Since such a refuge can bring about such results, it is high time that we had more of these refuges, in order that like results may follow in different sections of the West, and for different species of wild game; as well for the benefit of other localities and their residents, as for that wider public which will hereafter visit them in ever increasing numbers.
A bill introduced at the last session of Congress authorized the President, when in his judgment it should seem desirable, to set aside portions of forest reserves as game refuges, where no hunting should be allowed. The bill passed the Senate, but failed in the House, largely through lack of time, yet some opposition was manifested to it by members of Congress from the States in which the forest reserves are located, who seemed to feel that such a law would in some way abridge the rights and privileges of their constituents. This is a narrow view, and one not justified by the experience of persons dwelling in the vicinity of the Yellowstone National Park.
If such members of Congress will consider, for example, the effect on the State of Wyoming, of the protection of the Yellowstone Park, it seems impossible to believe that they will oppose the measure. Each non-resident sportsman going into Wyoming to hunt the game—much of which spends the summer in the Yellowstone Park, and each autumn overflows into the adjacent territory—pays to the State the sum of forty dollars, and is obliged by law to hire a guide, for whose license he must pay ten dollars additional; besides that, he hires guides, saddle and pack animals, pays railroad and stage fare, and purchases provisions to last him for his hunt. In other words, at a modest calculation, each man who spends from two weeks to a month hunting in Wyoming pays to the State and its citizens not less than one hundred and fifty dollars. Statistics as to the number of hunters who visit Wyoming are not accessible; but if we assume that they are only two hundred in number, this means an actual contribution to the State of thirty thousand dollars in cash. Besides this, the protection of the game in such a refuge insures a never-failing supply of meat to the settlers living in the adjacent country, and offers them work for themselves and their horses at a time when, ranch work for the season being over, they have no paying occupation.
The value of a few skins taken by local hunters is very inconsiderable when compared with such a substantial inflow of actual cash to the State and the residents of the territory neighboring to such a refuge. Moreover, it must be remembered that, failing to put in operation some plan of this kind, which shall absolutely protect the game and enable it to re-establish itself, the supply of meat and skins, now naturally enough regarded as their own peculiar possession by the settlers living where such a refuge might be established, will inevitably grow less and less as time goes on; and, as it grows less, the contributions to State and local resources from the non-resident tax will also grow less. Thirty years ago the buffalo skinner declared that the millions of buffalo could never be exterminated; yet the buffalo disappeared, and after them one species of big game after another vanished over much of the country. The future can be judged only by the past. Thirty years ago there were elk all over the plains, from the Missouri River westward to the Rocky Mountains; now there are no elk on the plains, and, except in winter, when driven down from their summer range by the snows, they are found only in the timbered mountains. What has been so thoroughly accomplished will be sure to continue; and, unless the suggested refuges shall be established, there will soon be no game to protect—a real loss to the country.
It has long been customary for Western men of a certain type to say that Eastern sportsmen are trying to protect the game in order that they themselves may kill it, the implication being that they wish to take it away from those living near it, and who presumably have the greatest right to it. Talk of this kind has no foundation in fact, as is shown by the laws passed by the Western States, which often demand heavy license fees from non-residents, and hedge about their hunting with other restrictions. Many Eastern sportsmen desire to preserve the game, not especially that they themselves may kill it, but that it shall be preserved; if they desire to kill this game they must and do comply with the laws established by the different States, and pay the license fees.
A fundamental reason for the protection of game, and so for the establishment of such game refuges, was given by President Roosevelt in a speech made to the Club in the winter of 1903, when he expressed the opinion that it was the duty of the Government to establish these refuges and preserves for the benefit of the poor man, the man in moderate circumstances. The very rich, who are able to buy land, may establish and care for preserves of their own, but this is beyond the means of the man of moderate means; and, unless the State and Federal Governments establish such reservations, a time is at hand when the poor man will have no place to go where he can find game to hunt. The establishment of such refuges is for the benefit of the whole public—not for any class—and is therefore a thoroughly democratic proposition.
There is no question as to the right of Congress to enact laws governing the killing of game on the public domain, or within a forest reserve where this domain lies within the boundaries of a Territory. Moreover, it has been determined by the courts and otherwise that within a State the Federal Government has, on a forest reserve, all the rights of an individual proprietor, "supplemented with the power to make and enforce its own laws for the assertion of those rights, and for the disposal and full and complete management, control and protection of its lands."
In January, 1902, the Hon. John F. Lacey, of Iowa, a member of this Club, whose efforts in behalf of game protection are generally recognized, and whose name is attached to the well-known Lacey Law, received from Attorney-General Knox an opinion indicating that there is reasonable ground for the view that the Government may legislate for the protection of game on the forest reserves, whether these forest reserves lie within the Territories or within the States. From this opinion the following paragraphs are taken:
"While Congress certainly may by law prohibit and punish the entry upon or use of any part of those forest reserves for the purpose of the killing, capture or pursuit of game, this would not be sufficient. There are many persons now on those reserves by authority of law, and people are expressly authorized to go there, and it would be necessary to go further and to prohibit the killing, capture or pursuit of game, even though the entry upon the reserve is not for that purpose. But, the right to forbid intrusion for the purpose of killing, per se, and without reference to any trespass on the property, is another. The first may be forbidden as a trespass and for the protection of the property; but when a person is lawfully there and not a trespasser or intruder, the question is different.
"But I am decidedly of opinion that Congress may forbid and punish the killing of game on these reserves, no matter that the slayer is lawfully there and is not a trespasser. If Congress may prohibit the use of these reserves for any purpose, it may for another; and while Congress permits persons to be there upon and use them for various purposes, it may fix limits to such use and occupation, and prescribe the purpose and objects for which they shall not be used, as for the killing, capture or pursuit of specified kinds of game. Generally, any private owner may forbid, upon his own land, any act that he chooses, although the act may be lawful in itself; and certainly Congress, invested also with legislative power, may do the same thing, just as it may prohibit the sale of intoxicating liquors, though such sale is otherwise lawful.
"After considerable attention to the whole subject, I have no hesitation in expressing my opinion that Congress has ample power to forbid and punish any and all kinds of trespass, upon or injury to, the forest reserves, including the trespass of entering upon or using them for the killing, capture or pursuit of game.
"The exercise of these powers would not conflict with any State authority. Most of the States have laws forbidding the killing, capture or pursuit of different kinds of game during specified portions of the year. This makes such killing, etc., lawful at other times, but only lawful because not made unlawful. And it is lawful only when the State has power to make it lawful, by either implication or direct enactment. But, except in those cases already referred to, such as eminent domain, service of process, etc., no State has power to authorize or make lawful a trespass upon private property. So that, though Congress should prohibit such killing, etc., upon its own lands, at all seasons of the year, this would not conflict with any State authority or control. That the preservation of game is part of the public policy of those States, and for the benefit of their own people, is shown by their own legislation, and they cannot complain if Congress upon its own lands goes even further in that direction than the State, so long as the open season of the State law is not interfered with in any place where such law is paramount.
"It has always been the policy of the Government to invite and induce the purchase and settlement of its public lands; and as the existence of game thereon and in their localities adds to the desirability of the lands, and is a well-known inducement to their purchase, it may well be considered whether, for this purpose alone, and without reference to the protection of the lands from trespass, Congress may not, on its own lands, prohibit the killing of such game."
In this opinion the Attorney-General further calls attention to the difficulties of enforcing the State law, and suggests that it might be well to give marshals and their deputies, and the superintendents, supervisors, rangers, and other persons charged with the protection of these forest reserves, power on the public lands, in certain cases approaching "hot pursuit," to arrest without warrant. All who are familiar with the conditions in the more sparsely settled States will recognize the importance of some such provision. A matter of equal importance, though as yet not generally recognized, is that of providing funds for the expenses of forest officers making arrests. It is often the fact that no justice of the peace resides within fifty or a hundred miles of the place where the violation of the law occurs. The ranger making the arrest is obliged to transport his prisoner for this distance, and to provide him with transportation, food and lodging during the journey and during the time that he may be obliged to wait before bringing the prisoner arrested before a proper court. This may often amount to more than the penalty, even if the officer making the arrest secures a conviction; but, on the other hand, the individual arrested may not be able to pay his fine, and may have to go to jail. In this case the officer making the arrest is out of pocket just so much. Under such circumstances, it is evident that few officers can afford to take the risk of losing this time and money.
In most States of the Union there exist considerable tracts of land, mountainous, or at least barren and unfit for cultivation. Legislation should be had in each State establishing public parks which might well enough be stocked with game, which should there be absolutely protected. Some efforts in this direction have been made, notably Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania and Minnesota. In many of the New England States there are tracts absolutely barren, unoccupied and often bordered by abandoned farms, which could be purchased by the State for a very modest compensation; and it is well worth the while of the Boone and Crockett Club to endeavor by all means in its power to secure the establishment in the various States of parks which might be breeding centers for game, great and small, on the same plan as the proposed refuges hoped for within the forest reservations. Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and practically all the States to the west of these, possess such areas of unoccupied land, which might wisely be acquired by the State and devoted to such excellent purposes. In Montana there is a long stretch of the Missouri River, with a narrow, shifting bottom, bordered on either side by miles of bad-lands, which would serve as such a State park. Settlers on this stretch of river are few in number, for the bottoms are not wide enough to harbor many homes, and, being constantly cut out by the changes of the river's course, are so unstable as to be of little value as farming lands. On the other hand, the new bottoms constantly formed are soon thickly covered by willow brush, while the extensive bad-lands on either side the stream furnish an admirable refuge for deer, antelope, mountain sheep and bear, with which the country is already stocked, and were in old times a great haunt for elk, which might easily be reintroduced there.
There is a tendency in this country to avoid trouble, and to do those things which can be done most easily. From this it results that efforts are constantly being made to introduce into regions from which game has been exterminated various species of foreign game, which can be had, more or less domesticated, from the preserves of Europe. Thus red deer have been introduced in the Adirondack region, and it has been suggested that chamois might be brought from Europe and turned loose in certain localities in the United States, and there increase and furnish shooting. To many men it seems less trouble to contribute money for such a purpose as this than to buckle down and manufacture public sentiment in behalf of the protection of native game. This is a great mistake. From observations made in certain familiar localities, we know definitely that, provided there is a breeding stock, our native game, with absolute protection, will re-establish itself in an astonishingly short period of time. It would be far better for us to concentrate our efforts to renew the supply of our native game rather than to collect subscriptions to bring to America foreign game, which may or may not do well here, and may or may not furnish sport if it shall do well.
Forest Reserves of North America
In the United States something over 100,000 square miles of the public domain has been set aside and reserved from settlement for economic purposes. This vast area includes reservations of four different kinds: First, National Forest Reserves, aggregating some 63,000,000 acres, for the conservation of the water supply of the arid and semi-arid West; second, National Parks, of which there are seventeen, for the purpose of preserving untouched places of natural grandeur and interest; third, State Parks, for places of recreation and for conserving the water supply; and fourth, military wood and timber reservations, to provide Government fuel or other timber. Most military wood reserves were originally established in connection with old forts.
The forest reservations, as they are by far the largest, are also much the most important of these reserved areas.
Perhaps three-quarters of the population of the United States do not know that over nearly one-half of the national territory within the United States the rainfall is so slight or so unevenly distributed that agriculture cannot be carried on except by means of irrigation. This irrigation consists of taking water out of the streams and conducting it by means of ditches which have a very gentle slope over the land which it is proposed to irrigate. From the original ditch, smaller ditches are taken out, running nearly parallel with each other, and from these laterals other ditches, still smaller, and the seepage from all these moistens a considerable area on which crops may be grown. This, very roughly, is irrigation, a subject of incalculable interest to the dwellers in the dry West.
It is obvious that irrigation cannot be practiced without water, and that every ditch which takes water from a stream lessens the volume of that stream below where the ditch is taken out. It is conceivable that so many ditches might be taken out of the stream, and so much of the water lost by evaporation and seepage into the soil irrigated, that a stream which, uninterfered with, was bank full and even flowing throughout the summer, might, under such changed condition, become absolutely dry on the lower reaches of its course. And this, in fact, is what has happened with some streams in the West. Where this is the case, the farmers who live on the lower stretches of the stream, being without water to put on their land, can raise no crops. Nothing, therefore, is more important to the agriculturists of the West than to preserve full and as nearly equal as possible at all seasons the water supply in their streams.
This water is supplied by the annual rain or snow fall; but in the West chiefly by snow. It falls deep on the high mountains, and, protected there by the pine forests, accumulates all through the winter, and in spring slowly melts. The deep layer of half-rotted pine needles, branches, decayed wood and other vegetable matter which forms the forest floor, receives this melting snow and holds much of it for a time, while the surplus runs off over the surface of the ground, and by a thousand tiny rivulets at last reaches some main stream which carries it toward the sea. In the deep forest, however, the melting of this snow is very gradual, and the water is given forth slowly and gradually to the stream, and does not cause great floods. Moreover, the large portion of it which is held by the humus, or forest floor, drains off still more gradually and keeps the springs and sources of the brook full all through the summer.
Without protection from the warm spring sun, the snows of the winter might melt in a week and cause tremendous torrents, the whole of the melted snowfall rushing down the stream in a very short time. Without the humus, or forest floor, to act as a soaked sponge which gradually drains itself, the springs and sources of the brooks would go dry in early summer, and the streams further down toward the cultivated plains would be low and without sufficient water to irrigate all the farms along its course.
It was for the purpose of protecting the farmers of the West by insuring the careful protection of the water supply of all streams that Congress wisely passed the law providing for the establishing of the forest reserves. It is for the benefit of these farmers and of those others who shall establish themselves along these streams that the Presidents of the United States for the last twelve or fourteen years have been establishing forest reserves and have had expert foresters studying different sections of the western country to learn where the water was most needed and where it could best be had.
It is gratifying to think that, while at first the establishment of these forest reserves was very unpopular in certain sections of the West, where their object was not in the least understood, they have—now that the people have come to see what they mean—received universal approval. It sometimes takes the public a long time to understand a matter, but their common sense is sure at last to bring them to the right side of any question.
The list of reservations here given is brought down to December, 1903, and is furnished by the U.S. Forester—a member of the Club.
Government Forest Reserves in the United States and Alaska
ALASKA. Area in Acres
Afognak Forest and Fish Culture Reserve 403,640 The Alexander Archipelago Forest Reserve 4,506,240
The Black Mesa Forest Reserve 1,658,880 The Prescott Forest Reserve 423,680 Grand Canyon Forest Reserve 1,851,520 The San Francisco Mountains Forest Reserve 1,975,310 The Santa Rita Forest Reserve 387,300 The Santa Catalina Forest Reserve 155,520 The Mount Graham Forest Reserve 118,600 The Chiricahua Forest Reserve 169,600
The Lake Tahoe Forest Reserve 136,335 The Stanislaus Forest Reserve 691,200 Sierra Forest Reserve 4,096,000 The Santa Barbara Forest Reserve 1,838,323 San Bernardino Forest Reserve 737,280 Timber Land Reserve San Gabriel 555,520 The San Jacinto Forest Reserve 668,160 Trabuco Canyon Forest Reserve 109,920 ————- Total 8,832,738
Battle Mesa Forest Reserve 853,000 Timber Land Reserve, Pike's Peak 184,320 Timber Land Reserve, Plum Creek 179,200 The South Platte Forest Reserve 683,520 The White River Forest Reserve 1,129,920 The San Isabel Forest Reserve 77,980 ————- Total 3,107,940
The Bitter Root Forest Reserve (see note) 3,456,000 The Priest River Forest Reserve (see note) 541,160 The Pocatello Forest Reserve 49,920 ————- Total 4,047,080
The Yellowstone Forest Reserve (see note) 1,311,600 The Bitter Root Forest Reserve (see note) 691,200 The Gallatin Forest Reserve 40,320 The Lewis and Clark Forest Reserve 4,670,720 The Madison Forest Reserve 736,000 The Little Belt Mountains Forest Reserve 501,000 The Highwood Mountains Reserve 45,080 ————- Total 7,995,920
The Niobrara Forest Reserve 123,779 The Dismal River Forest Reserve 85,123 ————- Total 208,902
The Gila River Forest Reserve 2,327,040 The Pecos River Forest Reserve 430,880 The Lincoln Forest Reserve 500,000 ————- Total 3,257,920
Wichita Forest Reserve 57,120
Timber Land Reserve, Bull Run 142,080 Cascade Range Forest Reserve 4,424,440 Ashland Forest Reserve 18,560 ————- Total 4,585,080
The Black Hills Forest Reserve (see note) 1,165,240
The Fish Lake Forest Reserve 67,840 The Uintah Forest Reserve 875,520 The Payson Forest Reserve 111,600 The Logan Forest Reserve 182,080 The Manti Forest Reserve 584,640 The Aquarius Forest Reserve 639,000 ————- Total 2,460,680
The Priest River Forest Reserve (see note) 103,960 The Mount Rainier Forest Reserve 2,027,520 The Olympic Forest Reserve 1,466,880 The Washington Forest Reserve 3,426,400 ————- Total 7,024,760
The Yellowstone Forest Reserve (see note) 7,017,600 The Black Hills Forest Reserve (see note) 46,440 The Big Horn Forest Reserve 1,216,960 The Medicine Bow Forest Reserve 420,584 ————— Total 8,701,584 ————— Grand Total 63,095,254
Total of Bitter Root, in Idaho and Montana 4,147,200 Total of Priest River, in Idaho and Washington 645,120 Total of Black Hills, in S. Dakota and Wyoming 1,211,680 Total of Yellowstone, in Wyoming and Montana 8,329,200
United States Military Wood and Timber Reservations
Kansas— Acres. Fort Leavenworth 939
Montana— Fort Missoula 1,677
Nebraska— Fort Robinson 10,240
New Mexico— Fort Wingate 19,200
New York— Wooded Area of West Point Mil. Res., about 1,800
Oklahoma— Fort Sill 26,880
South Dakota— Fort Meade 5,280
Wyoming— Fort D.A. Russell 2,541 ——— Total 68,557
National Parks in the United States
Montana and Wyoming— Acres. Yellowstone National Park 2,142,720
Arkansas— Hot Springs Reserve and National Park 912
District of Columbia— The National Zoological Park 170 Rock Creek Park 1,606
Georgia and Tennessee— Chickamauga & Chattanooga Nat. Mil. Parks 6,195
Maryland— Antietam Battlefield and Nat. Mil. Park 43
California— Sequoia National Park 160,000 General Grant National Park 2,560 Yosemite National Park 967,680
Arizona— The Casa Grande Ruin (Exec. Order) 480
Tennessee— Shiloh National Military Park 3,000
Pennsylvania— Gettysburg National Military Park 877
Mississippi— Vicksburg National Military Park 1,233
Washington— The Mount Rainier National Park 207,360
Oregon— Crater Lake 159,360
Indian Territory— Sulphur Reservation and National Park 629
South Dakota— Wind Cave ........
————— Total 3,654,825
Forest Reserves of North America
State Parks, State Forest Reserves and Preserves, State Forest Stations, and State Forest Tracts in the United States
Yosemite Valley State Park 36,000 The Big Basin Redwood Park, about 2,300 Santa Monica Forest Station 20 Chico Forest Station 29 Mt. Hamilton Tract 2,500
Ogallah Forestry Station 160 Dodge Forestry Station 160
Blue Hills Reservation 4,858 Beaver Brook Reservation 53 Middlesex Fells Reservation 3,028 Stony Brook Reservation 464 Hemlock Gorge Reservation 23 Hart's Hill Reservation 23 Wachusett Mountain Reservation 1,380 Greylock Reservation 3,724 Goodwill Park 70 Rocky Narrows 21 Mount Anne Park 50 Monument Mountain Reservation 260
Mackinac Island State Park 103 Michigan Forest Reserve 57,000
Minnehaha Falls State Park, or Minnesota State Park 51 Itasca State Park 20,000 St. Croix State Park, or the Interstate Park at the Dalles of the St. Croix 500
NEW YORK. Acres.
The State Reservation at Niagara, or Niagara Falls Park. (Area of Queen Victoria Niagara Falls Park in Canada—730 Acres) 107 Adirondack Forest Preserve 1,163,414 Catskill Forest Preserve 82,330 The St. Lawrence Reservation, or International Park 181
Twenty Reserves scattered 211,776 The Hopkins Reserve 62,000 Pike County Reservation 23,000 McElhattan Reservation 8,000
Sanitarium Lake Reservation 193
The Interstate Park of the Dalles of the St. Croix 600
The Big Horn Springs Reservation 640
Canadian National Parks and Timber Reserves
The Dominion of Canada has established a large number of public parks and forests reserves, of which a list has been very kindly furnished by the Dominion Secretary of the Interior, as follows:
BRITISH COLUMBIA. Acres.
Long Lake Timber Reserve 76,800 Yoho Park (a part of Rocky Mt. Park of Can) ....... Glacier Forest Park 18,720
NORTHWEST TERRITORY. Acres.
Rocky Mountain Park of Canada 2,880,000 Foot Hills Timber Reserve 2,350,000 Waterton Lakes Forest Park 34,000 Cooking Lakes Timber Reserve 109,000 Moose Mountain Timber Reserve 103,000 Beaver Hills Timber Reserve 170,000
Turtle Mountain Timber Reserve 75,000 Spruce Woods Timber Reserve 190,000 Riding Mountain Timber Reserve 1,215,000 Duck Mountain Timber Reserve 840,000 Lake Manitoba West Timber Reserve 159,460
Algonquin Park 1,109,383 Eastern Reserve 80,000 Sibley Reserve 45,000 Temagami Reserve 3,774,000 Rondeau Park ........ Missisaga Reserve 1,920,000
Laurentides National Park 1,619,840 —————- Total 16,769,203
Besides these, there are two or three other reservations in Quebec and New Brunswick and Manitoba that have not as yet been finally reserved, but which are in contemplation. Many of the timber reserves are still to be cut over under license. On the other hand, many of them find their chief function as game preserves, as do also to still greater extent the national parks. A large number of these parks and timber reserves are clothed with beautiful and valuable forests, as yet untouched by the ax.
In order to be in a position to make intelligent recommendations, in case legislation authorizing the setting aside of game refuges should be had, the Boone and Crockett Club, in the year 1901, made some inquiry into the game conditions on certain of the forest reservations and as to the suitability as game refuges of these reserves.
Among the reports was one on the Black Mesa Forest Reserve. Mr. Nelson is a trained naturalist and hunter of wide experience, and possesses the highest qualifications for investigating such a subject. He is, besides, very familiar with the reservation reported on. His report is printed here as giving precisely the information needed by any one who may have occasion to deal with a forest reserve from this viewpoint, and it may well serve as a model for others who may have occasion to report on the reserves. The report was made to the Executive Committee of the Boone and Crockett Club through the editor of this volume, and was printed in Forest and Stream about two years ago. It follows:
Forest Reserves as Game Preserves
THE BLACK MESA FOREST RESERVE OF ARIZONA AND ITS AVAILABILITY AS A GAME PRESERVE.
The Black Mesa Forest Reserve lies in central-eastern Arizona, and contains 1,658,880 acres, is about 180 miles long in a northwesterly and southeasterly direction and a direct continuation southeasterly from the San Francisco Mountain Forest Reserve. On the north it contains a part of the Mogollon Mesa, which is covered with a magnificent open forest of Arizona yellow pine (Pinus ponderosa) in which there is an abundance of bunch grass and here and there are beautiful grassy parks. To the southeast the reserve covers a large part of the White Mountains, one of the largest areas of generally high elevation in Arizona. The yellow pine forest, similar in character to that on the Mogollon Mesa, is found over a large part of the reserve between 7,000 and 8,500 feet altitude, and its general character is shown in the accompanying view.
The Black Mesa Reserve is irregular in outline. The large compact areas at each end are joined by a long, narrow strip, very irregular in outline and less than a township broad at various points. It lies along the southern border of the Great Colorado Plateau, and covers the southern and western borders of the basin of the Little Colorado River. Taken as a whole, this reserve includes some of the wildest and most attractive mountain scenery in the West.
Owing to the wide separation of the two main areas of the reserve, and certain differences in physical character, they will be described separately, beginning with the northwestern and middle areas, which are similar in character.
THE NORTHWESTERN SECTION OP THE BLACK MESA RESERVE.
With the exception of an area in the extreme western part, which drains into the Rio Verde, practically all of this portion of the reserve lies along the upper border of the basin of the Little Colorado. It is a continuation of the general easy slope which begins about 5,000 feet on the river and extends back so gradually at first that it is frequently almost imperceptible, but by degrees becomes more rolling and steeper until the summit is reached at an altitude of from 6,000 to 9,000 feet. The reserve occupies the upper portion of this slope, which has more the form of a mountainous plateau country, scored by deep and rugged canyons, than of a typical mountain range. From the summit of this elevated divide, with the exception of the district draining into the Rio Verde, the southern and western slope drops away abruptly several thousand feet into Tonto Creek Basin. The top of the huge escarpment thus formed faces south and west, and is known as the rim of Tonto Basin, or, locally, "The Rim." From the summit of this gigantic rocky declivity is obtained an inspiring view of the south, where range after range of mountains lie spread out to the distant horizon.
The rolling plateau country sloping toward the Little Colorado is heavily scored with deep box canyons often hundreds of feet deep and frequently inaccessible for long distances. Most of the permanent surface water is found in these canyons, and the general drainage is through them down to the lower plains bordering the river. The greater part of this portion of the reserve is covered with yellow pine forests, below which is a belt, varying greatly in width, of pinons, cedars and junipers, interspersed with a more or less abundant growth of gramma grass. This belt of scrubby conifers contains many open grassy areas, and nearer the river gives way to continuous broad grassy plains. Nowhere in this district, either among the yellow pines or in the lower country, is there much surface water, and a large share of the best watering places are occupied by sheep owners.
The wild and rugged slopes of Tonto Basin, with their southerly exposure, have a more arid character than the area just described. On these slopes yellow pines soon give way to pinons, cedars and junipers, and many scrubby oaks and various species of hardy bushes. The watering places are scarce until the bottom of the basin is approached. Tonto Basin and its slopes are also occupied by numerous sheep herds, especially in winter.
There are several small settlements of farmers, sheep and cattle growers within the limits of the narrow strip connecting the larger parts of the reserve, notably Show Low, Pinetop and Linden. The wagon road from Holbrook, on the Santa Fe Pacific Railroad, to the military post at Camp Apache, on the White Mountain Indian Reservation, passes through this strip by way of Show Low. The old trails through Sunset Pass to Camp Verde and across "The Rim" into Tonto Basin traverse the northern part of the reserve, and are used by stockmen and others at short intervals, except in midwinter.
The climate of this section of the reserve is rather arid in summer, the rainfall being much more uncertain than in the more elevated areas about the San Francisco Mountains to the northwest and the White Mountains to the southeast. The summers are usually hot and dry, the temperature being modified, however, by the altitude. Rains sometimes occur during July and August, but are more common in the autumn, when they are often followed by abundant snowfall. During some seasons snow falls to a depth of three or more feet on a level in the yellow pine forests, and remains until spring. During other seasons, however, the snowfall is insignificant, and much of the ground remains bare during the winter, especially on southern exposures. As a matter of course, the lower slope of the pinon belt and the grassy plains of the Little Colorado, both of which lie outside of the reserve, have less and less snow, according to the altitude, and it never remains for any very considerable time. On the southern exposure, facing Tonto Basin, the snow is still less permanent. The winter in the yellow pine belt extends from November to April.
LARGE GAME IN THE NORTHERN PART OF THE BLACK MESA RESERVE.
Black-tailed deer, antelope, black and silver tipped bears and mountain lions are the larger game animals which frequent the yellow pine forests in summer. Wild turkeys are also common.
The black-tailed deer are still common and generally distributed. In winter the heavy snow drives them to a lower range in the pinon belt toward the Little Colorado and also down the slope of Tonto Basin, both of these areas lying outside the reserve. The Arizona white-tailed deer is resident throughout the year in comparatively small numbers on the brushy slopes of Tonto Basin, and sometimes strays up in summer into the border of the pine forest. Antelope were once plentiful on the plains of the Little Colorado, and in summer ranged through the open yellow pine forest now included in the reserve. They still occur, in very limited numbers, in this forest during the summer, and at the first snowfall descend to the lower border of the pinon belt and adjacent grassy plains. Both species of bears occur throughout the pine forests in summer, often following sheep herds. As winter approaches and the sheep are moved out of the higher ranges, many of the bears go over "The Rim" to the slopes of Tonto Basin, where they find acorns, juniper berries and other food, until cold weather causes them to hibernate. The mountain lions are always most numerous on the rugged slopes of Tonto Basin, especially during winter, when sheep and game have left the elevated forest.
From the foregoing notes it is apparent that the northwestern and middle portions of the Black Mesa Reserve are without proper winter range for game within its limits, and that the conditions are otherwise unfavorable for their use as game preserves.
THE SOUTHEASTERN SECTION OF THE BLACK MESA RESERVE.
The southeastern portion of the reserve remains to be considered. The map shows this to be a rectangular area, about thirty by fifty miles in extent, lying between the White Mountain Indian Reservation and the western border of New Mexico, and covering the adjacent parts of Apache and Graham counties. It includes the eastern part of the White Mountains, which culminate in Ord and Thomas peaks, rising respectively to 10,266 feet and to 11,496 feet, on the White Mountain Indian Reservation, just off the western border of the Forest Reserve. This section of the reserve is strikingly more varied in physical conditions than the northern portion, as will be shown by the following description:
The northwestern part of this section, next to the peaks just mentioned, is an elevated mountainous plateau country forming the watershed between the extreme headwaters of the Little Colorado on the north and the Black and San Francisco rivers, tributaries of the Gila, on the south. The divide between the heads of these streams is so low that in the midst of the undulating country, where they rise, it is often difficult to determine at first sight to which drainage some of the small tributaries belong. This district is largely of volcanic formation, and beds of lava cover large tracts, usually overlaid with soil, on which the forest flourishes.
The entire northern side of this section is bordered by the sloping grassy plains of the Little Colorado, which at their upper border have an elevation of 6,500 to 7,500 feet, and are covered here and there with pinons, cedars and junipers, especially along the sides of the canyons and similar slopes. At the upper border of this belt the general slope becomes abruptly mountainous, and rises to 8,000 or 8,500 feet to a broad bench-like summit, from which extends back the elevated plateau country already mentioned. This outer slope of the plateau is covered with a fine belt of yellow pine forests, similar in character to that found in the northern part of the reserve. Owing to the more abrupt character of the northerly slope of this belt, and its greater humidity, the forest is more varied by firs and aspens, especially along the canyons, than is the case further north. Here and there along the upper tributaries of the Little Colorado, small valleys open out, which are frequently wooded and contain beautiful mountain parks.
The summit of the elevated plateau country about the headwaters of the Little Colorado and Black rivers (which is known locally as the "Big Mesa"), is an extended area of rolling grassy plain, entirely surrounded by forests and varied irregularly by wooded ridges and points of timber. This open plain extends in a long sweep from a point a few miles south of Springerville westward for about fifteen miles along the top of the divide to the bases of Ord and Thomas peaks. These elevated plains are separated from those of the Little Colorado to the north by the belt of forests already described as covering the abrupt northern wall of the plateau. On the other sides of the "Big Mesa" an unbroken forest extends away over the undulating mountainous country as far as the eye can reach. The northerly slopes of the higher elevations in this section are covered with spruce forest.
The most varied and beautiful part of the entire Black Mesa Reserve lies in the country extending southeasterly from Ord and Thomas peaks and immediately south of the "Big Mesa." This is the extreme upper part of the basin of Black River, which is formed by numerous little streams rising from springs and wet meadows at an elevation of from 8,500 to 9,500 feet. The little meadows form attractive grassy openings in the forest, covered in summer with a multitude of wild flowers and surrounded by the varied foliage of different trees and shrubs. The little streams flow down gently sloping courses, which gradually deepen to form shallow side canyons leading into the main river. Black River is a clear, sparkling trout stream at the bottom of a deep, rugged box canyon, cut through a lava bed and forming a series of wildly picturesque views. The sides of Black River Canyon and its small tributaries are well forested. On the cool northerly slope the forest is made up of a heavy growth of pines, firs, aspens and alder bushes, which give way on the southerly slope, where the full force of the sun is felt, to a thin growth of pines, grass and a little underbrush.
At the head of Black River, between 8,000 and 9,000 feet, there are many nearly level or gently sloping areas, sometimes of considerable extent. These are covered with open yellow pine forests, with many white-barked aspens scattered here and there, and an abundance of grasses and low bushes. This was once a favorite summer country for elk, and I have seen there many bushes and small saplings which had been twisted and barked by bull elk while rubbing the velvet from their horns.
Immediately south and east of Black River lies the Prieto Plateau, a well wooded mountain mass rising steeply from Black River Canyon to a broad summit about 9,000 feet in altitude. The northerly slopes of this plateau, facing the river, are heavily forested with pines, firs, aspens and brushy undergrowth, and are good elk country. The summit is cold and damp, with areas of spruce thickets and attractive wet meadows scattered here and there. Beyond the summit of the plateau, to the south and east, the country descends abruptly several thousand feet, in a series of rocky declivities and sharp spur-like ridges, to the canyon of Blue River, a tributary of the San Francisco River. This slope, near the summit, is overgrown with firs, aspens and pines, which give way as the descent is made, to pinons, cedar and scrubby oak trees and a more or less abundant growth of chaparral. Small streams and springs are found in the larger canyons on this slope, while far below, at an altitude of about 5,000 feet, lies Blue River.
The country at the extreme head of Blue River forms a great mountain amphitheater, with one side so near the upper course of Black River that one can traverse the distance between the basins of the two streams in a short ride. The descent into the drainage of Blue River is very abrupt, and is known locally as the "breaks" of Blue River. The scenery of these breaks nearly, if not quite, equals that on "The Rim" of Tonto Basin in its wild magnificence. The vegetation on the breaks shows at a glance the milder character of the climate, as compared with that of the more elevated area about the head of Black River. In the midst of the shrubbery growth on the breaks there is a fine growth of nutritious grasses, which forms excellent winter forage.
The entire southern part of the reserve lying beyond the Prieto Plateau is an excessively broken mountainous country, with abrupt changes in altitude from the hot canyons, where cottonwoods flourish, to the high ridges, where pines and firs abound.
The northeastern part of the section of the reserve under consideration is cut off from the rest by the valley of Nutrioso Creek, a tributary of the Little Colorado, and by the headwaters of the San Francisco River. It is a limited district, mainly occupied by Escudilla Mountain, rising to 10,691 feet, and its foothills. Escudilla Mountain slopes abruptly to a long truncated summit, and is heavily forested from base to summit by pines, aspens and spruces. On the south the foothills merge into the generally mountainous area. On the north, at an altitude of about 8,000 feet, they merge into the plains of the Little Colorado, varied by grassy prairies and irregular belts of pinon timber.
The upper parts of the Little Colorado and Black Rivers, above 7,500 feet, are clear and cold, and well stocked with a native species of small brook trout.
Owing to the generally elevated character of the southeastern section of the Black Mesa Reserve, containing three mountain peaks rising above 10,000 feet, the annual precipitation is decidedly greater than elsewhere on the reserve. The summer rains are irregular in character, being abundant in some seasons and very scanty in others; but there is always enough rainfall about the extreme head of Black River to make grass, although there is always much hot, dry weather between May and October. The fall and winter storms are more certain than those of summer, and the parts of the reserve lying above 8,000 feet are usually buried in snow before spring—frequently with several feet of snow on a level. The amount of snow increases steadily with increase of altitude. Some of the winter storms are severe, and on one occasion, while living at an altitude of 7,500 feet, I witnessed a storm during which snow fell continuously for nearly two days. The weather was perfectly calm at the time, and after the first day the pine trees became so loaded that an almost continual succession of reports were heard from the breaking of large branches. At the close of the storm there was a measured depth of 26 inches of snow on a level at an altitude of 7,500 feet. A thousand feet lower, on the plains of the Little Colorado, a few miles to the north, only a foot of snow fell, while at higher altitudes the amount was much greater than that measured.
The summer temperatures are never excessive in this section, and the winters are mild, although at times reaching from 15 to 20 degrees below zero. Above 7,500 feet, except on sheltered south slopes, snow ordinarily remains on the ground from four to five months in sufficient quantity to practically close this area from winter grazing. Cattle, and the antelope which once frequented the "Big Mesa" in considerable numbers, appeared to have premonitions of the coming of the first snow in fall. On one occasion, while stopping at a ranch on the plains of the Little Colorado, just below the border of the Big Mesa country, in November, I was surprised to see hundreds of cattle in an almost endless line coming down from the Mesa, intermingled with occasional bands of antelope. They were following one of the main trails leading from the mountain out on the plains of the Little Colorado. Although the sun was shining at the time, there was a slight haziness in the atmosphere, and the ranchmen assured me that this movement of the stock always foretold the approach of a snowstorm. The following morning the plains around the ranch where I was stopping were covered with six inches of snow, while over a foot of snow covered the mountains. Bands of half-wild horses ranging on the Big Mesa show more indifference to snow, as they can dig down to the grass; but the depth of snow sometimes increases so rapidly that the horses become "yarded," and their owners have much difficulty in extricating them.
The southerly slopes leading down from the divide to the lower altitudes along the Black River and the breaks of the Blue, are sheltered from the cold northerly winds of the Little Colorado Valley, while the greater natural warmth of the situation aids in preventing any serious accumulation of snow. As a result, this entire portion of the reserve forms an ideal winter game range, with an abundance of grass and edible bushes. The varied character of the country about the head of Black River makes it an equally favorable summer range for game, and that this conjunction of summer and winter ranges is appreciated by the game animals is shown by the fact that this district is probably the best game country in all Arizona.
LARGE GAME IN THE SOUTHEASTERN PART OF TUB BLACK MESA RESERVE.
The large game found in this section of the reserve includes the elk, black-tailed deer, Arizona white-tailed deer, black and silver-tipped bears, mountain lions and wildcats, timber wolves and coyotes.
Elk were formerly found over most of the pine and fir forested parts of this section of the reserve, but were already becoming rather scarce in 1885, and, although they were still found there in 1897, it is now a question whether any survive or not. If they still survive, they are restricted to a limited area about the head of Black River from Ord Peak to the Prieto Plateau. Black-tailed deer are still common, and their summer range extends more or less generally over all of the forested part of this section above 7,500 feet. In winter only a few stray individuals remain within the reserve on the Little Colorado side, but a number range out into the pinon country on the plains of the Little Colorado. The country about the head of Black River is a favorite summer range of this deer, but in winter they gradually retreat before the heavy snowfalls to the sheltered canyons along Black River and the breaks of the Blue. In September and October the old males keep by themselves in parties of from four to ten and range through the glades of the yellow pine forest.
The Arizona white-tailed deer is not found on the part of the reserve drained by the Little Colorado River, but is abundant in the basin of Blue River, and ranges in summer up into the lower part of the yellow pine forest along Black River. They retreat before the early snows to the breaks of the Blue, where they are very numerous. During hunting trips into their haunts in October and November, I have several times seen herds of these deer numbering from thirty to forty, both before and after the first snowfall. Antelope formerly ranged up in summer from the plains of the Little Colorado over the grassy Big Mesa country and through the surrounding open pine forest, retreating to the plains in the autumn, but they are now nearly or quite exterminated in that section. Bears of both species wander irregularly over most of the reserve in summer, but are most numerous on the breaks of the Blue and about the head of Black River. In autumn, previous to their hibernation, they descend along the canyon of the Black River and among the breaks of the Blue, where acorns and other food is abundant.
Mountain lions also wander over all parts of the reserve, but are common only in the rough country along the Blue. Wildcats are rather common and widely distributed, but are far more numerous on the Black and the Blue rivers. Timber wolves were once rather common, but are now nearly extinct, owing to their persecution by owners of sheep and cattle. Coyotes occur in this district occasionally in summer. Wild turkeys are found more or less generally throughout this section of the reserve, retreating in winter to the warmer country along the breaks of the Blue and the canyon of Black River, where they sometimes gather in very large flocks.
NOTES ON SETTLEMENTS, ROADS AND OTHER MATTERS.
The greater part of this section of the Black Mesa Reserve is unsettled, but the northeastern corner, along Nutrioso Creek and the head of San Francisco River, is traversed by a wagon road leading to Springerville. Within the limits of the reservation on this road are two small farming villages of Nutriose and Alpine. The owners of the small farms along the valleys of these streams also raise a limited number of cattle and horses on the surrounding hills. A few claims are also held at scattered points along the extreme northern edge of the reserve between Springerville and Nutrioso. Between 1883 and 1895 several herds of cattle were grazed on the head of Black River, and ranged in winter down on the breaks of the Blue and the canyons of Black River; but I understand that these ranges have since been abandoned by the cattle men. For some years the sheep men have grazed their flocks in summer over the Big Mesa country and through the surrounding open forest. In addition to the damage done by the grazing of the sheep, the carelessness of the herders in starting forest fires has resulted in some destruction to the timber. Fortunately, the permanent settlers on this section of the reserve are located in the northeastern corner, which is the least suitable portion of the tract for game. In addition to the wagon road from Springerville to Nutrioso another road has been made from Springerville south across the Big Mesa to the head of Black River. Trails run from Nutrioso and Springerville to the head of Blue River and down it to the copper mining town of Clifton, but are little used. At various times scattered settlers have located along the Blue, and cultivated small garden patches. The first of these settlers were killed by the Apaches, and I am unable to say whether these farms are now occupied or not. In any case, the conditions along the tipper Blue are entirely unsuited for successful farming.
Perhaps the most serious menace to the successful preservation of game on this tract is its proximity to the White Mountain Indian Reservation. This reservation not only takes in some of the finest game country immediately bordering the timber reserve, including Ord and Thomas peaks, but is often visited by hunting parties of Indians.
During spring and early summer, all of the yellow pine and fir country in this section is subjected to a plague of tabano flies, which are about the size of large horse-flies. These flies swarm in great numbers and attack stock and game so viciously that, as a consequence, the animals are frequently much reduced in flesh. The Apaches take advantage of this plague to set fire to the forest and lie in wait for the game, which has taken shelter in the smoke to rid itself from the flies. In this way the Indians kill large numbers of breeding deer, and at the same time destroy considerable areas of forest. While on a visit to this district in the summer of 1899 Mr. Pinchot saw the smoke of five forest fires at different places in the mountains, which had been set by hunting parties of Indians for the purpose. The only method by which not only the game but the forest along the western side of this reserve can be successfully protected will be to have the western border of the forest reserve extended to take in a belt eight to twelve miles wide of the Indian reservation. This would include Ord and Thomas peaks, and would serve efficiently to protect the country about the headwaters of the rivers from these destructive inroads.
The northern border of this section of the reserve is about one hundred miles by wagon road from the nearest point on the Santa Fe Pacific Railroad. Seven miles from its northern border is the town of Springerville, with a few hundred inhabitants in its vicinity engaged in farming, cattle and sheep growing. From Springerville north extends the plains of the Little Colorado to St. Johns, the county seat of Apache county, containing a few hundred people. To the south and east of the reserve there are no towns for some distance, except a few small settlements along the course of the San Francisco River in New Mexico, which are far removed from the part of the reserve which is most suitable for game. The fact that deer continue abundant in the district about the head of Black River, although hunted at all seasons for many years, and the continuance there of elk for so long, under the same conditions, is good evidence of the favorable conditions existing in that section for game.
Constitution of the Boone and Crockett Club
FOUNDED DECEMBER 1887.
This Club shall be known as the Boone and Crockett Club.
The objects of the Club shall be:
1. To promote manly sport with the rifle.
2. To promote travel and exploration in the wild and unknown, or but partially known, portions of the country.
3. To work for the preservation of the large game of this country, and, so far as possible, to further legislation for that purpose, and to assist in enforcing the existing laws.
4. To promote inquiry into, and to record observations on, the habits and natural history of the various wild animals.
5. To bring about among the members the interchange of opinions and ideas on hunting, travel and exploration; on the various kinds of hunting rifles; on the haunts of game animals, etc.
No one shall be eligible for regular membership who shall not have killed with the rifle, in fair chase, by still-hunting or otherwise, at least one individual of each of three of the various kinds of American large game.
Under the head of American large game are included the following animals: Black or brown bear, grizzly bear, polar bear, buffalo (bison), mountain sheep, woodland caribou, barren-ground caribou, cougar, musk-ox, white goat, elk (wapiti), prong-horn antelope, moose, Virginia deer, mule deer, and Columbian black-tail deer.
The term "fair chase" shall not be held to include killing bear or cougar in traps, nor "fire hunting," nor "crusting" moose, elk or deer in deep snow, nor "calling" moose, nor killing deer by any other method than fair stalking or still-hunting, nor killing game from a boat while it is swimming in the water, nor killing the female or young of any ruminant, except the female of white goat or of musk-ox.
This Club shall consist of not more than one hundred regular members, and of such associate and honorary members as may be elected by the Executive Committee. Associate members shall be chosen from those who by their furtherance of the objects of the Club, or general qualifications, shall recommend themselves to the Executive Committee. Associate and honorary members shall be exempt from dues and initiation fees, and shall not be entitled to vote.
The officers of the Club shall be a President, five Vice-Presidents, a Secretary, and a Treasurer, all of whom shall be elected annually. There shall also be an Executive Committee, consisting of six members, holding office for three years, the terms of two of whom shall expire each year. The President, the Secretary, and the Treasurer, shall be ex-officio members of the Executive Committee.
The Executive Committee shall constitute the Committee on Admissions. The Committee on Admissions may recommend for regular membership by unanimous vote of its members present at any meeting, any person who is qualified under the foregoing articles of this Constitution. Candidates thus recommended shall be voted on by the Club at large. Six blackballs shall exclude, and at least one-third of the members must vote in the affirmative to elect.
The entrance fee for regular members shall be twenty-five dollars. The annual dues of regular members shall be five dollars, and shall be payable on February 1st of each year. Any member who shall fail to pay his dues on or before August 1st, following, shall thereupon cease to be a member of the Club. But the Executive Committee, in their discretion, shall have power to reinstate such member.
The use of steel traps; the making of "large bags"; the killing of game while swimming in water, or helpless in deep snow; and the killing of the females of any species of ruminant (except the musk-ox or white goat), shall be deemed offenses. Any member who shall commit such offenses may be suspended, or expelled from the Club by unanimous vote of the Executive Committee.
The officers of the Club shall be elected for the ensuing year at the annual meeting.
This Constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote of the members present at any annual meeting of the Club, provided that notice of the proposed amendment shall have been mailed, by the Secretary, to each member of the Club, at least two weeks before said meeting.
By-Laws Rules of the Committee on Admission
1. Candidates must be proposed and seconded in writing by two members of the Club.
2. Letters concerning each candidate must be addressed to the Executive Committee by at least two members, other than the proposer and seconder.
3. No candidate for regular membership shall be proposed or seconded by any member of the Committee on Admissions.
4. No person shall be elected to associate membership who is qualified for regular membership, but withheld therefrom by reason of there being no vacancy.
Additional information as to the admission of members may be found in Articles III, VI, VIII and IX of the Constitution.
Former Officers Boone and Crockett Club
Theodore Roosevelt, 1888-1894. Benjamin H. Bristow, 1895-1896. W. Austin Wadsworth, 1897-
Charles Deering, 1897- Walter B. Devereux, 1897- Howard Melville Hanna, 1897- William D. Pickett, 1897- Frank Thomson, 1897-1900. Owen Wister, 1900-1902. Archibald Rogers, 1903-
Secretary and Treasurer.
Archibald Rogers, 1888-1893. George Bird Grinnell, 1894-1895. C. Grant La Farge, 1896-1901.
Alden Sampson, 1902. Madison Grant, 1903-
C. Grant La Farge, 1902-
W. Austin Wadsworth, 1893-1896. George Bird Grinnell, 1893. Winthrop Chanler, 1893-1899, 1904- Owen Wister, 1893-1896, 1903- Charles F. Deering, 1893-1896. Archibald Rogers, 1894-1902. Lewis Rutherford Morris, 1897- Henry L. Stimson, 1897-1899. Madison Grant, 1897-1902. Gifford Pinchot, 1900-1903. Caspar Whitney, 1900-1903. John Rogers, Jr., 1902- Alden Sampson, 1903- Arnold Hague, 1904-
George Bird Grinnell, 1896- Theodore Roosevelt, 1896-
Officers of the Boone and Crockett Club 1904
W. Austin Wadsworth Geneseo, N.Y.
Charles Deering Illinois. Walter B. Devereux Colorado Howard Melville Hanna Ohio. William D. Pickett Wyoming. Archibald Rogers New York.
Madison Grant New York City.
C. Grant La Farge New York City.
W. Austin Wadsworth, ex-officio, Chairman, Madison Grant, ex-officio, C. Grant La Farge, ex-officio, Lewis Rutherford Morris, To serve until 1905. John Rogers, Jr., Alden Sampson, To serve until 1906. Owen Wister, Arnold Hague, To serve until 1907. Winthrop Chanler,
George Bird Grinnell New York. Theodore Roosevelt Washington, D.C.
List of Members of the Boone and Crockett Club, 1904
MAJOR HENRY T. ALLEN, Washington, D.C. COL. GEORGE S. ANDERSON, Washington, D.C. JAMES W. APPLETON, New York City. GEN. THOMAS H. BARBER, New York City. DANIEL M. BARRINGER, Philadelphia, Pa. F. S. BILLINGS, Woodstock, Vt. GEORGE BIRD, New York City. GEORGE BLEISTEIN, Buffalo, N.Y. W. J. BOARDMAN, Washington, D.C. WILLIAM B. BOGERT, Chicago, Ill. WILLIAM B. BRISTOW, New York City. ARTHUR ERWIN BROWN, Philadelphia, Pa. CAPT. WILLARD H. BROWNSON, Washington, D.C. JOHN LAMBERT CADWALADER, New York City. ROYAL PHELPS CARROLL, New York City. WINTHROP CHANLER, New York City. WILLIAM ASTOR CHANLER, New York City. CHARLES P. CURTIS, JR., Boston, Mass. FRANK C. CROCKER, Hill City, S.D. DR. PAUL J. DASHIELL, Annapolis, Md. E. W. DAVIS, New York City. CHARLES STEWART DAVISON, New York City. CHARLES DEERING, Chicago, Ill. HORACE K. DEVEREUX, Colorado Springs, Col. WALTER B. DEVEREUX New York City. H. CASIMIR DE RHAM, Tuxedo, N.Y. DR. WILLIAM K. DRAPER, New York City. J. COLEMAN DRAYTON, New York City. DR. DANIEL GIRAUD ELLIOT, Chicago, I11. MAJOR ROBERT TEMPLE EMMET, Schenectady, N.Y. MAXWELL EVARTS, New York City. ROBERT MUNRO FERGUSON, New York City. JOHN G. FOLLANSBEE, New York City. JAMES T. GARDINER, New York City. JOHN STERETT GITTINGS, Baltimore, Md. GEORGE H. GOULD, Santa Barbara, Cal. MADISON GRANT, New York City. DE FOREST GRANT, New York City. GEORGE BIRD GRINNELL, New York City. WILLIAM MILNE GRINNELL, New York City. ARNOLD HAGUE, Washington, D.C. HOWARD MELVILLE HANNA, Cleveland, Ohio. JAMES HATHAWAY KIDDER, Boston, Mass. DR. WALTER B. JAMES, New York City. C. GRANT LA FARGE, New York City. DR. ALEXANDER LAMBERT, New York City. COL. OSMUN LATROBE, New York City. GEORGE H. LYMAN, Boston, Mass. FRANK LYMAN, Brooklyn, N.Y. CHARLES B. MACDONALD, New York City. HENRY MAY, Washington, D.C. DR. JOHN K. MITCHELL, Philadelphia, Pa. PIERPONT MORGAN, JR., New York City. CHESTON MORRIS, JR., Springhouse, Pa. DR. LEWIS RUTHERFORD MORRIS, New York City. HENRY NORCROSS MUNN, New York City. LYMAN NICHOLS, Boston, Mass. THOMAS PATON, New York City. HON. BOIES PENROSE, Washington, D.C. DR. CHARLES B. PENROSE, Philadelphia, Pa. R. A. F. PENROSE, JR., Philadelphia, Pa. COL. WILLIAM D. PICKETT, Four Bear, Wyo. HENRY CLAY PIERCE, New York City. JOHN JAY PIERREPONT, Brooklyn, N.Y. GIFFORD PINCHOT, Washington, D.C. JOHN HILL PRENTICE, New York City. HENRY S. PRITCHETT, Boston, Mass. A. PHIMISTER PROCTOR, New York City. PERCY RIVINGTON PYNE, New York City. BENJAMIN W. RICHARDS, Philadelphia, Pa. DOUGLAS ROBINSON, New York City. ARCHIBALD ROGERS, Hyde Park, N.Y. DR. JOHN ROGERS, JR., New York City. HON. THEODORE ROOSEVELT, Washington, D.C. HON. ELIHU ROOT, New York City. BRONSON RUMSEY, Buffalo, N.Y. LAWRENCE D. RUMSEY, Buffalo, N.Y. ALDEN SAMPSON, Haverford, Pa. HON. WILLIAM CARY SANGER, Sangerfield, N.Y. PHILIP SCHUYLER, Irvington, N.Y. M. G. SECKENDORFF, Washington, D.C. DR. J. L. SEWARD, Orange, N.J. DR. A. DONALDSON SMITH, Philadelphia, Pa. DR. WILLIAM LORD SMITH, Boston, Mass. E. LE ROY STEWART, New York City. HENRY L. STIMSON, New York City. HON. BELLAMY STORER, Washington, D.C. RUTHERFORD STUYVESANT, New York City. LEWIS S. THOMPSON, Red Bank, N.J. B. C. TILGHMAN, JR., Philadelphia, Pa. HON. W. K. TOWNSEND, New Haven, Conn. MAJOR W. AUSTIN WADSWORTH, Geneseo, N.Y. SAMUEL D. WARREN, Boston, Mass. JAMES SIBLEY WATSON, Rochester, N.Y. CASPAR WHITNEY, New York City. COL. ROGER D. WILLIAMS, Lexington, Ky. FREDERIC WINTHROP, New York City. ROBERT DUDLEY WINTHROP, New York City. OWEN WISTER, Philadelphia, Pa. J. WALTER WOOD, JR., Short Hills, N.J.
HON. TRUXTON BEALE, Washington, D.C. WILLIAM L. BUCHANAN, Buffalo, N.Y. D. H. BURNHAM. Chicago, Ill. EDWARD NORTH BUXTON, Knighton, Essex, Eng. MAJ. F. A. EDWARDS, U.S. Embassy, Rome, Italy. A. P. GORDON-GUMMING, Washington, D.C. BRIG.-GEN. A. W. GREELY, Washington, D.C. MAJOR MOSES HARRIS, Washington, D.C. HON. JOHN F. LACEY, Washington, D.C. HON. HENRY CABOT LODGE, Washington, D.C. A. P. LOW, Ottawa, Canada. PROF. JOHN BACH MACMASTER, Philadelphia, Pa. DR. C. HART MERRIAM, Washington, D.C. HON. FRANCIS G. NEWLANDS, Washington, D.C. PROF. HENRY FAIRFIELD OSBORN, New York City. HON. GEORGE C. PERKINS, Washington, D.C. MAJOR JOHN PITCHER, Washington, D.C. HON. REDFIELD PROCTOR, Washington, D.C. HON. W. WOODVILLE ROCKHILL, Washington, D.C. JOHN E. ROOSEVELT, New York City. HON. CARL SCHURZ, New York City. F. C. SELOUS, Worpleston, Surrey, Eng. T. S. VAN DYKE, Los Angeles, Cal. HON. G. G. VEST, Washington, D.C.
Regular Members, Deceased.
ALBERT BIERSTADT, New York City. HON. BENJAMIN H. BRISTOW, New York City. H. A. CAREY, Newport, R.I. COL. RICHARD IRVING DODGE, Washington, D.C. COL. H. C. McDOWELL, Lexington, Ky. MAJOR J. C. MERRILL, Washington, D.C. DR. WILLIAM H. MERRILL, New York City. JAMES S. NORTON, Chicago, Ill. WILLIAM HALLETT PHILLIPS, Washington, D.C. N. P. ROGERS, New York City. E. P. ROGERS, New York City. ELLIOTT ROOSEVELT, New York City. DR. J. WEST ROOSEVELT, New York City. DEAN SAGE, Albany, N.Y. HON. CHARLES F. SPRAGUE, Boston, Mass. FRANK THOMSON, Philadelphia, Pa. MAJ.-GEN. WILLIAM D. WHIPPLE, New York City. CHARLES E. WHITEHEAD, New York City.
Honorary Members, Deceased.
JUDGE JOHN DEAN CATON, Ottawa, Ill. FRANCIS PARKMAN, Boston, Mass. GEN. WILLIAM TECUMSEH SHERMAN, New York City. GEN. PHILIP SHERIDAN, Washington, D.C.
Associate Members, Deceased.
HON. EDWARD F. BEALE, Washington, D.C. COL. JOHN MASON BROWN, Louisville, Ky. MAJOR CAMPBELL BROWN, Spring Hill, Ky. HON. WADE HAMPTON, Columbia, S.C. MAj.-GEN. W. H. JACKSON, Nashville, Tenn. CLARENCE KING, New York City. HON. THOMAS B. REED, New York City.