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Anglo-Saxon Grammar and Exercise Book - with Inflections, Syntax, Selections for Reading, and Glossary
by C. Alphonso Smith
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[4] = he. [7] = hiera.

[Linenotes:

114.7-9: ond :m wordum ... tgeodde, and to those words he soon joined, in the same meter, many (other) words of song worthy of God. But the translator has not only blundered over Bede's Latin (eis mox plura in eundem modum verba Deo digna carminis adjunxit), but sacrificed still more the idiom of O.E.The predicate should not come at the end; in should be followed by the dative; and for Gode wyres songes the better O.E. would be songes Godes wyres. When used with the dative wyr (weor) usually means dear (=of worth) to.

114.16: # ... gesewen#. We should expect from him eallum; but the translator has again closely followed the Latin (visumque est omnibus), as later (inthe Conversion of Edwin) he renders Talis mihi videtur by yslc m is gesewen. Talis (yslc) agreeing with a following vita (lf). lfric, however, with no Latin before him, writes that John wear him [= from Drihtene] inweardlce gelufod. It would seem that in proportion as a past participle has the force of an adjective, the to relation may supplant the by relation; just as we say unknown to instead of unknown by, unknown being more adjectival than participial. Gesewen, therefore, may here be translated visible, evident, patent (=gesynelc, sweotol); and gelufod, dear (=weor, lof).

A survival of adjectival gesewen is found in Wycliffe's New Testament (1Cor. xv, 5-8): "He was seyn to Cephas, and aftir these thingis to enleuene; aftirward he was seyn to mo than fyue hundrid britheren togidere ... aftirward he was seyn to James, and aftirward to alle the apostlis. And last of alle he was seyn to me, as to a deed borun child." The construction is frequent in Chaucer.]

8 ongan so abbudisse clyppan ond lufigean[8] Godes 9 gife in :m men, ond ho hine monade ond l:rde 10 t h woruldhd forlte ond munuchd onfnge: ond 11 h t wel afode. Ond ho hine in t mynster onfng 12 mid his gdum, ond hine geodde t gesomnunge ra 13 Godes owa, ond heht hine l:ran t getl s hlgan 14 st:res ond spelles. Ond h eal h in gehy:rnesse 15 geleornian meahte, mid hine gemyndgade, ond sw sw 16 cl:ne nten[9] eodorcende in t swteste lo gehwyrfde. 17 Ond his song ond his lo w:ron sw wynsumu t gehy:ranne, 18 tte seolfan[10] his lrowas t his me writon 19 ond leornodon. Song h :rest be middangeardes gesceape, 20 ond b fruman moncynnes, ond eal t st:r Genesis (t 21 is so :reste Moyses bc); ond eft b tgonge Israhla 22 folces of :gypta londe, ond b ingonge s gehtlandes; 23 ond b rum monegum spellum s hlgan gewrites

[[page 116]]

1 cannes bca; ond b Crstes menniscnesse, ond b his 2 rwunge, ond b his pstgnesse in heofonas; ond b 3 s Hlgan Gstes cyme, ond ra apostola lre; ond eft 4 b :m dge s tweardan dmes, ond b fyrhtu s 5 tintreglcan wtes, ond b swtnesse s heofonlcan rces, 6 h monig lo geworhte; ond swelce[2] ac er monig be 7 :m godcundan fremsumnessum ond dmum h geworhte. 8 In eallum :m h geornlce gmde[11] t h men tuge 9 from synna lufan ond mnd:da, ond t lufan ond t 10 geornfulnesse wehte gdra d:da, for on h ws, s 11 mon, swe :fest ond regollcum odscipum amdlce 12 underoded; ond wi :m e in re wsan dn woldon, 13 h ws mid welme[12] micelre ellenwdnisse onbrned. 14 Ond h for on fgre ende his lf bety:nde ond geendade.

[2] = swilce. [8] = lufian. [9] = neten. [10] = selfan. [11] = gemde. [12] = wielme.

[Linenotes:

115.9-10: ond ho hine monade ... munuchd onfnge. Hild's advice has in it the suggestion of a personal experience, for she herself had lived half of her life (thirty-three years) "before," says Bede, "she dedicated the remaining half to our Lord in a monastic life."

116.6: h monig lo geworhte. The opinion is now gaining ground that of these "many poems" only the short hymn, already given, has come down to us. Of other poems claimed for Cdmon, the strongest arguments are advanced in favor of a part of the fragmentary poetical paraphrase of Genesis.]

V. ALFRED'S PREFACE TO THE PASTORAL CARE.

[Based on the Hatton MS. Of the year 597, the Chronicle says: "In this year, Gregory the Pope sent into Britain Augustine with very many monks, who gospelled [preached] God's word to the English folk." Gregory I, surnamed "The Great," has ever since been considered the apostle of English Christianity, and his Pastoral Care, which contains instruction in conduct and doctrine for all bishops, was a work that Alfred could not afford to leave untranslated. For this translation Alfred wrote a Preface, the historical value of which it would be hard to overrate. In it he describes vividly the intellectual ruin that the Danes had wrought, and develops at the same time his plan for repairing that ruin.

This Preface and the Battle of Ashdown (p.99) show the great king in his twofold character of warrior and statesman, and justify the inscription on the base of the statue erected to him in 1877, at Wantage (Berkshire), his birth-place: "lfred found Learning dead, and he restored it; Education neglected, and he revived it; the laws powerless, and he gave them force; the Church debased, and he raised it; the Land ravaged by a fearful Enemy, from which he delivered it. lfred's name will live as long as mankind shall respect the Past."]

[[page 117]]

1 lfred kyning hte grtan Wrfer biscep[1] his wordum 2 luflce ond frondlce; ond cy:an hte t m cm 3 swe oft on gemynd, hwelce[2] witan u[3] w:ron giond[4] 4 Angelcynn, :ger ge godcundra hda ge woruldcundra; 5 ond h ges:liglca tda w:ron giond Angelcynn; ond 6 h kyningas e one onwald hfdon s folces on 7 m dagum Gode ond his :rendwrecum hrsumedon[5]; 8 ond h he :ger ge hiora sibbe ge hiora siodo[6] ge hiora 9 onweald innanbordes geholdon,[4] ond ac t hiora el 10 gery:mdon; ond h him spow :ger ge mid wge ge 11 mid wsdme; ond ac a godcundan hdas h giorne 12 he w:ron :ger ge ymb lre ge ymb liornunga, ge ymb 13 ealle owotdmas e he Gode dn scoldon; ond h 14 man tanbordes wsdm ond lre hieder on lond shte, 15 ond h w he n sceoldon te begietan, gif w he habban 16 sceoldon. Sw:[7] cl:ne ho ws ofeallenu on Angelcynne 17 t swe fawa w:ron behionan Humbre e hiora ninga 18 cen understondan on Englisc oe furum n :rendgewrit 19 of L:dene on Englisc reccean; ond ic wne tte 20 nht monige begiondan Humbre n:ren. Sw:[7] fawa 21 hiora w:ron t ic furum nne nlpne[8] ne mg geencean

[[page 118]]

1 be san Temese, ic t rce fng. Gode lmihtegum 2 se onc tte w n :nigne onstl habba 3 lrowa. Ond for on ic bebode t d sw:[7] ic 4 gelefe t wille, t issa woruldinga t :m 5 ge:metige, sw: oftost mge, t one wsdm e 6 God sealde :r :r hiene befstan mge, befste. 7 Geenc hwelc[9] wtu s becmon for isse worulde, 8 w hit nhwer n selfe ne lufodon, n ac rum 9 monnum ne lfdon[10]: one naman nne w lufodon tte 10 w Crstne w:ren, ond swe fawe awas.

[1] = bisceop. [2] = hwilce. [3] = gu. [4] = For all words with io (o), consult Glossary under eo (o). [5] = hersumedon. [6] = sidu (siodu). [7] = sw. [8] = nlpigne. [9] = hwilc. [10] = lefdon.

[Linenotes:

117.1-2: lfred kyning hte ... hte. Note the change from the formal and official third person (hte) to the more familiar first person (hte). So lfric, in his Preface to Genesis, writes lfric munuc grt elwrd ealdormann admdlce. b:de m, lof, t ic, etc.: lfric, monk, greets thelweard, alderman, humbly. Thou, beloved, didst bid me that I, etc.

118.5: Notice that mge (l.5) and mge (l.6) are not in the subjunctive because the sense requires it, but because they have been attracted by g:metige and befste. Sen (p.119, l.15) and hbben (p.119, l.20) illustrate the same construction.

118.9-10: We liked only the reputation of being Christians, very few (ofus) the Christian virtues.]

11 ic is eall gemunde, gemunde ic ac h ic 12 geseah, :r :m e hit eall forhergod w:re ond forbrned, 13 h ciricean giond eall Angelcynn stdon 14 mma ond bca gefylda, ond ac micel menigeo[11] Godes 15 owa; ond swe ly:tle fiorme ra bca wiston, for 16 :m e he hiora nnwuht[12] ongietan ne meahton, for 17 :m e he n:ron on hiora gen geode awritene. 18 Swelce[13] he cw:den: "Ure ieldran, e s stwa :r 19 holdon, he lufodon wsdm, ond urh one he begaton 20 welan, ond s l:fdon. Hr mon mg get geson hiora 21 sw, ac w him ne cunnon fter spyrigean,[14] ond for 22 :m w habba n :ger forl:ten ge one welan ge one 23 wsdm, for :m e w noldon t :m spore mid re 24 mde onltan."

[11] = menigu. [12] = nnwiht. [13] = swilce. [14] = spyrian.

25 ic is eall gemunde, wundrade ic swe swe 26 ra gdena wiotona[15] e gu w:ron giond Angelcynn, ond 27 bc ealla be fullan geliornod hfdon, t he hiora

[[page 119]]

1 n:nne d:l noldon on hiora gen geode wendan. Ac 2 ic sna eft m selfum andwyrde, ond cw: "He ne 3 wndon tte :fre menn sceolden sw:[7] reccelase weoran, 4 ond so lr sw: ofeallan; for :re wilnunga he 5 hit forlton, ond woldon t hr y: mra wsdm on 6 londe w:re y: w m geoda con."

[7] = sw. [15] = witena.

7 gemunde ic h so : ws :rest on Ebrisc geode 8 funden, ond eft, he Cracas geliornodon, wendon 9 he he on hiora gen geode ealle, ond ac ealle re 10 bc. Ond eft L:denware sw: same, sian he he geliornodon, 11 he he wendon ealla urh wse wealhstdas 12 on hiora gen geode. Ond ac ealla ra Crstena 13 oda sumne d:l hiora on hiora gen geode wendon. 14 For y: m ync betre, gif ow sw: ync, t w ac 15 suma bc, e nedbeearfosta sen eallum monnum 16 t wiotonne,[16] t w on t geode wenden e w 17 ealle gecnwan mgen, ond gedn sw: w swe ae 18 magon mid Godes fultume, gif w stilnesse habba, 19 tte eall so giogu e n is on Angelcynne friora 20 monna, ra e spda hbben t he :m befolan 21 mgen, sen t liornunga ofste, hwle e he t

[[page 120]]

1 nnre erre note ne mgen, o one first e he wel 2 cunnen Englisc gewrit r:dan: l:re mon sian furur 3 on L:dengeode e mon furor l:ran wille, ond t 4 herran hde dn wille. ic gemunde h so lr 5 L:dengeodes :r issum feallen ws giond Angelcynn, 6 ond eah monige con Englisc gewrit r:dan, 7 ongan ic ongemang orum mislcum ond manigfealdum 8 bisgum isses kynerces bc wendan on Englisc e is 9 genemned on L:den "Pastoralis," ond on Englisc "Hierdebc," 10 hwlum word be worde, hwlum andgit of andgiete, 11 sw: sw: ic he geliornode t Plegmunde mnum 12 rcebiscepe, ond t Assere mnum biscepe, ond t Grimbolde 13 mnum msseproste, ond t Ihanne mnum msseproste. 14 Sian ic he geliornod hfde, sw: sw: 15 ic he forstd, ond sw: ic he andgitfullcost reccean 16 meahte, ic he on Englisc wende; ond t :lcum biscepstle 17 on mnum rce wille ne onsendan; ond on :lcre 18 bi n stel, s bi on fftegum mancessa. Ond ic bebode 19 on Godes naman t nn mon one stel from 20 :re bc ne d, n bc from :m mynstre; unc h 21 longe :r sw: gel:rede biscepas sen, sw: sw: n, Gode 22 onc, wel hw:r siendon. For y: ic wolde tte he ealneg

[[page 121]]

1 t :re stwe w:ren, bton s biscep he mid him 2 habban wille, oe ho hw:r t l:ne se, oe hw re 3 b wrte.

[16] = witanne.

[Linenotes:

119.14: Alfred is here addressing the bishops collectively, and hence uses the plural #ow# (=#ow#), not #.

119.16: #t w #. These three words are not necessary to the sense. They constitute the figure known as epanalepsis, in which "the same word or phrase is repeated after one or more intervening words." # is the pronominal substitute for #suma bc#.

119.17: Gedn is the first person plural subjunctive (from infinitive gedn). It and wenden are in the same construction. Two things seem "better" to Alfred: (1)that we translate, etc., (2)that we cause, etc.

119.19-21: so giogu ... is ... he ... sen. Notice how the collective noun, giogu, singular at first both in form and function, gradually loses its oneness before the close of the sentence is reached, and becomes plural. The construction is entirely legitimate in Mn.E. Spanish is the only modern language known to me that condemns such an idiom: "Spanish ideas of congruity do not permit a collective noun, though denoting a plurality, to be accompanied by a plural verb or adjective in the same clause" (Ramsey, Text-Book of Modern Spanish, 1452).

120.2: l:re mon. See 105, 1.

120.11-13: That none of these advisers of the king, except Plegmond, aMercian, were natives, bears out what Alfred says about the scarcity of learned men in England when he began to reign. Asser, to whose Latin Life of Alfred, in spite of its mutilations, we owe almost all of our knowledge of the king, came from St. David's (inWales), and was made Bishop of Sherborne.

121.1: Translate :t :re stwe by each in its place. The change from plural he (in#he ... w:ren#) to singular he (inthe clauses that follow) will thus be prepared for.

121.2-3: oe hw re b wrte, or unless some one wish to copy a new one (write thereby another).]



POETRY.

INTRODUCTORY.

[Transcriber's Note:

In Section II., Structure, the stress markers and ' are intended to display above the macron () or breve (u or [)]). In this simplified Latin-1 text, they are shown before (to the left of) the macron:

'

"Resolved stress" (two short syllables acting as one long) is shown with braces:

{u }

Where there is no risk of ambiguity, the breve is shown as the letter u; elsewhere it is shown in brackets as [)].]

I. HISTORY.

(a) Old English Poetry as a Whole.

Northumbria was the home of Old English poetry. Beginning with Cdmon and his school A.D. 670, Northumbria maintained her poetical supremacy till A.D. 800, seven years before which date the ravages of the Danes had begun. When Alfred ascended the throne of Wessex (871), the Danes had destroyed the seats of learning throughout the whole of Northumbria. As Whitby had been "the cradle of English poetry," Winchester (Alfred's capital) became now the cradle of English prose; and the older poems that had survived the fire and sword of the Vikings were translated from the original Northumbrian dialect into the West Saxon dialect. It is, therefore, in the West Saxon dialect that these poems[1] have come down tous.

Old English poetry contains in all only about thirty thousand lines; but it includes epic, lyric, didactic, elegiac, and allegorical poems, together with war-ballads, paraphrases, riddles, and charms. Of the five elegiac poems (Wanderer, Seafarer, Ruin, Wife's Complaint, and Husband's Message), the Wanderer is the most artistic, and best portrays the gloomy contrast between past happiness and present grief so characteristic of the Old English lyric.

Old English literature has no love poems. The central themes of its poets are battle and bereavement, with a certain grim resignation on the part of the hero to the issues of either. The movement of the thought is usually abrupt, there being a noticeable poverty of transitional particles, or connectives, "which," says Ten Brink, "are the cement of sentence-structure."

(b) Beowulf.

The greatest of all Old English poems is the epic, Beowulf.[2] It consists of more than three thousand lines, and probably assumed approximately its present form in Northumbria about A.D. 700. It is a crystallization of continental myths; and, though nothing is said of England, the story is an invaluable index to the social, political, and ethical ideals of our Germanic ancestors before and after they settled along the English coast. It is most poetical, and its testimony is historically most valuable, in the character-portraits that it contains. The fatalism that runs through it, instead of making the characters weak and less human, serves at times rather to dignify and elevate them. "Fate," says Beowulf (l.572), recounting his battle with the sea-monsters, "often saves an undoomed man if his courage hold out."

"The ethical essence of this poetry," says Ten Brink, "lies principally in the conception of manly virtue, undismayed courage, the stoical encounter with death, silent submission to fate, in the readiness to help others, in the clemency and liberality of the prince toward his thanes, and the self-sacrificing loyalty with which they reward him."

NOTE 1.—Many different interpretations have been put upon the story of Beowulf (for argument of story, see texts). Thus Mllenhoff sees in Grendel the giant-god of the storm-tossed equinoctial sea, while Beowulf is the Scandinavian god Freyr, who in the spring drives back the sea and restores the land. Laistner finds the prototype of Grendel in the noxious exhalations that rise from the Frisian coast-marshes during the summer months; Beowulf is the wind-hero, the autumnal storm-god, who dissipates the effluvia.

[Footnote 1: This does not, of course, include the few short poems in the Chronicle, or that portion of Genesis (GenesisB) supposed to have been put directly into West Saxon from an Old Saxon original. There still remain in Northumbrian the version of Cdmon's Hymn, fragments of the Ruthwell Cross, Bede's Death-Song, and the Leiden Riddle.]

[Footnote 2: The word bowulf, says Grimm, meant originally bee-wolf, or bee-enemy, one of the names of the woodpecker. Sweet thinks the bear was meant. But the word is almost certainly a compound of Bow (cf.O.E. bow = grain), aDanish demigod, and wulf used as a mere suffix.]

II. STRUCTURE.

(a) Style.

In the structure of Old English poetry the most characteristic feature is the constant repetition of the idea (sometimes of the thought) with a corresponding variation of phrase, or epithet. When, for example, the Queen passes into the banquet hall in Beowulf, she is designated at first by her name, Wealhow; she is then described in turn as cwn Hrgres (Hrothgar's queen), gold-hroden (the gold-adorned), frolc wf (the noble woman), ides Helminga (the Helmings' lady), bag-hroden cwn (the ring-adorned queen), mde geungen (the high-spirited), and gold-hroden frolcu folc-cwn (the gold-adorned, noble folk-queen).

And whenever the sea enters largely into the poet's verse, not content with simple (uncompounded) words (such as s:, lagu, holm, stram, mere, etc.), he will use numerous other equivalents (phrases or compounds), such as waema gebind (the commingling of waves), lagu-fld (the sea-flood), lagu-str:t (the sea-street), swan-rd (the swan-road), etc. These compounds are usually nouns, or adjectives and participles used in a sense more appositive than attributive.

It is evident, therefore, that this abundant use of compounds, or periphrastic synonyms, grows out of the desire to repeat the idea in varying language. It is to be observed, also, that the Old English poets rarely make any studied attempt to balance phrase against phrase or clause against clause. Theirs is a repetition of idea, rather than a parallelism of structure.

NOTE 1.—It is impossible to tell how many of these synonymous expressions had already become stereotyped, and were used, like many of the epithets in the Iliad and Odyssey, purely as padding. When, for example, the poet tells us that at the most critical moment Beowulf's sword failed him, adding in the same breath, ren :r-gd (matchless blade), we conclude that the bard is either nodding or parroting.

(b) Meter.

[Re-read 10, (3).]

Primary Stress.

Old English poetry is composed of certain rhythmically ordered combinations of accented and unaccented syllables. The accented syllable (the arsis) is usually long, and will be indicated by the macron with the acute accent over it (); when short, by the breve with the same accent (u). The unaccented syllable or syllables (the thesis) may be long or short, and will be indicated by the oblique cross ().

Secondary Stress.

A secondary accent, or stress, is usually put upon the second member of compound and derivative nouns, adjectives, and adverbs. This will be indicated by the macron with the grave accent, if the secondary stress falls on a long syllable ('); by the breve with the same accent, if the secondary stress falls on a short syllable ('u).

Nouns:

Hrgres ( ' ), fondgrpum ( ' ), from:gum ( ' ), ast-Dena ( 'u ), Helminga ( ' ), Scyldinga ( ' ), nhaga ( 'u ), Ecgowes ( ' ), sinc-fato ( 'u ).

Adjectives:[1]

:ghwylcne ( ' ), rsthy:dig ( ' ), gold-hroden ( 'u ), drorigne ( ' ), gyldenne ( ' ), erne ( ' ), g:stlcum ( ' ), wynsume ( 'u ), :nigne ( ' ).

Adverbs:[2]

unsfte ( ' ), heardlce ( ' ), semninga ( ' ).

The Old English poets place also a secondary accent upon the ending of present participles (-ende), and upon the penultimate of weak verbs of the second class (130), provided the root-syllable is long.[3]

Present participles:

sl:pendne ( ' ), ws-hycgende ( ' ), flotendra ( ' ), hrosende ( ' ).

Weak verbs:

swynsode ( 'u ), ancode ( 'u ), wnigean ( 'u ), scawian ( 'u ), scawige ( 'u ), hlfian ( 'u ).

[Footnote 1: It will be seen that the adjectives are chiefly derivatives in -ig, -en, -er, -lc, and -sum.]

[Footnote 2: Most of the adverbs belonging here end in -lce, -unga, and -inga, 93, (1), (2): such words as t-g[]dere, on-g[]an, on-wg, t-g[]anes, t-mddes, etc., are invariably accented as here indicated.]

[Footnote 3: It will save the student some trouble to remember that this means long by nature (lcodon), or long by position (swynsode), or long by resolution of stress (maelode),—see next paragraph.]

Resolved Stress.

A short accented syllable followed in the same word by an unaccented syllable (usually short also) is equivalent to one long accented syllable (u =). This is known as a resolved stress, and will be indicated thus, {u };

hlea ({u }), guman ({u }), Gode ({u }), sele-ful ({u }), ides ({u }), fyrena ({u }), maelode ({u }'u ), hogode ({u }), mgen-ellen ({u }' ), hige-ihtigne ({u } ' ), Metudes ({u }), lagulde ({u }' ), unlyfigendes ({u }' ), biforan ({u }), forolian ({u }), baian ({u }), worolde ({u } ).

Resolution of stress may also attend secondary stresses:

sinc-fato ( {'u }), dryht-sele ( {'u }), ferloca ( {'u }), forwege ( {'u }).

The Normal Line.

Every normal line of Old English poetry has four primary accents, two in the first half-line and two in the second half-line. These half-lines are separated by the cesura and united by alliteration, the alliterative letter being found in the first stressed syllable of the second half-line. This syllable, therefore, gives the cue to the scansion of the whole line. It is also the only alliterating syllable in the second half-line. The first half-line, however, usually has two alliterating syllables, but frequently only one (the ratio being about three to two in the following selections). When the first half-line contains but one alliterating syllable, that syllable marks the first stress, rarely the second. The following lines are given in the order of their frequency:

(1) :r ws h[]lea hlahtor; hl[y]n sw[y]nsode. (2) m[]de gengen, mdo-ful tb[]r. (3) s[]na t onfnde f[y]rena h[y]rde.

Any initial vowel or diphthong may alliterate with any other initial vowel or diphthong; but a consonant requires the same consonant, except st, sp, and sc, each of which alliterates only with itself.

Remembering, now, that either half-line (especially the second) may begin with several unaccented syllables (these syllables being known in types A, D, and E as the anacrusis), but that neither half-line can end with more than one unaccented syllable, the student may begin at once to read and properly accentuate Old English poetry. It will be found that the alliterative principle does not operate mechanically, but that the poet employs it for the purpose of emphasizing the words that are really most important. Sound is made subservient to sense.

When, from the lack of alliteration, the student is in doubt as to what word to stress, let him first get the exact meaning of the line, and then put the emphasis on the word or words that seem to bear the chief burden of the poet's thought.

NOTE 1. A few lines, rare or abnormal in their alliteration or lack of alliteration, may here be noted. In the texts to be read, there is one line with no alliteration: Wanderer 58; three of the type a b a b: Beowulf 654, 830, 2746; one of the type a a b a: Beowulf 2744; one of the type a a b c: Beowulf 2718; and one of the type a b c a: Beowulf 2738.

The Five Types.

By an exhaustive comparative study of the metrical unit in Old English verse, the half-line, Professor Eduard Sievers,[4] of the University of Leipzig, has shown that there are only five types, or varieties, employed. These he classifies as follows, the perpendicular line serving to separate the so-called feet, or measures:

1. A

2. B

3. C

4. D { D^1 ' { D^2 '

5. E { E^1 ' { E^2 '

It will be seen (1)that each half-line contains two, and only two, feet; (2)that each foot contains one, and only one, primary stress; (3)that A is trochaic, Biambic; (4)that C is iambic-trochaic; (5)that D and E consist of the same feet but in inverse order.

[Footnote 4: Sievers' two articles appeared in the Beitrge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur, Vols. X(1885) and XII (1887). Abrief summary, with slight modifications, is found in the same author's Altgermanische Metrik, pp.120-144 (1893).

Before attempting to employ Sievers' types, the student would do well to read several pages of Old English poetry, taking care to accentuate according to the principles already laid down. In this way his ear will become accustomed to the rhythm of the line, and he will see more clearly that Sievers' work was one primarily of systematization. Sievers himself says: "Ihad read Old English poetry for years exactly as I now scan it, and long before I had the slightest idea that what I did instinctively could be formulated into a system of set rules." (Altgermanische Metrik, Vorwort, p.10.)]

The Five Types Illustrated.

[[Transcriber's Note: In the printed book, all examples line up vertically at the main .]]

[All the illustrations, as hitherto, are taken from the texts to be read. The figures prefixed indicate whether first or second half-line is cited. B= Beowulf; W = Wanderer.]

1. TYPE A,

Two or more unaccented syllables (instead of one) may intervene between the two stresses, but only one may follow the last stress. If the thesis in either foot is the second part of a compound it receives, of course, asecondary stress.

(2) ful gesealde, B. 616, (1) wdre gewindan, B. 764, (1)[5] Gemunde s gda, B. 759 (1)[5] swylce h on ealder-dagum, B. 758, u (1) y:de sw isne eardgeard, W. 85, ' (1) ws-fst wordum, B. 627, ' (1) gryre-lo galan, B. 787, {u } ' u (2) somod tgdre, W. 39, {u } (1) dugue ond geogoe, B. 622, {u } {u } (1) f:ger fold-bold, B. 774, ' (1) atelc egesa, B. 785, {u } ' {u } (2) goldwine mnne, W. 22, {'u } (1) egesan on [> *han: 118], B. 2737, {u }

NOTE. Rare forms of A are ' (does not occur in texts), ' ' (occurs once, B. 781 (1)), and ' (once, B. 2743(1)).

[Footnote 5: The first perpendicular marks the limit of the anacrusis.]

2. TYPE B,

Two, but not more than two, unaccented syllables may intervene between the stresses. The type of B most frequently occurring is .

(1) ond frolc wf, B. 616, (2) h on lust geeah, B. 619, (2) se eling gong, B. 2716, {u } (2) seah on enta geweorc, B. 2718, (1) ofer flda genipu, B. 2809, {u } (1) foram m wtan ne earf, B. 2742, (2) aes e hire se willa gelamp, B. 627, (1) foron ne mg weoran ws, W. 64, (1) N:fre ic :negum [= :n'gum] men, B. 656,

NOTE. In the last half-line Sievers substitutes the older form :ngum, and supposes elision of the e in N:fre (= N:fr-ic: ).

3. TYPE C,

The conditions of this type are usually satisfied by compound and derivative words, and the second stress (not so strong as the first) is frequently on a short syllable. The two arses rarely alliterate. As in B, two unaccented syllables in the first thesis are more common than one.

(1) t ho on :nigne, B. 628, (1) t ic nunga, B. 635, (2) ode gold-hroden, B. 641, u (1) gemyne m:ro, B. 660, {u } (1) on isse meodu-healle, B. 639, {u } (2) t brimes nosan, B. 2804, {u } u (2) t Wealhon [= -owan], B. 630, (1) geond lagulde, W. 3, {u } (1) Sw cw eardstapa, W. 6, u (2) al byrnwiga, W. 94, u (2) n :r fela bringe, W. 54, {u }

4. TYPE D, { D^1 ' { D^2 '

Both types of D may take one unaccented syllable between the two primary stresses ( ' , '). The secondary stress in D^1 falls usually on the second syllable of a compound or derivative word, and this syllable (asinC) is frequently short.

(a) D^1 '

(1) cwn Hrgres, B. 614, ' (2) d:l :ghwylcne, B. 622, ' (1) Bowulf maelode, B. 632, {u } 'u (2) slt unwearnum, B. 742, ' (1) wrra wlsleahta, W. 7, ' (1) wd wintercearig [= wint'rcearig], W. 24, 'u (1) shte sele drorig, W. 25, {u } ' (1) ne shte searo-nas, B. 2739, {u } '

NOTE. There is one instance in the texts (B.613, (1)) of apparent 'u : word w:ron wynsume. (The triple alliteration has no significance. The sense, besides, precludes our stressing w:ron.) The difficulty is avoided by bringing the line under the A type: {u }.

(b) D^2 '

(2) For nar tstp, B. 746, ' (2) eorl furur stp, B. 762, ' (2) Denum eallum wear, B. 768, {u } ' (1) grtte Gata lod, B. 626, ' (1) :nig yrfe-weard, B. 2732, ' (1) hrosan hrm and snw, W. 48, ' (2) swimma eft on weg, W. 53, '

Very rarely is the thesis in the second foot expanded.

(2) egn ungemete till, B. 2722, ' (1) hrsan heolster biwrh, W. 23, '

5. TYPE E, {E^1 ' {E^2 '

The secondary stress in E^1 falls frequently on a short syllable, as in D^1.

(a) E^1 '

(1) wyrmlcum fh, W. 98, ' (2) medo-ful tbr, B. 625, {u } 'u (1) s:-bt gest, B. 634, ' (1) sige-folca swg, B. 645, {u } ' (2) Nor-Denum std, B. 784, 'u (1) fond-grpum fst, B. 637, ' (2) wyn eal gedras, W. 36, ' (2) feor oft gemon, W. 90, '

As in D^2, the thesis in the first foot is very rarely expanded.

(1) wn-rnes geweald, B. 655, ' (1) Hafa n ond geheald, B. 659, {u } ' (1) searo-oncum besmiod, B. 776, {u } ' {u }

NOTE.—Our ignorance of Old English sentence-stress makes it impossible for us to draw a hard-and-fast line in all cases between D^2 and E^1. For example, in these half-lines (already cited),

wyn eal gedras feor oft gemon For nar tstp

if we throw a strong stress on the adverbs that precede their verbs, the type is D^2. Lessen the stress on the adverbs and increase it on the verbs, and we have E^1. The position of the adverbs furnishes no clue; for the order of words in Old English was governed not only by considerations of relative emphasis, but by syntactic and euphonic considerations as well.

(b) E^2 '

This is the rarest of all types. It does not occur in the texts, there being but one instance of this type (l.2437 (2)), and that doubtful, in the whole of Beowulf.

Abnormal Lines.

The lines that fall under none of the five types enumerated are comparatively few. They may be divided into two classes, (1)hypermetrical lines, and (2)defective lines.

(1) HYPERMETRICAL LINES.

Each hypermetrical half-line has usually three stresses, thus giving six stresses to the whole line instead of two. These lines occur chiefly in groups, and mark increased range and dignity in the thought. Whether the half-line be first or second, it is usually of the A type without anacrusis. To this type belong the last five lines of the Wanderer. Lines 92 and 93 are also unusually long, but not hypermetrical. The first half-line of 65 is hypermetrical, afusion of A and C, consisting of ( {u } ).

(2) DEFECTIVE LINES.

The only defective lines in the texts are B. 748 and 2715 (the second half-line in each). As they stand, these half-lines would have to be scanned thus:

r:hte ongan bealo-n woll {u } '

Sievers emends as follows:

r:hte tganes = A bealo-ne woll {u } = E^1

These defective half-lines are made up of syntactic combinations found on almost every page of Old English prose. That they occur so rarely in poetry is strong presumptive evidence, if further evidence were needed, in favor of the adequacy of Sievers' five-fold classification.

NOTE.—All the lines that could possibly occasion any difficulty to the student have been purposely cited as illustrations under the different types. If these are mastered, the student will find it an easy matter to scan the lines that remain.



SELECTIONS FOR READING.

VI. EXTRACTS FROM BEOWULF.

THE BANQUET IN HEOROT. [Lines 612-662.]

[The Heyne-Socin text has been closely followed. Ihave attempted no original emendations, but have deviated from the Heyne-Socin edition in a few cases where the Grein-Wlker text seemed to give the better reading.

The argument preceding the first selection is as follows: Hrothgar, king of the Danes, or Scyldings, elated by prosperity, builds a magnificent hall in which to feast his retainers; but a monster, Grendel by name, issues from his fen-haunts, and night after night carries off thane after thane from the banqueting hall. For twelve years these ravages continue. At last Beowulf, nephew of Hygelac, king of the Geats (apeople of South Sweden), sails with fourteen chosen companions to Dane-land, and offers his services to the aged Hrothgar. "Leave me alone in the hall to-night," says Beowulf. Hrothgar accepts Beowulf's proffered aid, and before the dread hour of visitation comes, the time is spent in wassail. The banquet scene follows.]

:r ws hlea hleahtor, hlyn swynsode, word w:ron wynsume. ode Wealhow for, cwn Hrgres, cynna gemyndig; grtte gold-hroden guman on healle, [615] ond frolc wf ful gesealde :rest ast-Dena el-wearde, bd hine blne t :re bor-ege, lodum lofne; h on lust geeah symbel ond sele-ful, sige-rf kyning. [620] Ymb-ode ides Helminga dugue ond geogoe d:l :ghwylcne, sinc-fato sealde, o t s:l lamp t ho[1] Bowulfe, bag-hroden cwn, mde geungen, medo[2]-ful tbr; [625] grtte Gata lod, Gode ancode ws-fst wordum, s e hire se willa gelamp, t ho on :nigne eorl gely:fde fyrena frfre. H t ful geeah, wl-row wiga, t Wealhon, [630] ond gyddode ge gefy:sed; Bowulf maelode, bearn Ecgowes: "Ic t hogode, ic on holm gesth, s:-bt gest mid mnra secga gedriht, t ic nunga owra loda [635] willan geworhte, oe on wl crunge fond-grpum fst. Ic gefremman sceal eorlc ellen, oe ende-dg on isse meodu[2]-healle mnne gebdan." m wfe word wel lcodon, [640] gilp-cwide Gates; ode gold-hroden frolicu folc-cwn t hire fran sittan. ws eft sw :r inne on healle ry:-word sprecen,[3] od on s:lum, sige-folca swg, o t semninga [645] sunu Healfdenes scean wolde :fen-rste; wiste :m hl:can[4] t :m hah-sele hilde geinged, sian he sunnan loht geson ne meahton oe npende niht ofer ealle, [650] scadu-helma gesceapu scran cwman,[5] wan under wolcnum. Werod eall rs; grtte giddum guma erne Hrgr Bowulf, ond him h:l bad, wn-rnes geweald, ond t word cw: [655] "N:fre ic :negum[6] men :r ly:fde, sian ic hond ond rond hebban mihte, ry:-rn Dena bton n . Hafa n ond geheald hsa slest, gemyne m:ro,[7] mgen-ellen cy:, [660] waca wi wrum. Ne bi wilna gd, gif t ellen-weorc aldre[8] gedgest."

[1] = ho. [2] = medu-. [3] = gesprecen. [4] = gl:can. [5] = cwmon. [6] = :nigum. [7] = m:re (acc. sing.). [8] = ealdre (instr. sing.).

[Linenotes:

623: sinc-fato sealde. Banning (Die epischen Formeln im Beowulf) shows that the usual translation, gave costly gifts, must be given up; or, at least, that the costly gifts are nothing more than beakers of mead. The expression is an epic formula for passing the cup.

638-39: ende-g ... mnne. This unnatural separation of noun and possessive is frequent in O.E. poetry, but almost unknown in prose.

641-42: ode ... sittan. The poet might have employed t sittanne (108, (1)); but in poetry the infinitive is often used for the gerund. Alfred himself uses the infinitive or the gerund to express purpose after gn, gongan, cuman, and sendan.

647-51: wiste ... cwman. A difficult passage, even with Thorpe's inserted ne; but there is no need of putting a period after geinged, or of translating oe by and: He (Hrothgar) knew that battle was in store (geinged) for the monster in the high hall, after [= as soon as] they could no longer see the sun's light, or [= that is] after night came darkening over all, and shadowy figures stalking. The subject of cwman [= cwmon] is niht and gesceapu.

The student will note that the infinitive (scran) is here employed as a present participle after a verb of motion (cwman). This construction with cuman is frequent in prose and poetry. The infinitive expresses the kind of motion: ic cm drfan = I came driving.]

THE FIGHT BETWEEN BEOWULF AND GRENDEL. [Lines 740-837.]

[The warriors all retire to rest except Beowulf. Grendel stealthily enters the hall. From his eyes gleams "aluster unlovely, likest to fire." The combat begins at once.]

Ne t se gl:ca yldan hte, [740] ac h gefng hrae forman se sl:pendne rinc, slt unwearnum, bt bn-locan, bld drum dranc, syn-sn:dum swealh; sna hfde unlyfigendes eal gefeormod [745] ft ond folma. For nar tstp, nam mid handa hige-ihtigne rinc on rste; r:hte ongan fond mid folme; h onfng hrae inwit-ancum ond wi earm gest. [750] Sna t onfunde fyrena hyrde, t h ne mtte middan-geardes, eoran scatta, on elran men mund-gripe mran; h on mde wear forht, on ferhe; n y: :r fram meahte. [755] Hyge ws him hin-fs, wolde on heolster flon, scan dofla gedrg; ne ws his drohto :r, swylce h on ealder[1]-dagum :r gemtte. Gemunde se gda m:g Higelces :fen-spr:ce, p-lang std [760] ond him fste wifng; fingras burston; eoten ws t-weard; eorl furur stp. Mynte se m:ra, hw:r h meahte sw, wdre gewindan ond on weg anon flon on fen-hopu; wiste his fingra geweald [765] on grames grpum. t ws gocor s, t se hearm-scaa t Heorute[2] tah. Dryht-sele dynede; Denum eallum wear ceaster-bendum, cnra gehwylcum, eorlum ealu-scerwen. Yrre w:ron bgen [770] re rn-weardas. Reced hlynsode; ws wundor micel, t se wn-sele wihfde heao-dorum, t h on hrsan ne fol, f:ger fold-bold; ac h s fste ws innan ond tan ren-bendum [775] searo-oncum besmiod. :r fram sylle bag medu-benc monig, mne gefr:ge, golde geregnad, :r graman wunnon; s ne wndon :r witan Scyldinga, t hit mid gemete manna :nig, [780] betlc ond bn-fg, tbrecan meahte, listum tlcan, nyme lges fm swulge on swaule. Swg p stg nwe geneahhe; Nor-Denum std atelc egesa, nra gehwylcum, [785] ra e of wealle wp gehy:rdon, gryre-lo galan Godes ondsacan, sige-lasne sang, sr wnigean helle hfton.[3] Hold hine fste, s e manna ws mgene strengest [790] on :m dge ysses lfes. Nolde eorla hlo :nige inga one cwealm-cuman cwicne forl:tan, n his lf-dagas loda :nigum nytte tealde. :r genehost br:gd [795] eorl Bowulfes ealde lfe, wolde fra-drihtnes feorh ealgian, m:res odnes, :r he meahton sw. He t ne wiston, he gewin drugon, heard-hicgende hilde-mecgas, [800] ond on healfa gehwone hawan hton, swle scan: one syn-scaan :nig ofer eoran renna cyst, g-billa nn, grtan nolde; ac h sige-w:pnum forsworen hfde, [805] ecga gehwylcre. Scolde his aldor[4]-gedl on :m dge ysses lfes earmlc wuran[5] ond se ellor-gst on fonda geweald feor sian. t onfunde, s e fela :ror [810] mdes myre manna cynne fyrene gefremede (h w:s fg wi God), t him se lc-homa l:stan nolde, ac hine se mdega[6] m:g Hygelces hfde be honda; ws gehwer rum [815] lifigende l. Lc-sr gebd atol :gl:ca[7]; him on eaxle wear syn-dolh sweotol; seonowe onsprungon; burston bn-locan. Bowulfe wear g-hr gyfee. Scolde Grendel onan [820] feorh-soc flon under fen-hleou,[8] scean wyn-las wc; wiste geornor, t his aldres[9] ws ende gegongen, dgera dg-rm. Denum eallum wear fter m wl-r:se willa gelumpen. [825] Hfde gef:lsod, s e :r feorran cm, snotor ond swy:-ferh, sele Hrgres, genered wi ne. Niht-weorce gefeh, ellen-m:rum; hfde ast-Denum Gat-mecga lod gilp gel:sted; [830] swylce oncy:e ealle gebtte, inwid-sorge, e he :r drugon ond for ra-ny:dum olian scoldon, torn unly:tel. t ws tcen sweotol, syan hilde-dor hond legde, [835] earm ond eaxle (:r ws eal geador Grendles grpe) under gapne hrf.

[1] = ealdor-. [2] = Heorote. [3] = hftan. [4] = ealdor-. [5] = weoran. [6] = mdiga. [7] = gl:ca. [8] = -hliu. [9] = ealdres.

[Linenotes:

740: t, the direct object of yldan, refers to the contest about to ensue. Beowulf, in the preceding lines, was wondering how it would result.

746: tstp. The subject of this verb and of nam is Grendel; the subject of the three succeeding verbs (r:hte, onfng, gest) is Beowulf.

751-52: The O.E. poets are fond of securing emphasis or of stimulating interest by indirect methods of statement, by suggesting more than they affirm. This device often appears in their use of negatives (ne, l.13; p.140, l.3; n, p.140, l.1 [[lines 752, 757, 755]]), and in the unexpected prominence that they give to some minor detail usually suppressed because understood; as where the narrator, wishing to describe the terror produced by Grendel's midnight visits to Heorot, says (ll.138-139), "Then was it easy to find one who elsewhere, more commodiously, sought rest for himself." It is hard to believe that the poet saw nothing humorous in this point of view.

755: n ... meahte, none the sooner could he away. The omission of a verb of motion after the auxiliaries magan, mtan, sculan, and willan is very frequent. Cf. Beowulf's last utterance, p.147, l.17 [[line 2817]].

768: The lines that immediately follow constitute a fine bit of description by indication of effects. The two contestants are withdrawn from our sight; but we hear the sound of the fray crashing through the massive old hall, which trembles as in a blast; we see the terror depicted on the faces of the Danes as they listen to the strange sounds that issue from their former banqueting hall; by these sounds we, too, measure the progress and alternations of the combat. At last we hear only the "terror-lay" of Grendel, "lay of the beaten," and know that Beowulf has made good his promise at the banquet (gilp gel:sted).

769: cnra gehwylcum. The indefinite pronouns (77) may be used as adjectives, agreeing in case with their nouns; but they frequently, as here, take a partitive genitive: nra gehwylcum, to each one (=to each of ones); :nige (instrumental) inga, for any thing (=for any of things); on healfa gehwone, into halves (=into each of halves); ealra dgra gehwm, every day (=on each of all days); htna gehwylce, every morning (=on each of mornings).

780: Notice that hit, the object of tbrecan, stands for wn-sele, which is masculine. See p.39, Note 2 [[ 55, 2]]. Manna is genitive after gemete, not after :nig.

787-89: gryre-lo ... hfton [= hftan]. Note that verbs of hearing and seeing, as in Mn.E., may be followed by the infinitive. They heard God's adversary sing (galan) ... hell's captive bewail (wnigean). Had the present participle been used, the effect would have been, as in Mn.E., to emphasize the agent (the subject of the infinitive) rather than the action (the infinitive itself).

795-96: :r ... lfe. Beowulf's followers now seem to have seized their swords and come to his aid, not knowing that Grendel, having forsworn war-weapons himself, is proof against the best of swords. Then many an earl of Beowulf's (=an earl of B. very often) brandished his sword. That no definite earl is meant is shown by the succeeding he meahton instead of h meahte. See p.110, Note. [[Linenote 110.5-6]

799: They did not know this (t), while they were fighting; but the first He refers to the warriors who proffered help; the second he, to the combatants, Beowulf and Grendel. In apposition with :t, stands the whole clause, one synscaan (object of grtan) ... nolde. The second, or conjunctional, t is here omitted before one. See p.112, note on ll.18-19.

837: grpe = genitive singular, feminine, after eal.]

BEOWULF FATALLY WOUNDED. [Lines 2712-2752.]

[Hrothgar, in his gratitude for the great victory, lavishes gifts upon Beowulf; but Grendel's mother must be reckoned with. Beowulf finds her at the sea-bottom, and after a desperate struggle slays her. Hrothgar again pours treasures into Beowulf's lap. Beowulf, having now accomplished his mission, returns to Sweden. After a reign of fifty years, he goes forth to meet a fire-spewing dragon that is ravaging his kingdom. In the struggle Beowulf is fatally wounded. Wiglaf, aloyal thane, is with him.]

so[1] wund ongon, e him se eor-draca :r geworhte, swlan ond swellan. H :t sna onfand, :t him on brostum bealo-n woll [2715] ttor on innan. se eling gong,[2] t h b wealle, ws-hycgende, gest on sesse; seah on enta geweorc, h stn-bogan stapulum fste ce eor-reced innan healde. [2720] Hyne mid handa heoro-drorigne, oden m:rne, egn ungemete till, wine-dryhten his wtere gelafede, hilde-sdne, ond his helm onspon. Bowulf[3] maelode; h ofer benne sprc, [2725] wunde wl-blate; wisse h gearwe, t h dg-hwla gedrogen hfde eoran wynne; ws eall sceacen dgor-germes, da ungemete nah: "N ic suna mnum syllan wolde [2730] g-gew:du, :r m gifee sw :nig yrfe-weard fter wurde lce gelenge. Ic s lode hold fftig wintra; ns se folc-cyning ymbe-sittendra nig ra, [2735] e mec g-winum grtan dorste, egesan on. Ic on earde bd m:l-gesceafta, hold mn tela, n shte searo-nas, n m swr fela a on unriht. Ic s ealles mg, [2740] feorh-bennum soc, gefan habban; for-m m wtan ne earf Waldend[4] fra moror-bealo[5] mga, onne mn sceace lf of lce. N lungre geong[6] hord scawian under hrne stn, [2745] Wglf lofa, n se wyrm lige, swefe sre wund, since berafod. Bo[7] n on ofoste, t ic :r-welan, gold-:ht ongite, gearo scawige swegle searo-gimmas, t ic y: sft mge [2750] fter mum-welan mn l:tan lf ond lod-scipe, one ic longe hold."

[Linenotes:

2716: se eling is Beowulf.

2718: enta geweorc is a stereotyped phrase for anything that occasions wonder by its size or strangeness.

2720: healde. Heyne, following Ettmller, reads holdon, thus arbitrarily changing mood, tense, and number of the original. Either mood, indicative or subjunctive, would be legitimate. As to the tense, the narrator is identifying himself in time with the hero, whose wonder was "how the stone-arches ... sustain the ever-during earth-hall": the construction is a form of oratio recta, a sort of miratio recta. The singular healde, instead of healden, has many parallels in the dependent clauses of Beowulf, most of these being relative clauses introduced by ra e (=of those that ... + a singular predicate). In the present instance, the predicate has doubtless been influenced by the proximity of eor-reced, a quasi-subject; and we have no more right to alter to healden or holdon than we have to change Shakespeare's gives to givein

"Words to the heat of deeds too cold breath gives." (Macbeth, II, i, 61.)

2722: The egn ungemete till is Wiglaf, the bravest of Beowulf's retainers.

2725: h ofer benne sprc. The editors and translators of Beowulf invariably render ofer in this passage by about; but Beowulf says not a word about his wound. The context seems to me to show plainly that ofer (cf.Latin supra) denotes here opposition = in spite of. We read in Genesis, l.594, that Eve took the forbidden fruit ofer Drihtenes word. Beowulf fears (l.2331) that he may have ruled unjustly = ofer ealde riht; and he goes forth (l.2409) ofer willan to confront the dragon.

2731-33: :r m ... gelenge, if so be that (:r ... sw) any heir had afterwards been given me (mgifee ... fter wurde) belonging to my body.

2744-45: geong [= gong] ... scawian. See note on ode ... sittan, p.137, ll.19-20 [[lines 641-42]]. In Mn.E. Go see, Go fetch, etc., is the second verb imperative (cordinate with the first), or subjunctive (that you may see), or infinitive without to?

2751-52: mn ... lf. See note on ende-dg ... mnne, p. 137, ll.16-17 [[lines 638-39]].]

[1] = so. [2] = gong. [3] = Bowulf. [4] = Wealdend. [5] = moror-bealu. [6] = gong (gang). [7] = Bo.

BEOWULF'S LAST WORDS. [Lines 2793-2821.]

[Wiglaf brings the jewels, the tokens of Beowulf's triumph. Beowulf, rejoicing to see them, reviews his career, and gives advice and final directions to Wiglaf.]

Bowulf[1] maelode, gomel on giohe (gold scawode): "Ic ra frtwa Fran ealles anc, [2795] Wuldur-cyninge, wordum secge ecum Dryhtne, e ic hr on starie, s e ic mste mnum lodum :r swylt-dge swylc gestry:nan. N ic on mma hord mne bebohte [2800] frde feorh-lege, fremma g n loda earfe; ne mg ic hr leng wesan. Hta heao-m:re hl:w gewyrcean, beorhtne fter b:le t brimes nosan; s scel[2] t gemyndum mnum lodum [2805] hah hlfian on Hrones nsse, t hit s:-lend syan htan[3] Bowulfes[1] biorh[1] e brentingas ofer flda genipu feorran drfa." Dyde him of healse hring gyldenne [2810] oden[1] rst-hy:dig; egne gesealde, geongum gr-wigan, gold-fhne helm, bah ond byrnan, ht hyne brcan well. " eart ende-lf sses cynnes, W:gmundinga; ealle wyrd forswop [2815] mne mgas t metod-sceafte, eorlas on elne; ic him fter sceal." t ws m gomelan gingeste word brost-gehygdum, :r h b:l cure, hte heao-wylmas; him of hrere gewt [2820] swol scean s-fstra dm.

[1] o, io = o, eo. [2] = sceal. [3] = hten.

[Linenotes:

2795-99: The expression secgan anc takes the same construction as ancian; i.e., the dative of the person (Fran) and the genitive (agenitive of cause) of the thing (ra frtwa). Cf. note on biddan, p.45[[ 65, 3]]. The antecedent of e is frtwa. For the position of on, see 94, (5). The clause introduced by s e (because) is parallel in construction with frtwa, both being causal modifiers of secge anc. The Christian coloring in these lines betrays the influence of priestly transcribers.

2800: Now that I, in exchange for (on) a hoard of treasures, have bartered (bebohte) the laying down (-lege > licgan) of my old life. The ethical codes of the early Germanic races make frequent mention of blood-payments, or life-barters. There seems to be here a suggestion of the "wergild."

2801: fremma g. The plural imperative (asalso in Hta) shows that Beowulf is here speaking not so much to Wiglaf in particular as, through Wiglaf, to his retainers in general,—to his comitatus.

2806: The desire for conspicuous burial places finds frequent expression in early literatures. The tomb of Achilles was situated "high on a jutting headland over wide Hellespont that it might be seen from off the sea." Elpenor asks Ulysses to bury him in the same way. neas places the ashes of Misenus beneath a high mound on a headland of the sea.

2807: hit = hl:w, which is masculine. See p.39, Note2 [[ 55, 2]].

2810-11: him ... oden. The reference in both cases is to Beowulf, who is disarming himself (do-of > doff) for the last time; egne = to Wiglaf.

Note, where the personal element is strong, the use of the dative instead of the more colorless possessive; him of healse, not of his healse.

2817: ic ... sceal. See note on n ... meahte, p.140, l.1 [[line 755]].

2820: him of hrere. Cf. note on him ... oden, p.147, ll.10-11 [[lines 2810-11]].

2820-21: For construction of gewt ... scean, see note on ode ... sittan, p.137, ll.19-20 [[lines 641-42]].]

VII. THE WANDERER.

[Exeter MS. "The epic character of the ancient lyric appears especially in this: that the song is less the utterance of a momentary feeling than the portrayal of a lasting state, perhaps the reflection of an entire life, generally that of one isolated, or bereft by death or exile of protectors and friends." (Ten Brink, Early Eng. Lit.,I.) Iadopt Brooke's threefold division (Early Eng. Lit., p.356): "It opens with a Christian prologue, and closes with a Christian epilogue, but the whole body of the poem was written, it seems to me, by a person who thought more of the goddess Wyrd than of God, whose life and way of thinking were uninfluenced by any distinctive Christian doctrine."

The author is unknown.]

PROLOGUE.

Oft him nhaga re gebde, Metudes[1] miltse, ah e h mdcearig geond lagulde longe sceolde hrran mid hondum hrmcealde s:, wadan wrcl:stas: wyrd bi ful r:d! [5] Sw cw eardstapa earfea[2] gemyndig, wrra wlsleahta, winem:ga hryres:

PLAINT OF THE WANDERER.

"Oft ic sceolde na htna gehwylce mne ceare cwan; nis n cwicra nn, e ic him mdsefan mnne durre [10] sweotule[3] secgan. Ic t se wt t bi in eorle indryhten aw, t h his ferlocan fste binde, healde his hordcofan, hycge sw h wille; ne mg wrig md wyrde wistondan [15] n s hro hyge helpe gefremman: for on dmgeorne drorigne oft in hyra brostcofan binda fste. Sw ic mdsefan mnne sceolde oft earmcearig le bid:led, [20] from:gum feor feterum s:lan, sian gara i goldwine mnne hrsan heolster biwrh, and ic han onan wd wintercearig ofer waema gebind, shte sele drorig sinces bryttan, [25] hw:r ic feor oe nah findan meahte one e in meoduhealle[4] miltse wisse oe mec frondlasne frfran wolde, wenian mid wynnum. Wt s e cunna h slen bi sorg t gefran [30] m e him ly:t hafa lofra geholena: wara hine wrclst, nles wunden gold, ferloca frorig, nls foldan bl:d; gemon h selesecgas and sincege, h hine on geogue his goldwine [35] wenede t wiste: wyn eal gedras! For on wt s e sceal his winedryhtnes lofes lrcwidum longe forolian, onne sorg and sl:p somod tgdre earmne nhagan oft gebinda: [40] ince him on mde t h his mondryhten clyppe and cysse, and on cno lecge honda and hafod, sw h hwlum :r in gardagum giefstles brac; onne onwcne eft winelas guma, [45] gesih him biforan fealwe w:gas, baian brimfuglas, br:dan fera, hrosan hrm and snw hagle gemenged. onne bo y: hefigran heortan benne, sre fter sw:sne; sorg bi genwad; [50] onne mga gemynd md geondhweorfe, grte glwstafum, georne geondscawa. Secga geseldan swimma eft on weg; flotendra fer[5] n :r fela bringe cra cwidegiedda; cearo[6] bi genwad [55] m e sendan sceal swe geneahhe ofer waema gebind wrigne sefan. For on ic geencan ne mg geond s woruld for hwan mdsefa mn ne gesweorce, onne ic eorla lf eal geondence, [60] h h f:rlce flet ofgafon, mdge maguegnas. Sw s middangeard ealra dgra gehwm drose and fealle; for on ne mg weoran ws wer, :r h ge wintra d:l in woruldrce. Wita sceal geyldig, [65] ne sceal n t htheort n t hrdwyrde, n t wc wiga n t wanhy:dig, n t forht n t fgen n t feohgfre, n n:fre gielpes t georn, :r h geare cunne. Beorn sceal gebdan, onne h bot sprice, [70] o t collenfer cunne gearwe hwider hrera gehygd hweorfan wille. Ongietan sceal glaw hle h g:stlc bi, onne eall isse worulde wela wste stonde, sw n missenlce geond isne middangeard [75] winde biwune[7] weallas stonda, hrme bihrorene,[8] hryge ederas. Wria wnsalo,[9] waldend licga drame bidrorene[10]; dugu eal gecrong wlonc b wealle: sume wg fornm, [80] ferede in forwege; sumne fugel[11] obr ofer hanne holm; sumne s hra wulf dae ged:lde; sumne drorighlor in eorscrfe eorl gehy:dde: y:de sw isne eardgeard lda Scyppend, [85] o t burgwara breahtma lase eald enta geweorc dlu stdon. S onne isne wealsteal wse gehte, and is deorce lf dope geondence, frd in fere[12] feor oft gemon [90] wlsleahta worn, and s word cwi: 'Hw:r cwm mearg? hw:r cwm mago[13]? hw:r cwm mumgyfa? hw:r cwm symbla gesetu? hw:r sindon seledramas? al beorht bune! al byrnwiga! al odnes rym! h so rg gewt, [95] genp under nihthelm, sw ho n w:re! Stonde n on lste lofre dugue weal wundrum hah, wyrmlcum fh: eorlas fornmon asca ry:e, w:pen wlgfru, wyrd so m:re; [100] and s stnhleou[14] stormas cnyssa; hr hrosende hrsan binde, wintres wma, onne won cyme, npe nihtsca, noran onsende hro hglfare hleum on andan. [105] Eall is earfolc eoran rce, onwende wyrda gesceaft weoruld under heofonum: hr bi feoh l:ne, hr bi frond l:ne, hr bi mon l:ne, hr bi m:g l:ne; eal is eoran gesteal del weore!'" [110]

EPILOGUE.

Sw cw snottor on mde, gest him sundor t rune. Til bi s e his trowe gehealde; ne sceal n:fre his torn t rycene beorn of his brostum cy:an, neme h :r bte cunne; eorl mid elne gefremman. Wel bi m e him re sce, frfre t Fder on heofonum, :r s eal so fstnung stonde. [115]

[1] = Metodes. [2] = earfoa. [3] = sweotole. [4] = medu-. [5] = ferh. [6] = cearu. [7] See bewwan. [8] See behrosan. [9] = wnsalu. [10] See bedrosan. [11] = fugol. [12] = ferhe. [13] = magu. [14] = -hliu.

[Linenotes:

7: The MS. reading is hryre (nominative), which is meaningless.

8: For htna gehwylce, see note on cnra gehwylcum, p.140 [[Beowulf 769]].

10: e ... him. See 75 (4). Cf. Merchant of Venice, II, v, 50-51.

27: For mine (MS. in), which does not satisfy metrical requirements, Iadopt Kluge's plausible substitution of miltse; miltse witan = to show (know, feel), pity. The myne wisse of Beowulf (l.169) is metrically admissible.

37: The object of wt is ince him on mde; but the construction is unusual, inasmuch as both t's (t pronominal before wt and t conjunctional before ince) are omitted. See p.112, ll.18-19.

41: ince him on mde (see note on him ... oden, p. 147 [[Beowulf 2810-11]]). "No more sympathetic picture has been drawn by an Anglo-Saxon poet than where the wanderer in exile falls asleep at his oar and dreams again of his dead lord and the old hall and revelry and joy and gifts,—then wakes to look once more upon the waste of ocean, snow and hail falling all around him, and sea-birds dipping in the spray." (Gummere, Germanic Origins, p.221.)

53-55: Secga ... cwidegiedda = But these comrades of warriors [= those seen in vision] again swim away [= fade away]; the ghost of these fleeting ones brings not there many familiar words; i.e. he sees in dream and vision the old familiar faces, but no voice is heard: they bring neither greetings to him nor tidings of themselves.

65: Wita sceal geyldig. Either bon (wesan) is here to be understood after sceal, or sceal alone means ought to be. Neither construction is to be found in Alfredian prose, though the omission of a verb of motion after sculan is common in all periods of Old English. See note on n ... meahte, p. 140 [[Beowulf 755]].

75: sw n. "The Old English lyrical feeling," says Ten Brink, citing the lines that immediately follow sw n, "is fond of the image of physical destruction"; but I do not think these lines have a merely figurative import. The reference is to a period of real devastation, antedating the Danish incursions. "We might fairly find such a time in that parenthesis of bad government and of national tumult which filled the years between the death of Aldfrith in 705 and the renewed peace of Northumbria under Ceolwulf in the years that followed 729." (Brooke, Early Eng. Lit., p.355.)

93: cwm ... gesetu. Ettmller reads cwmon; but see p. 107, note on ws ... gland [[linenote 107.14-15]]. The occurrence of hw:r cwm three times in the preceding line tends also to hold cwm in the singular when its plural subject follows. Note the influence of a somewhat similar structural parallelism in seas hides of these lines (Winter's Tale, IV, iv, 500-502):

"Not for ... all the sun sees or The close earth wombs or the profound seas hides In unknown fathoms, will I break my oath."

111: gest ... rne, sat apart to himself in silent meditation.

114: eorl ... gefremman. Supply sceal after eorl.]



I. GLOSSARY.

OLD ENGLISH—MODERN ENGLISH.

[The order of words is strictly alphabetical, except that follows t. The combination follows ad.

Gender is indicated by the abbreviations, m. (= masculine), f. (=feminine), n. (=neuter). The usual abbreviations are employed for the cases, nom., gen., dat., acc., and instr. Other abbreviations are sing. (=singular), pl.(=plural), ind. (=indicative mood), sub. (=subjunctive mood), pres. (=present tense), pret. (=preterit tense), prep. (=preposition), adj. (=adjective), adv. (=adverb), part. (=participle), conj. (=conjunction), pron. (=pronoun), intrans. (=intransitive), trans. (=transitive).

Figures not preceded by refer to page and line of the texts.]

[[Transcriber's Note: References to verse selections (pages 136-153) are followed by the actual line number in [[double brackets]].]

A.

, ever, always, aye. abbudisse, f., abbess [Lat. abbatissa]. bodan ( 109), bid, offer; him h:l bad 138, 9 [[Beowulf 654]] = bade him hail, wished him health. brecan ( 120, Note 2), break down, destroy. bgan ( 109, Note 1), give way, start [bow away]. ac, conj., but. cwean ( 115), say, speak. cy:an ( 126), reveal, proclaim [c]. d, m., funeral pile. adesa, m., adze, hatchet. : (:w), f., law. :dre (dre), f., stream, canal, vein; bld drum dranc 139, 4 [[Beowulf 743]] = drank blood in streams (instr.). :fstnis, f., piety. :fen-rst, f., evening rest. :fen-spr:c, f., evening speech. :fȩst (:wfȩst), law-abiding, pious. :fȩstnis, see :fstnis. :fre, ever, always. :fter, prep. ( 94, (1)), after; :fter :m, after that, thereafter; fter :m e, conj., after. fter, adv., after, afterwards. :ghw ( 77, Note), each, every. :ghwilc ( 77, Note), each, any. :gl:ca, see gl:ca. :ger (:ghwer, er) ( 77, Note), each, either; :ger ... er ... er, either ... or ... or; :ger ge ... ge ( 95, (2)), both ... and; :ger ge ... ge ... ge, both ... and ... and. :ht, f., property, possession [gan]. :lc ( 77), each. lde (ielde) ( 47), m. pl., men; gen. pl., lda. lmihtig, almighty. :metta, m., leisure [empti-ness]. :nig ( 77), any; :nige inga 141, 22 [[Beowulf 792]] = for anything. (See 140, 15 [[Beowulf 769]], Note.) :r, adv., before, formerly, sooner; n y: :r 140, 1 [[Beowulf 755]] = none the sooner; :ror, comparative, before, formerly; :rest, superlative, first. :r, conj. ( 105, 2), ere, before = :r :me. :r, prep, with dat., before (time); :r :m e, conj. ( 105, 2), before. rcebisceop, m., archbishop [Lat. archiepiscopus]. :rendgewrit, n., message, letter. :rendwreca (-raca), m., messenger. :rest, adj. ( 96, (4)), first. rnan ( 127), ride, gallop [iernan]. :rra, adj. ( 96, (4)), former. :rwela, m., ancient wealth. sc, m., ash, spear; gen. pl., asca. scesdn, f., Ashdown (in Berkshire). stel, m., book-mark [Lat. hastula]. t ( 94, (1)), at, in; with leornian, to learn, geicgan, to receive, and other verbs of similar import, t = from: 115, 18; 137, 8 [[Beowulf 630]], etc. tberan ( 114), bear to, hand. tgd(e)re, adv., together. tsteppan ( 116), step up, advance; pret. sing., tstp. ele, noble, excellent. eling, m., a noble, prince. elwulfing, m., son of Ethelwulf. ered, m., Ethelred. feallan ( 117), fall. fierran ( 127), remove [feor]. gan ( 136), to own, possess. gen, adj.-part., own; dat. sing., gnum [gan]. giefan ( 115), give back. gl:ca (:gl:ca), m., monster, champion. hton, see gan. l:tan ( 117), let go, leave. aldor, see ealdor. lȩcgan ( 125, Note), lay down [licgan]; past part., ld. lesend, m., Redeemer [lesan = release, ransom]. limpan ( 110), befall, occur. ly:fan ( 126), entrust, permit. ambor, m., measure; gen. pl., ambra ( 27, (4)). ambyre, favorable. n ( 89), one; na, alone, only; nra gehwylcum 141, 15 [[Beowulf 785]] = to each one. (See 140, 15, Note. [[Beowulf 769]]) anda, m., zeal, injury, indignation; hleum on andan 153, 6 [[Wanderer 105]] = harmful to men. andfn, f., proportion, amount. andgiet (-git), n., sense, meaning. andgitfullce, intelligibly; -gitfullcost, superlative. andswaru, f., answer. andwyrdan ( 127), to answer; pret., andwyrde. Angel, n., Anglen (in Denmark); dat. sing., Angle ( 27 (4)). Angelcynn, n., English kin, English people, England. nhaga (-hoga), m., a solitary, wanderer [n + hogian, to meditate]. nlpig, single, individual. nunga ( 93, (2)), once for all [n]. apostol, m., apostle [Gr. apostolos]. r, f., honor, property, favor; re gebde 148, 3 [[Wanderer 1]] = waits for divine favor (gen.). r:d, adj., inexorable. r:dan ( 126), read. rȩcc(e)an ( 128), translate, expound. rfstnis, f., virtue. rsan ( 102), arise. asca, see aesc. sȩcgan ( 132), say, relate. sȩttan ( 127), set, place. singan ( 110), sing. spȩndan ( 127), spend, expend. stgan ( 102), ascend, arise. stondan ( 116), stand up. tah, see ton. atelc, horrible, dire. ton ( 118), draw, draw away, take (asa journey). atol, horrible, dire. ttor, n., poison. tuge, see ton. , m., oath. er, see :ger. wȩccan ( 128), awake, arouse; pret. sing., weahte, wȩhte. aweg, away. wȩndan ( 127), turn, translate. wrtan ( 102), write, compose. wyrcan ( 128), work, do, perform.

B.

Bchsȩcg, m., Bagsac. bcbord, n., larboard, left side of a ship. b:l, n., funeral fire, funeral pile. bn, n., bone. bn-fg, adorned with bones or antlers. bn-loca, m., flesh [bone-locker]. Basengas, m. pl., Basing (in Hantshire). be (b) ( 94, (1)), by, about, concerning, near, along, accordingto; be noran :m wstenne ( 94, (4)), north of the waste (desert); be fullan, fully, perfectly. bag, see bgan. bag-hroden, ring-adorned. bah (bag), m., ring, bracelet, collar [bgan]. bealo-n, m., dire hatred, poison, venom. bearn, n., child, son [bairn]. bebodan ( 109), command, bid, entrust (with dat.). bebo-, see bebo-. bebohte, see bebycgan. bebycgan ( 128), sell. bc, see bc. becuman ( 114), come, arrive, befall. bed:lan ( 126), separate, deprive. bedrosan ( 109), deprive; past part. pl., bedrorene (bidrorene) [dross, dreary]. bef:stan ( 127), fasten, implant. befolan ( 110), apply one's self; ra e spda hbben :t he :m befolan mgen 119, 20 = of those who have the means by which they may apply themselves toit. beforan, prep. with dat., before. bgen (declined like twgen, 89), both. begeondan (begiondan), prep. with dat., beyond. begietan ( 115), get, obtain, find. beginnan ( 110), begin. beheonan (behionan), prep. with dat., on this sideof. behresan ( 109), fall upon, cover; past part. pl., behrorene (bihrorene). belimpan ( 110), pertain, belong. beniman ( 114), take, derive. bȩnn, f., wound [bana = murderer]. bon (bon) ( 134), be, consist. beorh (beorg, biorh), m., mound [barrow]. beorht, bright, glorious. Beormas, m. pl., Permians. beorn, m., man, hero, chief. bor-ȩgu, f., beer-drinking [icgan = receive]. bot, n., boast. beran ( 114), bear. berafian ( 130), bereave; since berafod 145, 22 [[Beowulf 2747]] = bereft of treasure. beren, adj., of a bear, bear. berstan ( 110), burst, crack. besmiian ( 130), make hard (as at the forge of a smith). bȩt, see wel ( 97, (2)). btan ( 126), make good, requite; past part. pl., gebtte. bȩtera (bȩtra), see gd ( 96, (3)). betlc, excellent. bȩtsta, see gd ( 96, (3)). betuh (betux) ( 94, (1)), between. betwonan ( 94, (1)), between. bety:nan ( 126), close, end [tn = enclosure]. bewwan ( 117), blow upon; past part. pl., bewune (biwune, bewwene). bewron ( 118, 1), enwrap; pret. 3d sing., bewrh (biwrh). b, see be. bi-, see be-. bdan ( 102), bide, await, expect, endure (with gen.). biddan ( 115, Note 2), bid, pray, request (65, Note3); bd hine blne 136, 7 [[Beowulf 618]] = bade him be blithe. bindan ( 110), bind. bo, see bo (imperative sing.). bisceop (biscep), m., bishop [Lat. episcopus]. bisceop-stl, m., episcopal seat, bishopric. bisigu, f., business, occupation; dat. pl., bisgum. btan ( 102), bite, cut. biwrh, see bewron. bl:d, m., glory, prosperity [blwan = blow, inflate]. Blcinga-g, f., Blekingen. bliss, f., bliss [ble]. ble, blithe, happy. bld, n., blood. bc ( 68, (1), Note 1), f., book. bcere, m., scribe [bc]. bona (bana), m., murderer [bane]. bt, f., boot, remedy, help, compensation. brd ( 96, (1)), broad. br:dan ( 126), extend, spread [brd]. br:dra, see brd. brgd, see bregdan. brac, see brcan. breahtm, m., noise, revelry; burgwara breahtma lase 152, 10 [[Wanderer 86]] = bereft of the revelries of citizens. bregdan ( 110), brandish, draw [braid]; pret. ind. 3d sing., brgd. brenting, m., high ship. brost, n., breast (the pl.has the same meaning as the sing.). brost-cofa, m., breast-chamber, heart, mind. brost-gehygd, n., breast-thought, thought of the heart, emotion. brim, n., sea, ocean. brimfugol, m., sea-fowl. bringan ( 128), bring. brhte, brhton, see bringan. bror (brur) ( 68, (2)), m., brother. brcan ( 109, Note 1), use, enjoy (62, Note 1; but Alfred frequently employs the acc. with brcan). brycg, f., bridge. bry:c, see brcan. brytta, m., distributor, dispenser [brotan = break in pieces]. ban ( 126, Note 2), dwell, cultivate [bower]. bde, see ban. bufan, prep. with dat. and acc., above. bgan ( 109, Note 1), bow, bend, turn. bune, f., cup. burg (burh) ( 68, (1), Note), f., city, borough; dat. sing., byrig. Burgenda, m. gen. pl., of the Burgundians; Burgenda land, Bornholm. burgware ( 47), m. pl., burghers, citizens. burh, see burg. btan (bton), prep. ( 94, (1)), without, except, except for, but. btan (bton), conj., except that, unless. bt, both (= bothtwo. The word is compounded of the combined neuters of bgen and twgen, but is m. and f. as well asn.). by:n ( 126, Note 2), cultivated. byrde, adj., of high rank, aristocratic. byrig, see burg. byrne, f., byrnie, corselet, coat of mail. byrnwiga, m., byrnie-warrior, mailed soldier. byr, see beran.

C.

cann, m., sacred canon, Bible [Lat. canon, Gr. kann]. cearu (cearo), f., care. ceaster-bend, m., castle-dweller. cne, keen, bold, brave. cosan ( 109), choose, accept, encounter. cild, n., child. cirice, f., church; nom. pl., ciricean. cirr (cierr), m., turn, time, occasion [char, chore, ajar = on char, on the turn]. cirran ( 127), turn. cl:ne, clean, pure. cl:ne, adv., entirely ["clean out of the way," Shaks.]. cldig, rocky [having boulders or masses like clouds]. clyppan ( 127), embrace, accept [clip = clasp for letters, papers, etc.]. cnapa, m., boy [knave]. cno (cnow), n., knee; acc. pl., cno. cniht, m., knight, warrior. cnyssan ( 125), beat. collenfer (-ferh), proud-minded, fierce. costnung, f., temptation. Crcas (Cracas), m. pl., Greeks. cringan ( 110), cringe, fall. Crst, m., Christ. Crsten, Christian; nom. pl.m., Crstene, Crstne. cuma, m., new-comer, stranger. cuman ( 114), come. (See p.138, Note on ll.2-6.) cunnan ( 137), know, can, understand. cunnian ( 130), make trial of, experience [cunnan]. cure, see cosan. c, well-known, familiar [past part. of cunnan: cf. uncouth]. ce, cen, con, see cunnan. cw:den, cw:don, see cwean. cwalu, f., death, murder [cwelan]. cwealm-cuma, m., murderous comer. cwelan ( 114), die [to quail]. cwn, f., queen. Cwnas, m. pl., a Finnish tribe. cwean ( 115), say, speak [quoth, bequeath]. cwic, living, alive [quicksilver; the quick and the dead]. cwidegiedd, n., word, utterance [cwean and gieddian, both meaning to speak]. cwan ( 126), bewail (trans.). cwm, see cuman. cyle (ciele), m., cold [chill]; cyle gewyrcan 110, 7 = produce cold, freeze. cyme, m., coming [cuman]. cyn(n), n., kin, race. cyn(n), adj. (used only in pl.), fitting things, etiquette, proprieties, courtesies; cynna gemyndig 136, 3 [[Beowulf 614]] = mindful of courtesies. cynerce, n., kingdom. cyning, m., king. cyssan ( 125), kiss. cyst, f., the choice, the pick, the best [cosan]. cy:an ( 126), make known, display, [c]; 2d sing. imperative, cy:.

D.

d:d, f., deed. dg, m., day. dg-hwl, f., day-while, day; h dg-hwla gedrogen hfde eoran wynne 145, 2 [[Beowulf 2727]] = he had spent his days of earth's joy. dg-rm, n., number of days [day-rime]; dgera daeg-rm 143, 7 [[Beowulf 824]] = the number of his days. dl, n., dale. d:l, m., part, deal, division. dad, dead. da, m., death. dman ( 126), deem, judge. Dȩnamearc, see Dȩnemearc. Dȩne ( 47), m. pl., Danes. Dȩnemearc (Dȩnemearce), f., Denmark; dat. sing., Dȩnemearce (strong), Dȩnemearcan (weak). Dȩnisc, Danish; Dȩniscan, the Danes. dofol, m., n., devil; gen. sing., dofles ( 27, (4)). dope, deeply, profoundly [dop]. dor, n., wild animal [deer]. deorc, dark, gloomy. dgor, n., day; gen. pl., dgora, dgera, dgra. dgor-germ, n., number of days, lifetime. dm, m., doom, judgment, glory. dmgeorn, adj., eager for glory [doom-yearning]. dn ( 135), do, cause, place, promote, remove. dorste, dorston, see durran. dram, m., joy, mirth [dream]. drogan ( 109), endure, enjoy, spend [Scotch dree]. drorig, dreary, sad. drorighlor, adj., with sad face [hlor = cheek, face, leer]. drosan ( 109), fall, perish [dross]. drfan ( 102), drive. drihten, see dryhten. drincan ( 110), drink. drohto (-a), m., mode of living, occupation [drogan]. drugon, see drogan. dryhten (drihten), m., lord, Lord; dat. sing., dryhtne. dryht-sȩle, m., lordly hall. dugu, f., warrior-band, host, retainers [doughtiness]. In dugu and geogo, the higher (older) and lower (younger) ranks are represented, the distinction corresponding roughly to the medival distinction between knights and squires. durran ( 137), dare. duru, f., door. dyde, see dn. dynnan ( 125), resound [din]. dy:re (dere, dore, dore), dear, costly.

E.

a, f., river; gen. sing., as; dat. and acc. sing., a. ac, also, likewise [a nickname = an eek-name. See 65, Note2]; ac swilce (swelce) 112, 3 = also. aca, m., addition [ac]; t acan = in addition to ( 94, (4)). age, n., eye. eahta, eight. al, oh! alas! eala, see ealu. eald ( 96, (2)), old. ealdor (aldor), n., life; gif t ȩllenweorc aldre gedgest 138, 17 [[Beowulf 662]] = if thou survivest that feat with thy life (instr.). ealdor-dg (aldor-, ealder-), m., day of life. ealdor-gedl (aldor-), n., death [life-deal]. ealdormon, m., alderman, chief, magistrate. ealgian, ( 130), protect, defend. eall (eal), all; ealne weg, all the way ( 98, (1)); ealneg (< ealne weg), always; ealles ( 98, (3)), adv., altogether, entirely. Eall (eal) is frequently used with partitive gen. = all of: 143, 19 [[Beowulf 836]]; 145,3 [[Beowulf 2728]]. ealu (ealo) ( 68), n., ale; gen. sing., eala. ealu-scerwen, f., mortal panic [ale-spilling]. eard, m., country, home [eore]. eardgeard, m. earth [earth-yard]. eardian ( 130), dwell [eard]. eardstapa, m., wanderer [earth-stepper]. are, n., ear. earfo (earfe), n. hardship, toil; gen. pl., earfea. earfolc, adj., full of hardship, arduous. earm, m., arm. earm, adj., poor, wretched. earmcearig, wretched, miserable. earmlc, wretched, miserable. earnung, f., merit [earning]. ast, east. astan ( 93, (5)), from the east. ast-Dȩne ( 47), East-Danes. asteweard, eastward. astrihte (astryhte) ( 93, (6)), eastward. astron, pl., Easter. ae, easily. amdlce, humbly. eaxl, f., shoulder [axle]. Ebrisc, adj., Hebrew. ce, eternal, everlasting. ȩcg, f., sword [edge]. edor, m., enclosure, dwelling; nom. pl., ederas. drum, see :dre. efne, adv., just, only [evenly]. eft, adv., again, afterwards [aft]. ȩgesa, m., fear, terror [awe]. ȩllen, n., strength, courage; mid ȩlne = boldly; on ȩlne 147, 17 [[Beowulf 2817]] = mightily, suddenly, or in their (earls') strength (prime). ȩllen-m:ru, f. fame for strength, feat of strength. ȩllen-weorc, n., feat of strength. ȩllenwdnis, f., zeal, fervor. ȩllor-gst, m., inhuman monster [alien ghost]. ȩln, f., ell [el-bow]. ȩlne, see ȩllen. ȩlra, adj. comparative, another [*ȩle cognate with Lat. alius]; on ȩlran mȩn 139, 14 [[Beowulf 753]] = in another man. emnlong (-lang), equally long; on emnlange = along ( 94, (4)). ȩnde, m., end. ȩndebyrdnes, f., order. ȩnde-dg, m., end-day, day of death. ȩnde-lf, f., last remnant [end-leaving]. ȩngel, m., angel [Lat. angelus]. Ȩnglafeld ( 51), m., Englefield (in Berkshire). Ȩngle ( 47), m. pl., Angles. Ȩnglisc, adj., English; on Ȩnglisc 117, 18 and 19 = in English, into English. Ȩngliscgereord, n., English language. ȩnt, m., giant. ode, see gn. eodorcan ( 130), ruminate. eorl, m., earl, warrior, chieftain. eorlc, earl-like, noble. eor-draca, m., dragon [earth-drake]. eore, f., earth. eor-rȩced, n., earth-hall. eorscrf, n., earth-cave, grave. eoten, m., giant, monster. ow, see . owland, n., land (an island in the Baltic Sea). ȩrian ( 125), plow [to ear]. Estland, n., land of the Estas (on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea). Estmȩre, m., Frische Haff. Estum, dat. pl., the Estas. etan ( 115), eat [ort]. ȩttan ( 127), graze [etan]. el, m., territory, native land [allodial]. el-weard, m., guardian of his country.

F.

fc, n., interval, space. fder ( 68, (2)), m., father. fgen, fain, glad, exultant. fger (f:ger), fair, beautiful. f:lsian ( 130), cleanse. f:rlce, suddenly [f:r = fear]. fst, fast, held fast. fste, adv., fast, firmly. fstnung, f., security, safety. ft, n., vessel [wine-fat, vat]. f:tels, m., vessel; acc. pl., f:tels. fm, m., embrace, bosom [fathom = the space embraced by the extended arms]. fg (fh), hostile; h ws fg wi God 142, 18 [[Beowulf 812]] = he was hostile to God. fh (fg), variegated, ornamented. Falster, Falster (island in the Baltic Sea). fandian ( 130), try, investigate [findan]. faran ( 116), go [fare]. feallan ( 117), fall, flow. fealu, fallow, pale, dark; nom. pl.m., fealwe. fawe (fa, fawa), pl., few. fela (indeclinable), much, many (with gen.). feld ( 51), m., field. fell (fel), n., fell, skin, hide. fng, see fn. fȩn-hli, n., fen-slope. fȩn-hop, n., fen-retreat. feoh, n., cattle, property [fee]; gen. and dat. sing., fos, fo. feohgfre, greedy of property, avaricious. feohtan ( 110), fight. fol, see feallan. fond ( 68, (3)), m., enemy, fiend. fond-grp, f., fiend-grip. feor ( 96, (4)), adj., far, far from (with dat.). feor, adv., far, far back (time). feorh, m., n., life. feorh-bȩnn, f., life-wound, mortal wound. feorh-lȩgu, f., laying down of life. (See p.146, Note on l.13. [[Beowulf 2800]]) feorh-soc, life-sick, mortally wounded. feorm (fiorm), f., use, benefit (food, provisions) [farm]. feormian ( 130), eat, devour. feorran, from afar. fowertig, forty; gen., fowertiges ( 91, Note 1). ferh (fer), m., heart, mind, spirit. fȩrian ( 125), carry, transport [to ferry]; fȩrede in forwege 152, 5 [[Wanderer 81]] = carried away. fers, n., verse [Lat. versus]. fersc, fresh. ferloca (ferh-), m., heart, mind, spirit [heart-locker]. ft, see ft. fetor, f., fetter [ft]; instr. pl., feterum. feer, f., feather; acc. pl., fera. fierd, f., English army [faran]. ff, five. fftene, fifteen. fftig, fifty; gen. sing., fftiges ( 91, Note 1); dat. pl., fftegum ( 91, Note 3). findan ( 110), find. finger, m., finger. Finnas, m. pl., Fins. fiorm, see feorm. fras, m. pl., men [feorh]; gen. pl., fra; dat. pl., frum. firrest (fierrest), see feor ( 96,(4)). first, m., time, period. fisca (fiscna), m., fishing. fiscere, m., fisherman. fiscna, see fisca. flon ( 118, II.), flee. flotan ( 109), float. flȩt, n., floor of the hall. fld, m., flood, wave. folc, n., folk, people. folc-cwn, f., folk-queen. folc-cyning, m., folk-king. folcgefeoht, n., folk-fight, battle, general engagement. fold-bold, n., earth-building, hall. folde, f., earth, land, country [feld]. folm, f., hand [flan = feel]. fn ( 118), seize, capture, take [fang]; t rce fn = come to (ascend) the throne. for ( 94, (1)), for, on account of; for :m (e), for on (e), because; for on, for y:, for :m (for-m), therefore. fr, see faran. forbrnan ( 127), burn thoroughly [for is intensive, like Lat. per]. forgiefan (-gifan) ( 115), give, grant. forhȩrgian ( 130), harry, lay waste. forhogdnis, f., contempt. forht, fearful, afraid. forhwga, about, at least. forl:tan ( 117), abandon, leave. forlt, forlton, see forl:tan. forma, first; forman se, the first time (instr.). forniman ( 114), take off, destroy. forspȩndan ( 127), spend, squander. forstondan (-standan) ( 116), understand. forswpan ( 117), sweep away; pret. 3d sing. indic., forswop. forswȩrian ( 116), forswear (with dat.); past part., forsworen. for, forth, forward. forolian ( 130), miss, go without (with dat.) [not to thole or experience]. forweg, m., way forth; in forwege, away. ft ( 68, (1)), m. foot. Fr:na, m., Frene. frtwe, f. pl., fretted armor, jewels [fret]. fram, see from. fra, m., lord, Lord. fra-drihten, m., lord, master. frfran ( 130), console, cheer [frfor]. frȩmde, strange, foreign; frȩmdan, the strangers. frȩmman ( 125), accomplish, perform, support [to frame]. frȩmsumnes (-nis), f., kindness, benefit. fro (fro), free; gen. pl., frora (frora). frodm, m., freedom. frolc, noble [free-like]. from:g, m., free kinsman. frond ( 68, (3)), m., friend. frondlas, friendless. frondlce, in a friendly manner. frorig, cold, chill [froran]. frora, see fro. fri, m., n., peace, security [bel-fry]. frd, old, sage, prudent. frfor, f., comfort, consolation, alleviation; fyrena frfre 137, 7 [[Beowulf 629]] = as an alleviation of outrages (dat.). from (fram) ( 94, (1)), from, by. from, adv., away, forth. fruma, m., origin, beginning [from]. frumsceaft, f., creation. fugela, see fugol. fugelere, m., fowler. fugol (fugel), m., fowl, bird; gen. pl., fugela. ful, n., cup, beaker. fl, foul. flian ( 130), grow foul, decompose. full (ful), adj., full (with gen.); be fullan, fully, perfectly. full (ful) adv., fully, very. fultum, m., help. furor (furur), adv., further. furum, adv., even. fyl, see feallan. fyren (firen), f., crime, violence, outrage. fyrhtu, f., fright, terror; dat. sing., fyrhtu. fyrst, adj., superlative, first, chief. fy:san ( 126), make ready, prepare [fs = ready]; ge gefy:sed 137, 9 [[Beowulf 631]] = ready for battle.

G.

gd, n., lack. g:st, see gst. gafol, n., tax, tribute. galan ( 116), sing [nightingale]. glnes, f., lust, impurity. gn ( 134), go. gr, m., spear [gore, gar-fish]. gr-wiga, m., spear-warrior. gst (g:st), m., spirit, ghost. gstlc (g:stlc), ghastly, terrible. ge, and; see :ger. g, ye; see . geador, together. ge:metigian ( 130), disengage from (with acc. of person and gen. of thing) [empty]. gernan ( 127), gain by running [iernan]. gap, spacious. gar, n., year; gen. pl., gara, is used adverbially = of yore, formerly. gardg, m., day of yore. geare (gearo, gearwe), readily, well, clearly [yarely]. Gat, m., a Geat, the Geat (i.e. Beowulf). Gatas, m. pl., the Geats (a people of South Sweden). Gat-mecgas, m. pl., Geat men (= the fourteen who accompanied Beowulf to Heorot). geborscipe, m., banquet, entertainment. gebtan ( 126), make amends for [bt]. gebdan ( 102), wait, bide one's time (intrans.); endure, experience (trans., with acc.). gebind, n., commingling. gebindan ( 110), bind. gebrowan ( 109), brew. gebrowen, see gebrowan. gebd, gebn, see ban ( 126, Note 2). gebyrd, n., rank, social distinction. gecosan ( 109), choose, decide. gecnwan ( 117), know, understand. gecoren, see gecosan. gecringan ( 110), fall, die [cringe]. ged:lan ( 126), deal out, give; dae ged:lde 152, 7 [[Wanderer 83]] = apportioned to death (dat.), or, tore (?) in death (instr.). gedafenian ( 130), become, befit, suit (impersonal, usually with dat., but with acc. 112, 10). gedgan ( 126), endure, survive. gedn ( 135), do, cause, effect. gedrg, n., company. gedrosan ( 109), fall, fail. gedriht (gedryht), n., band, troop. gedrogen, see drogan. gedrync, n., drinking. geȩndian ( 130), end, finish. gefaran ( 116), go, die. gefa, m., joy. gefeaht, see gefeohtan. gefeh, see gefon. gefng, see gefn. gefeoht, n., fight, battle. gefeohtan ( 110), fight. gefon ( 118, v.), rejoice at (with dat.); pret. 3d sing., gefeah, gefeh. gefra, m., companion, comrade [co-farer]. gefleman ( 126), put to flight [flon]. gefohten, see gefeohtan. gefn ( 118, vii.), seize. gefr, see gefaran. gefr:ge, n., hearsay, report; mne gefr:ge (instr.) 141, 7 [[Beowulf 777]] = as I have heard say, according to my information. gefrȩmman ( 125), perform, accomplish, effect. gefultumian ( 130), help [fultum]. gefylce, n., troop, division [folc]; dat. pl., gefylcum, gefylcium. gefyllan ( 127), fill (with gen.); past part. pl., f., gefylda. geglȩngan ( 127), adorn. gehtland, n., promised land [gehtan = to promise]. gehealdan ( 117), hold, maintain. geheran (gehy:ran) ( 126), hear. gehersumnes, f., obedience. gehola, m., protector [helan]. gehw ( 77, Note), each; on healfa gehwone 142, 7 [[Beowulf 801]] (see Note 140, 15 [[Beowulf 769]]. Observe that the pron. may, as here, be masc. and the gen. fem.). gehwer ( 77, Note), each, either, both. gehwylc (gehwilc) ( 77, Note), each (with gen. pl.See Note 140,15 [[Beowulf 769]]). gehwyrfan ( 127), convert, change. gehy:dan ( 126), hide, conceal, consign. gehygd, f., n., thought, purpose. gehy:ran, see geheran. gehy:rnes, f., hearing; eal h in gehy:rnesse geleornian meahte 115, 14 = all things that he could learn by hearing. gel:dan ( 126), lead. gel:red, part.-adj., learned; superlative, gel:redest. gelafian ( 130), lave. gelȩnge, along of, belonging to (with dat.). geleornian (-liornian) ( 130), learn. gelce, likewise; in like manner to (with dat.). gelefan (gely:fan) ( 126), believe; t ho on :nigne eorl gely:fde 137, 6 [[Beowulf 628]] = that she believed in any earl. gelimpan ( 110), happen, be fulfilled. gelimplc, proper, fitting. gely:fan, see gelefan. gely:fed, weak, infirm [left (hand)]. gmde, see geman. gemet, n., meter, measure, ability. gemtan ( 126), meet. gemon, see gemunan. gemunan ( 136), remember; indic. pres. 1st and 3d sing., gemon; pret. sing., gemunde. gemynd, n., memory, memorial; t gemyndum 147, 5 [[Beowulf 2805]] = as a memorial. gemyndgian (-mynian) ( 130), remember; mid hine gemyndgade 115, 15 = he treasured in his memory; gemyne m:ro 138, 15 [[Beowulf 660]] = be mindful of glory (imperative 2d sing.). gemyndig, mindful of (with gen.). genp, see genpan. geneahhe, enough, often; genehost, superlative, very often. genip, n., mist, darkness. genpan ( 102), grow dark. genwian ( 130), renew. genh, enough. genumen, see niman. geoc, n., yoke. gocor, dire, sad. geogo, f., youth, young people, young warriors. (See dugu.) geond (giond) ( 94, (2)), throughout [yond]. geondhweorfan ( 110), pass over, traverse, recall; onne mga gemynd md geondhweorfe 150, 15 [[Wanderer 51]] = then his mind recalls the memory of kinsmen. geondscawian ( 130), survey, review; georne geondscawa 150, 16 [[Wanderer 52]] = eagerly surveys them. geondȩnc(e)an ( 128), think over, consider. geong ( 96, (2)), young; giengest, (gingest), superlative, youngest, latest, last. geong = gong, see gongan (imperative 2d sing.). gong (gong), see gongan (pret. 3d sing.). georn (giorn), eager, desirous, zealous, sure [yearn]. georne, eagerly, certainly; wiste geornor 143, 5 [[Beowulf 822]] = knew the more certainly. geornfulnes, f., eagerness, zeal. geornlce, eagerly, attentively. geornor, see georne. gerȩcednes, f., narration [rȩccan]. gerisenlc, suitable, becoming. gery:man ( 126), extend, (trans.) [rm]. ges:liglc, happy, blessed [silly]. gesamnode, see gesomnian. gesceaft, f., creature, creation, destiny [scieppan]. gesceap, n., shape, creation, destiny [scieppan]. gescieldan ( 127), shield, defend. gesealde, see gesȩllan. geseglian ( 130), sail. geselda, m., comrade. gesȩllan ( 128), give. geson (geson) ( 118), see, observe; pres. indic. 3d sing., gesih. geset, n., habitation, seat. gesȩttan ( 127), set, place, establish. gesewen, see son, geson (past part.). gesewenlc, seen, visible [seen-like]. gesiglan ( 127), sail. gesih, see geson. gesittan ( 115, Note 2), sit (trans., as to sit a horse, to sit a boat, etc.); sit, sit down (intrans.). geslgen, see slan ( 118). gesomnian ( 130), assemble, collect. gesomnung, f., collection, assembly. gesth, see gestgan. gestaelian ( 130), establish, restore [standan]. gesteal, n., establishment, foundation [stall]. gestgan ( 102), ascend, go [stile, stirrup, sty (= a rising on the eye)]. gestrangian ( 130), strengthen. gestron, n., property. gestry:nan ( 126), obtain, acquire [gestron]. gesweorcan ( 110), grow dark, become sad; For on ic geȩncan ne mg geond s woruld for hwan mdsefa mn ne gesweorce 151, 3-4 [[lines 58-59]] = Therefore in this world I may not understand wherefore my mind does not grow "black as night." (Brooke.) geswcan ( 102), cease, cease from (with gen.). getl, n., something told, narrative. getruma, m., troop, division. geanc, m., n., thought. geeah, see geicgan. geȩnc(e)an ( 128), think, remember, understand, consider. geodan ( 126), join. geode (-ode), n., language, tribe. geodnis, f., association; but in 112, 2 this word is used to render the Lat. appetitus = desire. geicg(e)an ( 115, Note 2), take, receive; pret. indic. 3d sing., geeah. geungen, part.-adj., distinguished, excellent [on, to thrive]. geyldig, patient [olian]. geweald (gewald), n., control, possession, power [wield]. geweorc, n., work, labor. geweorian ( 130), honor [to attribute worthto]. gewcian ( 130), dwell. gewin(n), n., strife, struggle. gewindan ( 110), flee [wend]. gewissian ( 130), guide, direct. gewtan ( 102), go, depart. geworht, see gewyrcan. gewrit, n., writing, Scripture. gewunian ( 130), be accustomed, be wont. gewyrc(e)an ( 128), work, create, make, produce. gid(d), n., word, speech. giefan ( 115), give. giefstl, m., gift-stool, throne. giefu (gifu), f., gift. gielp (gilp), m., n., boast [yelp]. geman (gman) ( 126), endeavor, strive. get (gt, gy:t), yet, still. gif (gyf), if [not related to give]. gifee (gyfee), given, granted. gilp, see gielp. gilp-cwide, m., boasting speech [yelp-speech]. gingest, see geong (adj.). gioho (gehu), f., care, sorrow, grief. gi (i), formerly, of old. gld (gl:d), glad. glaw, wise, prudent. glwstf, m., glee, joy; instr. pl.(used adverbially), glwstafum 150, 16 [[Wanderer 52]] = joyfully. God, m., God. gd ( 96, (3)), good; mid his gdum 115, 12 = with his possessions (goods). godcund, divine [God]. godcundlce, divinely. gold, n., gold. gold-:ht, f., gold treasure. gold-fh, gold-adorned. gold-hroden, part.-adj., gold-adorned. goldwine, m., prince, giver of gold, lord [gold-friend]. gomel (gomol), old, old man. gongan (gangan) ( 117), go [gang]; imperative 2d sing., geong; pret. sing., gong, gong, gng; past part., gegongen, gegangen. The most commonly used pret. is ode, which belongs to gn (134). Gotland, n., Jutland (in Ohthere's Second Voyage), Gothland (inWulfstan's Voyage). gram, grim, angry, fierce, the angry one. grp, f., grasp, clutch, claw. grtan ( 126), greet, attack, touch. grwan ( 117, (2)), grow. gryre-lo, n., terrible song [grisly lay]. guma, m., man, hero [groom; see 65, Note1]. g, f., war, battle. g-bill, n., sword [war-bill]. g-gew:de, n., armor [war-weeds]. g-hr, f., war-fame. g-wine, m., sword [war-friend]. gyddian ( 130), speak formally, chant [giddy; the original meaning of giddy was mirthful, as when one sings]. gyf, see gif. gyfee, see gifee. gyldan (gieldan) ( 110), pay; indic. 3d sing., gylt. gylden, golden [gold].

H.

habban ( 133), have. hd, m., order, rank, office, degree [-hood, -head]. hfta, m., captive. hgel (hagol), m., hail; instr. sing., hagle. hglfaru, f., hail-storm [hail-faring]. hle, see hle. h:l, f., hail, health, good luck. hle (hle), m., hero, warrior. h:t, see htan. h:en, heathen. H:um (t H:um), Haddeby (= Schleswig). hl, hale, whole. hlettan ( 127), greet, salute [to hail]. Halfdȩne, Halfdane (proper name). hlga, m., saint. Hlgoland, Halgoland (in ancient Norway). hlig, holy. hlignes, f., holiness. hm, m., home; dat. sing., hme, hm (p.104, Note); used adverbially in hm ode 112, 18 = went home. hand, see hond. hr, hoary, gray. ht, hot. htan ( 117, Note 2), call, name, command; pret. sing., heht, ht. htheort, hot-hearted. htte, see htan. h, ho, hit ( 53), he, she, it. hafod, n., head. hah ( 96, (2)), high; acc. sing, m., hanne. hah-sȩle, m., high hall. hahungen, highly prosperous, aristocratic [hah + past part. of on (118)]. healdan ( 117), hold, govern, possess; 144, 9 [[Beowulf 2720]] = hold up, sustain. healf, adj., half. healf, f., half, side, shore. heall, f., hall. heals, m., neck. han, abject, miserable. hanne, see hah. heard, hard. heard-hicgende, brave-minded [hard-thinking]. hearm-scaa, m., harmful foe [harm-scather]. hearpe, f., harp. heao-dor, battle-brave. heao-m:re, famous in battle. heao-wylm, m., flame-surge, surging of fire [battle-welling]. hawan ( 117), hew, cut. hȩbban, hf, hfon, gehafen ( 117), heave, lift, raise. hȩfig, heavy, oppressive. heht, see htan. helan ( 114), conceal. hȩll, f., hell. helm, m., helmet. Helmingas, m. pl., Helmings (Wealtheow, Hrothgar's queen, is a Helming). help, f., help. helpan ( 110), help (with dat.). heofon, m., heaven. heofonlc, heavenly. heofonrce, n., kingdom of heaven. hold, see healdan. heolstor (-ster), n., darkness, concealment, cover [holster]. heora (hiera), see h. heord, f., care, guardianship [hoard]. heoro-drorig, bloody [sword-dreary]. Heorot, Heorot, Hart (the famous hall which Hrothgar built). heorte, f., heart. hr, here, hither; in the Chronicle the meaning frequently is at this date, in this year: 99,1. hȩre, m., Danish army. hȩrenis, f., praise. hȩrgian ( 130), raid, harry, ravage [hȩre]. hȩrgung, f., harrying, plundering. hȩrian (hȩrigean) ( 125), praise. hrsumedon, see hersumian. ht, see htan. hider (hieder), hither. hiera, see h. heran (hy:ran) ( 126), hear, belong. hierde, m., shepherd, instigator [keeper of a herd]. hierdebc, f., pastoral treatise [shepherd-book, atranslation of Lat. Cura Pastoralis]. herra, see hah. hersumian (hy:r-, hr-) ( 130), obey (with dat.). hige (hyge), m., mind, heart. hige-ihtig, bold-hearted. hild, f., battle. hilde-dor, battle-brave. hilde-mecg, m., warrior. hilde-sd, battle-sated. hin-fs, eager to be gone [hence-ready]. hira, see h. hl:w (hlw), m., mound, burial mound [Ludlow and other place-names, low meaning hill]. hlford, m., lord, master [loaf-ward?]. hleahtor, m., laughter. hlo, m., refuge, protector [lee]. hlfian ( 130), rise, tower. hlyn, m., din, noise. hlynsian ( 130), resound. hof, n., court, abode. hogode, see hycgan. holm, m., sea, ocean. hond (hand), f., hand; on gehwre hond, on both sides. hord, m., n., hoard, treasure. hordcofa, m., breast, heart [hoard-chamber] hors, n., horse. horshwl, m., walrus. hrdwyrde, hasty of speech [hrd = quick]. hrgel, n., garment; dat. sing., hrgle. hrn, m., reindeer. hrae, quickly, soon [rath-er]. hro (hroh), rough, cruel, sad. hrosan ( 109), fall. hrran ( 126), stir. hreer, m., n., breast, purpose; dat. sing., hrere. hrm, m., rime, hoarfrost. hrmceald, rime-cold. hring, m., ring, ring-mail. hr, f. (?), snow-storm. hrf, m., roof. Hrones nss, literally Whale's Ness, whale's promontory; see nss. hrse, f., earth [hrosan: deposit]. hryre, m., fall, death [hrosan]. hry:er, n., cattle [rinder-pest]. hryig, ruined (?), storm-beaten; nom. pl.m., hryge. h, how. Humbre, f., river Humber. hund, hundred. hunig, n., honey. hunta, m., hunter. hunto (-ta), m., hunting. hru, adv., about. hs, n., house. hw, hwt ( 74), who? what? sw hwt sw (77, Note), whatsoever; indefinite, any one, anything; for hwan (instr.), wherefore. hwl, m., whale. hwlhunta, m., whale-hunter. hwlhunta, m., whale-fishing. hw:r, where? hw:r ... sw, wheresoever; wel hw:r, nearly everywhere. hwthwugu, something. hwer, whether, which of two? hwre, however, nevertheless. hwne, see hwn. hweorfan ( 110), turn, go. hwider, whither. hwl, f., while, time; ealle hwle e, all the while that; hwlum (instr. pl.), sometimes. hwilc (hwylc, hwelc) ( 74, Note 1), which? what? hwn, n., a trifle; hwne (instr. sing.), somewhat, a little. hwonan, when. hy:, see he. hycgan ( 132), think, resolve; pret. 3d sing., hogode. hy:d, f., hide, skin. hyge, see hige. hyra (hiera), see h. hy:ran, see heran. hyrde, see hierde. hys (his), see h. hyt (hit), see h.

I.

ic ( 72), I. del, idle, useless, desolate. ides, f., woman, lady. ieldra, adj., see eald. ieldra, m., an elder, parent, ancestor. iernan (yrnan) ( 112), run. glond (gland), n., island. ilca (ylca), the same [of that ilk]. Ilfing, the Elbing. in, in, into (with dat. and acc.); in on, in on, to, toward. inbryrdnis (-nes), f., inspiration, ardor. indryhten, very noble. ingong, m., entrance. innan, adv., within, inside; on innan, within. innanbordes, adv.-gen., within borders, at home. inne, adv., within, inside. intinga, m., cause, sake. inweardlce, inwardly, fervently. inwid-sorg (inwit-sorh), f., sorrow caused by an enemy. inwit-anc, m., hostile intent. raland, n., Ireland (but in Ohthere's Second Voyage, Iceland is probably meant). ren, n., iron, sword; gen. pl., renna, rena. ren-bȩnd, m., f., iron-band. u, see gu.

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