It was absolutely necessary that the functions of the brain should be demonstrated as positively as those of the spinal nerves had been demonstrated by Majendie and Bell. Two methods appeared possible. The two agents were galvanism and the aura of the nervous system, commonly called animal magnetism. My first experiments in 1841, satisfied me that both were available, but that the nervaura was far more available, efficient, and satisfactory. Upon this I have relied ever since, though I sometimes experiment with galvanism, to demonstrate its efficiency, and Dr. De la Rua, of Cuba, informed me over twenty years ago that he found very delicate galvanic currents available for this purpose in his practice.
Animal magnetism or mesmerism had been involved in mystery and empiricism. There had never been any scientific or anatomical explanation of the phenomena, and this mystery I desired to dispel. My first step was to ascertain that for experiments on the nervous system we did not need the somnambulic or hypnotic condition, and that it was especially to be avoided as a source of confusion and error. Whenever the organ of sensibility, or sensitiveness, was sufficiently developed and predominant, the conditions of neurological experiments for scientific purposes were satisfactory, and to make such experiments, the subjects, instead of being ignorant, passive, emotional, hysteric, or inclined to trance, should be as intelligent as possible, well-balanced and clear-headed,—competent to observe subjective phenomena in a critical manner. Hence, my experiments, which have been made upon all sorts of persons, were most decisive and satisfactory to myself when made upon well-educated physicians, upon medical professors, my learned colleagues, upon eminent lawyers or divines, upon strong-minded farmers or hunters, entirely unacquainted with such subjects, and incapable of psychological delusion, or upon persons of very skeptical minds who would not admit anything until the phenomena were made very plain and unquestionable.
While the nervaura of the human constitution (which is as distinctly perceptible to the sensitive as its caloric and electricity) is emitted from every portion of the surface of the head and body, the quality and quantity of that which is emitted from the inner surface of the hand, render it most available, and the application of the hand of any one who has a respectable amount of vital and mental energy, will produce a distinct local stimulation of functions wherever it may be applied upon the head or body. In this manner it is easy to demonstrate the amiable and pleasing influence of the superior regions of the brain, the more energetic and vitalizing influence of its posterior half, and the mild, subduing influence of the front.
In my first experiments, in the spring of 1841, I found so great susceptibility that I could demonstrate promptly even the smallest organs of the brain, and it was gratifying to find that the illustrious Gall had ascertained, with so marvellous accuracy the functions of the smallest organs in the front lobe, and the subject could be engrossed in the thought of numbers and counting by touching the organ of number or calculation. Eagerly did I proceed in testing the accuracy of all the discoveries of Gall and the additions I had made by craniological studies, as well as bringing out new functions which I had not been able to anticipate or discover. Omitting the history of those experiments, I would but briefly state that in 1842 I published a complete map of the brain, in which the full development of human faculties made a complete picture of the psycho-physiological constitution of man, and thus presented for the first time a science which might justly be called Anthropology.
 I do not publish or circulate this map apart from the explanatory volume (Outlines of Anthropology) for the reason that it is impossible by any nomenclature of organs to convey a correct idea of the functions, and hence, such a map would tend to a great many misconceptions.
It is obvious that prior to 1842 there was nothing entitled to the name of ANTHROPOLOGY, as there was no complete geography before the discovery of America and circumnavigation of the globe. When man is fully portrayed by the statement of all the psychic and all the physiological faculties and functions found in his brain, which contains the totality, and manifests them in the soul and body, it is obvious that we have a true Anthropology, which, to complete its fulness, requires only the study of the soul as an entity distinct from the brain, and of the body as an anatomical and physiological apparatus. The latter had already been well accomplished by the medical profession, and the former very imperfectly by spiritual psychologists. But neither the physiology, nor the pneumatology had been placed in organic connection with the central cerebral science.
In consummating such tasks, I felt justified, in 1842, in adopting the word Anthropology, as the representative of the new science, though at that time it was so unfamiliar as to be misunderstood. This science, as presented in my Outlines of Anthropology in 1854, embraced another very important and entirely novel discovery—the psycho-physiological relations of the surface of the body, the manner in which every portion of the body responds to the brain and the soul, the final solution of the great and hitherto impenetrable mystery of the triune relations of soul, brain, and body. This discovery, constituting the science of Sarcognomy, became the basis of a new medical philosophy, explaining the influence of the body on the soul, in health, and disease, and the reciprocal influence of the soul on the body.
This manifestly modified our views of therapeutics and revolutionized electro-therapeutics by pointing out the exact physiological and psychic effects of every portion of the surface of the body, when subject to local treatment, and hence, originating new methods of electric practice, in which many results were produced not heretofore deemed possible. All this was fully presented in my work on THERAPEUTIC SARCOGNOMY, published in 1885, which was speedily sold.
In contemplating these immense results of a successful investigation of the functions of the brain, I can see no logical escape from the conclusion that such a revelation of the functions of the brain is by far the most important event that belongs to the history of vital science—an event so romantically different from the common, slow progress of science when cultivated by men of ability, that I do not wonder at the incredulity which naturally opposes its recognition, and seems to render the most unanimous and conclusive testimony from honorable scientists apparently ineffective. The support of the medical college in which I was Dean of the Faculty, the hearty endorsement by the Faculty of Indiana State University, and by numerous committees of investigation, seem to count as nothing with the conservative portion of the medical profession, who have ever understood how to ignore so simple and positive a demonstration as that of Harvey, or so practical a demonstration as that of Hahnemann, or so irresistible a mass of facts as those of modern psychic science.
The question will naturally arise among the enlightened lovers of truth, why so grand and so demonstrable a science should for forty-five years have made so little progress toward general recognition. It is sufficient to say that new and revolutionary truth is never welcomed, and, if the discoverer is not active as a propagandist it has no diffusion. I did not feel that there was any receptiveness across the ocean for what was resisted here. Nevertheless I did prepare and send to Edinburgh, in 1841, a brief report of my discoveries accompanied by an endorsement or introduction from the venerable Prof. Caldwell, the founder of the successful medical college at Louisville, whose lectures were attended by four hundred pupils. I supposed the gentlemen of the Phrenological Society at Edinburgh the most liberal parties in Great Britain, but they declined publishing my memoir as too marvellous, and proposed merely to file it away as a caveat of the discovery. That ended all thoughts of Europe; and, indeed, it seemed to me premature to urge such a discovery and so grand a philosophy upon the world in the present state of its intellectual civilization. I ceased to agitate the subject for many years, and allowed myself to be drawn into the political agitations connected with our civil war, to mitigate some of its social and political evils.
Of late, however, an urgent and imperative sense of duty has put my pen in motion as the remnant of my life will be hardly sufficient to record the results of my investigations.
In the "New Education" and the "Manual of Psychometry—the dawn of a new civilization"—I have appealed to the public, and three editions of the former with two of the latter show that the public is not indifferent. The recognition of the marvellous claims of Psychometry will prepare the way for the supreme science of Anthropology, to which the coming century will do justice.
In justice to the learned Prof. Caldwell and myself, I should not omit to mention that this distinguished, eloquent, and venerable gentleman, who, in his early life, was a cotemporary of the famous Dr. Rush, of Philadelphia, and throughout his life was a champion of the most progressive doctrines in Biology, not only gave his friendly co-operation on the first presentation of my discoveries, but ten years later honored me with a visit at Cincinnati, to become more fully acquainted with them, and subsequently, by appointment of the National Medical Association, prepared a report upon subjects of a kindred nature, in which he incorporated a statement of my discoveries. His subsequent illness and death, in 1854, at an advanced age, prevented the delivery of this memoir.
In signal contrast to the honorable and candid course of Prof. CALDWELL, and to the candid examination, followed by eulogistic language of Prof. H. P. GATCHELL, ROBERT DALE OWEN, President ANDREW WYLIE, Rev. JOHN PIERPONT, Dr. SAMUEL FORRY, Prof. WM. DENTON, the eloquent Judge ROWAN, and a score of other eminently intellectual men, it is my duty to record the melancholy fact that the great majority of professional men, when tested, have manifested an entire apathy, if not a positive aversion, to the investigations and discoveries in which these momentous results have been reached. While no aversion, disrespect, or suspicion was shown toward myself, a stubborn aversion was shown to investigations that might have revolutionary results—proving that our false systems of education teach men not to think independently, but to adhere closely to precedent authority, fashion, popularity, and habit, which is the inertia of the mental world.
The faculty of my alma mater (excepting Prof. Caldwell) refused to investigate the subject, even when invited by their Board of Trustees. The Boston Academy of Arts and Sciences, embracing the men at the head of the medical profession, pretended to take up the subject, but in a few hours dropped it, with polite compliments to myself, in 1842. The American Medical Association, in 1878, refused to entertain the subject because I could not coincide with them in my sentiments, and accept their code of bigotry. There was no formal action of the Association, but my friend, Prof. Gross, then recognized as the Nestor of the profession, and holding the highest position of authority, informed me semi-officially, very courteously, that none of my discoveries could ever be brought to the notice of the Association, because I did not accept their code. Thus (without mentioning other instances), I have stood before the public with a demonstrable science, challenging investigation by critical opponents, who have so uniformly evaded or shrunk from the test that I have ceased to care for their opinions, while I still entertain as profound a respect as ever for the investigations of the candid and manly, among whom I never fail to find friendship and cordiality.
Looking back forty-five years, I remember with extreme pleasure the friendly co-operation of ROWAN and CALDWELL. The American medical profession never had a more dignified, imposing, and high-toned representative than Prof. Caldwell. Nor was the legal profession anywhere ever adorned by a more commanding and gracious representative than the unsurpassed advocate, ROWAN, who was widely known as the "OLD MONARCH." The nobility of such men was shown in their noble bearing toward a dawning science, In which they saw the grandeur of the future.
COLLEGE OF THERAPEUTICS.
Next Session Begins November 1, 1887.
This institution is the germ of what will be an immense revolution in education hereafter, when the knowledge now given to small classes will hold a conspicuous place in every college, and will be presented in every high school.
The mountain mass of inertia, which opposes, passively, all fundamental changes, cannot now resist scientific demonstration as it has in the past. The instruction in the College of Therapeutics, is thoroughly demonstrative, leaving no room for doubt, and it gives a species of knowledge which ought to be a part of every one's education—a knowledge of the constitution of man, not obtainable to-day in any medical or literary college, nor in our mammoth libraries. It is not merely as a deep philosophy that this interests us, but as a guide in the preservation of health, and in the regulation of spiritual phenomena, which would, to a very great extent, supersede our reliance on the medical profession by giving us the control of the vital powers, by which we may protect ourselves, and control the development of the young.
Each student was made to feel the effects of local treatment on the body, and the power of rapidly changing disease to health, and was personally taught to perform the manipulations for this purpose, and to investigate disease or portray character by the psychometric methods as well as to test the value of medicines.
The various uses and scientific application of electricity were shown, and many things entirely unknown and unrecognized in works on Electro-Therapeutics. The entire class was placed under a medical influence simultaneously by the agency of electricity—an operation so marvelous that it would be considered incredible in medical colleges. By these and other experiments and numerous illustrations and lucid explanations of the brain and nervous system, the instruction was made deeply interesting, and students have attended more than one course to perfect themselves in the science. The following declaration of sentiments shows how the course was regarded by the class:
"The summer class of 1887 in the College of Therapeutics, feeling it their duty to add their testimony to that of many others in reference to the grand scientific discoveries which they have seen thoroughly demonstrated by Prof. J. R. Buchanan, would say to the public that no one can attend such a course of instruction as we have recently been engaged in, without realizing that Therapeutic Sarcognomy greatly enlarges the practical resources of the healing art for the medical practitioner, magnetizer and electro-therapeutist, while Psychometry, whose positive truths we have tested and proven, like the sun's rays, illumines all the dark problems of medical practice and of psycho-physiological sciences.
"Therapeutic Sarcognomy explains the very intricate and mysterious relations of the soul, the brain and body, which prior to Prof. Buchanan's discoveries were unknown to all scientific teachers, and are even now only known to his students and the readers of his works,
"We feel that we have been very fortunate in finding so valuable a source of knowledge, whose future benefits to the human race, in many ways, cannot be briefly stated, and we would assure all who may attend this college, or read the published works of Prof. Buchanan, and his monthly, the Journal of Man, that they will, when acquainted with the subject, be ready to unite with us in appreciating and honoring the greatest addition ever made to biological and psychological sciences. Hoping that the time is not for distant when all students in medical colleges may obtain access to this most important knowledge, we give our testimony to the public."
H. C. ALDRICH, M. D., D. D. S., Chairman. DR. JNO. C. SCHLARBAUM, Secretary.
Enlargement of the Journal.
If the readers of the JOURNAL knew how much very interesting matter is crowded out of each number of the JOURNAL, they would be very anxious for its enlargement.
Advertising in the Journal.
The financial success of monthly magazines, depends much upon a liberal advertising patronage. I would say just to all my readers, that the JOURNAL has a larger circulation than many medical journals which are filled with advertisements. It is an excellent medium for those who have new and valuable things to present, for it circulates among the most progressive and enlightened class of people. The terms are the same which are common in magazines.
[Hand pointing right]An advertising agent might find profitable employment by applying to the editor of the JOURNAL.
Works of Prof. J. R. Buchanan.
THE NEW EDUCATION.—$1.50.
"It is incomparably the best work on education that I have ever seen."—Prof. Wm. Denton. "I regard it as by far the best work on education ever published".—Rev. B. F. Barrett.
MANUAL OF PSYCHOMETRY.—The dawn of a new civilization,—$2.16.
"The like of this work is not to be found in the whole literature of the past."—New York Home Journal. "He has boldly navigated unknown seas till he has found a far greater and more important world than the Genoese navigator discovered."—Hartford Times. "There are striking reflections upon almost every page, and a richness of language and freshness of spirit that is peculiarly marked." Medical Brief, St. Louis. "A century in advance of his time."—People's Health Journal, Chicago.
PSYCHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL CHART OF SARCOGNOMY.—21x31 inches, $1. Showing the vital powers of soul, brain, and body in their location, as a guide for treatment. "Upon the psychic functions of the brain, Prof. Buchanan is the highest living authority."—American Homoeopathist.
THERAPEUTIC SARCOGNOMY.—Now in preparation, to be published next winter.
OUTLINES OF ANTHROPOLOGY.—Now in preparation.
PRACTICE OF PSYCHOMETRY.—Mrs. C. H. Buchanan continues the practice of Psychometry, 6 James Street, Boston. Personal interview, $2. Written descriptions, $3. Elaborate descriptions, $5. The objects of Psychometry are the description of character, constitution, health, or disease, and such advice as circumstances require.
UNLIKE ANY OTHER PAPER.
The Spectator, unlike other home papers, seeks (1) to acquaint every family with simple and efficient treatment for the various common diseases, to, in a word, educate the people so they can avoid disease and cure sickness, thus saving enormous doctors' bills, and many precious lives. (2) To elevate and cultivate the moral nature, awakening the conscience, and developing the noblest attributes of manhood. (3) To give instructive and entertaining food to literary taste, thus developing the mind. (4) To give just such hints to housekeepers that they need to tell how to prepare delicious dishes, to beautify homes, and to make the fireside the most attractive spot in the world.—Am. Spectator.
The suspension of pain, under dangerous surgical operations, is the greatest triumph of Therapeutic Science in the present century. It came first by mesmeric hypnotism, which was applicable only to a few, and was restricted by the jealous hostility of the old medical profession. Then came the nitrous oxide, introduced by Dr. Wells, of Hartford, and promptly discountenanced by the enlightened (?) medical profession of Boston, and set aside for the next candidate, ether, discovered in the United States also, but far interior to the nitrous oxide as a safe and pleasant agent. This was largely superseded by chloroform, discovered much earlier by Liebig and others, but introduced as an anaesthetic in 1847, by Prof. Simpson. This proved to be the most powerful and dangerous of all. Thus the whole policy of the medical profession was to discourage the safe, and encourage the more dangerous agents. The magnetic sleep, the most perfect of all anaesthetic agents, was expelled from the realm of college authority; ether was substituted for nitrous oxide, and chloroform preferred to ether, until frequent deaths gave warning.
Nitrous oxide, much the safest of the three, has not been the favorite, but has held its ground, especially with dentists. But even nitrous oxide is not perfect. It is not equal to the magnetic sleep, when the latter is practicable, but fortunately it is applicable to all. To perfect the nitrous oxide, making it universally safe and pleasant, Dr. U. K. Mayo, of Boston, has combined it with certain harmless vegetable nervines, which appear to control the fatal tendency which belongs to all anaesthetics when carried too far. The success of Dr. Mayo, in perfecting our best anaesthetic, is amply attested by those who have used it. Dr. Thorndike, than whom, Boston had no better surgeon, pronounced it "the safest the world has yet seen." It has been administered to children and to patients in extreme debility. Drs. Frizzell and Williams, say they have given it "repeatedly in heart disease, severe lung diseases, Bright's disease, etc., where the patients were so feeble as to require assistance in walking, many of them under medical treatment, and the results have been all that we could ask—no irritation, suffocation, nor depression. We heartily commend it to all as the anaesthetic of the age." Dr. Morrill, of Boston, administered Mayo's anaesthetic to his wife with delightful results when "her lungs were so badly disorganized, that the administration of ether or gas would be entirely unsafe." The reputation of this anaesthetic is now well established; in fact, it is not only safe and harmless, but has great medical virtue for daily use in many diseases, and is coming into use for such purposes. In a paper before the Georgia State Dental Society, Dr. E. Parsons testified strongly to its superiority. "The nitrous oxide, (says Dr. P.) causes the patient when fully under its influence to have very like the appearance of a corpse," but under this new anaesthetic "the patient appears like one in a natural sleep." The language of the press, generally has been highly commendatory, and if Dr. Mayo had occupied so conspicuous a rank as Prof. Simpson, of Edinburgh, his new anaesthetic would have been adopted at once in every college of America and Europe.
* * * * *
Mayo's Vegetable Anaesthetic.
A perfectly safe and pleasant substitute for chloroform, ether, nitrous oxide gas, and all other anaesthetics. Discovered by Dr. U. K. Mayo, April, 1883, and since administered by him and others in over 300,000 cases successfully. The youngest child, the most sensitive lady, and those having heart disease, and lung complaint, inhale this vapor with impunity. It stimulates the circulation of the blood and builds up the tissues. Indorsed by the highest authority in the professions, recommended in midwifery and all cases of nervous prostration. Physicians, surgeons, dentists and private families supplied with this vapor, liquefied, in cylinders of various capacities. It should be administered the same as Nitrous Oxide, but it does not produce headache and nausea as that sometimes does. For further information pamphlets, testimonials, etc., apply to
DR. U. K. MAYO, Dentist, 378 Tremont St., Boston, Mass.
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Transcriber's Note: The Table of Contents came from the first issue of the volume. The article on ANTHROPOLOGY is continued from the previous issue's page 32.