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Chapters on Jewish Literature
by Israel Abrahams
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Pentateuch, the, translated, 27, 247, 258. as viewed by Meir, 27. commentary on, 166-168, 230. See also Scriptures, the.

Perakim, chapters of the Mishnah, 31.

Perez of Corbeil, Tossafist, 161.

"Perfection," by David Kimchi, 117.

Persia, the Jews of, independent, 72. See also Babylonia.

Pesikta, a Midrashic work, 58.

Petachiah of Ratisbon, traveller, 204.

"Phaedo, or the Immortality of the Soul," by Mendelssohn, 257.

Philo, on Judaism, 38.

Philosophy, Jewish, created by Saadiah, 91, 95.

Pico di Mirandola, and the Kabbala, 174.

Piyut, the, characteristics of, 83-84. two types of, 84-85. Kalirian, 85. Spanish, 85. creator of, 85-86. by Samuel Ibn Nagdela, 105. in Italy, 186.

Poetry. See New-Hebrew poetry; Piyut.

Poland, the Kalirian Piyut in, 85.

Porphyry, on the Book of Daniel, 48.

Prayer-Book, the, compiled by Amram, 70. arranged by Saadiah, 95.

Prester John, Eldad on, 203.

"Prince and Nazirite," by Abraham Ibn Chisdai, 154-155.

Provence, the Spanish Piyut in, 85. Jewish learning in, 146.

Proverbs, in the Midrash, 59-60. quoted, 59.

Psalms, the, and new-Hebrew poetry, 104-105, 108. mysticism in, 169, 170.

Ptolemy, works of, translated, 149, 185.

Pumbeditha, centre of Jewish learning, 44, 72.

"Purim Tractate, The," by Kalonymos, 185-186.

Pygmies, the, discovered by Tobiah Cohen, 209.

"Questions and Answers," decisions, 73.

Rab. See Abba Areka.

Rabba, the son of Nachmani, Amora, 51.

Rabbi. See Judah the Prince.

Rabbinical schools, in Babylonia, 44.

Rabina, Amora, compiler of the Talmud, 51, 52.

Ralbag. See Levi, the son of Gershon.

Ramban. See Nachmanides, Moses.

Rashbam. See Samuel ben Meir.

Rashi (R. Shelomo Izchaki), importance of, 119. style of, 119-120. characteristics of, 120-121. life of, 122. as an exegete, 123-124. descendants of, 124, 161.

Rava, Amora, 51.

Rembrandt, friend of Manasseh ben Israel, 245.

Renaissance, the, and Italian Jewish literature, 178, 182, 184, 187.

Renan, on the students of Averroes, 148.

"Responses," on religious subjects, 234-235, 237-238.

Reuchlin, Johann, and the Kabbala, 174.

Rhyme, in Hebrew poetry, 84.

"Rod of Judah, The," by the Ibn Vergas, 218-219.

Rokeach, by Eleazar of Worms, 191.

"Royal Crown, The," by Solomon Ibn Gebirol, 110. quotation from, 111-112.

Saadiah, Gaon, 70, 91-97. activities of, 91, 95. opposes Karaism, 92, 94. translates the Scriptures, 93, 94. style of, 93. conflict of, with the Exilarch, 95. arranges a prayer-book, 95. as a philosopher, 95-96, 139. works of, translated, 148.

Sabbatai Zevi, and the Kabbala, 175. opponents of, 238.

"Sacred Letter, The," by Nachmanides, 165.

Safed, Kabbalist centre, 175.

Sahal, the son of Mazliach, 77-78.

Salman, the son of Yerucham, Karaite author, 78.

Salonica, Kabbalist centre, 175.

"Salvation of his Anointed," by Abarbanel, 229.

"Samson," by Luzzatto, 246.

Samuel, Amora, 47-48, 51. astronomer, 48.

Samuel, the son of Chofni, Gaon and author, 71.

Samuel ben Meir, exegete, 124.

Samuel Ibn Nagdela, Nagid and minister, 103. as a scholar, 104. as a poet, 104-105.

Samuel Ibn Tibbon, translator, 147, 148. son-in-law of, 148.

Samuel Usque, poet, 217-218.

Scientific activity of the Jews, 151.

Scot, Michael, friend of Anatoli, 149, 151.

Scriptures, the, translated into Greek, 26. commentaries on, 77, 79, 123, 229. translated into Arabic, 91, 93, 94. translations of, in the synagogues, 94. and new-Hebrew poetry, 107-108. characteristics of the poetry of, 108. addresses of parents to children in, 194. See also Pentateuch, the.

"Scroll of Fasting, The," contents, character, and purpose of, 40-41.

Sedarim, order of the Mishnah, 31.

Seder ha-Doroth, by Yechiel Heilprin, 220.

Sefer Dikduk, by Sahal, the son of Mazliach, 79.

Sefer ha-Chassidim, ethical work, 191.

Sefer ha-Galui, by Saadiah, 93.

Sefer ha-Kabbalah, by Abraham Ibn Daud, 213-214.

Sefer Yetsirah, by Saadiah, 95. Kabbalistic, 175.

Seleucid era, the, abolished, 238.

Selichoth, elegies, Zunz on, 215-216.

Sepphoris, centre of Jewish learning, 20.

Septuagint, the, style of, 26.

Seville, Jewish literary centre, 112.

Shaaloth u-Teshuboth, decisions, 73.

Shalsheleth ha-Kabbalah, by Gedaliah Ibn Yachya, 220.

Shebet Jehudah, by the Ibn Vergas, 218-219.

Sheeltoth, by Achai, 69-70.

Sheloh, by Isaiah Hurwitz, 176.

Shelomo Izchaki. See Rashi.

Sherira, Gaon and historian, 70-71.

Sheshet family, writers of "Responses," 237.

"Shields of the Mighty, The," by Abraham de Porta Leone, 220.

Shiites, the, Mohammedan sect, 75.

Shilte ha-Gibborim, by Abraham de Porta Leone, 220.

Shulchan Aruch, the, publication of, 232. scope of, 232-233. sources of, 233-234. parts of, 239-240. value of, 241.

Sibylline books, the Jewish, 38-40. on the Jewish religion, 38-39. language of, 39. quotations from, 39, 40.

Siddur, the, compiled by Amram, 70.

Sifra, a Midrashic work, 57.

Sifre, a Midrashic work, 57.

Simlai, Amora, 47, 48.

Simon, the son of Lakish, Amora, 46.

Simon, the son of Yochai, alleged author of the Zohar, 172.

Solomon, the son of Adereth, writer of "Responses," 235.

Solomon Ibn Gebirol, and the Scriptures, 107. subjects of, 109. life of, 109-110. works of, 110. quotations from, 111-112. works of, translated, 148.

Solomon Ibn Verga, chronicler, 218.

Solomon Alami, ethical writer, 197-198.

Solomon Alkabets, poet, 239.

Solomon Molcho, and the Kabbala, 175, 207.

Song of Songs, the, and new-Hebrew poetry, 107.

Spain, Moorish, the centre of Jewish learning, 96-97.

Spanish-Jewish poetry. See New-Hebrew poetry.

Spanish Piyut, the, 85.

Speyer, Rashi at, 122.

Spinoza, Baruch, influenced by Chasdai Crescas, 141. philosopher, 243, 244, 249-251. life of, 250-251. works of, 251.

Steinschneider, Dr., on Jewish translators, 144.

"Stone of Help, The," part of the Shulchan Aruch, 240.

Strabo, used in "Josippon," 214.

"Strengthening of Faith, The," by Isaac Troki, 81.

"Strong Hand, The," by Moses Maimonides, 136-137, 139, 232.

"Strong Tower, The," by Luzzatto, 246.

Sunnites, the, Mohammedan sect, 75.

Sura, centre of Jewish learning, 44, 72. Saadiah at, 91, 96.

Synhedrion, the, at Jamnia, 19-20.

"Table Prepared." See Shulchan Aruch, the.

Tables of Alfonso, in Hebrew, 221.

Tachkemoni, by Charizi, 131-132, 183.

Talmud, the, commentary on the Mishnah, 43. language of, 44. two works, 44. the teachers of, 44. character of, 45, 50, 53. the two aspects of, 47. and Rab and Samuel, 47-48, 51. influences traceable in, 50-51. compilation of, 51-52. beast fables in, 64-67. lexicon of, 70. and the Piyut, 86. commentary on, by Rashi, 120. geographical notes in, 200. Notes on, 234.

Talmud, the Babylonian, 44. the larger work, 44.

Talmud, the Jerusalem, 44.

Tam of Rameru, Tossafist, 161.

Tanchuma, a Midrashic work, 58.

Tannaim, the, teachers of the Mishnah, 22. four generations of, 23.

Targum Onkelos, Aramaic translation of the Pentateuch, 27.

Tarshish, by Moses Ibn Ezra, 114.

"Teacher of Knowledge, The," part of the Shulchan Aruch, 239-240.

Teharoth, order of the Mishnah, 31.

Teshuboth. See "Letters," the; "Responses," the.

"Theologico-Political Tractate," by Spinoza, 244, 251.

Tiberias, centre of Jewish learning, 20.

Todros Abulafia, Kabbalist, 171.

Toledo, Jewish literary centre, 112. cosmopolitanism of, 126.

"Topaz, The," by Moses Ibn Ezra, 114.

Torah, the. See Pentateuch, the.

Tossafists, the, French Talmudists, 160-161.

Tossafoth, Additions, 161.

"Touchstone, The," by Kalonymos, 185.

Tractates of the Mishnah, 31.

Tradition, the Jewish, investigated at Jamnia, 21. Sherira on, 70. reaction against, 76. See Mishnah, the.

Translations, value of, 144. made by Jews, 144-145, 146, 149-151, 153-154, 155-156.

"Travels," by Petachiah of Ratisbon, 204.

Troyes, Rashi at, 122.

"Two Tables of the Covenant, The," by Isaiah Hurwitz, 176.

Tyre, Jehuda Halevi in, 129.

Usha, centre of Jewish learning, 20.

"Valley of Tears, The," by Joseph Cohen, 218, 219.

Venice, Abarbanel in, 227.

Vindiciae Judeorum, by Manasseh ben Israel, 244, 249, 258.

"Vineyard," the. See Jamnia.

Vossius, friend of Manasseh ben Israel, 245.

"Wars of the Jews, The," by Josephus, 34. the language of, 37.

"Wars of the Lord, The," by Gersonides, 141.

"Wars of the Lord, The," by Salman, the son of Yerucham, 78.

Wessely, N.H., pedagogue, 210.

"Wolf and the two Hounds, The," fable, 65.

"Wolf at the Well, The," fable, 65.

"Work of Tobiah, The," by Tobiah Cohen, 209.

Worms, Rashi at, 122.

Yad Hachazaka. See "Strong Hand, The."

Yalkut, collected Midrashim, 58.

Yedaiah Bedaressi, writer, 191-192.

Yeshuoth Meshicho, by Abarbanel, 229.

Yoreh Deah, part of the Shulchan Aruch, 240.

Yuchasin, by Abraham Zacuto, 216.

Zabara, satirist, 127.

Zacut, Moses, dramatist, 246.

Zeena u-Reena, homiletical work, 230.

Zeira, Amora, 46.

Zemach, the son of Paltoi, Gaon and lexicographer, 70.

Zemach David, by David Gans, 220-221.

Zeraim, order of the Mishnah, 31.

Zevaoth. See Ethical Wills.

Zicareo, character in Samuel Usque's poem, 218.

Zion, odes to, by Jehuda Halevi, 109, 129-130.

Zohar, the, Kabbalistic work, 172-174. style and language of, 172-173. contents of, 173-174. Christian ideas in, 174. importance of, 175.

THE END

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