. His travels in Greece, and even in Tyrkland,(64) and his half-historical character as a mere hero and a leader of his people, are the result of the latest Euhemerism. Buddha, on the contrary, is not a mythological, but a personal and historical character, and to think of a meeting of Buddha and Odin, or even of their respective descendants, at the roots of Mount Caucasus, would be like imagining an interview between Cyrus and Odin, between Mohammed and Aphrodite.

A comparative study of ancient religions and mythologies, as will be seen from these instances, is not a subject to be taken up lightly. It requires not only an accurate acquaintance with the minutest details of comparative philology, but a knowledge of the history of religions which can hardly be gained without a study of original documents. As long, however, as researches of this kind are carried on for their own sake, and from a mere desire of discovering truth, without any ulterior objects, they deserve no blame, though, for a time, they may lead to erroneous results. But when coincidences between different religions and mythologies are searched out simply in support of preconceived theories, whether by the friends or enemies of religion, the sense of truth, the very life of all science, is sacrificed, and serious mischief will follow without fail. Here we have a right, not only to protest, but to blame. There is on this account a great difference between the books we have hitherto examined, and a work lately published in Paris by M. Jacolliot, under the sensational title of "La Bible dans l'Inde, Vie de Jeseus Christna." If this book had been written with the pure enthusiasm of Lieutenant Wilford, it might have been passed by as a mere anachronism. But when one sees how its author shuts his eyes against all evidence that would tell against him, and brings together, without any critical scruples, whatever seems to support his theory that Christianity is a mere copy of the ancient religion of India, mere silence would not be a sufficient answer. Besides, the book has lately been translated into English, and will be read, no doubt, by many people who cannot test the evidence on which it professes to be founded. We learn that M. Jacolliot was some years ago appointed President of the Court of Justice at Chandernagore, and that he devoted the leisure left him from the duties of his position to studying Sanskrit and the holy books of the Hindus. He is said to have put himself in communication with the Brahmans, who had obtained access to a great number of MSS. carefully stored up in the depths of the pagodas. "The purport of his book is" (I quote from a friendly critic), "that our civilization, our religion, our legends, our gods, have come to us from India, after passing in succession through Egypt, Persia, Judea, Greece, and Italy." This statement, we are told, is not confined to M. Jacolliot, but has been admitted by almost all Oriental scholars. The Old and New Testaments are found again in the Vedas, and the texts quoted by M. Jacolliot in support of his theory are said to leave it without doubt. Brahma created Adima (in Sanskrit, the first man) and gave him for companion Heva (in Sanskrit, that which completes life). He appointed the island of Ceylon for their residence. What follows afterwards is so beautifully described that I may be pardoned for quoting it. Only I must warn my readers, lest the extract should leave too deep an impression on their memory, that what M. Jacolliot calls a simple translation from Sanskrit is, as far as I can judge, a simple invention of some slightly mischievous Brahman, who, like the Pandits of Lieutenant Wilford, took advantage of the zeal and credulity of a French judge:—

"Having created the Man and the Woman (simultaneously, not one after the other), and animated them with the divine afflatus—the Lord said unto them: 'Behold, your mission is to people this beautiful Island [Ceylon], where I have gathered together everything pleasant and needful for your subsistence—the rest of the Earth is as yet uninhabitable, but should your progeny so increase as to render the bounds of paradise too narrow a habitation, let them inquire of me by sacrifice and I will make known my will.'

"And thus saying, the Lord disappeared....

"Then Adam and Eve dwelt together for a time in perfect happiness; but ere long a vague disquietude began to creep upon them.... The Spirit of Evil, jealous of their felicity and of the work of Brahma, inspired them with disturbing thoughts;—'Let us wander through the Island,' said Adam to his companion, 'and see if we may not find some part even more beautiful than this.' ...

"And Eve followed her husband ... wandering for days and for months; ... but as they advanced the woman was seized with strange and inexplicable terrors: 'Adam,' said she, 'let us go no farther: it seems to me that we are disobeying the Lord; have we not already quitted the place which he assigned us for a dwelling and forbade us to leave?'

" 'Fear not,' replied Adam; 'this is not that fearful wilderness of which he spake to us.' ....

"And they wandered on....

"Arriving at last at the extremity of the Island, they beheld a smooth and narrow arm of the sea, and beyond it a vast and apparently boundless country, connected with their Island only by a narrow and rocky pathway arising from the bosom of the waters.

"The wanderers stood amazed: the country before them was covered with stately trees, birds of a thousand colors flitting amidst their foliage.

"... 'Behold, what beautiful things!' cried Adam, 'and what good fruit such trees must produce; ... let us go and taste them, and if that country is better than this, we will dwell there.'

"Eve, trembling, besought Adam to do nothing that might irritate the Lord against them. 'Are we not well here? Have we not pure water and delicious fruits? Wherefore seek other things?'

" 'True,' replied Adam, 'but we will return; what harm can it be to visit this unknown country that presents itself to our view?' .... And as he approached the rocks, Eve, trembling, followed.

"Placing his wife upon his shoulders, he proceeded to cross the space that separated him from the object of his desires, but no sooner did he touch the shore than trees, flowers, fruits, birds, all that they had perceived from the opposite side, in an instant vanished amidst terrific clamor; ... the rocks by which they had crossed sunk beneath the waters, a few sharp peaks alone remaining above the surface, to indicate the place of the bridge which had been destroyed by Divine displeasure.

"The vegetation which they had seen from the opposite shore was but a delusive mirage raised by the Spirit of Evil to tempt them to disobedience.

"Adam fell, weeping, upon the naked sands, ... but Eve throwing herself into his arms, besought him not to despair; ... 'let us rather pray to the Author of all things to pardon us.' ....

"And as she spake there came a voice from the clouds, saying,

" 'Woman! thou hast only sinned from love to thy husband, whom I commanded thee to love, and thou hast hoped in me.

" 'I therefore pardon thee—and I pardon him also for thy sake: ... but ye may no more return to paradise, which I had created for your happiness; ... through your disobedience to my commands the Spirit of Evil has obtained possession of the Earth.... Your children reduced to labor and to suffer by your fault will become corrupt and forget me....

" 'But I will send Vishnu, who will be born of a woman, and who will bring to all the hope of a reward in another life, and the means by prayer of softening their sufferings.' "

The translator from whom I have quoted exclaims at the end, as well he might:—

"What grandeur and what simplicity is this Hindu legend! and at the same time how simply logical!... Behold here the veritable Eve—the true woman."

But much more extraordinary things are quoted by M. Jacolliot, from the Vedas and the commentaries.

On p. 63 we read that Manu, Minos, and Manes, had the same name as Moses; on p. 73, the Brahmans who invaded India are represented as the successors of a great reformer called Christna. The name of Zoroaster is derived from the Sanskrit Suryastara (p. 110), meaning "he who spreads the worship of the Sun." After it has been laid down (p. 116) that Hebrew was derived from Sanskrit, we are assured that there is little difficulty in deriving Jehovah from Zeus.(65) Zeus, Jezeus, Jesus, and Isis are all declared to be the same name, and later on (p. 130) we learn that "at present the Brahmans who officiate in the pagodas and temples give this title of Jeseus—i. e. the pure essence, the divine emanation—to Christna only, who alone is recognized as the Word, the truly incarnated, by the worshippers of Vishnu and the freethinkers among the Brahmans."

We are assured that the Apostles, the poor fishermen of Galilee, were able to read the Veda (p. 356); and it was their greatest merit that they did not reject the miraculous accounts of the Vedic period, because the world was not yet ripe for freedom of thought. Kristna, or Christna, we read on p. 360, signified in Sanskrit, sent by God, promised by God, holy; and as the name of Christ or Christos is not Hebrew, whence could it have been taken except from Krishna, the son of Devaki, or, as M. Jacolliot writes, Devanaguy?

It is difficult, nay, almost impossible, to criticise or refute such statements, and yet it is necessary to do so; for such is the interest, or I should rather say the feverish curiosity, excited by anything that bears on ancient religion, that M. Jacolliot's book has produced a very wide and very deep impression. It has been remarked with some surprise that Vedic scholars in Europe had failed to discover these important passages in the Veda which he has pointed out, or, still worse, that they had never brought them to the knowledge of the public. In fact, if anything was wanting to show that a general knowledge of the history of ancient religion ought to form part of our education, it was the panic created by M. Jacolliot's book. It is simply the story of Lieutenant Wilford over again, only far less excusable now than a hundred years ago. Many of the words which M. Jacolliot quotes as Sanskrit are not Sanskrit at all; others never have the meaning which he assigns to them; and as to the passages from the Vedas (including our old friend the Bhagaveda-gita), they are not from the Veda, they are not from any old Sanskrit writer—they simply belong to the second half of the nineteenth century. What happened to Lieutenant Wilford has happened again to M. Jacolliot. He tells us the secret himself:—

"One day," he says (p. 280), "when we were reading the translation of Manu, by Sir W. Jones, a note led us to consult the Indian commentator, Kulluka Bhatta, when we found an allusion to the sacrifice of a son by his father prevented by God himself after he had commanded it. We then had only one idee fixe—namely, to find again in the dark mass of the religious books of the Hindu, the original account of that event. We should never have succeeded but for 'the complaisance' of a Brahman with whom we were reading Sanskrit, and who, yielding to our request, brought us from the library of his pagoda the works of the theologian Ramatsariar, which have yielded us such precious assistance in this volume."

As to the story of the son offered as a sacrifice by his father, and released at the command of the gods, M. Jacolliot might have found the original account of it from the Veda, both text and translation, in my "History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature." He would soon have seen that the story of Sunahsepa being sold by his father in order to be sacrificed in the place of an Indian prince, has very little in common with the intended sacrifice of Isaac by Abraham. M. Jacolliot has, no doubt, found out by this time that he has been imposed upon; and if so, he ought to follow the example of Colonel Wilford, and publicly state what has happened. Even then, I doubt not that his statements will continue to be quoted for a long time, and that Adima and Heva, thus brought to life again, will make their appearance in many a book and many a lecture-room.

Lest it be supposed that such accidents happen to Sanskrit scholars only, or that this fever is bred only in the jungles of Indian mythology, I shall mention at least one other case which will show that this disease is of a more general character, and that want of caution will produce it in every climate.

Before the discovery of Sanskrit, China had stood for a long time in the place which was afterwards occupied by India. When the ancient literature and civilization of China became first known to the scholars of Europe, the Celestial Empire had its admirers and prophets as full of enthusiasm as Sir W. Jones and Lieutenant Wilford, and there was nothing, whether Greek philosophy or Christian morality, that was not supposed to have had its first origin among the sages of China. The proceedings of the Jesuit missionaries in China were most extraordinary. They had themselves admitted the antiquity of the writings of Confucius and Lao-tse, both of whom lived in the sixth century B. C.(66) But in their zeal to show that the sacred books of the Chinese contained numerous passages borrowed from the Bible, nay, even some of the dogmas of the later Church, they hardly perceived that, taking into account the respective dates of these books, they were really proving that a kind of anticipated Christianity had been accorded to the ancient sages of the Celestial Empire. The most learned advocate of this school was Father Premare. Another supporter of the same view, Montucci,(67) speaking of Lao-tse's Tao-te-king, says:—

"We find in it so many sayings clearly referring to the triune God, that no one who has read this book can doubt that the mystery of the most holy Trinity was revealed to the Chinese more than five centuries before the advent of Christ. Everybody, therefore, who knows the strong feeling of the Chinese for their own teachers, will admit that nothing more efficient could be found in order to fix the dogmas of the Christian religion in the mind of the Chinese than the demonstration that these dogmas agree with their own books. The study, therefore, and the translation of this singular book (the Tao-te-king) would prove most useful to the missionaries, in order to bring to a happy issue the desired gathering in of the Apostolic harvest."

What followed is so extraordinary that, though it has often been related, it deserves to be related again, more particularly as the whole problem which was supposed to have been solved once for all by M. Stanislas Julien, has of late been opened again by Dr. von Strauss, in the "Journal of the German Oriental Society," 1869.

There is a passage at the beginning of the fourteenth chapter of the Tao-te-king in which Father Amyot felt certain that the three Persons of the Trinity could be recognized. He translated it:—

"He who is as it were visible but cannot be seen is called Khi.

"He whom we cannot hear, and who does not speak to our ear, is called Hi.

"He who is as it were tangible, but cannot be touched, is called Wei."

Few readers, I believe, would have been much startled by this passage, or would have seen in it what Father Amyot saw. But more startling revelations were in store. The most celebrated Chinese scholar of his time, Abel Remusat, took up the subject; and after showing that the first of the three names had to be pronounced, not Khi, but I, he maintained that the three syllables I Hi Wei, were meant for Je-ho-vah. According to him, the three characters employed in this name have no meaning in Chinese; they are only signs of sounds foreign to the Chinese language; and they were intended to render the Greek Ἰαῶ, the name which, according to Diodorus Siculus, the Jews gave to their God. Remusat goes on to remark that Lao-tse had really rendered this Hebrew name more accurately than the Greeks, because he had preserved the aspiration of the second syllable, which was lost in Greek. In fact, he entertained no doubt that this word, occurring in the work of Lao-tse, proves an intellectual communication between the West and China, in the sixth century B. C.

Fortunately, the panic created by this discovery did not last long. M. Stanislas Julien published in 1842 a complete translation of this difficult book; and here all traces of the name of Jehovah have disappeared.

"The three syllables, he writes, "which Abel Remusat considered as purely phonetic and foreign to the Chinese language, have a very clear and intelligible meaning, and have been fully explained by Chinese commentators. The first syllable, I, means without color; the second, Hi, without sound or voice; the third, Wei, without body. The proper translation therefore is:—"

"You look (for the Tao, the law) and you see it not: it is colorless.

"You listen and you hear it not: it is voiceless.

"You wish to touch it and you reach it not: it is without body."

Until, therefore, some other traces can be discovered in Chinese literature proving an intercourse between China and Judaea in the sixth century B. C., we can hardly be called upon to believe that the Jews should have communicated this one name, which they hardly trusted themselves to pronounce at home, to a Chinese philosopher; and we must treat the apparent similarity between I-Hi-Wei and Jehovah as an accident, which ought to serve as a useful warning, though it need in no way discourage a careful and honest study of Comparative Theology.



IV.

ON SPELLING.

The remarks which I venture to offer in these pages on the corrupt state of the present spelling of English, and on the advantages and disadvantages connected with a reform of English orthography, were written in fulfillment of a promise of very long standing. Ever since the publication of the Second Volume of my "Lectures on the Science of Language," in 1863, where I had expressed my sincere admiration for the courage and perseverance with which Mr. Isaac Pitman and some of his friends (particularly Mr. A. J. Ellis, for six years his most active associate) had fought the battle of a reform in English spelling, Mr. Pitman had been requesting me to state more explicitly than I had done in my "Lectures" my general approval of his life-long endeavors. He wished more particularly that I should explain why I, though by profession an etymologist, was not frightened by the specter of phonetic spelling, while such high authorities as Archbishop Trench and Dean Alford had declared that phonetic spelling would necessarily destroy the historical and etymological character of the English language.

If I ask myself why I put off the fulfillment of my promise from year to year, the principal reason I find is, that really I had nothing more to say than what, though in few words, I had said before. Every thing that can be said on this subject has been said, and well said, not only by Mr. Pitman, but by a host of writers and lecturers, among whom I might mention Mr. Alexander J. Ellis, Dr. Latham, Professors Haldeman, Whitney, and Hadley, Mr. Withers, Mr. E. Jones, Dr. J. H. Gladstone, and many others. The whole matter is no longer a matter for argument; and the older I grow, the more I feel convinced that nothing vexes people so much, and hardens them in their unbelief and in their dogged resistance to reforms, as undeniable facts and unanswerable arguments. Reforms are carried by Time, and what generally prevails in the end, are not logical deductions, but some haphazard and frequently irrational motives. I do not say, therefore, with Dean Swift, that "there is a degree of corruption wherein some nations, as bad as the world is, will proceed to an amendment; till which time particular men should be quiet." On the contrary, I feel convinced that practical reformers, like Mr. Pitman, should never slumber nor sleep. They should keep their grievances before the public in season and out of season. They should have their lamps burning, to be ready whenever the right time comes. They should repeat the same thing over and over again, undismayed by indifference, ridicule, contempt, and all the other weapons which the lazy world knows so well how to employ against those who venture to disturb its peace.

I myself, however, am not a practical reformer; least of all in a matter which concerns Englishmen only—namely, the spelling of the English language. I should much rather, therefore, have left the fight to others, content with being merely a looker-on. But when I was on the point of leaving England my conscience smote me. Though I had not actually given a pledge, I remembered how, again and again, I had said to Mr. Pitman that I would much rather keep than make a promise; and though overwhelmed with other work at the time, I felt that before my departure I ought, if possible, to satisfy Mr. Pitman's demands. The article was written; and though my own plans have since been changed, and I remain at Oxford, it may as well be published in discharge of a debt which has been for some time heavy on my conscience.

What I wish most strongly to impress on my readers is that I do not write as an advocate. I am not an agitator for phonetic reform in England. My interest in the matter is, and always has been, purely theoretical and scientific. Spelling and the reform of spelling are problems which concern every student of the science of language. It does not matter whether the language be English, German, or Dutch. In every written language the problem of reforming its antiquated spelling must sooner or later arise; and we must form some clear notion whether any thing can be done to remove or alleviate a complaint inherent in the very life of language. If my friends tell me that the idea of a reform of spelling is entirely Quixotic, that it is a mere waste of time to try to influence a whole nation to surrender its historical orthography and to write phonetically, I bow to their superior wisdom as men of the world. But as I am not a man of the world, but rather an observer of the world, my interest in the subject, my convictions as to what is right and wrong, remain just the same. It is the duty of scholars and philosophers not to shrink from holding and expressing what men of the world call Quixotic opinions; for, if I read the history of the world rightly, the victory of reason over unreason, and the whole progress of our race, have generally been achieved by such fools as ourselves "rushing in where angels fear to tread," till, after a time, the track becomes beaten, and even angels are no longer afraid. I hold, and have confessed, much more Quixotic theories on language than this belief—that what has been done before by Spaniards and Dutchmen—what is at this very moment being done by Germans, namely, to reform their corrupt spelling—may be achieved even by Englishmen and Americans.

I have expressed my belief that the time will come when not only the various alphabets and systems of spelling, but many of the languages themselves which are now spoken in Europe, to say nothing of the rest of the world, will have to be improved away from the face of the earth and abolished. Knowing that nothing rouses the ire of a Welshman or a Gael so much as to assert the expediency, nay, necessity, of suppressing the teaching of their languages at school, it seems madness to hint that it would be a blessing to every child born in Holland, in Portugal, or in Denmark—nay, in Sweden and even in Russia—if, instead of learning a language which is for life a barrier between them and the rest of mankind, they were at once to learn one of the great historical languages which confer intellectual and social fellowship with the whole world. If, as a first step in the right direction, four languages only, namely, English, French, German, Italian (or possibly Spanish) were taught at school, the saving of time—and what is more precious than time?—would be infinitely greater than what has been effected by railways and telegraphs. But I know that no name in any of the doomed languages would be too strong to stigmatize such folly. We should be told that a Japanese only could conceive such an idea; that for a people deliberately to give up its language was a thing never heard of before; that a nation would cease to be a nation if it changed its language; that it would, in fact, commit "the happy despatch," a la Japonaise. All this may be true, but I hold that language is meant to be an instrument of communication, and that in the struggle for life, the most efficient instrument of communication must certainly carry the day, as long as natural selection, or, as we formerly called it, reason, rules the world.

The following figures may be of use in forming an opinion as to the fates of the great languages of Europe:(68)—

Portuguese is spoken in Portugal, by 3,980,000 Brazil, by 10,000,000 Total: 13,980,000 Italian, by 27,524,238 French, in France, Belgium, Switzerland, etc., by 40,188,000 Spanish, in Spain, by 16,301,000 South America, by 27,408,082 Total: 43,709,082 Russian, by 51,370,000 German, by 55,789,000 English, in Europe, by 31,000,000 America, by 45,000,000 Australia, etc., by 2,000,000 the Colonies, by 1,050,000 Total: 79,050,000

According to De Candolle, the population doubles in

England, in 56 years America, among the German races, in 25 years Italy, in 135 years Russia, in 100 years Spain, in 112 years South America, in 27-1/2 years Germany, in 100 years France, in 140 years

Therefore, in 200 years (barring accidents)

Italian will be spoken by 53,370,000 French will be spoken by 72,571,000 German will be spoken by 157,480,000 Spanish will be spoken in Europe, by 36,938,338 South America, by 468,347,904 Total: 505,286,242 English will be spoken in Europe, by 178,846,153 United States, and British Dependencies, by 1,658,440,000 Total: 1,837,286,153

But I shall say no more on this, for as it is, I know I shall never hear the end of it, and shall go down to posterity, if for nothing else, at least for this the most suicidal folly in a student of languages; a folly comparable only to that of Leibniz, who actually conceived the possibility of one universal language.

To return, however, to the problem to the solution of which Mr. Pitman has devoted the whole of his active life, let me say again that my interest in it is purely philological; or, if you like, historical. The problem which has to be solved in England and the United States of America is not a new one, nor an isolated one. It occurs again and again in the history of language; in fact, it must occur. When languages are reduced to writing, they are at first written phonetically, though always in a very rough-and-ready manner. One dialect, that of the dominant, the literary, or priestly character, is generally selected; and the spelling, once adopted, becomes in a very short time traditional and authoritative. What took place thousands of years ago, we can see taking place, if we like, at the present moment. A missionary from the island of Mangaia, the Rev. W. Gill, first introduced the art of writing among his converts. He learned their language, at least one dialect of it, he translated part of the Bible into it, and adopted, of necessity, a phonetic spelling. That dialect is gradually becoming the recognized literary language of the whole island, and his spelling is taught at school. Other dialects, however, continue to be spoken, and they may in time influence the literary dialect. For the present, however, the missionary dialect, as it is called by the natives themselves, and the missionary spelling, rule supreme, and it will be some time before a spelling reform is wanted out there.

Among the more ancient nations of Europe, not only does the pronunciation of language maintain its inherent dialectic variety, and fluctuate through the prevalence of provincial speakers, but the whole body of a language changes, while yet the spelling, once adopted in public documents, and taught to children, remains for a long time the same. In early times, when literature was in its infancy, when copies of books could easily be counted, and when the norma scribendi was in the hands of a few persons, the difficulty of adapting the writing to the ever-varying pronunciation of a language was comparatively small. We see it when we compare the Latin of early Roman inscriptions with the Latin of Cicero. We know from Cicero himself that when he settled among the patricians of Rome, he had on some small points to change both his pronunciation and his spelling of Latin. The reform of spelling was a favorite subject with Roman scholars, and even emperors were not too proud to dabble in inventing new letters and diacritical signs. The difficulty, however, never assumes serious proportions. The small minority of people who were able to read and write, pleased themselves as best they could; and, by timely concessions, prevented a complete estrangement between the written and the spoken language.

Then came the time when Latin ceased to be Latin, and the vulgar dialects, such as Italian, French, and Spanish took its place. At that time the spelling was again phonetic, though here and there tinged by reminiscences of Latin spelling. There was much variety, but considering how limited the literary intercourse must have been between different parts of France, Spain, or Italy, it is surprising that on the whole there should have been so much uniformity in the spelling of these modern dialects. A certain local and individual freedom of spelling, however, was retained; and we can easily detect in mediaeval MSS. the spelling of literate and illiterate writers, the hand of the learned cleric, the professional clerk, and the layman.

[A style of spelling will now be introduced which has received the name of Semiphonotypy. It requires no new letter: "[D] [p]" for the vowel in but, son, are made from "D p" by a pen-knife. The short vowels, diphthongs, and consonants are all written phonetically, except an occasional "n" = "[n]" before k and g, and "th" = both "[t]" and "[dh]" leaving only the long vowels in the old spelling. Six syllables out of seven are thus written as in full phonotypy. The italic and script forms of "[P [italic form] ]" are "[p [italic form] ]" (a turned italic "a") and [P p [script form] ].]

The great event hwich formz a deseisiv epok in the histori ov speling iz the introd[p]kshon ov printing. With printed buks, and partikiularli with printed Beibelz, skaterd over the k[p]ntri, the speling of w[p]rdz bekame rijid, and universali beinding. S[p]m langwejez, s[p]ch az Italian, wer more fortiunate than [p]therz in having a more rashonal sistem ov speling tu start with. S[p]m, agen, leik Jerman, wer abel tu make teimli konseshonz, hweil [p]therz, s[p]ch az Spanish, D[p]ch, and French, had Akademiz tu help them at kritikal periodz ov their histori. The most [p]nfortiunate in all theze respekts woz Inglish. It started with a Latin alfabet, the pron[p]nsiashon ov hwich woz [p]nseteld, and hwich had tu be apleid tu a Tiutonik langwej. After this ferst fonetik kompromeiz it had tu pas through a konfiuzd sistem ov speling, half Sakson, half Norman; half fonetik, half tradishonal. The histori ov the speling, and even ov the pron[p]nsiashon, ov Inglish, in its pasej from Anglo-Sakson tu midel and modern Inglish, haz lateli been st[p]did with great s[p]kses bei Mr. Ellis and Mr. Sweet. Ei m[p]st refer tu their buks "On Erli Inglish Pron[p]nsiashon," and "On the Histori ov Inglish Soundz," hwich kontain a welth ov il[p]strashon, almost bewildering. And even after Inglish reachez the period ov printing, the konfiuzhon iz bei no meanz terminated; on the kontrari, for a teim it iz greater than ever. Hou this kame tu pas haz been wel il[p]strated bei Mr. Marsh in hiz ekselent "Lektiurz on the Inglish Langwej," p. 687, seq.(69) Hwot we nou kall the establisht sistem ov Inglish orthografi may, in the main, be trast bak tu Jonson'z Dikshonari, and tu the stil more kaprishus sway ekserseizd bei larj printing ofisez and p[p]blisherz. It iz true that the evil ov printing karid tu a serten ekstent its own remedi. If the speling bekame [p]nchanjabel, the langwej itself, too, woz, bei meanz ov a printed literatiur, chekt konsiderabli in its natiural growth and its dealektik vareieti. Nevertheles Inglish haz chanjed sins the invenshon ov printing; Inglish iz chanjing, though bei imperseptibel degreez, even nou; and if we kompare Inglish az spoken with Inglish az riten, they seem almost leik two diferent langwejez; az diferent az Latin iz from Italian.

This, no dout, iz a nashonal misfortiun, but it iz inevitabel. Litel az we perseive it, langwej iz, and alwayz m[p]st be, in a state ov fermentashon; and hwether within hundredz or thouzandz ov yearz, all living langwejez m[p]st be prepared tu enkounter the difik[p]lti hwich in Ingland starez us in the fase at prezent. "Hwot shal we do?" ask our frendz. "Ther iz our hole nashonal literatiur," they say, "our leibrariz aktiuali b[p]rsting with buks and nuizpaperz. Ar all theze tu be thrown away? Ar all valiuabel buks tu be reprinted? Ar we ourselvz tu [p]nlern hwot we hav lernd with so much tr[p]bel, and hwot we hav taught tu our children with greater tr[p]bel stil? Ar we tu sakrifeiz all that iz historikal in our langwej, and sink doun tu the low level ov the Fonetik Nuz?" Ei kud go on m[p]ltipleiing theze kwestionz til even thoze men ov the w[p]rld who nou hav onli a shrug ov the shoulder for the reformerz ov speling shud say, "We had no eidea hou strong our pozishon reali iz."

But with all that, the problem remainz [p]nsolvd. Hwot ar peopel tu do hwen langwej and pron[p]nsiashon chanje, hweil their speling iz deklared tu be [p]nchanjabel? It iz, ei believ, hardli nesesari that ei shud prove hou kor[p]pt, efete, and [p]terli irrashonal the prezent sistem ov speling iz, for now[p]n seemz inkleind tu denei all that. Ei shal onli kwote, therefor, the j[p]jment ov w[p]n man, the late Bishop Thirlwall, a man who never uzed ekzajerated langwej. "Ei luk," he sez "[p]pon the establisht sistem, if an aksidental k[p]stom may be so kalld, az a mas ov anomaliz, the growth ov ignorans and chans, ekwali rep[p]gnant tu gud taste and tu komon sens. B[p]t ei am aware that the p[p]blik kling tu theze anomaliz with a tenasiti proporshond tu their abs[p]rditi, and ar jel[p]s ov all enkroachment on ground konsekrated tu the free play ov bleind kaprise."

It may be useful, houever, tu kwote the testimonialz ov a fiu praktikal men in order tu show that this sistem ov speling haz reali bek[p]m w[p]n ov the greatest nashonal misfortiunz, swolowing [p]p milionz ov m[p]ni everi year and bleiting all atempts at nashonal ediukashon. Mr. Edward Jones, a skoolmaster ov great eksperiens, having then siuperintendens ov the Heibernian Skoolz, Liverpool, rote, in the year 1868:

"The G[p]vernment haz for the last twenti yearz taken ediukashon [p]nder its kare. They diveided the subjekts ov instr[p]kshon intu siks gradez. The heiest point that woz atempted in the G[p]vernment Skoolz woz that a piupil shud be abel tu read with tolerabel eaze and ekspreshon a pasej from a niuzpaper, and tu spel the same with a tolerabel amount ov akiurasi."

Let [p]s luk at the rez[p]lts az they apear in the report ov the Komiti ov Kounsil on Ediukashon for 1870-71:

Skoolz or Departments [p]nder separate hed teacherz in Ingland and Walez inspekted diuring the year 31st August, 1870, 15,287 Sertifikated asistant, and piupil teacherz emploid in theze skoolz, 28,033 Skolarz in daili averej atendans throughout the year, 1,168,981 Skolarz prezent on the day ov inspekshon, 1,473,883 Skolarz prezented for ekzaminashon: [P]nder ten yearz ov aje, 473,444 Over ten yearz ov aje, 292,144 Total: 765,588 Skolarz prezented for Standard VI.: [P]nder ten yearz ov aje, 227 Over ten yearz ov aje, 32,953 Total: 33,180 Skolarz who past in Standard VI.: 1. Reading a short paragraf from a niuzpaper, 30,985 2. Reiting the same from diktashon, 27,989 3. Arithmetik, 22,839

Therfor, les than w[p]n skolar for each teacher, and les than two skolarz for each skool inspekted, reacht Standard VI.

In 1873 the state ov thingz, akording tu the ofishal ret[p]rnz ov the Ediukashon Department, woz m[p]ch the same. Ferst ov all, ther ought tu hav been at skool 4,600,000 children between the ajez ov three and therteen. The number ov children on the rejister ov inspekted skoolz woz 2,218,598. Out ov that number, about 200,000 leav skool aniuali, their ediukashon being supozed tu be finisht. Out ov theze 200,000, neinti per sent. leav without reaching the 6th Standard, eighti per sent. without reaching the 5th, and siksti per sent. without reaching the 4th Standard.

The report for 1874-75 showz an inkreas ov children on the buks, b[p]t the proporshon ov children pasing in the vari[p]s standardz iz s[p]bstanshali the same. (See "Popiular Ediukashon," bei E. Jones, B.A., an eks-skoolmaster, 1875.) It iz kalkiulated that for such rezults az theze the k[p]ntri, hwether bei taksashon or bei voluntari kontribiushonz, payz nearli L3,500,000 aniuali.

Akording tu the same authoriti, Mr. E. Jones, it nou takes from siks tu seven yearz tu lern the arts ov reading and speling with a fair degree ov intelijens—that iz, about 2,000 ourz; and tu meni meindz the difik[p]ltiz ov orthografi ar ins[p]rmountabel. The bulk ov the children pas through the G[p]vernment skoolz without having akweird the abiliti tu read with eaze and intelijens.

"An averej cheild," sez anuthcr skoolmaster, "begining skool at seven, ought tu be abel tu read the Niu Testament fluentli at eleven or twelv yearz ov aje, and at therteen or fourteen ought tu be abel tu read a gud leading artikel with eaze and ekspreshon." That iz, with seven ourz a week for forti weeks for feiv yearz, a cheild rekweirz 1,400 ourz' w[p]rk, tu be abel tu read the Niu Testament.

After a kareful ekzaminashon ov y[p]ng men and wimen from therteen tu twenti yearz ov aje in the faktoriz ov Birmingham, it woz proved that onli 4-1/2 per sent. wer abel tu read a simpel sentens from an ordinari skool-buk with intelijens and akiurasi.

This apleiz tu the lower klasez. B[p]t with regard tu the heier klasez the kase seemz almost w[p]rs; for Dr. Morell, in hiz "Maniual ov Speling," aserts that out ov 1,972 failiurz in the Sivil Servis Ekzaminashonz 1,866 kandidates wer pl[p]kt for speling.

So much for the piupilz. Am[p]ng the teacherz themselvz it woz found in Amerika that out ov w[p]n h[p]ndred komon w[p]rdz the best speler am[p]ng the eighti or neinti teacherz ekzamind faild in w[p]n, s[p]m preiz-takerz faild in four or feiv, and s[p]m [p]therz mist over forti. The Depiuti State Siuperintendent deklared that on an averej the teacherz ov the State wud fail in speling tu the ekstent ov 25 per sent.

Hwot, houever, iz even more seri[p]s than all this iz not the great waste ov teim in lerning tu read, and the almost komplete failiur in nashonal ediukashon, but the aktiual mischef d[p]n bei s[p]bjekting y[p]ng meindz tu the illojikal and tedi[p]s dr[p]jeri ov lerning tu read Inglish az speld at prezent. Everithing they hav tu lern in reading (or pron[p]nsiashon) and speling iz irrashonal; w[p]n rule kontradikts the [p]ther, and each statement haz tu be aksepted simpli on authoriti, and with a komplete disregard ov all thoze rashonal instinkts which lei dormant in the cheild, and ought tu be awakend bei everi keind ov helthi ekserseiz.

Ei no ther ar personz who kan defend enithing, and who hold that it iz diu tu this veri disiplin that the Inglish karakter iz hwot it iz; that it retainz respekt for authoriti; that it d[p]z not rekweir a reazon for everithing; and that it duz not admit that hwot iz inkonseivabel iz therefor imposibel. Even Inglish orthodoksi haz been trast bak tu that hiden sourse, bekauz a cheild akustomd tu believe that t-h-o-u-g-h iz tho, and that t-h-r-o-u-g-h iz throo, w[p]d afterwardz believe enithing. It may be so; stil ei dout hwether even such objekts wud justifei s[p]ch meanz. Lord Lytton sez, "A more leiing, round-about, p[p]zel-heded deluzhon than that bei hwich we konfiuz the klear instinkts ov truth in our ak[p]rsed sistem ov speling woz never konkokted bei the father ov fol.shud.... Hou kan a sistem ov ediukashon fl[p]rish that beginz bei so monstr[p]s a fols.hud, hwich the sens ov hearing s[p]feisez tu kontradikt?"

Though it may seem a w[p]rk ov siupererogashon tu bring forward stil more fakts in s[p]port ov the jeneral kondemnashon past on Inglish speling, a fiu ekstrakts from a pamflet bei Mr. Meiklejohn, late Asistant-Komishoner ov the Endoud Skoolz Komishon for Skotland, may here feind a plase.

"Ther ar therteen diferent wayz ov reprezenting the sound ov long o:—note, boat, toe, yeoman, soul, row, sew, hautboy, beau, owe, floor, oh!, O!"

And agen (p. 16),

"Double-you-aitch-eye-see-aitch is which Tea-are-you-tea-aitch is truth Bee-o-you-gee-aitch is bough See-are-eh-bee is crab Bee-ee-eh-see-aitch is beach Oh-you-gee-aitch-tee is ought Oh-enn-see-ee is once

"Or, tu sum up the hole indeitment agenst the kulprit: 1. Out ov the twenti-siks leterz, onli eight ar true, fikst, and permanent kwolitiz—that iz, are true both tu ei and ear. 2. Ther ar therti-eight distinkt soundz in our spoken langwej; and ther ar about 400 distinkt simbolz (simpel and kompound) tu reprezent theze therti-eight soundz. In [p]ther wurdz, ther ar 400 servants tu do the w[p]rk ov therti-eight. 3. Ov the twenti-siks leterz, fifteen hav akweird a habit ov heiding themselvz. They ar riten and printed; b[p]t the ear haz no akount ov them; such ar w in wrong, and gh in right. 4. The vouel soundz ar printed in diferent wayz; a long o, for ekzampel, haz therteen printed simbolz tu reprezent it. 5. Fourteen vouel soundz hav 190 printed simbolz atacht tu their servis. 6. The singel vouel e haz feiv diferent funkshonz; it ought onli tu hav w[p]n. 7. Ther ar at least 1,300 w[p]rdz in hwich the simbol and the sound ar at varians—in hwich the w[p]rd iz not sounded az it iz printed. 8. Ov theze 1,300, 800 ar monosilabelz—the komonest w[p]rdz, and s[p]pozed tu be eazier for children. 9. The hole langwej ov k[p]ntri children leiz within theze w[p]rdz; and meni agrikultiural laborerz go from the kradel tu the grave with a stok ov no more than 500 w[p]rdz."

The kwestion, then, that wil hav tu be anserd sooner or later iz this:—Kan this unsistematik sistem ov speling Inglish be aloud tu go on for ever? Iz everi Inglish cheild, az kompared with [p]ther children, tu be m[p]lkted in two or three yearz ov hiz leif in order tu lern it? Ar the lower klasez tu go through skool without lerning tu read and reit their own langwej intelijentli? And iz the kuntri tu pay milionz everi year for this [p]ter failiur ov nashonal ediukashon? Ei do not believ that s[p]ch a state ov thingz wil be aloud tu kontiniu for ever, partikiularli az a remedi iz at hand—a remidi that haz nou been tested for twenti or therti yearz, and that haz anserd ekstremli wel. Ei mean Mr. Pitman'z sistem ov fonetik reiting, az apleid tu Inglish. Ei shal not enter here intu eni miniut disk[p]shon ov fonetiks, or re-open the kontroversi hwich haz arizen between the advokets ov diferent sistemz ov fonetik reiting. Ov kourse, ther ar diferent degreez ov ekselens in diferent sistemz ov fonetik speling; but even the w[p]rst ov theze sistemz iz infinitli siuperior tu the tradishonal speling.

Ei giv Mr. Pitman'z alfabet, hwich komprehendz the therti-siks broad tipikal soundz ov the Inglish langwej, and aseinz tu each a definit sein. With theze therti-siks seinz, Inglish kan be riten rashonali and red eazili; and, hwot iz most important, it haz been proved bei an eksperiens ov meni yearz, bei niumer[p]s p[p]blikashonz, and bei praktikal eksperiments in teaching both children and ad[p]lts, that such a sistem az Mr. Pitman'z iz perfektli praktikal.

THE PHONETIC ALPHABET.

The phonetic letters in the first column are pronounced like the italic letters in the words that follow. The last column contains the names of the letters.

CONSONANTS.

Mutes.

P p rope p[i] B b robe b[i] T t fate t[i] D d fade d[i] [Ch] [ch] etch [ch][e] J j edge j[e] K k leek k[e] G g league g[e]

Continuants.

F f safe ef V v save v[i] [T] [t] wreath i[t] [Dh] [dh] wreathe [dh][i] S s hiss es Z z his z[i] [Sh] [sh] vicious i[sh] [Z] [Z] vision [z][i]

Nasals.

M m seem em N n seen en [N] [n] sing i[n]

Liquids.

L l fall el R r rare ar

Coalescents.

W w wet w[e] Y y yet y[e]

Aspirate.

H h hay [e][ch]

VOWELS.

Guttural.

A a am at [A] [a] alms [a] E e ell et [E] [e] ale [e] I i ill it [I] [i] eel [i]

Labial.

O o on ot [W] [w] all [w] [U] [u] up [u]t [O] [o] ope [o] U u full ut [Ue] [ue] food [ue]

DIPHTHONGS: Ei ei, IU iu, OU ou, AI ai, OI oi, as heard in by, new, now, Kaiser, boy.

[In the next fourteen pages, five of the new letters will be employed, viz., [a], [u], [t], [z], [n], for the sounds represented by the italic letters in father, son, but, thin, vision, sing.]

Nou ei ask eni intelijent reader who d[u]z not [t]i[n]k that everi[t]i[n] niu and stranje iz, ipso facto, ridikiul[u]s and abs[u]rd, hwether after a fiu dayz' praktis, he or she wud not read and reit I[n]glish, akordi[n] tu Mr. Pitman'z sistem, with perfekt eaze? Ov kourse it takes more than feiv minits tu master it, and more than feiv minits tu form an opinion ov its merits. B[u]t admiti[n] even that peopel ov a serten aje shud feind this niu alfabet tr[u]bels[u]m, we m[u]st not forget that no reform kan be karid out without a jenerashon or two ov marterz; and hwot true reformerz hav tu [t]i[n]k ov iz not themselvz, b[u]t thoze who k[u]m after them—thoze, in fakt, who ar nou growi[n] [u]p tu inherit hereafter, hwether they leik it or not, all the gud and all the evil hwich we chooz tu leav tu them.

It meit be sed, houever, that Mr. Pitman'z sistem, bei[n] enteirli fonetik, iz too radikal a reform, and that meni and the w[u]rst irregiularitiz in I[n]glish speli[n] kud be removed without goi[n] kweit so far. The prinsipel that haf a loaf iz beter than no bred iz not without s[u]m tru[t], and in meni kasez we no that a polisi ov kompromeiz haz been prod[u]ktiv ov veri gud rez[u]lts. B[u]t, on the [u]ther hand, this haf-harted polisi haz often retarded a real and komplete reform ov ekzisti[n] abiusez; and in the kase ov a reform ov speli[n], ei almost dout hwether the difik[u]ltiz inherent in haf-me[z]urz ar not az great az the difik[u]ltiz ov karii[n] a komplete reform. If the w[u]rld iz not redi for reform, let [u]s wait. It seemz far beter, and at all events far more onest, tu wait til it iz redi than tu kari the rel[u]ktant wurld with you a litel way, and then tu feind that all the impulsiv forse iz spent, and the greater part ov the abiusez establisht on fermer ground than ever.

Mr. Jones,(70) who reprezents the konsiliatori reformerz ov speli[n], wud be satisfeid with a moderet skeme ov speli[n] reform, in hwich, bei obzervi[n] analoji and folowi[n] presedent in olteri[n] a komparativli small n[u]mber ov w[u]rdz, it wud be posibel tu simplifei ortografi tu a konsiderabel ekstent without apleii[n] eni niu prinsipel, or introdiusi[n] niu leterz, and yet tu redius the teim and labor in teachi[n] readi[n] and speli[n] bei at least w[u]n-haf. It meit at all events be posibel tu setel the speli[n] ov thoze two or three touzand w[u]rdz hwich at prezent ar speld diferentli bei diferent au[t]oritiz. This skeme, advokated bei Mr. Jones, iz sertenli veri klever; and if it had a chans ov s[u]kses, ei meiself shud konsider it a great step in advans. Mei onli dout iz hwether, in a kase leik this, a small me[z]ur ov reform wud be karid more eazili than a komplete reform. It iz diferent in Jerman, hwere the diseaz haz not spred so far. Here the Komiti apointed bei G[u]vernment tu konsider the kwestion ov a reform ov speli[n] haz deklared in favor ov s[u]m s[u]ch moderet prinsipelz az Mr. Jones advokates for I[n]glish. In I[n]glish, houever, the difik[u]ti leiz in chanji[n] eni[t]i[n]; and if the prinsipel ov eni chanje iz w[u]ns admited, it wud reali be eazier, ei believ, tu begin de novo than tu chanje s[u]m[t]i[n], and leav the rest [u]nchanjed.

Let [u]s nou see hou Mr. Pitman'z or eni similar sistem ov fonetik reiti[n] haz w[u]rkt hwere it haz been put tu the test.

Mr. William White reits: "Ei speak from eksperiens. Ei hav taught poor children in Glasgow tu read the Sermon on the Mount after a kourse ov ekserseizez ekstendi[n] over no more than siks ourz."

The folowi[n] iz an ekstrakt from a leter riten s[u]m teim ago bei the late Mr. William Colbourne, manajer ov the Dorset Ba[n]k at St[u]rminster, tu a frend ov hiz a skoolmaster. He sez:—

"Mei litel Sidney, who iz nou a fiu m[u]n[t]s more than four yearz old, wil read eni fonetik buk without the sleitest hezitashon; the hardest namez or the lo[n]gest w[u]rdz in the Old or Niu Testament form no obstakel tu him. And hou lo[n] do you [t]ink it tuk me (for ei am hiz teacher) tu impart tu him this pouer? Hwei s[u]m[t]i[n] les than eight ourz! You may believ it or not, az you leik, b[u]t ei am konfident that not more than that amount ov teim woz spent on him, and that woz in snachez ov feiv minits at a teim, hweil tea woz geti[n] redi. Ei no you wil be inkleind tu say, 'All that iz veri wel, b[u]t hwot iz the use ov readi[n] fonetik buks? he iz stil az far of, and may be farther, from readi[n] romanik buks.' B[u]t in this you ar mistaken. Take an[u]ther ekzampel. Hiz nekst elder br[u]ther, a boi ov siks yearz, haz had a fonetik ediukashon so far. Hwot iz the konsekwens? Hwei, readin in the ferst staje woz so deleitful and eazi a [t]i[n] tu him that he taught himself tu read romanikali, and it wud be a difik[u]lt mater tu feind w[u]n boi in twenti, ov a korespondi[n] aje, that kud read haf so wel az he kan in eni buk. Agen, mei oldest boi haz riten more fonetik shorthand and lo[n]hand, perhaps, than eni boi ov hiz aje (eleven yearz) in the ki[n]dom; and now[u]n ei daresay haz had les tu do with that abs[u]rditi ov abs[u]rditiz, the speli[n]-buk! He iz nou at a ferst-rate skool in Wiltshire, and in the haf-year presedi[n] Kristmas, he karid of the preiz for or[t]ografi in a kontest with boiz s[u]m ov them hiz seniorz bei yearz!"

Bei the adopshon ov the fonetik alfabet, the difik[u]ltiz that lei in the way ov forenerz lerni[n] I[n]glish, also wud be d[u]n away with. The Rev. Newman Hall reits, "Ei met with a Danish jentelman the [u]ther day who heili preizd the I[n]glish fonotipik Niu Testament. It had been ov great use tu him, and enabeld him tu read [buks in the komon speli[n]] without an instr[u]kter, removi[n] the greatest obstakel in akweiri[n] I[n]glish, the monstr[u]s anomali[z] ov pron[u]nsiashon." Ekzampelz leik theze go a lo[n] way.

Mr. A. J. Ellis, than whom now[u]n haz labord more devotidli for a reform ov speli[n], az a ferst step in a reform ov nashonal ediukashon, and who haz himself elaborated several most injeni[u]s sistemz ov fonetik reiti[n], givz [u]s the folowi[n] az the rez[u]ltz ov hiz praktikal eksperiens:

"With the fonetik sistem ov speli[n], the Primer iz masterd within tree m[u]n[t]s at most. The children then proseed tu praktis this fonetik readi[n] for s[u]m teim, til they kan read with fluensi from the jeneral luk ov the w[u]rd, and not from konsideri[n] the pouerz ov its leterz. [T]ree m[u]n[t]s more, at most, ar rekweird for this staje.

"Hwen this pouer ov fluent readi[n] in fonetik print iz akweird, buks in the ordinari print, suited tu their kapasitiz, ar tu be put intu the children'z handz and they ar told tu read them. Each w[u]rd hwich they fail tu ges iz told them immedietli; but it iz found that children ar mostli abel tu read the ordinari print without eni f[u]rther instr[u]kshon. The teim nesesari for kompleti[n] this step may be taken, at the lo[n]gest, az two m[u]n[t]s, so that the hole teim ov lerni[n] tu read in the ordinari print, on the Readi[n] Reform sistem, may be rekond az feiv ourz a week for eight m[u]n[t]s. The hole task haz, in meni kasez, been akomplisht in les teim, even in [t]ree m[u]n[t]s. On the [u]ther hand, in w[u]n skool hwere it iz uzed, eleven m[u]nts ar okupeid, az the master feindz it advantaj[u]s in [u]ther respekts tu keep the piupil lo[n]ger at fonetik readi[n] B[u]t onli w[u]n our a day iz rekweired." Mr. Ellis s[u]mz [u]p az folowz:

"Kareful eksperiments in teachi[n] children ov vari[u]s ajez and ra[n]ks, and even pauperz and kriminal ad[u]lts, hav establisht—

"1. That piupilz may be taught tu read buks in fonetik print, slowli b[u]t shureli, in from ten tu forti ourz, and will atain konsiderabel fluensi after a fiu weeks' praktis.

"2. That hwen the piupilz hav ataind fluensi in readi[n] from fonetik print, a veri fiu ourz wil s[u]feis tu giv them the same fluensi in readi[n] ordinari print.

"3. That the hole teim nesesari for imparti[n] a nolej ov bo[t] fonetik and ordinari readi[n] d[u]z not ekseed eight m[u]nts for children ov averaj intelijens, between four and feiv yearz ov aje, taught in klas, at skool, not more than haf-an-our tu an our each day; and that in this teim an abiliti tu read iz akweird siuperior tu that u[z]uali ataind in two or [t]ree teimz the period on the old plan; hweil the pron[u]nsiashion ov the piupil iz m[u]ch improved, hiz interest in hiz st[u]diz iz kept aleiv, and a lojikal traini[n] ov endiuri[n] valiu iz given tu hiz meind bei the habitual analisis and sin[t]ensis ov spoken soundz.

"4. That thoze taught tu read in this maner akweir the art ov ordinari speli[n] more redili than thoze instr[u]kted on the old me[t]od."

Tu all who no Mr. A. J. Ellis, this evidens wil be be s[u]fishent az tu the praktikal usefulnes ov the Fonetik Sistem ov speli[n]. Tu thoze who wish for more evidens ei rekomend a pamflet bei Mr. G. Withers, "The I[n]glish La[n]gwej Speld az Pronounst," 1874; and w[u]n bei Dr. J. W. Martin, "The Gordian Not K[u]t," 1875, hwere they wil feind the konk[u]rent testimoni ov praktikal teacherz in I[n]gland, Skotland, Eirland, and Amerika, all agreei[n] that, bo[t] az a praktikal and a lojikal traini[n], the Fonetik Sistem haz proved the greatest s[u]kses.

Ther remainz, therefor, this w[u]n objekshon onli, that hwotever the praktikal, and hwotever the [t]eoretikal advantejez ov the fonetik sistem may be, it wud [u]terli destroi the historikal or etimolojikal karakter ov the I[n]glish la[n]gwej.

S[u]poze it did; hwot then? The Reformashon iz s[u]pozed tu hav destroid the historikal karakter ov the I[n]glish Ch[u]rch, and that sentimental grievans iz stil felt bei s[u]m stiudents ov ekleziastikal antikwitiz. B[u]t did I[n]gland, did all the reali progresiv nashonz ov Europe, alou this sentimental grievans tu outweigh the praktikal and [t]eoretikal advantejez ov Protestant Reform? La[n]gwej iz not made for skolarz and etimolojists; and if the hole rase ov I[n]glish etimolojists wer reali tu be swept away bei the introd[u]kshon ov a Speli[n] Reform, ei hope they wud be the ferst tu rejois in sakrifeizi[n] themselvz in so gud a kauz.

B[u]t iz it reali the kase that the historikal kontiniuiti ov the I[n]glish la[n]gwej wud bei broken bei the adopshon ov fonetik speli[n], and that the profeshon ov the etimolojist wud be gon for ever? Ei say No, most emfatikali, tu bo[t] propozishonz. If the seiens ov la[n]gwej haz proved eni[t]i[n], it haz proved that all la[n]gwejez chanje akordi[n] tu law, and with konsiderabel uniformiti. If, therefor, the reiti[n] folowd pari passu, on the chanjez in pron[u]nsiashon, hwot iz kalld the etimolojikal konsh[u]snes ov the speakerz and the readerz—ei speak, ov kourse, ov ediukated peopel onli—wud not s[u]fer in the least. If we retain the feeli[n] ov an etimolojikal konekshon between gentlemanly and gentlemanlike, we shud shureli retain it hwether we reit gentlemanly or gentelmanli. If we feel that think and thought, bring and brought, buy and bought, freight and fraught, belo[n] tugether, shud we feel it les if we rote t[w]t, br[w]t, b[w]t, fr[w]t? If, in speaki[n], thoze who no Latin retain the feeli[n] that w[u]rdz endin in -ation korespond tu Latin w[u]rdz in -atio, wud they looz the feeli[n] if they saw the same w[u]rdz speld with [e][sh]on, or even "-e[sh][u]n?" Do they not rekogneiz Latin -itia, in -ice; or -ilis in -le, az in -able (Latin abilis)? If the skolar noz, at w[u]ns, that s[u]ch w[u]rdz az barbarous, anxious, circus, genius, ar ov Latin oriji[n], wud he hezitate if the last silabel in all ov them wer uniformli riten "[u]s?" Nay, iz not the prezent speli[n] ov barbarous and anxious enteirli misleadi[n], bei konfoundi[n] w[u]rdz endi[n] in -osus, s[u]ch az famous (famosus) with w[u]rdz endi[n] in -us, leik barbarous, anxious, ets.? Bekauz the Italianz reit filosofo, ar they les aware than the I[n]glish, who reit philosopher, and the French, who reit philosophe, that they hav before them the Latin philosophus, the Greek φιλόσοφος? If we reit f in fansi, hwei not in phantom? If in frenzy and frantic, hwei not in phrenology? A la[n]gwej hwich tolerates vial for phial, need not shiver at filosofer. Everi eidiukated speaker noz that s[u]ch w[u]rdz az honour, ardour, colour, odour, labour, vigour, error, emperor, hav past from Latin tu French, and from French tu I[n]glish. Wud he no it les if all wer speld aleik, s[u]ch az onor (onorable), ardor, vigor (vigorous), labor (laborious), or even "on[u]r, ard[u]r, vig[u]r?" The old speli[n] ov emperor, doctor, governor, and error, woz emperour, doctour, governour, and errour. If theze kud be chanjed, hwei not the rest? Spenser haz neibor for neighbor, and it iz difik[u]lt tu say hwot woz gaind bei chanji[n] -bor intu -bour in s[u]ch piurli Sakson w[u]rdz az neighbor, harbor. No dout if we see laugh riten with gh at the end, thoze who no Jerman ar at w[u]ns remeinded ov its etimolojikal konekshon with the Jerman lachen; b[u]t we shud soon no the same bei analoji, if we found not onli "laf," b[u]t "kof" for cough (Jerman, keuchen), en[u]f for enough (Jerman, genug), ets. In "draft," fonetik speli[n] haz nearli s[u]planted the so-kalld historikal speli[n] draught; in "dwarf" (dwergh, thweorh) and in "ruff" (rough), altugether.

Hwot peopel kall the etimolojikal konsh[u]snes ov the speaker iz striktli a mater ov oratorikal sentiment onli, and it wud remain nearli az stro[n] az it iz nou, hwotever speli[n] be adopted. B[u]t even if it shud s[u]fer here and there, we ought tu bear in meind that, eksept for oratorikal p[u]rposez, that konsh[u]snes, konfeind az it iz tu a veri fiu ediukated peopel, iz ov veri small importans, [u]nles it haz ferst been korekted bei a strikt etimolojikal disiplin. Without that, it often dejenerates intu hwot iz kalld "popiular etimoloji," and aktiuali tendz, in s[u]m kasez, tu vishiate the korekt speli[n] ov w[u]rdz.

Ei hav frekwentli dwelt on this before, in order tu show hou, hwot iz nou kalld the etimolojikal or historikal speli[n] ov w[u]rdz iz, in meni kasez, [u]terli [u]netimolojikal and [u]nhistorikal. We spel to delight, and th[u]s indius meni peopel tu believ that this w[u]rd iz s[u]mhou konekted with light [lux], or light [levis]; hwereaz the old speli[n] woz to delyt or to delite (Tyndale), reprezenti[n] the old French deleiter. On the [u]ther hand, we feind for quite and smite, the old speli[n] quight, smight, hwich may be old and historikal, b[u]t iz deseidedli [u]netimolojikal.

Sovereign and foreign ar speld az if they wer konekted with reign, regnum; the true etimoloji ov the former bei[n] superanus, Old French, sovrain, Old I[n]glish, soveraine; hweil foreign iz the late Latin foraneus; Old French forain; Old I[n]glish forein. And hwei du we reit to feign? Archbishop Trench ("I[n]glish Past and Prezent," p. 238) [t]i[n]ks the g in feign iz elokwent tu the ei; b[u]t its elokwens iz misleadi[n]. Feign iz not taken from Latin fingo, az litel az honour iz taken from Latin honor. Feign k[u]mz from the Old French faindre; it woz in Old I[n]glish faynen and feynen, and it woz therefor a mere etimolojikal feint tu insert the g ov the Latin fingo, and the French feignant. The Old I[n]glish shammfasst (Orm.), formd leik stedefasst (stedfast), iz nou speld shamefaced, az if it had s[u]m[t]i[n] tu do with a bl[u]shi[n] fase. Aghast, insted ov Old I[n]glish agast, iz s[u]pozed tu luk more freitful bekauz it remeindz [u]s ov ghost. The French lanterne woz riten lant-horn, az if it had been so kalld from the transparent sheets ov horn that enklozed the leit. The s in island owez its orijin tu a mistaken belief that the w[u]rd iz konekted with isle (insula), hwereaz it iz the A[n]glo-Sakson ealand (Jerman eiland), that iz, water-land. The speli[n] iland woz stil k[u]rent in Shakspere'z teim. In aisle, too, the s iz [u]netimolojikal, though it iz historikal, az havi[n] been taken over from the Old French aisle.

This tendensi tu olter the speli[n] in order tu impart tu a w[u]rd, at all hazardz, an etimolojikal karakter, beginz even in Latin, hwere postumus, a siuperlativ ov post, woz s[u]mteimz riten posthumus, az if, hwen apleid tu a late-born s[u]n, it woz dereivd from humus. In I[n]glish, this fols speli[n] iz retaind in posthumous. Cena woz speld bei peopel who wonted tu show their nolej ov Greek coena, az if konekted with κοινή, hwich it iz not.

B[u]t nou let [u]s luk more karefuli intu the far more important statement, that the I[n]glish la[n]gwej, if riten fonetikali, wud reali looz its historikal and etimolojikal karakter. The ferst kwestion iz, in hwot sens kan the prezent speli[n] ov I[n]glish be kalld historikal? We hav onli tu go bak a veri short way in order tu see the modern [u]pstart karakter ov hwot iz kalld historikal speli[n]. We nou reit pleasure, measure, and feather, b[u]t not veri lo[n] ago, in Spenser'z teim, theze w[u]rdz wer speld plesure, mesure, fether. Tyndale rote frute; the i in fruit iz a mere restorashon ov the French speli[n]. For debt, on the kontrari, we feind, b[u]t [t]ree or four h[u]ndred yearz ago, dett. This iz more historikal therefor than debt, bekauz in French, from hwich the w[u]rd woz borowd, the b had disapeard, and it woz a piurli etimolojikal fansi tu restore it. The b woz leikweiz re-introdiust in doubt, b[u]t the p woz not restored in tu kount (French compter, Latin computare), hwere p had at least the same reit az b in doute. Th[u]s receipt reziumz the Latin p, b[u]t deceit d[u]z without it. Tu deign keeps the g, tu disdain d[u]z without it. Ther iz an[u]ther b hwich haz a serten historikal air in s[u]m I[n]glish w[u]rdz, b[u]t hwich woz orijinali piurli fonetik, and iz nou simpli siuperflu[u]s. The old w[u]rd for member woz lim. In s[u]ch kompoundz az lim-lama, lim(b)-lame; lim-leas, lim(b)-less; it woz imposibel tu avoid the interkalashon ov a b in pron[u]nsiashon. In this maner the b krept in, and we hav nou tu teach that in limb, crumb (crume), thumb (thuma), the b m[u]st be riten, b[u]t not pronounst. Agen, tung (Jerman zunge), yung (Jerman jung), az speld bei Spenser, hav a far more historikal aspekt than tongue and young.

If we wisht tu reit historikali, we ought tu reit salm insted ov psalm, for the inishal p, bei[n] lost in pron[u]nsiashon, woz dropt in reiti[n] at a veri erli teim (A[n]glo-Sakson sealm), and woz re-introdiust simpli tu pleaz s[u]m ekleziastikal etimolojists; also nevew (French neveu) insted ov nephew, hwich iz both [u]netimolojikal and [u]nfonetik.

In hwot sens kan it be kalld historikal speli[n] if the old pluralz ov mouse and louse, hwich wer mys and lys, ar nou speld mice and lice? The plural ov goose iz not speld geece b[u]t geese, yet everibodi noz hou tu pronouns it. The same mistaken atempt at an okazhonal fonetik speli[n] haz separated dice from die, and pence from pens, that iz, penyes; hweil in nurse, hwere the speli[n] nurce wud hav been useful az remeindi[n] [u]s ov its true etimon nourrice, the c haz been replast bei s.

Ther ar, in fakt, meni speli[n]z hwich wud be at the same teim more historikal and more fonetik. Hwei reit little, hwen now[u]n pronounsez little, and hwen the old speli[n] woz lytel? Hwei girdle, hwen the old speli[n] woz girdel? The same rule apleiz tu nearli all w[u]rdz endi[n] in le, s[u]ch az sickle, ladle, apple, ets., hwere the etimoloji iz kompleteli obskiurd bei the prezent or[t]ografi. Hwei scent, b[u]t dissent, hwen even Milton stil rote sent? Hwei ache, insted ov the Shaksperian ake? Hwei cat, b[u]t kitten; hwei cow, b[u]t kine? Hwei accede, precede, secede, b[u]t exceed, proceed, succeed? Hwei, indeed, eksept tu waste the presh[u]s teim ov children?

And if it iz difik[u]lt tu say hwot konstitiuts historikal speli[n], it iz ekwali perpleksi[n] tu defein the real meani[n] ov etimolojikal speli[n]. For hwere ar we tu stop? It wud be konsiderd veri [u]netimolojikal wer we tu reit nee insted ov knee, now insted ov know, night insted ov knight; yet now[u]n komplainz about the los ov the inishal h, the reprezentativ ov an orijinal k, in loaf, A. S. hlaf (cf. κλίβανος), in ring (A. S. hring); in lade, ladder, neck, ets.

If we ar tu reit etimolojikali, then hwei not ret[u]rn tu loverd, or hlaford, insted ov lord? tu nosethrill, or nosethirle insted ov nostril; tu swister insted ov sister; hwich wud not be more tr[u]bels[u]m than sword. Wifmann shureli wud be beter than woman; meadwife beter than midwife; godspel beter than gospel, ortyard beter than orchard, puisne beter than puny. Frekwentli the prezent rekogneizd speli[n] luks etimolojikal, b[u]t iz [u]terli [u]netimolojikal. Righteous luks leik an ajektiv in -eous, s[u]ch az plenteous, b[u]t it iz reali a Sakson w[u]rd, rightwis, that iz rightwise, formd leik otherwise, ets.

Could iz riten with an l in analoji tu would, b[u]t hweil the l iz j[u]stifeid in would from will, and should from shall we feind the Old I[n]glish imperfekt ov can riten cuthe, then couthe, coude. The l, therefor, iz neither fonetik nor etimolojikal. N[u][t]i[n], agen, kan be more misleadi[n] tu an etimolojist than the prezent speli[n] ov whole and hale. Both k[u]m from the same sourse, the Go[t]ik hail-s, Sanskrit kalya-s, meani[n] orijinali, fit, redi; then sound, complete, whole. In A[n]glo-Sakson we hav hael, hole; and hal, hel[t]i, without eni trase ov a w, either before or after. The Old I[n]glish halsum, holes[u]m, iz the Jerman hailsam. Whole, therefor, iz a mere mis-speli[n] the w havi[n] probabli been aded in analoji tu who, which, ets. From a piurli etimolojikal point ov viu, the w iz ro[n]li left out before h in hou; for az A[n]glo-Sakson hwy bekame why, A[n]glo-Sakson hwa shud hav bek[u]m whow.

If we reali atempted tu reit etimolojikali, we shud hav tu reit bridegroom without the r, bekauz groom iz a mere kor[u]pshon ov guma, man, A[n]glo-Sakson bryd-guma. We shud hav tu reit burse insted ov purse, az in disburse. In fakt, it iz difik[u]lt tu say hwere we shud stop. Hwei do we not reit metal insted ov mettle, worthship insted ov worship, chirurgeon insted ov surgeon, furhlong (that iz, f[u]row lo[n]) insted ov furlong, feordhing (that iz four[t] part) insted of farthing? If we reit piuni puisne, we meit az wel reit post-natus. We meit spel koi, quietus; pert, apertus; priest, presbyter; master, magister; sekston, sacristan; alms, eleemosyne, ets. If enibodi wil tel me at hwot date etimolojikal speli[n] iz tu begin, hwether at 1,500 A. D. or at 1,000 A. D., or 500 A. D., ei am wili[n] tu disk[u]s the kwestion. Til then, ei beg leav tu say that etimolojikal speli[n] wud play greater havok in I[n]glish than fonetik speli[n], even if we wer tu draw a lein not more than feiv h[u]ndred yearz ago.

The two stro[n]gest argiuments, therefor, agenst fonetik speli[n], nameli, that it wud destroi the historikal and etimolojikal karakter ov the I[n]glish la[n]gwej, ar, after all, b[u]t veri parshali true. Here and there, no dout, the etimoloji and histori ov an I[n]glish w[u]rd meit be obskiurd bei fonetik speli[n]; az if, for instans, we rote "Y[ue][o]p" insted ov Europe. B[u]t even then analoji wud help [u]s, and teach thoze who no Greek, ov whom ther ar not meni, that "Y[ue]r" in s[u]ch w[u]rdz az Europe, Eurydice, reprezented the Greek εὐρύς. The real anser, houever, iz, that now[u]n kud onestli kall the prezent sistem ov speli[n] either historikal or etimolojikal; and, ei believ, that, taken az a hole, the los oka[z]ond bei konsistent fonetik speli[n] wud not be greater than the gain.

An[u]ther objekshon [u]rjd agenst fonetik speli[n], nameli, that with it it wud be imposibel tu disti[n]gwish homonimz, m[u]st be met in the same way. No dout it iz a serten advantej if in reiti[n] we kan disti[n]gwish right, rite, write, and wright. B[u]t if, in the h[u]ri ov konversashon, ther iz hardli ever a dout hwich w[u]rd iz ment, shureli ther wud be m[u]ch les danjer in the slow proses ov readi[n] a kontiniu[u]s sentens. If vari[u]s speli[n]z ov the same w[u]rd ar nesesari tu point out diferent meani[n]z, we shud rekweir eight speli[n]z for box, tu signifei a chest, a Kristmas gift, a h[u]nti[n] seat, a tree, a slap, tu sail round, seats in a [t]eater, and the fr[u]nt seat on a koach; and this prinsipel wud hav tu be apleid tu ab[u]v 400 w[u]rdz. Who wud [u]ndertake tu proveid all theze variashonz ov the prezent uniform speli[n] ov theze w[u]rdz? And we m[u]st not forget that, after all, in readi[n] a paje we ar seldom in dout hwether sole meanz a fish, or the sole ov a fut, or iz uzed az an ajektiv. If ther iz at eni teim eni real difik[u]lti, la[n]gwej proveidz its own remedi. It either drops s[u]ch w[u]rdz az rite and sole, replasi[n] them bei seremony and only, or it uzez a perifrastik ekspreshon, s[u]ch az the sole ov the fut, or the sole and onli ground, ets.

[Five other new letters, representing the long vowels, will now be introduced, namely

[e], [i], [w], [o], [ue],

for the sounds heard in

they, field, saw, no, do, mate, see, call, core, true, mare, police, ought, coal, poor.]

Th[u]s far ei hav treid tu anser the r[i]ali important argiuments hwich hav b[i]n br[w]t forward agenst f[o]netik speli[n]. Ei hav d[u]n s[o] with speshal referens tu the pouerful remonstransez ov Archbishop Trench, and hiz m[o]st [e]bel pl[i]di[n] in f[e]vor ov the establisht sistem ov or[t]ografi. Az a m[i]r skolar, ei fuli sh[e]r hiz f[i]li[n]z, and ei sins[i]rli admeir hiz elokwent advokasi. Ei difer from him bek[w]z ei d[ue] not tink, az h[i] d[u]z, that the los ent[e]ld bei fonetik speli[n] wud b[i] s[o] gr[e]t az w[i] imajin; or that it wud b[i] [w]l on w[u]n seid. Beseidz, [u]nles h[i] kan sh[o] hou a reform ov speli[n] iz not [o]nli for the prezent tu b[i] avoided, b[u]t [w]ltugether tu b[i] renderd [u]nnesesari, ei konsider that the s[ue]ner it iz t[e]ken in hand the beter. It s[i]mz tu m[i] that the Archbishop luks on the introd[u]kshon ov f[o]netik speli[n] az a m[i]r krochet ov a fiu skolarz, or az an atempt on the part ov s[u]m haf-ediuk[e]ted personz, wishi[n] tu avoid the tr[u]bel ov lerni[n] hou tu spel korektli. If that wer s[o], ei kweit agr[i] with him that p[u]blik opinion wud never asium s[u]fishent fors for karii[n] th[e]r sk[i]m. B[u]t ther iz a m[o]tiv pouer beheind th[i]z fenetik reformerz hwich the Archbishop haz hardli t[e]ken intu akount. Ei m[i]n the mizeri endiurd bei milionz ov children at ski[ue]l, h[ue] meit lern in w[u]n y[i]r, and with r[i]al advantej tu themselvz, hwot th[e] nou rekweir f[o]r or feiv y[i]rz tu lern, and seldom s[u]ks[i]d in lerni[n] after [w]l. If the evidens ov s[u]ch men az Mr. Ellis iz tu b[i] depended on, and ei bel[i]v h[i] iz wili[n] tu s[u]bmit tu eni test, then sh[ue]rli the los ov s[u]n historikal and etimolojikal souvenirs wud be litel agenst the hapines ov milionz ov children, and the stil heier hapines ov milionz ov I[n]glishmen and I[n]glisewimen, gr[o]i[n] [u]p az the [e]rz tu [w]l the wel[t] and stre[n][t] ov I[n]glish literatiur, or [u]n[e]bel tu r[i]d [i]ven th[e]r Beibel. H[i]r it iz hwer ei ventiur tu difer from the Archbishop, not az b[i]i[n] sa[n]gwin az tu eni imm[i]diet s[u]kses, b[u]t simpli az f[i]li[n] it a diuti tu help in a k[w]z hwich at prezent iz m[o]st [u]npopiular. The [i]vil d[e] m[e] b[i] put of for a lo[n] teim, partikiularli if the w[e]t ov s[u]ch men az Archbishop Trench iz [t]ren intu the [u]ther sk[e]l. B[u]t [u]nles la[n]gwe[i] s[i]sez tu b[i] la[n]gwe[i], and reiti[n] s[i]sez tu b[i] reiti[n], the d[e] wil sh[ue]rli k[u]m hwen p[i]s wil hav tu b[i] m[e]d betw[i]n the t[ue]. Jermani haz apointed a G[u]vernment Komishon tu konsider hwot iz tu b[i] d[u]n with Jerman speli[n] In Amerika, t[ue], s[u]m l[i]di[n] st[e]tsmen s[i]m inkleind tu t[e]k [u]p the reform ov speli[n] on nashonal groundz. Iz ther n[o] st[e]tsman in I[n]gland s[u]fishentli pr[ue]f agenst ridikiul tu k[w]l the atenshon ov Parliment tu hwot iz a gr[o]i[n] misfortiun?

M[u]ch, houever, az ei difer from the Archbishop on th[i]z groundz, ei kanot b[u]t deprek[e]t the t[o]n in hwich hiz pouerful opozishon haz b[i]n met bei meni ov the [u]ph[o]lderz ov f[o]netik speli[n]. N[e], ei m[u]st g[o] stil f[u]rther, and fra[n]kli konfes that tu w[u]n ov hiz argiuments ei feind it difik[u]lt, at prezent, tu giv a satisfaktori anser.

"It iz a m[i]r as[u]mpshon," the Archbishop remarks, "that [w]l men pronouns [w]l w[u]rdz aleik; or that hwenever th[e] k[u]m tu spel a w[u]rd th[e] wil ekzaktli agr[i] az tu hwot the outlein ov its sound iz. Nou w[i] ar sh[ue]r men wil not d[ue] this, from the fakt that, bef[o]r ther woz eni fikst and seteld or[t]ografi in our la[n]gwej, hwen, th[e]rfor, everibodi woz m[o]r or les a a f[o]nografer, s[i]ki[n] tu reit doun the w[u]rd az it sounded tu him,—for h[i] had n[o] [u]ther l[w] tu geid him,—the v[e]ri[e]shonz ov speli[n] ar infinit. T[e]k, for instans, the w[u]rd sudden, hwich d[u]z not s[i]m tu promis eni gr[e]t sk[o]p for vareieti. Ei hav meiself met with this w[u]rd speld in n[o] les than f[o]rt[i]n w[e]z am[u][n] our erli reiterz. Agen, in hou meni w[e]z woz Raleigh'z n[e]m speld, or Shakspere'z? The s[e]m iz evident from the speli[n] ov [u]nediukated personz in our [o]n d[.[e]]. Th[E] hav n[o] [u]ther r[ue]l b[u]t the sound tu geid them. Hou iz it that th[e] d[ue] not [w]l spel aleik?" I[n]glish, Past and Prezent, p. 203.

Leik m[o]st men h[ue] pl[i]d with th[e]r hart az wel az with th[e]r hed, the Archbishop haz h[i]r [o]verlukt w[u]n obvi[u]s anser tu hiz kwestion. Th[e] d[ue] not spel aleik bek[w]z th[e] hav b[i]n br[w]t [u]p with a sistem ov speli[n] in hwich the s[e]m sound kan b[i] reprezented in ten diferent w[e]z, and in hwich hardli eni w[u]n leter iz restrikted tu w[u]n fonetik pouer onli. If children wer br[w]t [u]p with an alfabet in hwich [i]ch leter had b[u]t w[u]n sound, and in hwich the s[e]m sound woz [w]lw[e]z reprezented bei the s[e]m sein—and this iz the veri esens ov f[o]netik reiti[n]—then it wud b[i] simpli imposibel that th[e] shud dr[i]m ov reiti[n] sudden in f[o]rt[i]n, or Woburn in 140, diferent w[e]z.

B[u]t for [w]l that ther iz s[u]m tr[ue][t] in the Archbishop's remark; and if w[i] komp[e]r the diferent w[e]z in hwich the advokets ov f[o]netik speli[n]—men leik Pitman, Bell, Ellis, Withers, Jones—reit the s[e]m w[u]rdz, [i]ven hwen y[ue]zi[n] the s[e]m fonetik alfabet, w[i] shal s[i] that the difik[u]lti pointed out bei the Archbishop iz a r[i]al w[u]n. Everiw[u]n n[o]z hou diferentli the s[e]m w[u]rdz [w]lwez hav b[i]n and stil ar pronounst in diferent parts ov I[n]gland. And it iz not onli in tounz and kountiz that th[i]z pekiuliaritiz prev[e]l; ther ar serten w[u]rdz hwich w[u]n famili pronounsez diferentli from an[u]ther; and ther ar beseidz the st[u]did and [u]nst[u]did pekiuliaritiz ov individiual sp[i]kerz. Tu konvins p[i]pel that w[u]n pron[u]nsi[e]shon iz reit and the [u]ther ro[n], s[i]mz [u]terli hoples. Ei hav herd a heili k[u]ltiveted man defendi[n] hiz dropi[n] the h at the begini[n] ov serten w[u]rdz, bei the [u]nanserabel argiument that in the pl[e]s hwer h[i] woz br[w]t [u]p, n[o]w[u]n pronounst th[i]z inishal hz. Hwot Skochman wud admit that hiz pron[u]nsi[e]shon woz f[w]lti? Hwot Eirishman wud s[u]bmit tu l[w]z ov speli[n] past in L[u]ndon? And hwot renderz argiument on eni neisetiz ov pron[u]nsieshon stil m[o]r difik[u]lt iz, that b[o][t] the [i]r and the t[u][n] ar m[o]st trecher[u]s witnesez. Ei hav herd Amerikanz m[e]nt[e]n in gud ernest that ther woz m[u]ch les of n[e]zal twa[n] in Amerika than in I[n]gland. P[i]pel ar not awer hou th[e] pronouns, and hou diferentli th[e] pronouns w[u]n and the s[e]m w[u]rd. Az a forener ei hav had ampel oportiunitiz for obzerv[e]shon on this point. S[u]m frendz wud tel m[i], for instans, that world woz pronounst leik whirl'd, father leik farther, nor (bef[o]r konsonants) leik gnaw, bud leik bird, burst leik bust, for leik fur, birth leik berth; that the vouelz had the s[e]m sound in where and were, in not and war, in God and gaudy; hweil [u]therz ash[ue]rd m[i] that n[o]w[u]n b[u]t a forener kud [t]i[n]k s[o]. And the w[u]rst iz that [i]ven the s[e]m person d[u]z not [w]lwez pronouns the s[e]m w[u]rd in ekzaktli the s[e]m maner. Konstantli, hwen ei askt a frend tu rep[i]t a w[u]rd hwich h[i] had j[u]st pronounst, h[i] wud pronouns it agen, b[u]t with a sleit diferens. The m[i]r fakt ov hiz treii[n] tu pronouns wel wud give tu hiz pron[u]nsi[e]shon a konsh[u]s and emfatik karakter. The prepozishon of iz pronounst bei m[o]st p[i]pel or, b[u]t if kros-ekzamind, meni wil s[e] that th[e] pronouns ov, b[u]t the o not ekzaktli leik off.

The konfiu[z]on bek[u]mz gr[e]test hwen it iz atempted tu eidentifei the pron[u]nsi[e]shon, s[e] ov a vouel in Jerman with a vouel in I[n]glish. N[o] t[ue] I[n]glishmen and n[o] t[ue] Jermanz s[i]md tu b[i] [e]bel tu agr[i] on hwot th[e] herd with th[e]r [i]rz, or hwot th[e] sed with th[e]r t[u][n]z; and the rez[u]lt in the end iz that n[o] vouel in Jernran woz r[i]ali the s[e]m az eni [u]ther vouel in I[n]glish. Tu t[e]k w[u]n or t[u] instansez, from Mr. Ellis'z k[i] tu Palioteip (Paloetype), ei kan h[i]r n[o] diferens betw[i]n the a in Italian mano, I[n]glish father, and Jerman mahnen, [u]nles ei restrikt mei obzerv[e]shonz tu the [u]terans ov serten individiualz; hw[e]raz ei d[ue] h[i]r a veri deseided, and jenerali adopted, diferens betw[i]n the vouelz in Jerman boecke and French jeune. Mr. Ellis, t[u]chi[n] on the s[e]m difik[u]lti, remarks, "Mr. Bell's pron[u]nsi[e]shon, in meni instansez, diferz from that hwich ei am ak[u]stomd tu giv, espeshali in foren w[u]rdz. B[o][t] ov [u]s m[e] b[i] ro[n]." Mr. Sweet remarks, p. 10, "Mr. Ellis insists stro[n]li on the monof[t]o[n]gal karakter ov hiz [o]n eez and ooz. Ei h[i]r hiz ee and oo az disti[n]kt dif[t]o[n]z, not [o]nli in hiz I[n]glish pron[u]nsi[e]shon, b[u]t [w]ls[o] in hiz pron[u]nsi[e]shon ov French, Jerman, and Latin." If f[o]netik reiti[n] ment this miniut f[o]tografi ov sp[o]ken soundz, in hwich Mes. Bell and Ellis eksel; if eni atempt had ever b[i]n m[e]d tu emploi this h[e]r-spliti[n] mash[i]neri for a praktikal reform ov I[n]glish speli[n], the objekshonz r[e]zd bei Archbishop Trench wud b[i] kweit [u]nanserabel. Ther wud b[i] fifti diferent w[e]z ov speli[n] I[n]glish, and the konfiu[z]on wud b[i] gr[e]ter than it iz nou. Not [i]ven Mr. Bell'z [t]erti-siks kategoriz ov vouel sound wud b[i] s[u]fishent tu render everi pekiuliariti ov vouel kwoliti, pich and kwontiti, with perfekt akiurasi. (S[i] H. Sweet, "Histori ov I[n]glish Soundz," pp. 58, 68.) B[u]t this woz never intended, and hweil kons[i]di[n] m[u]ch tu the Archbishop's argiuments, ei m[u]st not kons[i]d t[ue] m[u]ch.

Hwot ei leik in Mr. Pitman'z sistem ov speli[n] iz ekzaktli hwot ei no haz b[i]n found f[w]lt with bei [u]therz n[e]mli that h[i] d[u]z not atempt tu refein t[ue] m[u]ch, and tu ekspres in reiti[n] th[o]z endles sh[e]dz ov pron[u]nsi[e]shon, hwich m[e] b[i] ov the gr[e]test interest tu the stiudent ov akoustiks, or ov f[o]netiks, az apleid tu the st[u]di ov livi[n] deialekts, b[u]t hwich, for praktikal az well az for seientifik filolojikal p[u]rposez, m[u]st b[i] enteirli ign[o]rd. Reiti[n] woz never intended tu f[o]tograf sp[o]ken la[n]gwejez: it woz ment tu indik[e]t, not tu p[e]nt soundz. If Voltaire sez, "L'ecriture c'est la peinture de la voix," h[i] iz reit; b[u]t hwen h[i] g[o]z on tu s[e], "plus elle est ressemblante, meilleur elle est," ei am not serten that, az in a piktiur ov a landsk[e]p, s[o] in a piktiur ov the vois, pr[i]-R[e]if[e]leit miniutnes m[e] not destroi the veri objekt ov the piktiur. La[n]gwej d[i]lz in br[w]d k[u]lorz, and reiti[n] [w]t tu fol[o] the ekzampel ov la[n]gwej, hwich th[o] it alouz an endles vareiti ov pron[u]nsi[e]shon, restrikts itself for its [o]n p[u]rpos, for the p[u]rpos ov ekspresi[n] [t][w]t in [w]l its modifik[e]shonz, tu a veri limited n[u]mber ov tipikal vouelz and konsonants. Out ov the larj n[u]mber ov soundz, for instans, hwich hav b[i]n katalogd from the v[e]ri[u]s I[n]glish deialekts, thoz onli kan b[i] rekogneizd az konstitiuent elements ov the la[n]gwej hwich in, and bei, th[e]r diferens from [i]ch [u]ther, konv[e] a diferens ov m[i]ni[n]. Ov s[u]ch pregnant and [t][w]t-konv[e]i[n] vouelz, I[n]glish pozesez n[o] m[o]r than twelv. Hwotever the meinor sh[e]dz ov vouel soundz in I[n]glish deialekts m[e] b[i], th[e] d[ue] not enrich the la[n]gwej, az s[u]ch, that iz, th[e] d[ue] not en[e]bel the sp[i]ker tu konv[e] m[o]r miniut sh[e]dz ov [t][w]t than the twelv tipikal si[n]gel vouelz. Beseidz, ther jenerali iz hwot the French meit k[w]l a f[o]netik solidariti in [i]ch deialekt. If w[u]n vouel ch[e]njez, the [u]therz ar apt tu fol[o], and the m[e]n objekt ov la[n]gwej rem[e]nz the s[e]m [t]r[ue]out, n[e]mli, tu prevent w[u]n w[u]rd from r[u]ni[n] intu an[u]ther, and yet tu abst[e]n from t[ue], miniut fonetik disti[n]kshonz, hwich an ordinari [i]r meit feind it difik[u]lt tu grasp. This prinsipel ov f[o]netik solidariti iz ov gr[e]t importans, not onli in ekspl[e]ni[n] the gradiual ch[e]njez ov vouelz, b[u]t [w]ls[o] s[u]ch jeneral ch[e]njez ov konsonants az w[i] s[i], for instans, in the Jerman Lautverschiebung. Az s[ue]m az w[u]n pl[e]s iz left v[e]kant, ther iz preshur tu fil it, or s[o] m[u]ch ov it az iz left v[e]kant, b[u]t n[o] m[o]r.

Ther ar, in fakt, t[ue] branchez, or at [w]l events, t[ue] kweit disti[n]kt praktikal aplik[e]shonz ov the seiens ov F[o]netiks, hwich for wont ov beter n[e]mz, ei design[e]t az filolojikal and deialektikal. Ther iz hwot m[e] b[i] k[w]ld a filolojikal st[u]di ov F[o]netiks, hwich iz an esenshal part ov the Seiens ov La[n]gwej, and haz for its objekt tu giv a kl[i]r eid[i]a ov the alfabet, not az riten, b[u]t az sp[o]ken. It tr[i]ts ov the mat[i]rialz out ov hwich, the instruments with hwich, and the proses bei hwich, vouelz and konsonants ar formd; and after ekspl[e]ni[n] hou serten leterz agr[i], and difer, in th[e]r mat[i]rial, in the instruments with hwich, and the proses bei hwich th[e] ar prodiust, it en[e]belz [u]s tu [u]nderstand the k[w]zez and rez[u]lts ov hwot iz k[w]ld F[o]netik Ch[e]nj. In meni respekts the most instr[u]ktiv tr[i]tment ov the jeneral [t][i]ori ov F[o]netiks iz tu b[i] found in the Pratisakhyas; partikiularli in the [o]ldest (400 B.K.), that atacht tu the Rig V[e]da.(71) Th[o] the n[u]mber ov posibel soundz m[e] s[i]m infinit the n[u]mber ov r[i]al soundz y[ue]zd in Sanskrit or eni [u]ther given la[n]gwej for the p[u]rpos ov ekspresi[n] diferent sh[e]dz ov m[i]ni[n], iz veri limited. It iz with th[i]z br[w]d kategoriz ov sound al[o]n that the Pratisakhyas d[i]l; and it iz for a proper [u]nderstandi[n] ov th[i]z the Seiens ov La[n]jgwej haz tu inkl[ue]d within its sf[i]r a k[e]rful st[u]di ov F[o]netiks.

The deialektikal st[u]di ov F[o]netiks haz larjer objekts. It wishez tu ekz[w]st [w]l posibel soundz hwich kan b[i] prodiust bei the v[o]kal organz, litel konsernd az tu hwether th[i]z soundz ok[u]r in eni r[i]al la[n]gwej or not. It iz partikiularli y[ue]sful for the p[u]rpos ov p[e]nti[n], with the [u]tm[o]st akiurasi, the aktiual pron[u]nsi[e]shon ov individiualz, and ov fiksi[n] the f[e]ntest sh[e]dz ov deialektik vareieti. The m[o]st marvel[u]s ach[i]vment in this branch ov apleid f[o]netiks m[e] b[i] s[i]n in Mr. Bell'z "Vizibel Sp[i]ch."

Th[i]z t[ue] branchez ov f[o]netik seiens, houever, shud b[i] kept k[e]rfuli disti[n]kt. Az the found[e]shon ov a praktikal alfabet, leikweiz az the onli s[e]f found[e]shon for the Seiens ov La[n]gwej, w[i] wont filolojikal or [t][i][o]retik F[o]netiks. W[i] wont an [u]nderstandi[n] ov thez jeneral prinsipelz and thez br[w]d kategoriz ov sound hwich ar tr[i]ted in the Pratisakhyas; w[i] d[ue] not wont eni ov the miniut deialektikal disti[n]kshonz hwich hav no gramatikal p[u]rpos and ar th[e]rfor outseid the p[e]l ov gramatikal seiens. T[ue], miniut disti[n]kshon prodi[ue]sez konfiu[z]on, and hw[e]r it kan b[i] avoided, without a sakrifeiz ov akiurasi, it [w]t tu b[i] avoided. Hw[e]r v[e]gnes ekzists in r[i]aliti, and hwer n[e]tiur alouz a br[w]d marjin on either seid, it wud b[i] ro[n] tu ignor that latitiud. Akiurasi itself wud h[i]r bek[u]m inakiurasi.

B[u]t hwen w[i] wont tu ekz[w]st [w]l posibel sh[e]dz ov sound, hwen w[i] wont tu fotograf the pekiuliaritiz ov serten deialekts, or me[z]ur the d[i]vi[e]shonz in the pron[u]nsi[e]shon ov individiualz bei the m[o]st miniut degr[i]z, w[i] then m[u]st av[e]l ourselvz ov that ekskwizit artistik mash[i]neri konstr[u]kted bei Mr. Bell, and handeld with s[o] m[u]ch skil bei Mr. A. J. Ellis, the fiu onli wil b[i] [e]bel tu y[ue]z it with r[i]al s[u]kses.

S[u]m p[i]pel s[i]m tu imajin that the pouer ov disti[n]gwishi[n] miniut diferensez ov soundz iz a natiural gift, and kanot b[i] akweird. It m[e] b[i] so in kweit eksepshonal k[e]sez, b[u]t ei no az a fakt that a cheild that had, az p[i]pel s[e], no [i]r for miuzik, and kud not si[n] "God s[e]v the Kw[i]n," gradiuali akweird the pouer ov disti[n]gwishi[n] the ordinari nots, and ov si[n]i[n] a tiun. Sp[i]ki[n] from mei on eksp[i]riens ei shud s[e] that a gud [i]r k[u]mz bei inheritans, for, az lo[n] az ei kan remember, a fols not, or, az w[i] y[ue]st tu k[w]l it, an impiur (unrein) n[o]t, woz tu m[i] fizikali p[e]nful.

B[u]t this apleiz tu miuzik [o]nli, and it iz bei n[o] m[i]nz jenerali tr[ue], that p[i]pel h[ue] hav a gud miuzikal [i]r, hav [w]ls[o] a gud [i]r for la[n]gwej. Ei hav non p[i]pel kweit [u]nmiuzikal, pozest ov a veri gud [i]r for la[n]gwej, and vice versa. The t[[ue]] natiural gifts, th[e]rfor, if natiural gifts th[e] ar, ov disti[n]gwishi[n] miniut degr[i]z ov pich and kwoliti ov sound d[u] not s[i]m tu b[i] the s[e]m. The r[i]al difik[u]lti, houever, hwich m[e]ks itself felt in disk[u]si[n] miniut sh[e]dz ov sound, areizez from the ins[u]fishensi ov our nomenklatiur, from the [w]lm[o]st irrezistibel influens ov imajin[e]shon, and in the end, from the wont ov a f[o]nometer. A gud miuzishan kan disti[n]gwish betw[i]n C sharp and D flat, a gud f[o]netishan betw[i]n a "l[o]-bak-nar[o]" and a "l[o]-mikst-nar[o]" vouel. B[u]t th[e] kanot [w]lw[e]z transl[e]t th[e]r sentiments intu definit la[n]gwej, and if th[e] trei bei aktiual eksperiment tu imit[e]t th[i]z t[u] soundz or vouelz, the imperfekshonz ov the [i]r and t[u][n], b[o][t] in the sp[i]ker and the lisener, fr[i]kwentli render [w]l atempts at a miutiual [u]nderstandi[n] imposibel. W[i] shal never areiv at seientifik presi[z]on til w[i] hav a f[o]nometer for kwoliti ov sound, nor d[ue] ei s[i] hwei s[u]ch an instrument shud b[i] imposibel. Ei wel remember Wheatstone teli[n] m[i], that h[i] wud [u]ndert[e]k tu r[i]prodius bei m[i]nz ov an instrument everi sh[e]d ov vouel in eni la[n]gw[e]j ov the w[u]rld, and ei shud [t]i[n]k that Willis'z and Helmholtz'z eksperiments wud s[u]plei the elements from hwich s[u]ch a f[o]nometer meit b[i] konstitiuted. Az s[ur]n az w[i] kan me[z]ur, defein, and r[i]prodius, at ple[z]ur, hwot at prezent w[i] kan [o]nli deskreib in aproksim[r]t termz, the seiens ov f[o]netiks wil bek[u]m m[o]st fr[ue]tful, and asium its lejitimet pl[e]s az a sine qua non tu the stiudent ov la[n]gwej.

Ei hav s[u]mteimz b[i]n bl[e]md for havi[n] insisted on F[o]netiks b[i]i[n] rekogneizd az the found[e]shon ov the Seiens ov La[n]gwej. Prof. Benfey and [u]ther skolarz protested agenst the chapter ei hav dev[o]ted tu F[o]netiks in the Sekond S[i]r[i]z ov mei "Lektiurz," az an [u]nnesesari inov[e]shon, and thoz protests hav bek[u]m stil stro[n]ger ov l[e]t. B[u]t h[i]r, t[ue], w[i] m[u]st disti[n]gwish betw[i]n t[[ue]] [t]i[n]z. Filolojikal or jeneral F[o]netiks, ar, ei h[o]ld, az stro[n]li az ever, an integral part ov the Seiens ov La[n]gwej; deialektik F[o]netiks m[e] b[i] y[ue]sful h[i]r and th[e]r, b[u]t th[e] shud b[i] kept within th[e]r proper sf[i]r; [u]therweiz, ei admit az redili az eniw[u]n els, th[e] obskiur rather than rev[i]l the br[w]d and masiv k[u]lorz ov sound hwich la[n]gwej y[ue]zez for its ordinari w[u]rk.

If w[i] reflekt a litel, w[i] shal s[i] that the filolojikal konsepshon ov a vouel iz s[u]m[t]i[n] t[o]tali diferent from its piurli akoustik or deialektik konsepshon. The former iz ch[i]fli konsernd with the sf[i]r ov posibel v[e]ri[e]shon, and the later with the piurli fenomenal individiualiti ov [i]ch vouel. Tu the filolojist, the [t]rj[i] vouelz in septimus, for instans, hwotever th[e]r ekzakt pron[u]nsi[e]shonz m[e] hav b[i]n at diferent teimz, and in diferent provinsez ov the R[o]man Empeir, ar p[o]tenshali w[u]n and the s[e]m. W[i] luk on septimus and ἕβύοώος az on Sanskrit saptamas, and [o]nli bei n[o]i[n] that e, i, and u in septimus ar [w]l reprezentativz ov a short a, or that optimus standz for the m[o]r [e]nshent optumus and optomos, d[ue] w[i] t[e]k in at w[u]n glans the h[o]l histori and posibel v[e]ri[e]shon ov th[i]z vouelz in diferent la[n]gwejez and deialekts. [I]ven hw[e]r a vouel disap[i]rz kompl[i]tli, az in gigno for gigeno, in πίπτω for πιπευω the mentl ei ov the filolojist disernz and w[e]z hwot n[o] [i]r kan h[i]r. And hweil in th[i]z k[e]sez the etimolojist, disregardi[n] the kl[i]rest vareieti ov pron[u]nsi[e]shon, tr[i]ts s[u]ch vouelz az a, e, i, o, u az w[u]n and the s[e]m, in [u]therz hw[e]r t[ue] vouelz s[i]m tu hav ekzaktli the s[e]m sound tu the deialektishan, the filolojist on hiz part pers[i]vz diferensez ov the gr[e]test importans. The i in fides and cliens m[e] hav the s[e]m sound az the i in gigno or septimus, the u ov luo m[e] not difer from the u in optumus or lubens, b[u]t th[e]r intrinsik valiu, th[e]r k[e]pabilitiz ov gr[o][t] and dek[e], ar to t[o]tali diferent in [i]ch. W[i] shal never b[i] [e]bel tu sp[i]k with eni[t]i[n] leik r[i]al seientifik akiurasi ov the pron[u]nsi[e]shon ov [e]nshent la[n]gwejez, b[u]t [i]ven if w[i] luk tu th[e]r riten ap[i]rans [o]nli, w[i] s[i] agen and agen hou vouelz, riten aleik, ar historikali t[o]tali disti[n]kt. Grimm introdiust the disti[n]kshon betw[i]n ai and ai, betw[i]n au and au, not bek[w]z it iz bei eni m[i]nz serten that the pron[u]nsi[e]shon ov th[i]z dif[t]o[n]z v[e]rid, b[u]t bek[w]z h[i] wisht tu indik[e]t that the antes[i]dents ov ai and au wer diferent from th[o]z ov ai and au. In Go[t]ik faihu, (Sk. pasu, pecu), ai iz a shortend tu i, and br[o]ken bef[o]r h tu ai; in Go[t]ik vait (Sk. veda, οἶδα), ai, iz radikal i stre[n][t]end tu ai. In Go[t]ik dauhtar (Sk. duhitar θυγάτηρ), au iz radikal u br[o]ken tu au; in auhna [u]ven (Sk. asna, ἰπνοἰκνοἀκνο), the au iz a, darkend tu u, and br[o]ken tu au; hweil in Go[t]ik baug (πέφευγα), au iz orijinal u stre[n][t]end tu au. Hwen w[i] h[i]r e and o in Go[t]ik w[i] s[i] a, j[u]st az w[i] s[i] Dorik a beheind Eionik η. Hwen w[i] h[i]r c in canis, w[i] s[i] Sanskrit s; hwen w[i] h[i]r c in cruor, w[i] s[i] Sanskrit k. Hwen w[i] h[i]r γ in γένος, w[i] s[i] [A]rian g; hwen w[i] h[i]r γ in φλέγω w[i] s[i] [A]rian z.

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