Aether and Gravitation
by William George Hooper
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In writing on the magnetic character of space he says:[38] "From such experiments, and also from general observations and knowledge, it seems manifest that the lines of magnetic force can traverse pure space, just as gravitating force does, and as static electric forces do (1616), and therefore space has a magnetic character of its own, and one that we shall probably find hereafter to be of the utmost importance in natural phenomena." With the view of the Aether presented in this work, viz. that Aether is matter, though in an infinitely more rarefied and elastic form, we can now see the physical cause of the lines of force with which by his imagination he filled all space.

Again, from the conception of the Aether presented to the reader in Art. 45, we learn that around any body in space there are existing aetherial concentric spheres or shells which are equipotential surfaces, or surfaces of equal pressure, and that these surfaces coincide with the electric equipotential surfaces, as shown in Art. 80.

Not only so, but they coincide with the magnetic shells which the lines of force actually form around a circular and globular magnet, as the earth. For it must not be forgotten that these lines of force exist equally on all sides of the earth, and therefore really form a spherical shell, or to speak more correctly an aetherial electro-magnetic shell, which is an oblate spheroid in shape, partaking of the shape of the earth or other planet which the lines of force surround.

If these shells were divided into two equal halves, the line so dividing them would be called the magnetic equator, and on that line any magnet would set itself in a horizontal position, so that all round the earth on the magnetic equator would correspond to a line of no dip. At the magnetic poles, a magnet would set itself vertically, or at an angle of 90 deg., and between these two parts, the place of no dip, and that of 90 deg., the dip gradually changes as illustrated in the figure. Again, in relation to the magnetism of the earth we find that there are certain variations in the magnetic force, which not only influence the dip at any place, but also the intensity at that place. The variations in Magnetic Force are chiefly three—

1st. Diurnal Variations. 2nd. Annual Variations. 3rd. Secular Variations.

Let us look at these three variations from the standpoint of the magnetic lines of force which exist around the earth, and around every planet. In relation to the variations of the magnetic forces upon the surface of the earth, Faraday points out that these variations are caused by the action of the sun's rays upon the terrestrial lines of force. He uses the following figure to illustrate his meaning. Let H be the sun, E the earth—

He writes as follows: "If the magnetic and astronomical poles of our earth be supposed to be coincident, then North and South poles will also represent the North and South magnetic poles, and the different curves cutting the earth will sufficiently represent a course of magnetic lines as they occur at, or about, the surface of the earth. H represents the sun, and a the place immediately underneath it, which is also coincident with the magnetic equator. Point a will be a line of no dip, while at point b there will be dip. This dip will be increased by the action of the sun's rays, because the atmosphere under the influence of the sun's rays has expanded the air, and has thus acquired a power to affect the lines of magnetic force."

"All the lines passing through the heated and expanded air will, because of its being a worse magnetic conductor, tend to open out, and the mass of heated air will as a whole assume the condition of diamagnetic polarity (2923). The case may be more simply stated for the facility of recollection by saying, that the effect of the sun is to raise the magnetic circles over the equatorial and neighbouring parts from their normal position, in doing which the North and South dip are simultaneously affected and increased."

Thus it can readily be seen that every day as the earth turns round on its axis, and presents each side of the globe successively to the rays of the sun, there should be a gradual change in the intensity of the terrestrial magnetism. In Art. 2925, Faraday points out that the maximum of dip would be when the sun was at its zenith or directly overhead. With reference to the Annual Variation, Faraday points out (2882) that if the axis of the earth were perpendicular to the plane of its orbit, the intensity and direction of the magnetic forces might be considered constant, but (2883) as the axis of the earth's rotation is inclined 23 deg. to the plane of the ecliptic, the two hemispheres will become alternately warmer and colder than each other, and then a variation in the magnetic condition may arise. The consideration of this annual variation is further considered by Faraday in the subsequent paragraphs to those already quoted, and I must refer the reader to them for fuller details; I wish simply to indicate the possible explanation of the terrestrial magnetism, in so far as that explanation is in conformity with the aspect of the Aether submitted in Chapter IV.

With regard to secular variations Faraday points out (2880) that the temperature of the air at the equatorial parts of the earth is greater than in latitudes north and south, and as an elevation of temperature diminishes the conducting power of magnetism, so the proportion of force passing through those parts ought to be less, and that passing through the cooler parts, greater, than if the temperature were at the same degree over the whole surface of the globe.

Now with our definite conception of the aetherial lines of force traversing space, and existing on all sides of the earth, these suggestions of Faraday's obtain an increased value in relation to the varying intensity of terrestrial magnetism, and will account for the variations in a satisfactory manner from the aetherial standpoint, if taken in conjunction with the electro-magnetic character of the Aether. Of course, what applies to the earth equally applies to all the other planets, as they also are magnets according to Art. 87, so that they will also possess their magnetic fields, with their own lines of force, and their variations in intensity and magnetic dip.

Hitherto we have only considered the problem of the earth and all the other planets, as magnets, from the stationary standpoint, and the problem faces us as to what effect the movement of the earth and all other planets through the Aether will have upon their magnetic fields, and their lines of force. Now from Clerk Maxwell's mathematical calculations, we learn that the movement of any magnetic body through space will practically have no effect upon the relation of the field, and the lines of force to the moving magnet; that is to say, the magnetic field and the lines of force move with the earth and the planets through space, as they journey round the sun with their varying velocity. Maxwell has conclusively proved that the mathematical equations for moving bodies in relation to their magnetic lines of force, and induction, are exactly the same as the equations for stationary bodies, and if this be true, then it follows that the physical conditions for both stationary and moving bodies are the same.

On this point Maxwell writes: "By its motions this (moving) matter carries with it its lines of force, and electricity and magnetism may be regarded as free ends of these lines. Hence when both causes act together there can be no relative motion of true magnetism with reference to surrounding matter," etc.

"Under these circumstances electricity and magnetism move with the matter in which they are present as if they were indestructible and adhered firmly to the parts thereof." So that from Maxwell's equations and statements we learn that the magnetic lines of force around every planet, and every satellite in space, move with the planets in their orbits round the sun. But as these magnetic lines of force are composed of aetherial atoms, as already indicated, it follows that the Aether which is associated with each planet and held bound to it by the so-called force of gravity moves with the planet also.

This result is entirely consistent with our experience and observation, as we shall see later on. We find that the atmosphere, which is also gravitative, moves with the earth, and therefore from experience we are compelled to arrive at the conclusion that the Aether which is also gravitative moves with each planet, and this result is confirmed by mathematical calculations given by Clerk Maxwell, and is in perfect harmony with the same.

Here then is the key to one of the problems that has been the subject of investigation and research for many years past, and one which is at the present time occupying the attention of some of our most advanced scientists, viz. the relation of the Aether to moving matter.

That problem was solved by Maxwell from an electric and magnetic standpoint, and his result was that the Aether, which we now know to be the source of all electricity and magnetism, moves with the moving matter. What is more, this result has been confirmed by actual experiment made by Michelson and Morley in America, which experiment conclusively proves that Maxwell's result is physically correct, and that the Aether does move through space with its associated planet, and therefore its magnetic field and its lines of force move with it because of the electro-magnetic character of the Aether.

[Footnote 37: Art. 2850, Exp. Res.]

[Footnote 38: Art. 2757, Exp. Res.]

ART. 91. Solar Magnets.—We have now to attack the problem as to the cause of all the satellites and planets, together with the sun, being electro-magnets. What is the continuing and ever-acting cause which makes all planetary bodies, including the sun, their centre, to be permanent magnets? According to the Rules of Philosophy there are two causes which would be simple in conception, which are suggested by experiment and observation, and both causes would satisfactorily account for all the planets being magnets.

The first cause suggested to our minds is, that in view of the fact that the sun is an electro-magnet, and therefore possesses a magnetic field with its aetherial line of force, all the planets may become magnets by the process of magnetic induction, which process has already been illustrated by the action of the iron filings placed over the magnet. Such a hypothesis would fulfil all the Rules of Philosophy, as it would be simple in conception, would not violate experience, and would satisfactorily account for the fact sought to be explained.

But such a hypothesis would be based upon the assumption that the sun was an electro-magnet, and then we should have to find out the cause of that fact also. Hence the hypothesis that the planets are magnets, because they are situated in the magnetic field of the sun, is not a satisfactory solution of the whole problem, as it fails to account for the fact that the sun is also an electro-magnet. We must therefore seek for another solution of the problem, which, while fulfilling all the Rules of Philosophy as laid down in Art. 3, will also account for the sun being an electro-magnet, as well as every planet, satellite, meteor, or any other body that exists in space. If we can ascertain such a cause by philosophical reasoning, then we may say we have satisfactorily solved the problem as to the cause of all planetary and stellar bodies being electro-magnets.

If, at the same time, we can solve other outstanding problems by the solution thus offered, then such solution is more likely to be correct than if it simply solved the problem of solar magnetism. The only other solution that can possibly present itself to our minds, as to the cause of all magnetism in any planet, sun, or star, is the explanation which has already been given in Art. 86 on electro-magnetism.

In that article we learned that magnetism was really due to the circular motion of an electric current; and that, whenever and wherever we had an electric current moving or revolving with a circular motion, there we should always have those conditions which would give rise to an electro-magnet. As long as the current continued to flow in its circular course, so long would there be those conditions which would give rise to permanent magnetism.

Now in the solar system we find that there are these magnets, which have been in existence for millions of years. We also learn from the electro-magnetic theory of light that Aether has an electro-magnetic basis, which gives rise to electro-magnetic waves when disturbed, or set in motion by any heated or luminous body. It can readily be seen, therefore, that we have only to set this electro-magnetic Aether in circular motion around any planet or sun, and we have at once a circular current of electricity flowing round that planet or sun, which would give rise to those conditions by which any body within its influence may be formed into a magnet.

Our hypothesis, therefore, to explain the reason why all the planets and the sun are magnets, is that the electro-magnetic Aether moves round the sun or planet or satellite as the case may be, thus giving rise to currents of electricity around the planet or sun, and so forming those conditions in the Aether by which the permanency of any planetary or stellar magnetism may be maintained and perpetuated.

In other words, to put it plainly and tersely, each aetherial atmosphere revolves round the planet, subject to certain limitations, in the same way that the aerial atmosphere turns round with the earth, as that planet revolves on its axis. At first sight, such an assumption may seem impossible, but a little careful consideration will show not only the possibility of such a cause, but will establish it, as the only reasonable and philosophical explanation for the phenomena we are seeking to explain, viz. the electro-magnetism of all celestial bodies.

There is nothing extravagant in this assumption, as we already have a similar illustration in the case of the atmosphere which goes round with the earth as it revolves on its axis. We have only to extend the same principle a little further, viz. to the aetherial atmosphere, and we at once get the true physical conception of the hypothesis suggested to explain the magnetism of all celestial bodies. We have already learned that Maxwell has proved that the equations for moving magnetic bodies are the same as those for stationary bodies, from which we came to the conclusion that the electric and magnetic field of any planet goes with that planet as it revolves on its axis in its journey round the sun.

I would like to ask the reader to try to conceive of any electric or magnetic field traversing space in association with any planet or sun which is revolving on its axis, while that electric or magnetic field does not revolve either partially or wholly with the revolving body. The field can only be stationary relatively to the planet or sun, as it revolves with the planet or sun on its axis.

There may be, as there doubtless are, conditions governing that revolution, as is the case with the atmosphere moving and revolving with the planet, but it is an absolute impossibility for Maxwell's equations relating to moving magnetic bodies to be carried to their logical conclusion, without affirming some such hypothesis as we have affirmed in relation to the cause of all solar magnetism.

Let me at once point out, this solution has already been offered by one whose name has been referred to several times. I refer to Professor Challis. Let us see what he has to say as to the cause of the earth's magnetism. In dealing with this subject, and writing in the Phil. Mag., 1872, par. 42, he states: "With respect to all magnetism which has a cosmical origin, the view I now take is that it is due to gyrations of the Aether, produced by the impulses which it receives from the motions of the constituent atoms of the bodies of the solar system. The gyrations may either be immediately generated by the rotations of the bodies about their axes, or directly result from disturbances of the Aether caused by their motions of translation. This impressed motion will be converted into circulatory or gyratory motion. Such circulatory motion will necessarily partake of the motion of translation of the bodies which generate them, so as to have always the same geometrical relation to these bodies provided their motion be uniform."

In paragraph 46 he continues: "From what has been already argued (42), the motions impressed on the Aether by the earth in consequence of its rotatory or orbital motions result in circulating motions which would be steady motions, having always the same geometrical relation to the position of the earth's centre."

Again, Ampere and Faraday were also of the opinion that the magnetism of the earth was due to the circulation of electric currents round it, for in par. 446, Exp. Res., Faraday states: "Assuming with Ampere that the magnetism of the earth is due to electric currents circulating round it, parallel to the equator."

I think it will be seen from these extracts that the hypothesis suggested for all planetary and stellar magnetic bodies is thus confirmed by Professor Challis, and by Faraday and Ampere. Professor Challis in these passages clearly and definitely points out that there are circulatory motions in the Aether, which motions are produced by the rotation of the earth or other body on its axis, and that these circular motions of the aetherial medium always maintain the same geometrical shape relative to the earth's centre. So that we have only to combine with his hypothesis the electro-magnetic basis of the Aether, and we at once get the circulating currents of electricity constantly flowing round the heavenly bodies, which produce and give rise to the permanent magnetism of those bodies.

If we desired still further confirmation as to the circulating motions of the Aether caused by a rotating body, we find it in the writings of Herschel, who in relation to this matter asks:[39] "What is the law of density of the resisting medium which surrounds the sun? Is it at rest or in motion? If the latter, in what direction does it move? Circularly round the sun, or traversing space? If circularly, in what plane? Supposing the neighbourhood of the sun to be filled with material fluid, it is not conceivable that the circulation of the planets in it for ages should not have impressed upon it some degree of rotation in their own direction, and this may preserve them from the extreme effects of accumulated resistance!" Words like these from one of the most searching intellects of the last century are well worthy of our consideration, and the suggested effect on the Aether caused by the continued rotation of the earth gives us the key not only to the problem of celestial magnetism, but also to the other outstanding scientific problems.

For example, there is the problem of the relation of moving matter to the Aether around it which still remains unsolved. The physical cause of the rotation of the earth, and all other celestial bodies upon their axes, with unceasing regularity, still remains to be discovered. The physical explanation as to the reason why the earth moves round the sun in its orbit according to Kepler's Laws, has yet to be determined, and, lastly, there is the relation of the magnetic vibration to the electric vibration in connection with the electro-magnetic theory of light still to be solved.

Now, presuming that all these can be solved by the philosophical hypothesis, that the electro-magnetic Aether circulates round each planet and sun and star, that revolves in space, then we are justified in our conclusion that such is the true cause of all electro-magnetism that exists in connection with planetary and stellar bodies. I venture to premise that all these problems can be solved by the simple solution here given, and will prove that this solution adequately accounts for all the other phenomena referred to.

Before proceeding to do this, we will endeavour to prove this hypothesis by an altogether different method of reasoning, in order to confirm the statements made in this article. Let us therefore endeavour to form a complete view of the physical state of the solar system, and for the sake of simplicity we will suppose it to be at rest in space. We shall deal with the effect of its motion upon its own planetary system, when we explain Kepler's Laws.

We have, therefore, the Sun in the centre (see Fig. 14) of the system, with Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune revolving round the sun at their respective distances, which are subject to variations owing to certain causes which can be satisfactorily explained. But circulating round the sun, in the same direction as the rotation of the sun on its axis, we have the electro-magnetic Aether, with its wide-spreading flow and extensive electro-magnetic field. In like manner, we have each planet with its aetherial electro-magnetic field, which also circulates round each planet in the same direction as the planet revolves, that is, from west to east, and in the same direction as the sun's electro-magnetic field revolves.

Thus we have to picture the whole of the solar system in a state of regular and harmonious rotation, while each planet adds to the harmony of the rotation by itself rotating in its own aetherial electro-magnetic field, while all rotate in the same direction, viz. from west to east.

Of course there are several objections that can be raised to such a hypothesis, and those objections will be briefly dealt with in a subsequent article, but I venture to think that this hypothesis is the true philosophical explanation of a problem which has formed one of the greatest outstanding difficulties in regard to the Aether medium for many years, that problem being the relative motion of the Aether and Matter. Lord Kelvin, in an article in the Phil. Mag. for July 1901, entitled "Clouds over the Dynamical Theory of Light," refers to this very difficulty, and states there are two clouds over the present undulatory theory of light, one of which has reference to the difficulty of conceiving a body like the earth or any planet rushing through the Aether without subjecting the Aether to enormous laceration, and concludes by saying that "we must still regard this cloud as very dense." Here, then, is the key to the solution of the problem.

The earth does not rush through the Aether, but the Aether being gravitative, it is associated with and bound to each planet, and accompanies that planet in its journey though space, rotating with it in the same way that the atmosphere does, as we shall prove later on.

This conception is fully in accord with our hypothesis as to the physical explanation of the cause of the electro-magnetic character of all the heavenly bodies, and indeed is the only physical solution that can adequately account for all the varied phenomena hitherto unexplained in connection with the celestial mechanism.

From the foregoing statements, we are now in a position to consider the term Electro-Kinetic Energy, as used by Clerk Maxwell. What does he mean by Electro-Kinetic Energy? Let us see what he has to say about the term himself.

In par. 636 of his Magnetism and Electricity he writes: "According to our hypothesis we assume kinetic energy to exist wherever there is magnetic force, that is, in general, in every part of the field. This energy exists, therefore, in some kind of motion of the matter in every portion of space;" while again, in par. 569, he states: "The electric current cannot be conceived except as a kinetic phenomenon." Even Faraday speaks of the electric current as "something progressive, and not a mere arrangement" (Exp. Res. 283).

Then again in par. 552 he writes: "It appears, therefore, that a system containing an electric current is a seat of energy of some kind, and, since we can form no conception of an electric current except as a kinetic phenomenon, its energy must be kinetic energy, that is to say, the energy which a moving body has in virtue of its motion."

Here, therefore, according to Clerk Maxwell, the kinetic energy of an electro-magnetic field is nothing more or less than the energy which a moving body possesses in virtue of its motion. Any other explanation of kinetic energy would be opposed to all the Rules of Philosophy; for experience in its widest form incontrovertibly proves that all kinetic energy is associated, and alone associated, with a moving body; therefore in all electro-magnetic fields there is this kinetic energy ever being manifested. We have, however, learned that the solar system forms a huge electro-magnetic field, traversed by lines of force, as Maxwell and Faraday suggested. Therefore, in the solar system, there must be this kinetic energy due to the motion of a moving body, which is the electro-magnetic Aether.

We have, however, just arrived at the conclusion that in the solar system there is ever going on a circulatory or rotatory movement of the electro-magnetic Aether forming currents around each electro-magnet. On the hypothesis of an atomic and gravitating Aether we have, therefore, a medium or body continually circulating, which medium possesses inertia and momentum, and it is philosophically possible for such a rotating medium to possess kinetic energy. So that our explanation of this term, as used by Clerk Maxwell, is, that this kinetic energy is indeed due to the momentum of the moving Aether. Such a hypothesis is strictly philosophical, and literally fulfils the statements made by Clerk Maxwell himself in the paragraphs already referred to.

A remarkable feature about this hypothesis lies in the fact, that it is the very hypothesis that Von Helmholtz suggested as the explanation of the term. He came to the conclusion that the kinetic energy was due to the momentum of the moving Aether. But with a frictionless Aether such a hypothesis, although correct, was philosophically untenable. In view of the theory of the Aether presented in this work, however, both Clerk Maxwell's and Von Helmholtz's statements find their literal and perfect fulfilment. So that in an atomic Aether, which is gravitative because atomic, and rotatory because it is gravitative, combined with its electro-magnetic basis as proved by Hertz, we find for the first time a correct philosophical explanation of one of the most puzzling terms used by Maxwell in his greatest work on Magnetism and Electricity. This solution alone ought to stamp the theory of an atomic and gravitating electro-magnetic Aether with that authority that is always associated with the names of two such great thinkers and experimentalists as those just mentioned.

The fact that the Aether is held bound to a planet has already been suggested by Sir G. Stokes to account for the aberration of light already referred to. In the Phil. Mag., July 1845, he writes: "I shall suppose that the earth and the planets carry a portion of Aether along with them, so that the Aether close to the surface is at rest relatively to the earth, while its velocity alters as we recede from its surface, till at no great distance it is at rest in space." Sir G. Stokes does not, however, say how the Aether is held bound to the earth, and apart from an Aether which is gravitative, no satisfactory explanation can be given. Further, it is noticeable, that he suggests that the other planets also carry part of the Aether associated with them along with each planet as it pursues its journey. It would be distinctly unphilosophical to assume that the earth was the only planet that carried its aetherial field with it. So that by following Sir G. Stokes' suggestion, we practically arrive at the same conclusion in relation to the motions of the Aether that we have already arrived at from magnetic phenomena.

With this view of the case we are now in a position to answer a question asked by Professor Schuster at the British Association in 1892. He asked, "Is not every large rotating mass a magnet?" and added, "If it is, the sun must be a powerful magnet. The comets' tails, which eclipse observations show stretching out from the sun in all directions, probably consist of electric discharges." Now, in relation to this question, the answer is that every rotating body in the Aether is undoubtedly an electro-magnet. Thus, not only is the sun an electro-magnet, but every planet and satellite, and every meteor that rotates in the electro-magnetic Aether, is converted into a magnet, partly by that rotation, and partly by the currents induced in the Aether by that rotation. We shall also find when we come to deal with the phenomena of comets' tails, that Professor Schuster is also right as to their cause, and that they are due to electro-magnetic repulsions originated in the Aether by the sun, which is an electro-magnet.

[Footnote 39: Outlines of Astronomy, Herschel.]

ART. 92. Cause of Rotation of the Earth on its Axis.—If there is one fact true in relation to the earth as a planet, it is that the earth rotates on its axis every 24 hours. Day in and day out, for centuries past, this revolution has taken place as the earth journeys in its annual path round the sun.

Not only does the earth rotate on its axis, but every other planet rotates on its axis in varying times, as the following table shows—


Mercury 24 5 0 Venus 23 24 0 The Earth 23 56 4 Mars 24 37 23 Jupiter 9 55 0 Sarturn 10 14 23 Uranus ? Neptune ?

Further, the sun also rotates on its axis in a period of 26 days. Here, then, are certain phenomena in connection with the solar system, for which up to the present no explanation as to the physical cause of rotation has ever been offered. Surely there is some physical cause, to account for such a rotation, and if there be a physical cause, then the problem to be solved is—find the physical cause to account for the continuous and ever-recurring rotation of all the planets and the sun on their axes, which shall be so effective and continual that, year in and year out, the rotation of all the planets may be continued as observed. In solving this problem we have to revert to our reason why the earth is a magnet. In Art. 91 we learned that the earth and all the other planets, and indeed all stellar bodies, were electro-magnets, because the electro-magnetic Aether was constantly circulating round them.

If, by accepting this explanation, we can at the same time solve the problem of the rotation of the planets, and the sun, on their axes, then we shall have further evidence that our hypothesis is the correct one. Now let me ask, What is the effect of an electric current continually circulating round any magnet in the same way that the electro-magnetic Aether continually circulates round the earth, which is a magnet?

To find out what the effect is, we must resort to experiment. Professor Lodge, in his Modern Views of Electricity, shows us the effect of any circulating current of electricity revolving round a magnet. In his chapter on Electro-Magnetism he writes as follows: "How does a current act on a magnetic pole? Two currents attract or repel each other, two poles attract or repel each other, but a current and a pole exert a mutual force which is neither attraction nor repulsion. It is a rotatory force. They tend neither to approach nor to recede, they tend to revolve round each other." "A singular action this and at first sight unique" (p. 135). "The two things will revolve round each other for ever. This affords and has afforded a fine field for the perpetual motionist, and if only the current would maintain itself without a sustaining power, perpetual motion in fact would be attained."

Faraday has shown by experiment the action of a current on the magnet, and vice versa. Faraday, in his description of an electro-magnetic apparatus for the exhibition of rotatory motion, shows how the rotation of a current round a magnet, and a magnet round a current, may be experimentally proved. With the apparatus used he shows that the current of electricity may be made to revolve round the pole of the magnet in the direction dependent on the pole used, and further, illustrates how the magnet may be made to revolve round the current. (Plate 4, Fig. 5, Exp. Res.)

Thus we learn that wherever we have a current constantly circulating round a magnet, there we have the conditions by which, according to Professor Lodge, perpetual motion may be obtained, that is to say, the two will revolve round each other as long as the current is maintained. Here then we find in space those very conditions by which perpetual motion may be obtained.

We find the electro-magnetic Aether constantly circulating round the planetary magnets, with the result that not only will the current continue to revolve around the planet, but the planet will continue to revolve upon its axis as it revolves round the current. In fact we get in space an example of perpetual motion. We know that the rotation of the earth on its axis has been in existence for several thousand years, and therefore we have a right to assume that it revolved on its axis through the untold ages of past geological times as revealed by the strata, and rocks of pre-historic ages. Thus the motion must have continued, so far as the earth is concerned, at least 100,000,000 years, accepting that period as the age of the earth, but no physical reason so far as I know has ever been assigned for such continued rotation.

If, therefore, it be true that the joint action of a current and a magnet is a rotatory one, then, seeing that in all planetary and stellar space we have both these conditions of matter, that is, the electro-magnetic aetherial current, constantly circulating round an electro-magnet, we have, in space, the conditions by which perpetual rotation may be maintained. We have therefore presented to us in that joint action, the true cause of the continued rotation of the earth on its axis, and therefore of all the planets on their axes, together with the sun on its axis; and, if we carry the principle into the stellar world, we can philosophically come to the conclusion that the same conditions prevail there that prevail in the solar system, with the result that we have now a physical cause which fully satisfies all Rules of Philosophy to account for certain phenomena which up to the present have never yet been accounted for from the physical standpoint. Thus in solving the problem of the earth's rotation on its axis, we find greater confirmation in the view presented in a previous article as to the circulating motion of the electro-magnetic Aether around any and every body in space. We shall deal again with the relation of a current and a magnet, when we come to the physical explanation of Kepler's Laws.

ART. 93. Vortex Motion.—From Art. 91 we have seen that the electro-magnetic Aether possesses a circulating or rotatory motion around each central body, and because of this rotatory motion, the body is at once converted into a magnet. We have also seen that Professor Challis believed in the circulatory or rotatory motion of the Aether, as also did Ampere.

Thus we are led back by scientific experiment and philosophical reasoning to the conception of vortex motion with which the world was familiar in the days of Kepler, Descartes, Huyghens and Bernoulli. There is this difference, however, that whereas the vortex motion of those philosophers was to displace and do away with Gravitation, the circulatory or rotatory Aether suggested by electro-magnetic phenomena is to supplement, confirm and establish more firmly than ever the true powers and laws of Gravitation Attraction.

Before passing, it will be as well to briefly glance at the conception of vortex motion as suggested by Kepler and Descartes and others. Whewell on this matter in his Inductive Sciences states that "Kepler assumed that a certain force or virtue resided in the sun by which all bodies within his influence were carried round him. He illustrated the nature of the force in various ways, comparing it to light, and to the magnetic power which it resembles in the circumstances of operating at a distance, and also of exercising a feebler influence as the distance increases." "Another image to which he referred suggested a much more conceivable kind of mechanical action by which the celestial motions might be produced, viz. a current of fluid matter circulating round the sun, and carrying the planets with it like a boat in a stream." Whewell adds: "A Vortex fluid constantly whirling round the sun, kept in this whirling motion by the sun itself, and carrying the planets round the sun by its revolution, as a whirlpool carries straws, could be readily understood, and though it appears to have been held by Kepler that this current and Vortex were immaterial, he ascribes to it the power of overcoming the inertia of bodies, and of putting them and keeping them in motion."

Now, as we have seen, the electro-magnetic Aether is not immaterial but material, as it is matter possessing mass and inertia, the same as any other matter, as Tyndall and Lord Kelvin stated (Chap. IV.). Thus the objection to Kepler's immaterial vortices is met and overcome by our conception of the Aether (Chap. IV.). Descartes, as Whewell points out, asserted, "that a vacuum in any part of the universe is impossible. The whole universe must be filled with matter, which must be divided into equal angular parts. This matter being in motion, the parts are necessarily grounded into a spherical form, and the corners thus rubbed off, forming a second or subtle matter. There is besides a third kind of matter, of parts more coarse and less fitted for motion. The first part makes the luminous bodies as sun and stars, the second part is the transparent substance of the skies, and the third part is the material of opaque bodies as the earth, planets and comets. We may suppose that the motion of these parts takes the form of revolving circular currents or vortices. By this means the first matter will be collected to the centre of each vortex, while the second or subtle matter surrounds it, and by its centrifugal effect constitutes light. The planets are carried round the sun by the motion of the vortex, each planet being at such distance from the sun as to be in a part of the vortex suitable to its solidity and mobility. The satellites are in like manner carried round their ordinary planets by subordinate vortices."

It would almost seem from this quotation that we had adopted purely and simply Descartes' and Kepler's ideas in toto, whereas the truth is that the hypothesis of a rotating electro-magnetic Aether has been arrived at by following Newton's own Rules of Philosophy, and by discarding everything not in harmony with experience and experiment.

Further, Descartes was unable to give, or explain the ellipticity of the orbits of planets, and had to assume that there were elliptic vortices. When we come to deal with Kepler's Laws, and their physical interpretation, the correct solution of this problem will be given from a purely experimental and philosophical standpoint, and in a way and manner never suggested by Descartes or any other believer in the theory of vortices as then known and understood. Indeed there is no objection to the theory of vortices, which cannot be satisfactorily explained by a rotating electro-magnetic Aether, as we shall see when we deal with Newton's Laws of Motion and Kepler's Laws.

Both Liebnitz and Huyghens were believers in the theory of vortices, and the fact that Huyghens' undulatory theory of light stands to-day as an accepted theory, is conclusive evidence that he was a philosopher of the highest order, and his adhesion to the theory of vortices proves that he was convinced that there was some truth in it.

It is a result greatly to be desired, therefore, if it can be demonstrated, that in the Aether there is this rotatory motion continually going on around every planet, satellite, sun or star; because it will then join together, in perfect harmony, two great theories in relation to celestial phenomena, that contended with each other for supremacy for very many years.

It will prove that, after all, men like Kepler, Descartes, Huyghens, and Bernoulli had caught glimpses of the great truth which was partly revealed by celestial phenomena, and that it was only for lack of data that they were unable to successfully compete with Newton's mathematical genius, by which he was able to bring his Law of Gravitation safely through the conflict with the simpler conception of aetherial vortex motion. Of course certain objections will have to be met and answered before this aspect of aetherial dynamics can be expected to supplant the more cumbrous and somewhat intricate mathematical laws of motion, but I shall prove later on, that all these objections can be answered from a satisfactory standpoint.

So that if a modified form of aetherial vortex motion can be successfully demonstrated to exist in the electro-magnetic Aether, then we shall see the conflict that waged about two hundred years ago, brought to a satisfactory issue, in the union of the two greatest philosophic theories for the explanation of celestial phenomena that the world has ever seen.

From that union, therefore, there will then emerge a truer, simpler, and yet grander conception of the motions of the universe, which, when perfected by abler minds, will be as perfect a theory as human intelligence and philosophy can make it. So that, what an atomic and gravitative Aether has done for Newton's corpuscular theory of light, in showing that it can be united and combined with the undulatory theory, and by such combination, for the first time, such phenomena as the transverse action of light can be probably demonstrated and explained, together with other phenomena relating to reflection and refraction of light, the enlarged conception of a rotating electro-magnetic Aether will do for the two great theories that vied with each other for supremacy for so many years. Thus it will be shown that the philosophers like Kepler, Descartes, and Huyghens, the former of whom has stamped his name on the three laws that bear his name to-day, and the latter who gave us the inception of the very theory that overthrew Newton's theory of light, had after all a more or less true philosophic conception of the physical mechanism of the solar system and of the universe at large.

ART. 94. Relative Motion of Aether and Matter.—There is hardly any subject of greater importance which is engaging the attention of scientists at the present time, than the question as to what is the relative motion of Matter to the Aether in which it moves.

I venture to premise the successful solution of the problem will be accompanied with the greatest advance to science that has been known for a long time. The problem to be solved may be stated thus: "Does the Aether surrounding a planet or sun or any body in space move with that body, or does it allow the body to pass through it?"

Up to the present, opinions on the subject have been varied and conflicting. Some scientists hold that the planetary and other bodies in space pass through the Aether without disturbing it, while others hold that part of the Aether is carried along by the moving planet. Fresnel assumed that the surrounding Aether was carried along by the earth, so that all relative phenomena would be the same as if the earth were at rest. Fizeau, from experiments which he conducted on running water, also came to the same conclusion.

With the old idea of a frictionless medium, some of the present accepted theories are altogether untenable, because, if Aether is frictionless, how can it be carried along with the moving body, unless it is held bound to that body? and how can it be held bound to that body if it is frictionless?

The whole view of the Aether is, however, changed by the conception of the Aether put forward in Chapter IV. Aether is Matter, and being matter it is also gravitative, and therefore is just as much subject to the Law of Gravitation as any other kind of matter, as Young stated in his Fourth Hypothesis (Art. 45).

We will therefore attack the problem of the relative motion of the earth and the Aether around it from this new standpoint. In order to be strictly philosophical, we must base our hypothesis and conception on experience and observation. Where in the whole of planetary phenomena do we find similar conditions which exist between the Aether and the earth? Such conditions are alone to be found between the atmosphere and the earth. The analogy between the atmosphere and the earth, and the Aether and the earth is very striking, as the following comparisons will prove.

The atmosphere (when pure) is invisible, so is the Aether. The atmosphere is atomic, the Aether is also atomic. Both are subject to the same laws of elasticity and density, and both are gravitative, according to our conception of the Aether. Now what is the effect of any large revolving body on a liquid or gaseous medium surrounding that revolving body?

If experience is any guide, we learn that the motion of the revolving body is either partially or entirely transmitted to the liquid or gaseous medium surrounding such a body. So far as our experience teaches us anything, it teaches us that to that rule there is no exception, and no experiment can be devised of any body revolving in water or a gaseous medium as air, without that body imparting its rotation to the water or the air. The atmosphere in relation to the earth is no exception to this rule. We know that the earth has an equatorial circumference of about 24,000 miles, and that it revolves on its axis once every day, so that at the equator the surface of the earth is whirling round in space at the rate of 1000 miles per hour.

Try to conceive what the result would be if the atmosphere were stationary at the earth's surface in the equatorial regions. It would mean that any body on its surface would be whirled round at that rate, while the atmosphere, being stationary, would exert a power equal to a wind travelling at the rate of 1000 miles per hour.

Under the influence of such a hurricane, nothing could exist on the surface of the earth at the equator, if the earth revolved on its axis and the atmosphere did not participate in that motion. But the atmosphere is gravitative, and being gravitative, it is not only held bound to the earth as it revolves on its axis in its onward rush through space, but accepts the revolving motion of the earth, with the result that as the earth revolves on its axis, the atmosphere revolves also.

Thus a balloon at the equator if allowed to rise several hundred feet above the surface could remain comparatively stationary if held by a rope to overcome its tendency to rise, whereas such an event would be impossible if the atmosphere failed to receive only half of the motion of the earth's surface, as it would still have a power equal to that of a wind blowing at the rate of 500 miles an hour. If, however, we come further north, or go further south, then we find that the surface of the earth does not have the same velocity as at the equator, with the result that the atmosphere has not the same velocity either; consequently it would travel slower in the temperate regions than in the equatorial regions, and slower still at the poles than in the temperate regions.

We know by experiment what the effect of increased velocity has upon any whirling body; it tends to enlarge the body at those parts where the velocity is the greatest, the consequence being that the bulging out of the atmosphere would be greatest at the equator. We find a similar result in the shape of the earth, where the equatorial diameter is greater than the polar diameter, because of the centrifugal force being greatest in the equatorial regions.

We have, therefore, to apply these facts to the aetherial medium which surrounds all planetary and stellar bodies in the same way as the atmosphere does; and which, being also gravitative, is equally subject to the same laws of motion. We have seen, therefore, that not only does the earth revolve on its axis, but that the atmosphere revolves on its axis also, and that the velocity of its revolution is greatest in the equatorial regions, the atmosphere spreading or bulging out in those parts more than in any other part of the earth's surface.

Let us suppose that the atmosphere extends 200 miles above the earth, and that there we come to the pure Aether of universal space. In view of the fact that Aether is Matter, and therefore gravitative, it is reasonable and logical to conclude that exactly the same result follows in relation to the atmosphere and the Aether at that height, as follows in relation to the earth and the atmosphere 200 miles beneath.

Unless this view is accepted, we should then have our second Rule of Philosophy violated, as we should have matter revolving in more rarefied matter, and failing to impress upon that rarefied condition of matter the motion either partially or wholly which it itself possesses; and such a result being contradictory to all experience cannot be admitted from a philosophical standpoint.

Therefore, the only solution is, that the rotating atmosphere imparts some of its motion to the aetherial atmosphere, which in its turn rotates, and that that rotation is governed by exactly the same conditions as govern the relation that exists between the earth and the atmosphere. Therefore the Aether in space associated with each planet or satellite or sun or star, rotates with the rotating body, and that rotation imparts to the Aether a greater bulging out in the equatorial regions of the aetherial atmosphere than in any other part thereof. It is interesting in relation to this point to note Herschel's view of the effect of the rotation of any body upon the Aether. In his Outlines of Astronomy, in a note, p. 358, he states: "Supposing the neighbourhood of the sun to be filled with a material fluid; it is not conceivable that the circulation of planets in it for ages should not have impressed upon it some degree of rotation in their own direction, and this may preserve them from the effects of accumulated resistance."

In this way we arrive at the conception of the motions of the Aether suggested by Prof. Challis from the magnetic character of the earth, which he thought were due to aetherial currents circulating around it, and we learn that such physical conception of the Aether fully agrees with the explanation of celestial bodies being electro-magnets; because, we have only to add to our rotating Aether that which it has been proved to possess, viz. an electro-magnetic basis, and we have at once the currents of electricity circulating round the earth and other planetary or solar bodies, by which is obtained the true explanation of the permanent magnetism of all celestial bodies.

Now to some minds unconversant with scientific research and knowledge, such a supposition may seem to be incredible, but that incredibility may disappear, when I say that the fact that the Aether is bound to the earth, and goes along through space with it, has actually been proved by some of the most delicate and successful experiments that have been made in recent times: experiments of which Lord Kelvin has stated that he can find no error or flaw in them. I refer to the scientific experiments of Michelson and Morley of America. For full particulars of these experiments I must refer the reader to the American Journal of Science, 1886, vol. 31, or to the Phil. Mag., vol. 44.

The conclusion which is arrived at from their experiments is, that the Aether is carried along with the earth as it rushes on its journey through space. Of course such a result is altogether opposed to the ordinary conception of a frictionless medium, and indeed to any conception of the Aether except to that submitted in this work, which is also in harmony with Young's Fourth Hypothesis (Art. 45).

So that Michelson's and Morley's experiment is a direct experimental demonstration of the fact that Aether is gravitative, and because it is gravitative, it is carried along with the earth, as that planet journeys through space. It further conclusively proves that not only is the Aether carried along with the earth, but that the Aether circulates round the earth in the same way that the atmosphere circulates round the earth.

This result naturally follows from the experiment, because, if it were carried along by the earth and yet did not rotate with the atmosphere, then we should have a result opposed to all experience and experiment, as these teach us that when a body revolves in a medium which is held bound to that body by Gravitation, the medium so held bound participates in the rotation of the revolving body.

So that in Michelson's and Morley's experiment we have experimental evidence of the fact, already stated, that the Aether circulates round the earth, and therefore, in view of the electro-magnetic character of the Aether, this circulation results in the production of magnetism in all the planets, and other bodies around which it circulates.

Thus not only does the Aether circulate round the earth, but it also circulates around every other planet, and not only round every other planet, but equally so around every sun and star, as stated in Art. 91.

These results are perfectly consistent with philosophical reasoning, and any other result would be inconsistent with the analogies presented to us by the phenomena of the Aether in relation to our earth as ascertained by experiments made by the scientists referred to. Thus for the first time the experiment is brought into harmony with our Philosophy, which up to the present has not been the case, a result which at once stamps the experiment with that validity of truth and fact which will ultimately win for it universal acceptance and favour.

We are now in a position to answer some queries regarding the motions of the Aether asked by Herschel in his work on Astronomy, p. 345. These I give with the answers opposite.

QUERIES. ANSWERS. 1. What is the law of density The Law of Gravitation of the resisting medium which (Art. 45). surrounds the sun? 2. Is it at rest or in motion? In motion. 3. If the latter, in what Rotates round the sun. direction does it move? 4. Circularly round the sun Both, as it circulates round or traversing space? the sun while that body traverses space. 5. If circularly, in what The plane of the ecliptic. plane?

ART. 95. Physical Explanation of the Vibration in the Electro-Magnetic Theory of Light.—In Art. 78 we learned that light was an electro-magnetic disturbance in the Aether which was propagated through the Aether, with a finite velocity; and from this we gathered that light waves were nothing more or less than electro-magnetic waves, which were radiated from the sun, out into the Aether on every side.

We were unable, however, at that time to give a definite physical conception of the aetherial vibrations, or of the relation of the various types of vibration to each other. Since, however, the development of the Aether from the electric and magnetic standpoint, which has led us up to the fact that the Aether possesses a circulating motion round the sun (Art. 91), the solution of the problem appears probable. I am of the opinion that the physical conception of the various vibrations to each other is now within the region of possibility, and in this article I wish to endeavour to give what seems to me to be a correct and philosophical explanation of this part of the electro-magnetic theory of light, the physical conception of which up to the present has not been generally understood.

The explanation may, or may not, be fully complete, but even if it be not perfectly correct, I am convinced that it will ultimately lead to a satisfactory physical explanation of this part of Maxwell's Theory of Light. In forming a conception as to the physical character of the vibrations in the electro-magnetic theory, we have to remember that there are three distinct vibrations, or motions, concerned in this theory.

1st. There is the direction of propagation.

2nd. There is the direction of the electric vibration which is at right angles to the direction of propagation.

3rd. There is the direction of the magnetic vibration or motion which is at right angles to both of the other two.

Now we have seen that the direction of propagation of any aetherial light ray, is that of a straight line from the sun corresponding to the radius vector (Art. 76). We have also seen that the front of a light wave is really that of a spherical shell (Art. 71).

We have also learned that the electric and the magnetic vibrations are in the wave front, so that these two vibrations, which are at right angles to each other, are to be found on the surface, so to speak, of each aetherial spherical shell, that surrounds the sun with ever-decreasing density, and ever-decreasing elasticity.

Let us try to picture the actual fact by an illustration. Let S be the sun, with concentric spherical aetherial shells surrounding it (Fig. 22). Then S A and S C will be rays of light being radiated out from the sun, and the magnetic and electric vibrations have to be both at right angles to the line of propagation and in the wave front; the wave front being represented by the circular lines showing the section of the concentric shells running north and south.

Now how can we picture these two motions at right angles to each other, and yet both at right angles to the line of propagation? First, let us take three straight lines and see how this may be done (Fig. 23).

Let A B, A S be two straight lines at right angles to each other, and A C another straight line at right angles to both. This can only be done by making A C perpendicular to the plane of the paper, and can be illustrated by supposing that it represents a pencil or pen placed upright on the paper, the point of the pencil being at point A. If this be done, then not only will A B and A C be at right angles to each other, but both will be at right angles to A S, which corresponds to the line of propagation.

Now refer to Fig. 22, and we shall see that the line A B and the boundary of the shell will practically correspond. So that any section of a spherical wave front will always be at right angles to the ray of light. But we have learned from Art. 89 that these sections of the aetherial spherical shell are really identical with Faraday's Lines of Force, with the result that along any line which stretches from the North pole of the sun to the South pole, there will ever be an electric vibration, which is put into motion by the elasticity of the aetherial vortex atoms. So that on every side of the sun there is ever going on this electric vibration, along the lines of force which correspond to a section of the aetherial shell, the surface of which really constitutes the wave front.

Therefore it can readily be seen, that, as these lines are at right angles to the propagation of the ray of light, the electric vibration is at right angles to the lines of propagation, and is thus in accordance with the result demanded by Maxwell's theory.

We have now to give a physical conception of the magnetic vibration or motion of the Aether, and this has to be at right angles to both the electric vibration and the line of propagation.

In Art. 91 we have learned that the Aether possesses a rotatory motion, by which it rotates round the central body of the solar system, the sun. So that if we take any point, for example, in the path of the ray as S{1}, S{2}, S{3}, and S{4}, situated upon some definite equipotential surface or lines of force, and if we will imagine those lines to rotate round the sun, as the sun rotates on its axis, then in time the points will have described half the circle, and will come to the position on the right of the sun indicated by the same Nos. S{1}, S{2}, S{3}, S{4}. Thus there has been an aetherial motion at right angles to the electric motion, as the Aether circulates round the sun, because this motion may be represented as taking place from west to east of the sun, while the electric vibration takes place from north to south, or transverse to the line of propagation.

We have, however, learned that the Aether has an electro-magnetic basis, and therefore the rotation of the Aether gives rise to electro-magnetic currents; hence the motion west to east is really the motion of electro-magnetic currents which circulate round the sun. As these are at right angles to the line of propagation, and we have seen that they are at right angles to the electric vibration, it follows that all three are at right angles to each other, which is in accordance with the requirements as laid down by Maxwell.

We have considered these vibrations, first, from the view of the solar system as a whole in its relation to the universal Aether; but the same principle holds good if considered from the aetherial atomic standpoint. For if we take a line of force, composed as it is of aetherial vortex atoms, and suppose them to be rotating, we know that by that rotation there will be a tension due to that rotation, and Maxwell has shown this tension is due to magnetism, as in his standard work he says: "This magnetic force is the effect of the Centrifugal Force of the Vortices."

So that by postulating a rotatory movement for the Aether around the sun, as we have done in Art. 92, we have not only solved the problem of all planetary and solar magnetism, but we have also solved the problem of the relative motion of the Aether and the earth, and also given for the first time (though it may be in an incomplete form) a physical explanation of that part of the electro-magnetic theory of light, which has hitherto been unexplained from the purely physical standpoint.

Such results, therefore, supported as they are by the direct experiment of Michelson and Morley of America, justify us in concluding that the conception of a rotating Aether is not only philosophically correct, but is in actual accord with experimental investigation and research, as indeed it ought to be.



ART. 96. Centrifugal Force.—Before proceeding to apply some of the principles and laws which govern the electro-magnetic aetherial medium to solar and stellar phenomena, it will be as well just to review the conception of our new aetherial Centrifugal Force, so that we may form a right view of it in its completeness and entirety.

In Art. 11 we premised that there was in existence another force, which was the exact opposite of the centripetal force, and that this force was the complementary and counterpart of the centripetal force or Gravitation Attraction; and further, that this force was due to the motion of the universal Aether which filled all space.

In Art. 13 we saw that all force resolved itself into energy of some kind, the same being due either to potential energy, i. e. energy of position, or to kinetic energy, which is the energy belonging to matter actually in motion. From Art. 56 we learned that all energy was energy of motion, so that all force resolves itself into motion of some kind.

Thus our term Centrifugal Force really implies, and demands, a motion of the Aether which is ever directed away from the centre of gravity of any body, whether that body be an atom or molecule, satellite or planet, sun or star. From the phenomena of heat we have seen that there exists a repulsive motion, due to the aetherial medium, which is ever exerted from the central body of any atomic, planetary or stellar system, that repulsive motion being due to the pressure of the universal Aether, which not only surrounds all atoms, but also surrounds all other bodies in the universe.

From the phenomena of light we have also seen that the Aether possesses a repulsive or centrifugal motion, which is also due to the pressure of the same Aether as mathematically proved by Maxwell, and experimentally proved by Prof. Lebedew, and Nichols and Hull of America. Further, from the phenomena of electricity, we have also seen that there exists this centrifugal motion, due to the pressure of the same aetherial medium, which pressure is ever directed away from the electrified body, as the sun or planets.

So that from these three phases of the universal Aether, that is, from its thermal or heat manifestation, its luminiferous or light manifestation, and its electro-magnetic manifestation, we get irrefutable evidence of the existence of a centrifugal motion, which motion is ever directed away from the central body; and the result of that motion takes the form of a pressure upon any body with which the motion comes into contact.

Again, it was premised, that such a centrifugal force or motion must fulfil all the laws which governed the centripetal force or motion.

First, it had to be universal (Art. 19). Second, it had to follow exactly the same path as the centripetal force or motion, which was that of a straight line joining the centre of gravity of two bodies, as for example the earth and the sun (Art. 20). Third, the centrifugal force or motion must be equal to the product of the masses, in the same way that the centripetal force was governed by such a law (Art. 21). Fourth, its intensity was to be governed by the law of inverse squares, the same as the centripetal force or Gravitation Attraction was governed (Art. 22).

Now all these conditions are satisfactorily fulfilled, and have been shown to be satisfactorily fulfilled, from the phenomena of heat, light, and electricity in their relation to the universal Aether. For in Art. 43 we saw that the Aether was universal, and therefore if the centrifugal motion is produced and originated by the Aether, then such motions must be as universal as that medium, which under qualifying conditions gives rise to these motions.

From Arts. 65 and 76 we have learned that the path of this centrifugal motion is that of a straight line, and follows exactly the same path that the centripetal force of gravity takes. In Art. 85 we learned that the centrifugal force between any two bodies was equal to the product of their masses, which is exactly the same as the centripetal force that exists between any two bodies; and, lastly, from the phenomena of heat, light, and electricity we learned that the intensity of this centrifugal motion due to aetherial pressure was inversely as the square of the distance, which is the law governing the intensity of its counterpart, the centripetal force. Thus we have learned that there is in existence throughout universal space, a physical force or motion due to a physical medium, the universal Aether, which force or motion is the exact opposite of the centripetal force or Gravitation Attraction, which may be stated as follows—

Every particle in the universe repels every other particle with a force whose direction is in the line joining the centres of gravity of the two bodies, and whose magnitude is directly as the product of their masses, and inversely as the square of the distance between them, at their mean distances.

We shall see that it is by the conjoint working of these two forces, the Centripetal and Centrifugal, in combination with other motions of the Aether, that the harmonious working of the whole celestial mechanism is maintained and perpetuated. In confirmation of the existence of the centrifugal force, I should like to draw the attention of the reader to certain phenomena relative to the solar system, which phenomena violate the centripetal force as at present recognized, and can alone be accounted for by the existence of another force or motion existing in space, such as the centrifugal motion already proved and demonstrated.

We know that the law governing the centripetal force, or Gravitation Attraction, is regulated by the product of the masses of the two attracting bodies. So that if there were three bodies in space whose masses are respectively represented by 2, 3 and 100, the proportion of the attractive force of gravitation between the largest and the other two, would be 200 (100 x 2) and 300 (100 x 3) respectively. So that if the centripetal force, or the Attraction of Gravitation, is the only governing force in the universe, then it naturally follows that the two bodies, between which the attractive force is greater, will be closer together than the two bodies between which the attractive force is less.

Thus the two bodies, whose product of their masses is represented by 300, will, according to the Law of Gravitation, be closer together than the two bodies, the product of whose masses is represented by only 200. Unless this is so, we should have a violation of the Law of Gravitation, and it would at once cease to be a law.

Let us therefore apply the centripetal force, or Gravitation Attraction, to the solar system, and see how it works out. The law strictly defined is given in Art. 18, from which we learn that the attractive force between two bodies is as the product of their masses. Now what are the masses of some of the bodies in the solar system?

We find that the sun, with its diameter of 865,000 miles, is about 324,000 times greater in mass than our earth, so that it would take about 324,000 bodies of the size and density of our earth to equal a body of the size and density of the sun. It has been calculated, however, by Von Asten, from observations made on comets by the planet Mercury, that the mass of Mercury is about 1/24 of the mass of the Earth. Therefore the mass of the sun must exceed the mass of Mercury 324,000 x 24 = 7,776,000; the exact relation according to Von Asten is 7,636,440. Again, the planet Jupiter, with its diameter of 85,000 miles and its density of 1.38, is only 1/1048 part of the mass of the sun, so that it would take about 1048 Jupiters to equal the mass of the sun, therefore Jupiter must weigh about 7400 times the mass of Mercury.

If the mass of Mercury, therefore, be represented by 1, the mass of the Earth would be represented by 24, the mass of Jupiter by 7400, and the mass of the sun by 7,636,400. So that the attractive forces between the planets as regards their masses only will be represented numerically as follows—

Sun and Mercury 7,636,400 x 1 = 7,636,400.

Sun and Earth 7,636,400 x 24 = 190,008,000.

Sun and Jupiter 7,636,400 x 7,400 = 56,435,360,000.

Thus we see that the attractive force between the sun and the earth exceeds 24 times the attractive force between the sun and Mercury, while the attractive force of gravity between the sun and Jupiter is 7400 times greater than the attractive force between the sun and Mercury, relative to their masses.

Therefore, according to the Law of Gravity, as regards the masses of bodies, Jupiter and the sun should be nearer together than Mercury and the sun, because their attractive powers are greater, and the earth and the sun should be nearer together than Mercury and the sun, because their joint attractive powers are also greater. In the same way it can be proved that all the other planets whose masses are greater than Mercury ought, according to the Law of Gravity in regard to masses only, to be nearer to the sun than what Mercury is, simply because the total attractive forces between any two are greater than the attractive force between Mercury and the sun.

The respective masses of the planets compared with the sun, taking the mass of the sun as unity, are as follows—

Jupiter 1/1,048 of mass of sun.

Saturn 1/3,529 " "

Neptune 1/18,520 " "

Uranus 1/22,020 " "

Earth 1/324,439 " "

Venus 1/397,000 " "

Mars 1/2,994,790 " "

Mercury 1/7,636,440 " "

Therefore, if the total attractive force of gravity is equal to the product of the masses of any two bodies, then the planets ought to be in the following order in relation to their distance from the sun: Jupiter, first, followed by Saturn, Neptune, Uranus, Earth, Venus, Mars and Mercury; that being the order in which the attractive power of gravity is regulated by their respective masses.

Yet the very opposite is nearly the case, as we find that some of the further planets, as Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, possess greater masses than any of the nearer planets; so that here we have a distinct violation of the Law of Gravitation Attraction, which states that the attraction between any two bodies is directly as the product of their masses, because we find certain bodies with greater attracting powers further away from the sun, than other planets possessing less attracting powers, because of their smaller masses. I cannot recall having ever read of any explanation which has been given for such an anomaly, and indeed this apparent violation admits of no other explanation than the conception of the dual character of the so-called Law of Universal Gravitation, which includes a repelling or repulsive force or motion, such motion being due to the pressure of the universal Aether.

Thus in the light of the centrifugal motion, combined with the fact that Aether is gravitative, by which each body possesses an aetherial atmosphere and electrical equivalent proportionate to its mass, it can be demonstrated within a reasonable limit how it is that such planets as Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, possessing aetherial atmospheres and electrical equivalents proportionate to their masses, revolve in orbits round the sun at much greater distances than Mercury, Venus, the Earth, or Mars. This explanation will follow as we consider the Centrifugal Force and the Centripetal Force in their relation to Newton's Laws of Motion.

ART. 97. Centripetal Force.—We have now to apply the Centripetal Force, together with the new Aetherial Centrifugal Force, to the solar system, and show that by their conjoint working taken in conjunction with the motions of the Aether, all celestial phenomena may be satisfactorily explained on a physical basis, in a similar way that Newton proved the same result from the mathematical standpoint.

We saw in Art. 10 that the centripetal force was really none other than the Attraction of Gravitation, in that it always acted to a centre, and in no other way, and therefore by the centripetal force for the present we must understand is meant the attractive power of Gravitation.

Afterwards, when it has been demonstrated that the centripetal force and the new aetherial centrifugal force can account for all celestial phenomena, then we shall be in a position to show what the physical cause of the centripetal force is.

Let us again refer to the centripetal force, so that we may see exactly what its governing conditions are. In Art. 18 we learned that this force might be thus expressed: "Every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle with a force whose direction is that of a line joining their centres of gravity, and whose magnitude is directly as the product of their masses, and inversely as the square of the distance between them." Now we have seen from the previous Art. that the centrifugal force due to the pressure of the Aether medium is the exact counterpart of this, in every way, so that if we combine the two, we get the complete statement of the universal law which governs all matter, and which we may define as follows—

"Every particle in the universe attracts and repels every other particle in the universe with a force whose direction is that of a line joining their centres of gravity, and whose magnitude is directly as the product of their masses, and inversely as the square of the distance between them." This complete law, however, only holds good when the two forces are in equilibrium.

With this conception of the universal law which governs all matter, the harmony and stability of the universe becomes possible from the physical standpoint. Apart from this conjoint working of the two forces or motions, a physical explanation of Universal Gravitation is impossible, as with one force operating only throughout the universe, ultimate stability is inconceivable, and the harmony of the spheres might at any time be suddenly destroyed.

With this conception of the universal law which governs all matter, the great Law of Gravitation is brought into harmony with all experience and observation. Look where we will, or at what we will, there we find forces possessing a dual character, as we have already seen proved. Professor Tyndall, as we have already learned (Art. 63), definitely states that the stability of atomic systems is preserved by the existence and operation of two forces, one attractive and the other repulsive, and what is true of the atomic world is equally true of solar or stellar worlds. Thus for the first time in this respect, our philosophy agrees with our experience, and the true relation of the centrifugal force or motion to the centripetal force is made manifest. So that, wherever in the solar system the centripetal force or Gravitation Attraction operates, there, with exactly equal intensity and power, the aetherial centrifugal force operates, at the respective mean distances of the planets and satellites, where the two forces are in equilibrium.

If it were possible to conceive of a stationary solar system, then, by the conjoint working of the two forces, it would be equally possible to conceive of perfect stability and harmony existing between the respective planets and satellites of that system while stationary.

Such a conception is altogether impossible in the present state of Philosophy, as the stability of the system, with the old view of the Centrifugal Force, is entirely dependent upon the motions of the respective bodies in that system; and if such orbital motions could be stayed, then the only physical conception possible would be, that every planet and satellite, planetoid and meteor within the attractive force of the central body, the sun, would be slowly but surely drawn to a fiery death, as they would all ultimately be attracted and swallowed up by the sun.

Thus we learn, that while the sun is the centre of a centripetal force, which ever operates far and wide throughout space, it is equally the centre of a repulsive or centrifugal force or motion which also operates co-extensively and co-equally with the former.

Not only so, but every planet and satellite, nay every particle and every atom, while it is the centre of a centripetal force, is also the centre of a repulsive force, as pointed out by Professor Tyndall, which force is due in each and every case to the pressure of the aetherial atmosphere which surrounds the atom or molecule, satellite or planet. Thus the physical conception of heat in its effect on molecules having a repulsive force (Art. 63) is confirmed, and that that force is due to the pressure of the Aether is also confirmed by subsequent investigations into the phenomena of light and electricity, by which we have arrived at our physical conception of the Universal Centrifugal Force.

So that we have now a physical conception of the experiment performed by Nichols and Hull of America, and by Professor Lebedew of Russia, in which they conclusively demonstrated the existence of the pressure of aetherial light waves, which proves beyond the possibility of doubt the existence of this physical centrifugal force. Every atom and molecule, therefore, is the centre of two forces, which co-exist together, and every meteor and satellite and every planet is also the centre of the same two forces, and this we shall find in its application to planetary phenomena will have a most important bearing on the physical conception of those phenomena. Thus it is the Aether medium, by its energy of motions, that constitutes the companion and complementary force to Gravitation Attraction, and which, as we shall see later, is the medium which forms the physical basis of that attraction also. It is, then, by the combined and harmonious working of these two co-equal, co-existent, and co-extensive forces that worlds roll and rush, sweep and swing, move and rotate about their respective centres; and, by these two forces working in perfect harmony, that that order and stability are produced, which everywhere pervade the universe of worlds, and form them in their entirety into one grand, ultimate, and harmonious system.

To develop and prove this fact, by explaining their manner and mode of working, we shall now proceed to consider Newton's Laws of Motion, and their relation to the aetherial medium, and by so doing shall be able to show the unmistakable reality and complete efficiency of this physical conception of the Aether medium, which forms the physical basis of all universal motion and phenomena.

ART. 98. Newton's First Law of Motion.—We will now apply the centrifugal and centripetal forces to Newton's Laws of Motion, and endeavour to form a physical conception of the same from the aetherial standpoint. Before doing so, we must recall some of the statements made in Art. 14 with reference to the First Law of Motion.

It will be remembered that we divided the First Law of Motion into two parts: 1st, "Every body continues in a state of rest except in so far as it is compelled by impressed forces, i. e. impulses or motions, to change that state." This we saw agreed with our experience, and therefore was philosophically correct, and must hold good in its application to the centrifugal and centripetal forces of the Aether in their effect upon any body in space.

Let us proceed to apply the First Law of Motion to the planetary world. We have seen in the previous Art. so far as the distances of the planets are concerned in their relation to the sun, that the Law of Gravity is violated, and that planetary distance is not regulated by the law governing the centripetal force of Gravitation, otherwise the planets possessing the largest masses would be nearer to the sun than those possessing smaller masses.

The question arises, as to whether there is any law which governs planetary distance, by which the distance of any planet was regulated at the birth or creation of the solar system. It has been assumed by some scientists that planetary density is the regulating factor which determines the relative distance of the respective planets from their central body, the sun, but such an assumption is not consistent with scientific data. For we find that Venus, with a density of 4.81 compared with water, occupies a nearer position than the Earth with a density of 5.66, whereas the reverse should be the case if the density of a planet were the deciding factor in regulating a planet's distance.

Again, we find Saturn, which possesses a density of .75, occupying a nearer position to the sun than Uranus, which possesses a density of 1.28; so that here again, if density were the regulating factor which decided planetary distance, such a law is violated. According to the various densities of the planets, the respective positions of the planets in relation to the sun would be as follows: The nearest planet would be Mercury, which possesses a density of 6.85. This would be followed by the Earth, with a density of 5.66. Then Venus would come next, with a density of 4.81, followed by Mars, with a density of 4.01. After these we should have Jupiter, whose density is 1.38, with Uranus, whose density is 1.28, followed by Neptune possessing a density of 1.15, and Saturn would take Neptune's place, as it possesses the least density of all, its density being only .75. So that it is manifest, that density cannot be the governing condition, as has been proved in the previous article.

Now, if all the planets ever formed part of the sun, and they were hurled off into space by the centrifugal motion of the Aether, then there certainly would be some law which governs the relative distance of the various planets; but as far as we can see, there is no such law, as a law which is violated ceases to be a law, so that the law of masses or densities of a planet, governing their distances, has no place in the solar system.

This leads up to the question as to whether the planets ever did form part of the sun, as is generally supposed; and, in view of the fact that there is no law by which planetary distances are regulated, we are compelled to come to the conclusion that each planet and satellite once existed in an aetherial condition in space, and that it was by the condensation of that Aether, that each planet was formed; and that, at its birth, each planet occupied the relative distance from the sun which it occupies to-day.

At first sight this may appear startling, but I would ask the reader how he can account otherwise for the great irregularity which exists in the distances of the planets in their relation to the sun, as every known law which governs masses and density seems to be altogether set at defiance.

I hope to prove later on, that all matter has an aetherial origin, and if that be correct, then the origin of a planet briefly outlined can be accepted without violating the results of experience or experiment, and to that extent will be philosophically correct.

Dr. Larmor speaks of the aetherial constitution of matter, and refers to the views of Faraday and Davy in support of such a theory, while Lord Kelvin has referred to the same principle in an article on the "Condensation of Gravitational Matter in any part of the Universe" (Phil. Mag., July 1902). So that if it be possible for Aether to be condensed, and so form the nucleus of a planet or satellite, then, seeing that the Aether is universal, any planet or satellite or meteor may be formed in any part of the solar system; and the process has only to be continued, until we have planets of various sizes at various distances from the central body, the sun.

Here, therefore, at any rate, is a physical hypothesis which will satisfactorily account for all the different distances of the various planets. Apart from some such hypothesis, I fail to see how we can account for the irregularity that exists between planetary distances, when viewed from the standpoint of their masses and their densities.

Further, such a conception is entirely in harmony with the view of the dual character of the motions or powers of the aetherial medium, that would co-exist with the evolution and development of the planet. For, as the planet was evolved and developed from the aetherial medium which surrounded it on every side, two motions would be developed and grow with it—the centrifugal force or motion, and the centripetal motion of the Aether, or the attractive force known as Gravity. Thus, through all the growth and development of a planet, these two powers, the centripetal force and the centrifugal force, would be co-equal and co-existent.

The same truth applies to the sun or any other body in the universe; so that, if a planet, as the Earth, was formed in the beginning at its mean distance of 92,700,000 miles, then the joint centripetal motions produced by the Earth and sun in the Aether, would always equal the joint centrifugal motions produced by the same two bodies, simply because the two laws are the exact opposite of each other both in regard to intensity, distance, and magnitude.

Thus the Earth would always occupy its relative position in relation to the sun that it occupies to-day, as long as the two aetherial forces or motions, the centripetal and the centrifugal, exist. With this brief outline of a planet's history, we are now in a position to form a physical picture of the solar system when it first existed in the beginning.

We find the sun then occupying its centre. At various distances, we find the various planets situated without any regard to their relative masses or densities, as the following table shows. (The mass of sun is taken as unity.)


Mercury 35,900,000 1/7,636,440 6.85

Venus 67,000,000 1/397,000 4.81

Earth 92,700,000 1/324,439 5.66

Mars 141,000,000 1/2,994,790 4.01

Jupiter 482,000,000 1/1,048 1.38

Saturn 884,000,000 1/3,529 .75

Uranus 1,780,000,000 1/22,020 1.28

Neptune 2,780,000,000 1/18,520 1.15

Now, in order for any of these planets to fulfil Newton's First Law of Motion, the sun, which occupies the centre of the solar system, must be assumed to have no rotatory or orbital motion of its own; because, so long as it has a rotatory motion on its axis, or an orbital motion of its own through space, so long will even the first part of Newton's First Law of Motion be inapplicable to the solar system.

But if the sun can be assumed to possess at some point in its history no orbital motion, or rotatory motion on its axis, then the physical interpretation of the first law of motion can be physically conceived, and a planet at rest will remain at rest relatively to its central body, the sun, for ever.

Let us take the sun and Mercury as an example of the effect of the two motions operating in the aetherial medium. We will consider first the effect of the centrifugal motion. The sun, with its huge form, occupies the centre of the solar system, while Mercury has its mean distance about 36,000,000 miles away.

The solar fires are intensely burning, and every atom and every particle composing them are excited thereby into the most intense activity, and by their energy of motion create myriads upon myriads of waves in the surrounding Aether, which flow away on every side with the velocity of light.

With such velocity are they generated, that they speed across the distance of 36,000,000 miles which exist between Mercury and the sun in the short time of about three minutes, and if it were not for the aetherial and aerial atmosphere of the planet, would fall upon the surface of Mercury with an intensity of heat that would scorch up all vegetable life, if any existed thereon.

Now let us for a moment ignore the existence of the centripetal force, and then in that light view the influence of the electro-magnetic Aether waves upon Mercury. We have seen that when aetherial light waves come into contact with any body, they exert a pressure upon that body (Art. 77), so that under the influence of the centrifugal force only, Mercury would be borne away from its central body, the sun, with a power and energy of motion entirely dependent upon the intensity of the electro-magnetic Aether waves which give rise to the centrifugal force.

Thus Mercury would be carried away from the sun, far far away into the depths of space, with ever-decreasing rapidity, the rapidity of its motion through space being entirely dependent upon the intensity and energy of the Aether waves; and, as that intensity varies inversely as the square of the distance from the central body, the sun, so the impelling and repelling energy of the Aetherial waves would vary inversely as the square of the distance from the central body.

Thus the motion of Mercury or any other planet through space would not be uniform, but would gradually decrease, and such a result is perfectly in harmony with all experience and experiment in relation to moving bodies on this earth.

This effect of the Aetherial electro-magnetic light waves upon a planet is in harmony with Newton's nineteenth query in Optics, and is indeed the physical illustration of that query in its corrected form which we have already referred to in Art. 46, where Newton says: "Doth it (Aether) not grow denser and denser, etc.; every body endeavouring to go from the denser parts of the medium towards the rarer?"

That the Aether does grow denser and denser nearer to a body we have already seen in Art. 46, and now we learn that a body, when under the influence of the centrifugal force only, would pass from the denser parts of a medium to the rarer parts, as suggested by Newton. We will now suppose that Mercury has been repelled, by the pressure due to the aetherial waves generated by the sun, to the distance of Neptune, a distance of 2,780,000,000 miles; and that at this point the centrifugal force is cancelled, and in its place is put the centripetal force of Gravitation. What will be the effect upon Mercury then? At first sight the effect will be exceedingly slight, but slowly, yet surely, the attractive power of the sun would begin to make itself manifest, and we should find Mercury retracing its path along exactly the same straight line that it had taken in its outward journey.

Not only so, but its motion would be accelerated just in the same proportion that it had decreased on its outward journey. On and on through the intervening space the planet would rush, and if there were no centrifugal force in existence, the planet would ultimately rush into the central body, the sun, and being swallowed up by it, would maintain for a time the heat thereof.

Let us now view the case from the conjoint working of these forces, or motions, the centripetal and centrifugal, and we shall see, that under certain conditions it is possible to conceive physically of a planet being in a state of rest as stated in Newton's First Law of Motion, and also remaining in that state of rest, until it is compelled by other forces or motions to change that state. Mercury is now situated at its mean distance of about 36,000,000 miles. At the same instant let both the centrifugal and the centripetal forces or motions be applied to it, and to the sun. What is the result of such application? Will the planet move nearer the sun, which we are supposing to be perfectly at rest, or will it be urged further away? The effect is nil! for the simple reason, that when we set in motion the centripetal force of Gravitation, at exactly the same time we set in motion an exactly opposite force which is the exact complement and counterpart of the other, so that they exactly counterbalance each other, and Mercury under the influence of both forces still retains its mean position of 36,000,000 miles; and, until we either set the sun rotating, or give it a motion of its own through space, Mercury would remain at its distance of 36,000,000 miles comparatively at rest. The same reasoning may be applied to all the other planets, in relation to their mean distances, with the result that they too would remain in a comparative state of rest, so long as they were only under the influence of the two forces or motions, viz. the centrifugal and centripetal.

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