Across Unknown South America
by Arnold Henry Savage Landor
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After that the plateau became less interesting. We descended gradually some 400 m. (1,312 ft.) to the junction of Juliaca, 3,825 m. (12,550 ft.) above the sea level.

At that place the luxurious car which had taken me there had to be switched off from the Puno Line to the Cuzco Line.

I had dinner in the hotel, and again was impressed by the great honesty of the Peruvian people in the interior, and their considerate manners. It was somewhat curious to see the Indian waiter—most clumsy, dressed up in uncomfortable and ill-fitting European clothes—waiting on a medley of strange passengers, such as red-faced Spanish priests, tidy, smooth, oily-haired Peruvians, and talkative commercial travellers. But all—whether fat or lean, rich or poor, Indian or Peruvian—were the essence of politeness and thoughtfulness.

Being able to sleep in the luxurious car, where I had two good bedrooms, my own kitchen, and a sitting-room, I was indeed extremely comfortable.

I left again on February 10th over a great flat grassy tableland, with hills terraced up for cultivation. We passed an old church with a wonderful dome, and behind it snow-capped blue mountains.

The women wore peculiar hats with flapping edges in order to protect their faces from the wind. A black cloth was generally worn over the women's heads under the hat, while over their shoulders hung dark green or purple ponchos.

The Indians of that region showed remarkably strong Malay features.

The train steamed through the wide grassy valley, once crossing a fairly large stream. High snowy peaks loomed against the sky on our right, while we were travelling all the time at elevations varying from 3,531 m. (11,584 ft.) at Sicuani to 4,313 m. (14,150 ft.) at La Raya. The cold seemed intense. I got quite frozen sitting on the engine.

Quantities of llamas and sheep grazing were now to be seen on the land, foot-passengers and horsemen crossing the valley in all directions. At the stations large crowds of picturesque women squatted down selling pottery and fruit.

The farther we got into the interior the more picturesque the hats became. The women there wore hats with rectangular gold-braided brims, and with white, red or blue curtains at the sides. The men had pointed woollen caps with ear-flaps. The women were garbed in ample pleated skirts. Curiously enough, while the head and body were so well protected, most of them had bare legs and feet, the skirts reaching only just below the knee.

Near villages one saw neat patches of land turned, with trouble, into vegetable gardens. Stone enclosures were used by the natives as shelters for the animals during storms and to pen them up at night. The people themselves lived in stone huts.

The country reminded me forcibly of Tibet, and so, in a way, did the people—short and stumpy and smothered in clothes. I frequently noticed cairns of stones like the obos typical of Tibet and of the Himahlyas. There, too, as in Tibet, it seemed the fashion for passers-by to place a white stone on those cairns in order to bring good luck.

The men were curiously garbed in short, wide white woollen trouserettes, reaching just below the knees and split behind just over the calf. Under those they wore another pair of trousers, slightly longer. Their coats were short and tight, resembling Eton jackets. They wore wide and much embroidered belts, red and blue being their favourite colours.

An accident had happened to a bridge. It had collapsed, so that the trains could not proceed. Thanks to the great thoughtfulness of Mr. Mockill and his inspector of the line, Mr. Blaisdell, another private car, equally comfortable, had been sent down from Cuzco to the bridge. My baggage was transferred on men's backs to the opposite side of the stream. With the delay of only an hour or so I was able to proceed on another train to Cuzco, where I arrived that same evening.

The city of Cuzco is situated at an elevation of 11,062 ft. above the sea level. In its vicinity the most important remains of Inca civilization have been found. The city itself was most interesting. Its handsome Spanish cathedral had a facade of beautifully designed columns and a fine central doorway. The great bell in one of the towers contained a large quantity of gold in the bronze, giving wonderful resonance to its vibrating notes. A solid silver altar of great height was to be admired in the interior of the cathedral, while the chancel was of marvellously carved wood. So was a supplementary altar which had been stored away behind the silver one.

The principal square of Cuzco had recently been paved with cement, on which none of the natives could be induced to walk, as they were afraid of slipping, accustomed as they were to the roughest cobble-stone paving of their streets. Only the gentry of the city could be seen treading with great care on the polished pavement, and were looked upon with much admiration by the lower natives, who stared aghast from the porticoes around the square. In the centre of the square was a cheap terra-cotta statue of the Indian hero Atahualpa surmounting a fountain painted of a ghastly green. The gardens were nicely laid out with pretty lawns. Another beautiful church rose in the plaza, the doorway of which was also handsome, but not comparable in beauty with that of the cathedral. The stone carvings of its facade were nevertheless remarkable. There were arcades on three sides of the plaza, the houses being generally only one storey high above them. The buildings were painted light blue, pink, green, or bright yellow, the columns of beautifully cut stone being also covered with hideous paint to match.

Thanks to the kindness of the President of the Republic, Mr. B. B. Legujia, a telegram had been sent asking the Prefect of Cuzco to give me every possible assistance in visiting the Inca ruins in the neighbourhood. The Prefect, Mr. J. J. V. Cuner, kindly placed at my disposal three excellent horses and an orderly.

It is seldom one can visit a place where the people have more primitive habits than in the city of Cuzco. The streets, so wonderfully picturesque, were not fit to walk upon. The people threw into them all that can be thrown out of the houses, which possess no sanitary arrangements of any kind. Much of the pleasure of looking at the magnificent Inca walls—constructed of great blocks of stone so well fitted that no cement was necessary to hold them together—was really lost through being absolutely stifled by the suffocating odour which was everywhere prevalent in Cuzco.

The photographs that are reproduced in the illustrations of this book will give an idea of the grandeur of the Inca works better than any description. As I intend to produce at a later date a special work on that country, I am unable here to go fully into the history of the marvellous civilization of that race.

A photograph will be seen in one of the illustrations showing the immensity of the three-walled fortress of Sacsayhuaman. Another photograph will show with what accuracy the Incas could carve stone—which, mind you, in those days must have been much softer than it is now, and not unlike the sandstone that is used in England for building purposes.

Many curious subterranean passages were to be found on the mountains near Cuzco, the entrances to which were among picturesque rocks. The Incas seemed to have a regular mania for carving steps and angular channels in rocks. Not far from the fortress could be found the place of recreation of the Incas—the Rodadeiro—over which the Incas tobogganed, perhaps sitting on hides. Thousands and thousands of people must have gone in for the sport, as the solid rock was deeply grooved by the friction of the persons who have slid on it.

The remains of ancient altars for the worship of the sun and an Inca throne, where the king of the Incas must have sat while battles were taking place, were indeed most interesting to examine.

More interesting than any other to me was the particular spot on the mountain side where a kind of throne existed carved out of a huge block of rock, and where a battle of the Incas against their enemies could be reconstructed. Mounds of ammunition, consisting of round stones as big as a lawn-tennis ball, had been accumulated above and near the throne. Just below that high spot I found scattered upon the mountain side quantities of ammunition which had evidently been thrown by the Incas at the attacking foes.

Farther on was the "round table" where the Incas had their feasts—a huge circular table of rock situated near a conical boulder of immense size.

Interesting fountains with carved figure-heads; an Inca bath of graceful lines; and, some kilometres beyond Cuzco, the marvellous ruins of Viraccocha at Tinta, where gigantic walls of a palace were to be seen standing, and ruins of other fortresses filled one with amazement.

On the mountain side near the town were the strange gateways of Choquechaca, which in their lines resembled ancient Egyptian buildings. Not far off were the blocks of rock to which the Incas fastened their prisoners by their legs, arms and heads, and exposed them to the ridicule of the populace.

Many were the wonderful things which had been found in digging near Cuzco; but most interesting of all to me were the deformed crania—some flattened to almost an incredible extent on the top, others elongated backward to an amazing degree, others still with the central part of the skull deeply depressed, so as to form two globular swellings at the sides. Others, again, had been squeezed so as to form an angular ridge longitudinally on the summit. One skull particularly interested me, which had a pronounced elongation backward, and a dent just above the forehead which must have been caused by tying the cranium while young and still in a soft condition. Most of the skulls were of gigantic size when compared with those of modern times. The lower part was under-developed. Many of them possessed magnificent teeth.

Several of the skulls had been trephined, evidently while the person was still alive, some of the perforations in the brain-case being circular in shape, others quadrangular—most of the trephinations having been made in the forehead, others on the top of the skull. I saw one skull with as many as eleven apertures thus made. The operation had evidently been performed by a very able surgeon, for the little cap of bone removed fitted beautifully into the opening that had been made.

The Incas were great architects. They had an absolute craving for carving rock. They made models of their fortresses and palaces in blocks of hard stone, some of these being of remarkable perfection in their detail.

The pottery, red earthen vessels with geometrical designs upon them, was most interesting, especially the large jars which must have been used for fermenting wine. Those jars of a typical shape must have rested on a pedestal of wood, as they ended in a point at the bottom, which prevented their standing up on a flat surface. Two handles were attached to the lower part of those jars, and also to the great bottles in which they kept wine.

The Incas used tumblers, enamelled in red and green, and of most graceful shape.

They were fond of ornamenting their bottles and vessels with representations of human heads, reproduced with considerable artistic fidelity. Other bottles represented strange gnawing faces, with expanded eyes and a fierce moustache.

Judging from the representations of figures on their jars, the people in those days wore their hair in little plaits round the head. Heads of llamas sculptured in stone or else modelled in earthenware were used as vessels.

The Incas made serviceable mortars for grinding grain, of polished hard rock, mostly of a circular shape, seldom more than two feet in diameter.

The matrimonial stone was interesting enough. It was a double vessel carved out of a solid stone, a perforation being made in the partition between the two vessels. It seems, when marriages were performed, that the Incas placed a red liquid in one vessel and some water in the other, the perforation in the central partition being stopped up until the ceremony took place, when the liquids were allowed to mingle in emblem of the union of the two lives. Curious, too, was the pipe-like arrangement, called the kenko, ornamented with a carved jaguar head, also used at their marriage ceremonies.

Their stone axes and other implements were of extraordinary interest—their rectangularly-shaped stone knives, the star- and cross-shaped heads for their war clubs, as well as the star-shaped weights which they used for offensive purposes, attached, perhaps, to a sling. Many were the weapons of offence made of stone which have been found near Cuzco, some of which were used by holding in the hand, others attached to sticks.

The Incas were fairly good sculptors, not only in stone but also in moulding human figures and animals in silver and gold. Llamas, deer, long-nosed human-faced idols were represented by them with fidelity of detail, although perhaps not so much accuracy in the general proportions. At a later date the Incas used metal implements, such as small rakes and chisels for smoothing rock. They made hair-pins and ear-rings, chiefly of a mixture of gold, silver, lead and copper.

I saw at Cuzco a stone arrangement which was used by the Incas for washing and milling gold. Many ornaments of silex, agate and emerald, and also of coral, which had evidently been brought there from the coast, have also been found near Cuzco.

The spoons and knives which the Incas used were generally made of gold, with representations of heads attached to them. The average length of these articles was from two to four inches.

I left the city on Friday, February 16th, going back the way I had come as far as the junction of Juliaca.

The Cuzco railway, to my mind, crosses the most beautiful and most interesting scenery of any railway I have ever seen. It is a pity that more English people do not travel by it. The great elevation makes people suffer from mountain-sickness, and that perhaps deters many travellers from attempting the journey. The railway has to contend with great natural difficulties—land-slides, which often stop traffic for days at a time, being frequent.

From Cuzco I went direct to Lake Titicaca, where more Inca ruins, such as the cylindrical towers of Sillistayni, existed at Puno. Lake Titicaca is a heavenly sheet of water, situated at an elevation by hypsometrical apparatus of 12,202 ft. With its magnificent background of snowy peaks, the lake looked indeed too impressive for words, as I steamed across it in the excellent steamer of the Peruvian Corporation.

Early in the morning of February 17th, having travelled the entire night in order to cross the lake from north to south, we arrived at Guaqui, the port for La Paz, the capital of Bolivia. Although I travelled in the most luxurious comfort, owing to the kindness of the Peruvian Corporation, the journey by rail and the going about examining the ruins at Cuzco had tired me considerably. My brain was so exhausted that it would really take in no more.

Worse luck, when I reached La Paz it was during carnival time, when it was impossible to go out of the hotel without being smothered in cornflour or chalk, and sprinkled with aniline dyed water. Even bottles of ink were emptied on one's head from the windows. So that, although I crossed Bolivia from one end to the other in its longest part, I was unable to do any further work. I tried to get down to the coast as quickly as possible in order to return home.

La Paz was a beautiful city, extremely neat, with bright red-tiled roofs and white buildings. It was situated in a deep hollow surrounded by a great barrier of mountains. So deep and sudden was the hollow that within a few metres of its upper edge one would never suppose a town to be at hand. Bolivia is a go-ahead country in which English people are greatly interested. We have in our Minister there, Mr. Gosling, a very able representative of British interests.

Bolivians have shown great enterprise in building railways in all directions in order properly to develop their enormously wealthy country. Many important lines are in construction; others are projected—of which, perhaps, the most interesting will be the one from Santa Cruz to Corumba on the Brazilian boundary.

The day will come when the port of Arica on the Pacific Ocean will be joined to Oruro, on the Antofagasta line, the well-known junction in Bolivia, and eventually to Santa Cruz. The present plan is to build a line from the already existing railway at Cochabamba to Porto Velarde on the Rio Grande (Rio Mamore), then to Santa Cruz. The Brazilians on their side will eventually connect Sao Paulo with Cuyaba and Corumba. It will then be possible to travel by rail right across the South American continent in its richest part.

There is also a project of connecting Santa Cruz with Embarcacion and Campo Santo, in the Argentine Republic, and eventually with the Trans-Andine Railway.

Other smaller lines projected are those between Potosi and Sucre, and one from the Chilian boundary at La Quiada to Tarija. That system of railways will greatly develop the entire southern portion of Bolivia. A small railway is also proposed in the most northern part of the Republic, between Riberalta on the River Madre de Dios and Guajara Merim on the Madeira-Mamore railway, a district of immense wealth for the production of rubber.

The exact elevation of La Paz by hypsometrical apparatus was 12,129 ft.

I left La Paz on February 21st, and travelled through flat, alluvial, uninteresting country—only a huge flock of llamas or vicunas enlivening the landscape here and there, or a group of Indians in their picturesque costumes. The women, with their green, violet or red shawls and much-pleated short skirts, generally blue, afforded particularly gay patches of colour.

I saw a beautiful effect of mirage near the lake in the vicinity of Oruro, as I was on the railway to Antofagasta. We were going through flat country most of the time. It had all the appearance of having once been a lake bottom. Perhaps that great Titicaca Lake formerly extended as far south as Lake Poopo, which is connected with Lake Titicaca by the River Desaguadero. In fact, if I am not far wrong, the two lakes formed part, in days gone by, of one single immense lake. The mountains on our right as we went southwards towards Oruro showed evidence that the level of the then united lakes must have reached, in days gone by, some 150 ft. higher than the plain on which we were travelling. The low undulations on our left had evidently been formed under water in the lake bottom.

The junction of Oruro, from which the Cochabamba railway branches, was quite a large place, of 8,000 inhabitants, but with no particularly striking buildings. Tin and silver mining was carried on in the surrounding mountains.

From Oruro I continued the journey to Antofagasta via Uyuni. Immense deposits of borax were to be seen all along the line from the station of Ulaca; then we came to a most beautiful sight—the volcano of Ollaguee, 12,123 ft. above the sea level. It looked like a giant dome, snow-capped, and smoking on its southern side. Its slopes were fairly regular, and of most brilliant colouring, red and blue. Near the volcano were mounds of mud and shattered rock. Ollaguee stood on the boundary between Bolivia and Chile.

After passing San Martin, the first station on the Chilian side, the railway skirted the bed of an ancient lake, an immense circular flat stretch with deposits of sand and borax, in which could be seen occasional pools of stagnant water. On the west side stood a high three-peaked mountain covered with snow, while at the southern end of that plain was a charming lakelet. We had no sooner left this beautiful view than we had before us to the south-west an immense conical mountain, flat-topped. It looked just like the well-known Fujiyama of Japan, only more regular in its sloping lines.

We passed the works of a Borax Company, which were between the stations of Sebollar and Ascotan. There was to be seen another immense lake of borax, some 40 kil. (24 miles) long.

I arrived that evening at Antofagasta, and was fortunate enough to get on board one of the Pacific Mail Line steamers the next morning on my way to Valparaiso. We were now in the height of civilization again—very hot, very uncomfortable, very ambitious, very dirty, the hotels abominable. Had it not been for the kindness of friends I should have fared badly indeed in Valparaiso, for the place was invaded by a swarm of American tourists, who had just landed from an excursion steamer and rendered the place unbearable.

From Valparaiso, as soon as it was possible to obtain accommodation, I travelled across the Andes and as far as Buenos Aires by the Trans-Andine railway. The scenery on this line was most disappointing to any one who has seen the Andes in their real grandeur farther north; but for the average traveller the journey may prove interesting enough, although hot, dull, dusty, and not particularly comfortable.

While I was travelling on the railway between Mendoza and Buenos Aires there was a serious strike of railway employes. The railway had been attacked at many different points. Amateur engineers and attendants ran the trains. We were only two hours from Buenos Aires. The heat and dust were intense as we crossed the great pampas. The shaking of the train had tired me to such an extent that I placed a pillow on the ledge of the open window, and was fast asleep with my head half outside the carriage, when I woke up startled by the sound of an explosion. I found myself covered with quantities of debris of rock. A huge stone, as big as a man's head or bigger, had been thrown with great force at the passing train by the strikers, and had hit the side of my window only about three inches above my head, smashing the woodwork and tearing off the metal frame of the window. Had it struck a little lower it would have certainly ended my journey for good.

As it was I arrived in Buenos Aires safely. A few days later I was on my way to Rio de Janeiro, by the excellent steamer Aragon. Shortly after, by the equally good vessel Araguaya, of the Royal Mail Steamship Company, I returned to England, where I arrived in broken health on April 20th, 1912. It was a relief to me to land at Southampton, with all my notes, the eight hundred photographs I had taken, and the maps which I had made of the regions traversed.



(C.) = Colouring and Tanning. (C.W.) = Woods good for Construction. (M.) = Medicinal. (F.) = Fibrous. (R.) = Resinous. (P.) = Palms. (L.) = Lactiferous. (O.) = Oliferous. (S.) = Starchy. (T.) = Tanning.

Alocasia macrorhiza Schott Inhame (S.) Anchietea salutaris St. Hil. Cipo suma (M.) Andira spectabilis Sald. Angelim Pedra (C.W.) Andira vermifuga Angelim amargoso (C.W.) Apuleia praecox M. Grapiapunha (F.) Arachis hypogoea L. Amendoim (O.) Araucaria Brasiliana Lamb Pinho do Parana (C.W.) Aristoiochia (various kinds) Jarrinha (M.) Asclepia curassavica L. Official da sala (M.) Aspidosperma dasycarpon A.D.C. Peroba rosa (C.W.) " eburneum Fr. All. Pequia marfim " " leucomelum Waring. Peroba parda " " macrocarpum M. Guatambu " " polyneuron M. Arg. Peroba amarella " " sessiliflorum Fr. All. Pequia amarello " " sp. Peroba revessa " Astronium fraxinifolium Schott Goncalo Alves " Attalea funifera M. Piassava (P.) Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K. Castanha do Para (O.) Bignoniaceas (various kinds) Caroba (M.) Bixa orellana L. Urucu (C.) Boerhavia hirsuta Willd. Herva-tostao (M.) Bromelia (various kinds) Caragoata (F.) (S.) Brunfelsia Hopeana Benth. Manaca (M.) Byrsonima (various kinds) Muricy (C.) Cabralea cangerana Sald. Cangerana (C.W.) Caesalpinia echinata Lam. Pao Brasil " Caesalpinia ferrea M. Pao Ferro (C.W.) Calophyllum brasiliense C. Guanandy (R.) Capaifera (various kinds) Copahyba (O.) Cassia (two kinds) Canafistula (F.) Cayaponia (various kinds) Cayapo (M.) Cecropia (various kinds) Embauba (F.) Cedrera fissilis Vell. Cedro vermelho (C.W.) Centrolobium robustum M. Arariba amarello " " tomentosum Benth. " rosa " Chiococca anguifuga M. Cipo cruz (M.) Chrysophyllum glyciphloeum Cazar Buranhen (C.W.) " " " Monesia (M.) Cissampelos (various kinds) Abutua (M.) Ciusta criuva Cambess Manguerana (F.) Cocos nucifera L. Coqueiro Bahia (P.) Coffea arabica L. Cafeeiro Copaifera guaianensis Desf. Copahyba (C.W) Copernicia cerifera M. Carnahubeira (C.W.) (P.) Cordia alliodora Cham. Louro (C.W.) Couratari estrellensis Raddi Jequitiba Vermelho (C.W.) Coutarea hexandra Schum Quina-quina (M.) Cuscuta (various kinds) Cipo chumbo (M.) Dalbergia nigra Fr. All. Jacaranda cabiuna (C.W.) Dioscoreas batatas D.C. Cara (S.) Drimys granatensis Mutis Casca d'anta (M.) Echyrosperum Balthazarii Fr. All. Vinhatico amarello (C.W.) Eloeis guineensis L. Dende (P.) Erythrina corallodendron L. Mulungu (M.) Esenbeckia febrifuga M. Laran do Matto (M.) " leiocarpa Guarantan (C.W.) Eugenia durissima Ubatinga (C.W.) Euterpe edulis M. Palmito (P.) " oleracea L. Assahy (P.) Favillea deltoidea Cogu Fava de S. Ignacio (O.) Ficus (various species) Figueiras (L.) Genipa Americana L. Genipapo (C.) Gesnera alagophylla M. Batata do campo (M.) Gossipum (various kinds) Algodoeiro Harncornia speciosa M. Mangabeira (L.) Hedychium coron-koen Lyrio do brejo (S.) Hymencaea courbaril L. Jatahy (C.W.) (R.) Ilex paraguayensis St. Hil. Mate (M.) Inga edulis M. Inga-assu (C.W.) Ipomoea jalapa Pursh. Jalapa (M.) Jatropha curcas L. Pinhao de purga (O.) Johannesia princeps Vell. Anda-assu (O.) Lafoensia (various kinds) Pacuri (C.) Laguncularia rac. Gaertu. Mangue branco (F.) Landolphia (various kinds) Pacouri (L.) Lecythis grandiflora Berg. Sapucaia commun (C.W.) " ollaria Piso " -assu " " ovata Cambess " mirim " Lisianthus pendulus M. Genciana Brazil (M.) Machaerium Alemanni Benth. Jacaranda violeta (C.W.) " incorruptibile Fr. All. " rosa " " leucopterum Vog. " tan " Maclura (two kinds) Tajuba (C.) " affinis Mig. " (C.W.) Malvaceas (various kinds) Guaxima (F.) Manicaria saccifera G. Ubussu (P.) Manihot (two kinds) Mandioca (S.) " Manicoba (L.) Mauritia vinifera M. Burity (P.) Melanoxylon brauna Schott Guarauna (C.W.) Mespilodaphne sassafras Meissn. Canella sassafraz (C.W.) Mikania (various kinds) Guaco (M.) Mimusops (various kinds) Massaranduba (L.) " elata Er. All. " Grande (C.W.) Moldenhauera floribunda Schrad Grossahy azeite (C.W.) Moquilea tomentosa Benth. Oity " Musa (various kinds) Bananeira Myracroduon urundeuva Fr. All. Urindueva (C.W.) Myristica (two kinds) Bucu huba (O.) Myrocarpus erythroxylon Fr. All. Oleo vermelho (C.W.) " frondosus " pardo (C.W.) Myrsine and Rapanea (various kinds) Copororoca (F.) Nectandra amara Meissn. Canella parda (C.W.) " mollis Meissn. " preta " " myriantha Meissn. " capitao-mor " Nicotina tabacum L. (various kinds) Fumo Operculina convolvulus M. Batata de purga (M.) Oreodaphne Hookeriana Meissn. Itauba preta (C.W.) Paullinia sorbilis M. Guarana (M.) Pilocarpus pinnatifolius Jaborandy (M.) Piper umbellatum L. Pariparoba (M.) Piptadenia rigida Benth Angico (C.W.) (F.) Protium (various kinds) Almecega (R.) Psidium acutangulum M. Araca pyranga (C.W.) Psychotria ipec. M.A. Poaya legitima (M.) Pterodon pubescens Faveiro (C.W.) Renealmia occident. P. and E. Capitiu (M.) Rhizophora Mangle L. Mangue verm. (F.) Rhopala Gardnerii Meissn. Carvalho Vermelho (C.W.) Ricinus communis L. Mamoneira (O.) Saccharum officin. L. (various kinds) Canna de assucar Sanserieria (two kinds) Espada (F.) Schinus terebenthifolius Raddi Aroeira (C.W.) (R.) Silvia navalium Fr. All. Tapinhoa (C.W.) Siphonia elastica (Hevea) (various kinds) Seringueira (L.) Smilax (various kinds) Japecanga (M.) Solanum (various kinds) Jurubeba (M.) Strychnos macroacanthos P. Quassia (M.) Stryphnodendron barbatimao M. Barbatimao (C.W.) (T.) Styracaceas (various kinds) Estoraqueiro (R.) Syphonia globulifera L.F. Anany (R.) Tecoma araliacea P.D.C. Ipe una (C.W.) " pedicellata Bur. and K. Sch. Ipe tabaco " Terminalia acuminata Fr. All. Guarajuba " Theobroma cacao L. Cacaoeiro Tournefortia (various kinds) Herva de Lagarto (M.) Vanilla (three kinds) Baunilha (M.) Vitex Montevidensis Cham. Taruman (C.W.) Vouacapoua Americana Aubl. Acapu (C.W.) Xanthosoma sagit. Schott Tayoba (S.) Xylopia (various kinds) Embira (F.)


Atele paniscus Coata Balsena australis Baleia austral Bradypus tridactylus Preguica Callithrix scicuria Saymiri do Para Canis brasiliensis Aguarachaim " jubatus Guara Cavia cobaya Cobaya Cebus appella Macaco chorao Cercolabos prehensilis Coandu Cervus dama Gamo " elaphus Veado " rufus Guazu-Pita Coeelogenys pacca Pacca Dasyprocta aguti Cotia Dasypus novemcinctus Tatu de cauda comprida Delphinus amazonicus Golfinho Dicotyles labiatus Porco queixada branco " torquatus Caetitu canella ruiva Didelphis azurae Gamba " marsupialis Philandra Felis concolor Sussuarana " onca Jaguar " pardalis Jaguatirica Gallictis barbara Irara Hapale jacchus Ouistiti or mico Hydrochoerus capibara Capivara Lepus brasiliensis Coelho Lutra brasiliensis Ariranha Manatus australis Peixe-boi do Para Mephitis suffocans Jacarecagua Myrmecophaga jutaba Tamandua bandeira Nasua socialis Caoti de bando " solitaria " " mundeo Phyllostoma spectrum Vampiro Procyon concrivorus Guaxinim Sciurus aestuans Caxinguele Tapirus americanus Anta Vespertilio auritus Morcego orelhudo " murinus " commun


Ajaja Colhereiro Alauda arvensis Cotovia Amazona amazonica Curica Amazona brasiliensis Papagaio Ampelis atropurpurea Cotinga vermelha do Para Anumbius anumbi Cochicho Ara ararauna Arara azul " macao " piranga " nobilis Maracana Aramides saracura Saracura Aramus scolopaceus Carao Ardea Socoi Joao Grande Ateleodacius speciosa Sahi Belonopterus cayannensis Quero-quero Brotogeris tirica Periquito Cacicus cela Checheo Cairina moschata Pato do matto Calospiza pretiosa Sahira Calospiza toraxica Sahira verde Caprimulgus cericeocaudalus Curiango Cathartes atratus Urubu " Papa " roi Ceryle amazona Martim pescador Charadrius dominicus Tarambola Chasmorhychus nudicolis Araponga Chauna cristata Tachan Chiromachaeris gutturosus Corrupiao Colaptes campestris Pica-pao Columba domestica Pombo domestico " turtur Rola Conurus jendaya Nandaya Corvus corax Corvo Crax alector Hocco do Para " pinima Mutum Creciscus exilis Frango d'agua verde Crypturus japura Macucan " notivagus Jaho " rufescens Tinamu ruivo " scolopax Juo " soui Turury " variegatus Inhambu anhanga Dacnis cayana Sahi azul Dendrocygna fulva Marreca peba " viduata Irere Donacubius articapillus Japacamin Eudocimus ruber Guara Euphonia aurea Gaturamo amarello Eurypyga helias Pavao do Para Falco destructor Harpya " haliaetus Aguia " sparverius Falcao Fringilla carduelis Pintasilgo Fulica armillata Carqueja Furnarius rufus Joao de barro Gallinago delicata Narceja " gigantea Gallinhola Grotophaga ani Anu Glaucidium brasilianum Cabure Heterospizias meridionalis Gaviao caboclo Hycter americanus Can-can Ibis rubra Ibis escarlate Jacamaralcyon tridactyla Beija flor bicudo Jonornis martinica Frango d'agua azul Lauru macubipennis Gaivota Leptotila rufaxilla Juruty Loxia cardinalis Cardeal Meleagris gallopavo Peru Microdactylus cristatus Seriema Minus lividus Sabia da praia Milvago Chimachim Caracara " chimango Chimango Molothrus bonariensis Vira-bosta Molybdophanes coerules Macarico real Morinella interpres Batuira Mucivora tyrannus Tesoura Myopsitta monachus Catorrita Myothera rex Myothera real Nomomyx dominicus Can-can Nothura maculosa Codorna Nyctidromus albicolis derbyanus Bacurau Odontophorus capueira Uru Opisthocomus cristatus Cigana Oriolus brasiliensis Sapu Oryzoborus angolensis Avinhado " crassirostris Bicudo Ostinops decumanus Yapu Otalis katraca Aracuan Parra jacana Jacana Pavo cristatus Pavao Penelope cristata Jacu Phasianus colchicus Faisao Piaya cayana Alma de gato Picus Martius Picanco negro Pionus menstruns Maitaca Pipra strigilata Manequim variegado Piroderus scutatus Pavo Pisorhin choliba Coruja Pitherodius pileatus Garca real Podiceps americanus Mergulhao Polyborus tharus Carancho Psittacus passerinus Tuim Psophius crepitans Agami Rhamphastos discolorus Tucano Rhea americana Avestruz, Ema Rupicola Gallo do Para Siconea mycteria Jaburu Stephanophorus leucocephalus Azulao Sterna hirundinacea Trinta reis Sula leucogastra Mergulhao Syrigma sibilatrix Soco assobiador Tanagra citrinella Tanagra de cabeca amarella Tantalus americanus Tuyuyu Tinamus tao Macuco Triclaria cyanogaster Sabia-cica Turdus rufiventris Sabia larangeira Volatinia jacarini Serrador Xanthormis pyrrhopterus Encontro


Acanthurus bahianus Acanthuro Bahiano Caranx pisquelus Solteira Chromis acara Acara Cichla brasiliensis Nhacunda Coryphoena Dourado Curimatus laticeps Curimata Cybium regale Sororoca Cymnotus electricus Poraque Eugraulis Brossnue Anchova " encrausicholus Sardinha Leporinus Piau Macrodon trahira Trahira Merlangus vulgaris Pescada Muroena anguilla Enguia dos rios Petromyzom marinum Lampreia do mar Platystoma Lima Surubim Primelode Pirinambu Pirinambu Prochilodus argenteus Pacu Rhinobates batis Raia lisa Scomber scombrus Cavalla Serrasalmo piranha Piranha Silurus bagrus Bagre Solea vulgaris Linguado Squalus carcharias Tuburao Tristis antiquorum Espadarte Vastres gigas Pirarucu



Caiman fissipes Jacare Enyalius bilimeatus Camaleao listrado Teus monitor Teyu


Boa constrictor Giboia constrigente Bothrops indolens Jararaca preguicosa Ciclagras gigas Boipevaussu Coluber poecilostoma Caninana Crotalus durissus Cobra de cascavel commun " horridus " " " hor. " mutus Sururucu " terrificus Boicininga, Cascavel Drimobius bifossatus Cobra nova Elaps corallinus Boi coral " " Cobra coral " frontalis Boi coral Erythrolamprus aesculapii Cobra coral Eunectes murinus Sucuriu Helicops modestus Herpetodryas carinatus " sexcarinatus Copra-cipo Hyla faber Perereca ferreiro Lachesis alternatus Urutu, cotiara, cruzeiro, etc. " atrox Jararaca, jararacucu " bilineatus Surucucu patioba " castelnaudi " itapetingae Cotiarinha, boipeva, furta-cor " jararacucu Jararacucu, surucucu, tapete " lanceolatus Jararaca, jararacucu " Lansbergii " mutus Sururucu, surucutinga " neuwiedii Urutu, jaraca do rabo branco Liophis almadensis Jararaquinha do campo " poecilogyrus Oxirhopus trigeminus Cobra coral, boi coral Philodryas serra Pipa curcurucu Entanha Phrynonax sulphureus Canninana Radinoea Merremii Cobra d'agua " undulata Rhachidelus Brazili Mussurana Thamnodynastes nattereri Xenedon merremii Boipeva


Chelys fimbriata Mata-mata Emys amazonica Jurara-assu " tracaxa Tracaja Testudo tabulata Jabuti



- ENGLISH. BORORO. APIACAR. MUNDURUCU. CAMPAS OR ANTIS. - Anger nokatzmatahtzeh Angry sapecoreh Ant cachpigache Anta (Tapir) biuh Ariranha auareh Arm ueiba noshempa Arm (1st pers.) ikkanna zizuhbah " (2nd " ) akkanna " (3rd " ) kanna " (elbow to shoulder) zizubah puha " (elbow to wrist) ittaddagara zizubah ziahppura (1st pers.) " (2nd " ) akkeddagan " (3rd " ) akkagara Armlet (ribbon) canagadje geo tahttuh ahsa (metal bracelet) zih pahuerahna (fibre bracelet) Arrow tchohkopi Arrow-head tugh otto uuebaffah Arrow feathers attahga uuebappah Arrows tuhga uueba ubipah Ashes djoroguddo tahnimbuga kaburi tanimbo Attack (to) bakkuredda ahre mohmmahih Aureole of feathers parikko ahkahntarah Axe uah

Bad kahmahri Bag nottaratti Bands (ankle) burere paro tah pakkuhrah gagadje geo Bands (knee) buregadje geo tah pakkuhrah Barter (to) ahmazohppuhru Baskets (for bones of deceased) koddo mbuhah Beans adianrap macha Beard nogua buh tennovohava erapirap noshpatonna Beautiful rip Bees eit Belly butto euk nomucha Belt (for coggu mahte pikku women) ahsa Belt nuata quero Big kurireo huh or hun berehiubuh niroikki Bird kiyeggeh uehrah uassehm tzmehdi Black inucat potztaghi takarontz Blind yoko bokkua dai hai Blood aerui irantz Blue ibitacobush tahmaroli Born (to be) curi butto ohih Bow baiga uehwuerrappara irarek piamen " (1st pers.) inaiga " (2nd " ) anaiga " (3rd " ) baiga Bow-string baighikko uebuehra pahama Boy mehdrogo " (plural) neh ghe azzih van kogureh vohsah Bracelet marentz Break (to) rettegaddo, ahmoppehn tuo Breathe akke ippottuh hem Brother uagnuh yegue " eldest ihmanna zikkuhbuhra uamuh " (1st pers.) " (2nd " ) ahmanna " (3rd " ) uhmanna " (general) tchemanna " (1st p. p.) pahmanna " (2nd " ) tahmanna " (3rd " ) ettuhmanna " younger zihrukkiera ocutoh " (1st pers.) ihvieh " (2nd " ) ahvieh " (3rd " ) uhvieh " (general) tchevieh " (1st p. p.) pahvieh " (2nd " ) tahvieh " (3rd " ) ettuvieh Butterfly orebereb kittandaro

Canoe ikka uehara pitotzu Caress (to) kera amudda uahvaippiahr appo Charcoal djoradde tattah puehn Chest (man's) immorora zipassiah uei cameah notto pine (1st pers) " (2nd " ) ammorore " (3rd " ) morora " (woman's ) immokkuro izi kahma uei came ciuccioni ammokkuro mokkuro Child entzih Chin (1st pers.) inogura zirenuvah hueniepaeh " (2nd " ) akogura " (3rd " ) okkura Cloak (worn by kittahreutz Campas) Cloud crehreate Clouds boettugo ivagon menkori Cold biakko irhossahn Comet cujedje kigareu Courage paguddah bokua ihmandarahih Crocodile abatchiri Cry araguddu oh zaiyoh niraatcha

Dance erehru ahniuareh Dark boetcho puhtunhaiba stiniri taki Daughter araichih nessintcho Day meriji koein Dead abeh Deaf bia bokkua diahppuhai Deer arapisehm Design (to tugo ohkuazzihat ornament) Die (to) bi ahmonnoh Dog arigao ahwarah yacurite otzitii Drink (to) kuddo uhuekkuhr nerachi nerativo riratzi Drunk icanuh noshinghitatcha Dumb battaru bokkua nogni enghih

Ears zinambi naeinebui noyembitta " (1st pers.) iviyah " (2nd " ) aviyah " (3rd " ) biyah Earth motto wuhra Earthquake mottumagaddo Eat ko animauevuttah inenetieh noatcha, com combih Egg tupissa Enemy zih ruhwahsahra Eyebrows zirapezavah notta makku " (1st pers.) iyerera " (2nd " ) aerira " (3rd " ) djerira Eyelashes noshumpigokki Eyes " (1st pers.) yokko ziarakkuara lokki " (2nd " ) aekko " (3rd " ) dyokko

Fat kavaddo hih hai uannanowata Father pao zihruwa utahbah ahppah " (1st pers.) iyuohka " (2nd " ) ao " (3rd " ) uho " (plur., our) tcheo " (your) tao " (their) ettuoh Feathers " (of wings) ikkoddo uerapeppoh " (of tail) ayaga mehruazah Fight nogempi Find (to) jordure gi ueppiahr Finger or thumb ikkera kurireo ziffah notta pakki Finger (first) boya gaisso " (second) boya taddao ziffah mottehra " (third) mekkijio ziffah inha " (small) biagareo ziffah inha Fire djoro tahttah eraitcha pah mahri Fish kahre pihrah ashiman gna denga aite shumma Five brancogeh Fling arrows with a bow kiddogoddu oh uevahn Fly (to) koddu ahveveh haratzu Foot zihppuha ibuih numaronca nocunta noetzi " (1st pers.) iyure " (2nd " ) aure " (3rd " ) bure " (sole of) noetzi or nuitche Forehead nohpanka nopanka Forest ittura kahueh kauru khuh " (thick) iguro kurireo Four ibaribrip Fowl ataripa Friend ubeshi Fright paguddah ohkkriheeh nottaruatzo

Give (to) makko ahmandah (I give him) makkai Girl ahredrogo ahwah vohsah " (plural) naguareh kogureh God Tuhpane (Sun) pahua Good tchipat kahmehta Good afternoon ene mahrukka " day ene cohema " night nehppi tuhna kattuh Give me water bina ina Gourds bappo (rattling gourds used by Bororos) Grandfather zihra magna " (1st pers.) yeddaga " (2nd " ) aeddoga " (3rd " ) iyeddoga Grandmother zihza ruza " (1st pers.) mugapega " " imaruga " (2nd " ) atcharuga " (3rd " ) itcharuga Grass tuarish Green natchari Guayaba (fruit) comassique Gums of teeth nohtapu Gun natziarih

Hair ziava kahp noeshi " (1st pers.) ittao nuesse " (2nd " ) akkao " (3rd " ) ao Hand zippoa ibuih nakku " (1st pers.) ikkera " (2nd " ) akkera " (3rd " ) ijera Happy jakkare horruem Hatred okki naimia roi Head ziakkan noppolo " (1st pers.) ittaura " (2nd " ) akkaura " (3rd " ) aura Head band nahmattery (worn by Campas) Hear (to) nokkie makimpi Hearing merudduo ziahppuhăh Heart nasangani Heat heai Heel tsungueche Hippopotamus aidje Honey eit attuh Hunt (to) itieh urepp nomarma wai Husband ohreddo zihmehna tazu acuimibaeh nueme " (plural) tcheddoreddo pagoreddo ettohreddo Hut anioca mengotcha pangotzu

I do not want erocaticondaca, fenotchiro eroka I want you noni chempe naka Ill cogoddu ikkaruhara nohmahrtzi Illness jorubbu zihkkah ruhara Ill-treat (to) utchebai, huauar erugoddo kigoddo Indian corn sagre ssengue famadole " Infuriated kurigoddo zih manarahih (to be) Iron kirieh tonghi Island tiahueruh

Jump karetta appoll nuhme atcha

Kill (to) bitto ahzukkah noautziri Knee ippoh godaoh zirinupphua yon-ah loyeretto yerito Knuckles nouaviro

Lake kuruga ueppiah Large kuri hih hai andavuete Laugh noguari ahpukkah noshontatchu Leaf kahrashi Lean tonghnizi Leg zirito mahk oira-oh noh pori " (1st pers.) ippogora khana " (2nd " ) appogora " (3rd " ) pogora Let us go fame ate Light djorugo uhuega (lamp) purika Light a fire djaro guddo tahttah induh (to) djoruggo Lightning baigahbe tupan veravah pureka tupasseo Lip (lower) nohtchare " (upper) nohpanti Lips tchara Little capichenni Lose (to) okkua ohkkagnueh Love aiddu ahman oron nohnindatzimbi Lunacy heh wuhruh

Man mehddo ahzibah aniocat shambari (plural) ihme (old) iabut Milky way cujedje doghe aniang puku kabieureh ehro guddo zahwara tpuih Monkey taueh oshetto Moon ahri zahir kahshi " (during a) kachi Morning kabi ason kittaittidih Mosquito caame Mother zihuba anhih nanna " my ihmuga (1st p.) " thy atche (2nd p.) " his utche (3rd p.) " tchedge (general) " our padge (1st pers. plural) " yours tadge (2nd p.) " theirs ettudge (3rd) Mountain iuitir otioah chahtoshi Mountains toreakkari uehwuettura " (range of) toreakkari " doghe Moustache noshpatonna Mouth ueibi nottaramash Mule manno mari

Nails (of ueimba rahn nosha takki fingers) tchamoro Neck " (front of) iruho zisuhra " (1st pers.) " (2nd p" ) aruho " (3rd " ) ruho " (back of) zikupeah " (1st pers.) ikiddoro " (2nd " ) akkiddoro " (3rd " ) ittoro Necklace nighitzki Night batchioji kaahruh atchiman puitun ahiueh No boro, carega napohttahri cahmah boekkimo kah (suffix) bokkua Nose zissignah nokkirimash " (1st pers.) ikkenno " (2nd " ) akkenno " (3rd " ) kenno

Oar kumarontzu Old kinkiuari Onca (jaguar) huira One pan

Parrot aruh Perspire (to) caroh zihruhai nama savitache Pig pihratz Pottery (for tahpe quazzihar cooking) Pot (large) ariya " (small) ruobo gnaeh peppoh " (very small) pohri " " " pohri (gabo) " " " pohrero Present makkakai ahmbehunteheh

Rain buh buttu ahmanna monbaht ngagni (boe) buttu aman Rainbow ohyie Rapid (cataract) ituihi Receive makkinai ahmbohul (I received) Red patpecat kitchongahri Reward mohri Rise (to) racodje ehppohan River poba parana gnah " (large) poba kurireo parana hun " (small) pahga parana hin Rock tori ittahih(n) " (large) tori kurireo ittahuh(n) Rocks mappih Run reh oh gnama preteten spayieni " (to) noshatchah Run away (to) arekoddo zihppohseh

Sad kierigoddo ahnimombue ah Salt caotah Same fecatche cuanta nana Scratch kiggori ogni oi Sea (unknown) Search (to) wogai ehekkahr See (to) nogna akuripi Shame poguruh ah(g)ni nossin Shin iraetta Shiver magoddo zihrahuh Shooting stars aroi koddo zahir ta tai wai Sight aiyuoh ueppiah pottahr djohruddoh Silver kiriekki Sing amaracaib Sing (to) roya, mahrakkahi huamame arage " (and dance) nowishtiaccia Sister garikie etchih tchogue zihreuesa Sister " (1st pers.) ittuiyeh " (2nd " ) attuiyeh " (3rd " ) uttuhiyeh " (general) tchedduiyeh " (1st p. p.) pahduiyeh " (2nd " ) tahduiyeh " (3rd " ) ettuhduiyeh " (younger) zihkuppuhera Sit (to) mogudda oh ahppuh nosseiki Sky baru uevahga kabi ivagh Sleep ahmayaweh Sleep (to) nuddoh okkieht Small biagattige suhhin entzit biagareu gliagnini pikkiriri rogo japchoquin Smell (sense of) ikkenomeruddo uettohn (nose hears) Smoke djereddudde tahttahssin " (to) coguatta medji ohppeh tambuh (eat smoke) Snake puibui " (large) pushiribeh Son ipot nientzteh nochumi Speak nona guayte Speak (to) battaru ogni eh nugniani Spit notchorah Star cujedje zahir ta tai kasupta Stars cujedje doghe bogro Steel coshintzi Stone itai Streamlet gnahtinka Strong niroite katzuini Strong sun minchare pahua Sun mehri ahra huatchi pah hua cuaracu Sunrise mehri rutto ahra nikki uh appoha Sunset mehri re rotto ahra nikki hoh " butto Swim kuhru oh uettapp nahmatatzu

Tail (of an oh behruaza animal) Tall kuritchiga ih zuh hah iriritheh aritchodo Tattoo zihzuppohra (on chin) zihra pegnana (on forehead and eyebrows) Teeth ziragna erahi naikki " (1st pers.) ittah " (2nd " ) akkoh " (3rd " ) oh Ten ohehssuat Thank you unknown to all Then tohare Thigh immomonna zihuwa ippohgahdde Thin rakkiggiarogogo ah sihnnin Thirst bipehrehp Three tchibapehng Throat huenie combira Throw (to) barigo ahmenbott Thumb notta pakki Thunder boejaruru tupah takkirisse aman tsiuic Tired yahboroeh nomautache (I am tired) Toes bure bahppe zihppuhan noetzi tapaki Tongue nonnenni Tortoise kanianiareh Touch kerajettudji ahmahppuh Tree ippo ueba eip " (trunk of) ippo ueba poh uhtchattu " (branch of) ippo ittura uebakkan Trees chatto Trumpet niumbihah Two tchepitchepe

Ugly guereh Umbilicus nohmoetto Uncle tzi natchalene

Village amonabuh Vomit (to) towari goddo zirivipposueh nokkamarangatzu

Wait (to) to gudduguddu eh ohnroh giao Wake (to) yettado ehmma eh Walk mehru oh attah atteh otzki Warm boero hakkuh Water poba ueha iribbi gnah Waterfall pobbore uettuh (fall) opparengnahtazzi uehppohsuh (rapid) Way aboche Weak teshintzteh West, East, North, South (unknown to all) What is this in Inno ba boi gar te zih the ... yiere? mehrennoih? language? White iretiat kittamorori Wife ohredduje kuhnia otachi nuena Wife (plural) " (1st pers.) tchevireh " (2nd " .) pavireh " (3rd " .) ettuvireh tcheddoreddo (abbrev. of) tcheddoredduje Wild beasts bahregghe zahwahra Wind iuituh kabihru tampeah Woman ahreddo ahvah tanian coya (plural) ahrehme aiatiah

Yellow tchengotz Yes uh apohttah ibeheh Yuka (jute) cagniri


Acre territory, i, 3; ii, 403, 408 Aguachini River, ii, 440 Albuquerque, Mr., ii, 276, 361-369 Alcobaca, Port of, i, 110 Amazon, main estuary of the, ii, 387 Amazon River, ii, 385-391, 394-404, 416-418 Amazon State, Governor of, ii, 405-406, 414 Amazon, State of, i, 3 Amazonas, launch, ii, 411 Andes, journey across the, ii, 438-476 Antofogasta, ii, 472, 473, 474, 475 Ants, ii, 325 Apiacar Indians, ii, 266, 278 Apiacars, Vocabulary of language (Appendix), 486-496 Arabiranga I., ii, 390 Araguary, i, 51-61 Araguaya River, i, 109, 115, 119, 159, 168 Araguaya River, sources of the, i, 167 Araujo, Mr. J. G., ii, 408 Arequipa, ii, 460 Arinos River, the, i, 431; ii, 1-150 Arinos River, birthplace of the, i, 413 Arinos River, meeting-place with the Juruena River, ii, 149-151 Arinos-Juruena, ii, 151-263 Ariranha (Lutra Brasiliensis), ii, 21, 26, 33, 58, 78, 88, 93, 159, 165 Arrival in England, ii, 476 Associacao Commercial do Amazonas, ii, 408 Atahualpa, S.S., ii, 416 Atrocities, ii, 266 August Falls, ii, 196-206 Azupizu River, ii, 437, 440

Bandeiras, the, i, 17 Barretto, Jose Sotero, ii, 266, 269, 271, 273 Batataes, i, 44 Bay of Coralhina, ii, 389 Bay of Guajara, ii, 390 Bay of Jappelin, ii, 390 Bay of Marajo, ii, 389 Bees, i, 392; ii, 72, 123, 321 Belem (Para), ii, 390, 392 Bella Vista, ii, 380 Beluchistan, ii, 460 Beri-beri, ii, 393, 457 Bernardelli, Prof., i, 10 Bertino Miranda Island, ii, 262 Bilans, ii, 434 Birds of Brazil (Appendix), 481 Bolivia, ii, 471-474 Bolivian Railways, ii, 473 Booth Steamship Line, ii, 394, 410, 416, 417, 419 Borax, ii, 475 Bororo Indians, their origin, customs, manners, legends, anthropometric measurements, language, superstitions, music, etc., i, 207-263 Bororos, Vocabulary of language (Appendix), 486-496 Boundaries, i, 115, 116, 159; ii, 417 Boundaries, Matto-Grosso and Para, ii, 268 Boundaries, Minas Geraes and Goyaz, ii, 60, 62 Boundary between Bolivia and Chili, ii, 474 Brazil, area of, i, 3 Brazil, wealth of, i, 4 Brazil, Col. R. E., "King of the Tapajoz," ii, 368, 373-381 Bueno de Silva, Bartholomeu, i, 105 Buenos Ayres, ii, 475-476 Butterflies, i, 94; ii, 55, 72

Cacti, i, 155 Cahombanas, ii, 435, 436 Cahombanas, trails from, ii, 435 Cairns, ii, 464 Caju or Acaju, i, 158; ii, 335 Caldas de Goyaz, i, 76 Campas or Antis Indians, ii, 434, 444 Campas or Antis Indians, Vocabulary of language (Appendix), 486-496 Campinas, i, 91 Canon, a, i, 295, 358 Canuma River, ii, 412 Carnival, ii, 472 Carrapatinhos, i, 136, 188, 342, 392 Carrapatos, i, 138, 188, 334, 342 Carts, i, 69 Cashibos (Carapaches and Callisecas), ii, 432, 434 Cassicus icterronatus (Jappelin), ii, 396 Castanha do Para, ii, 370 Cathartes (Urubu), ii, 59 Cattle breeding, i, 22, 106 Cayapo Indians, ii, 13 Cepa d'agua, i, 397 Cervus elaphus (Veado), i, 184, 269, 316 Church Rock, i, 382 Ciancias, ii, 431 Cocoa, ii, 400 Coffee, i, 26-37 Coffee, estates, i, 26 Coffee, export, i, 21 Colbacchini, Father A., i, 281 Collings Bros., ii, 403 Concepcao (on the Araguaya), i, 110, 115 Concepcao Island, ii, 390 Condamano, ii, 427 Corumba River, i, 70 Corumbahyba, i, 68 Crax pinima (mutum), ii, 284, 288 Credentials, the use of, i, 118 Cretins, i, 360 Crocodiles, ii, 132 Crypturus notivagus (jaho), ii, 284, 292 Cuner, J. J. V., Prefect of Cuzco, ii, 466 Cutijuba Island, ii, 390 Cuvettes, i, 312, 313, 318, 321, 327, 330, 347, 369, 378, 380, 412, 417, 430 Cuyaba River, i, 19 Cuzco, ii, 464 Cuzco Railway, ii, 458-464

De Rio Branco, Baron, i, 7 Diamantino, i, 410, 419-428 Diamantino, prices of commodities in, i, 420 Diamonds, i, 149, 420 Distance between Araguary and Goyaz, i, 101 Distance between Iquitos and Lima, ii, 456 Distance between Manaos and Iquitos, ii, 419 Distance from the River Araguaya to Capim Branco, i, 343 Distance from the River Arinos to Araguary, i, 432 Distance from Araguary to Serra Azul, i, 410 Distance from Goyaz City to Serra Azul, i, 410 Dogs, ii, 130 Dumont Estate, i, 36 Dumont Railway, i, 37

Effects of food after long period of starvation, ii, 346 Effects of starvation on the brain, ii, 311, 316, 324, 326, 329, 331 Electric spring of water, i, 284 Elevation of the Araguaya, i, 169 End of transcontinental journey, ii, 457 Esploradora, the launch, ii, 430, 437 Eunictes murinus (Sucuriu), ii, 162 Expedition, outfit of, i, 13

Farquhar, Percival, ii, 403 Fish, i, 153, 168; ii, 63, 90, 96, 104, 107, 126, 158, 223, 387, 484 Flora, i, 4, 62, 75, 82, 85, 89, 99, 139, 143, 152, 155, 158, 164, 172, 175, 275, 311, 330, 332, 347, 348, 355, 380, 389, 396, 397, 406, 416, 417, 430; ii, 4, 10, 24, 25, 37, 49, 52, 54, 58, 63, 94, 95, 105, 108, 134, 207, 224, 227, 336, 370, 388, 398, 430, 432, 437, 477-480 Fonseca, Marechal Hermes da, i, 107 Forest, i, 5, 12 Forest, across the virgin, ii, 278-365 Forest, the Brazilian, ii, 67-69 Forest fire, i, 385 Fossils, the discovery of giant, i, 371-376 Fossils, loss of, ii, 270 Franca, i, 45 Frontin, Dr. Paulo, i, 8, 16 Furnas Corros Mountains, i, 206

Garibaldi's grandson, ii, 450 Gaviao caboclo, i, 412 Geological formation, i, 176, 182, 186, 187, 190, 194, 200, 204, 205, 267, 271, 273, 276, 278, 282, 287, 292, 301, 319, 322, 332, 334, 336, 349, 356, 363, 364, 368, 370, 380, 382-385, 393, 400, 407, 418; ii, 99, 142, 155, 168, 262, 384, 455 Goyaz, i, 19 Goyaz, city of, i, 100-131 Goyaz, Government of, i, 108 Goyaz, railway line in construction, i, 59, 61 Goyaz, State of, i, 3 Guajara Merim, ii, 403 Guanabara, Alcindo, i, 7; ii, 124

Hammocks, ii, 87 Harvard Observatory, ii, 460 History of the wars in the kingdom of Brazil between Holland and Portugal, i, 414 Honesty of Peruvians, ii, 444, 452 Horses of Goyaz, i, 106 Huacapistana, ii, 452 Hydrochaerus Capibara (Capivara), ii, 49, 56, 124

Igorrotes of Luzon Island, ii, 456 Ilex Paraguayensis (Mate), ii, 59, 81 Inca implements, ii, 470 Inca matrimonial stone, ii, 469 Inca ornaments, ii, 470 Inca pottery, ii, 469 Inca skulls, ii, 468 Inca throne, ii, 467 Inca weapons, etc., ii, 470 Incas, the, ii, 441, 466-471 Incas, architecture of the, ii, 466 Incas, civilization of the, ii, 466-471 Indians, i, 12, 17, 105, 185, 205, 207-263, 282, 338, 353; ii, 13, 70, 134, 158, 274, 423, 424, 430, 432, 434 Insanity, i, 124 Iquitos, ii, 418 Islands of the Arinos and Arinos-Juruena Rivers—vol. ii.— Ada I., ii, 120 Alastor I., ii, 65 Alberto Maso I., ii, 171 Albert Rex I., ii, 110 Angela I., ii, 159 Anna I., ii, 121 Antonio Prado I., ii, 126, 128 Arabella I., ii, 140 Araujo I., ii, 263 Ariadne I., ii, 222 Armida I., ii, 98 Aspasia I., ii, 149 Babin I., ii, 186 Barretos I., ii, 126 Belinda I., ii, 184 Bertha I., ii, 141 Bomfin I., ii, 176 Bridget I., ii, 39 Camilla I., ii, 107 Carmela I., ii, 156 Caterina I., ii, 157 Clara I., ii, 161 Corona I., ii, 122 Daphne I., ii, 126 Diana I., ii, 141, 168 Dora I., ii, 115 Edna I., ii, 115 Eileen I., ii, 141 Eleonora I., ii, 52 Elfrida Landor I., ii, 152 Elizabeth Chimay I., ii, 97 Elizabeth R. I., ii, 62, 111 Eloisa I., ii, 110 Emma I., ii, 117 Erminie I., ii, 121 Eva I., ii, 109 Evelina I., ii, 141 Faith, Hope and Charity Is., 98 Francesco I., ii, 152 Gabriella I., ii, 93 George Rex I., ii, 158, 160 Gemma I., ii, 71 Germaine I., ii, 111 Gingillo I., ii, 142 Giselle I., ii, 171 Helena I., ii, 66 Hilda I., ii, 156 Hugo I., ii, 120 James Dewar I., ii, 172 Jessica I., ii, 176 Josephine Island, 122 Julia I., ii, 70 Jupiter I., ii, 126 Kuvera I., ii, 172 Landor, Charles, I., ii, 96 Laurita I., ii, 116 Leander I., ii, 263 Leda I., ii, 175, 263 Lilian I., ii, 118 Loel I., ii, 80 Lucia I., ii, 115 Lucky I., ii, 39, 43 Lunghissima I., ii, 155 Lydia I., ii, 61 Mabel I., ii, 112 Magda I., ii, 109 Margie I., ii, 112 Maria I., ii, 106 Mars I., ii, 126 Martia I., ii, 107 Maude I., ii, 93 Maude Adams I., ii, 169 May I., ii, 110 Medea I., ii, 175 Melusine I., ii, 170 Meraud I., ii, 80 Midas I., ii, 171 Minerva I., ii, 169 Miranda I., ii, 171 Mosquito I., ii, 46 Nair I., ii, 105 Negrino I., ii, 63 Nina I., ii, 114 Noailles I., ii, 112 Nora I., ii, 120 Normand I., ii, 173 Olivia I., ii, 133, 161 Oriana I., ii, 168 Orlando I., ii, 97 Pandora I., ii, 134 Passos I., ii, 47 Passos Junior I., ii, 47 Paulina I., ii, 161 Pelleas and Melisande Is., ii, 162 Pericles I., ii, 149 Philomela I., ii, 160 Pomona I., ii, 168 Portia I., ii, 160 Priscilla I., ii, 125 Providence I., ii, 114 Psyche I., ii, 160 Queen Mary I., ii, 171 Rebecca I., ii, 103 Rhea I., ii, 160 Rita I., ii, 110 Rock I., ii, 105 Rodriguez, J. Carlos I., ii, 117 Romeo and Juliet Is., ii, 115 Romola I., ii, 156 Rosalinda I., ii, 160 Rose I., ii, 109 Sarah I., ii, 102 Schnoor, Luiz, I., ii, 95 Seven Sisters Is., ii, 153 Sibyl I., ii, 134 Sophia I., ii, 142 Stella I., ii, 156 Susan I., ii, 118 Sylvia I., ii, 124 Tanis I., ii, 60 Teffe I., ii, 108 Teresa I., ii, 125 Three Graces Is., ii, 113 Toledo, Pedro de, I., ii, 44 Tristan and Isolde Is., ii, 161 Two Sisters Is., 46 Una I., ii, 157 Urania I., ii, 157 Vanessa I., ii, 160 Vera I., ii, 93 Victor Emmanuel I., ii, 74 Yolanda I., ii, 156 Itaituba, ii, 380 Itaquatiara, ii, 402, 412

Jacutinga, ii, 48 Jaguar, the, i, 184, 307, 316; ii, 315 Jararakinha I., ii, 390 Javari River, ii, 417 Jeckill, Mrs., ii, 404 Jesuits, i, 414 Jews, ii, 258, 262 Jiggers, ii, 338 Jornal do Commercio, i, 7 Juliaca junction, ii, 462 Junction of the Arinos-Juruena and Tres Barras or S. Manoel River, ii, 263 Juruena River, ii, 149 Juruena River, meeting-place of with the Arinos River, ii, 149-151

Krause, Dr., i, 121

La Merced, ii, 450 La Paz, ii, 472 Lage, Mr., ii, 380 Lagoa dos Veados, i, 413, 415 Lagoa Formosa, i, 96, 328 Land, value of, i, 38, 43, 45, 49 Las Palmas River, ii, 449 Legislative Congress of Goyaz (State), i, 112 Leguia, Dr. B. B., President of Peru, ii, 465 Leopoldina, i, 110 Leprosy, i, 87 Leticia, ii, 418 Lighthouses, ii, 388 Lima, ii, 456, 458 Llamas, ii, 453, 456, 461, 463, 473 Lovelace, Dr. Carl, ii, 404 Lua Nova, ii, 376 Lunar halo, i, 199, 328, 333

Macaws, i, 308; ii, 132, 396, 398 Macedo, Commandante, ii, 380-391 Macrocerus hyacinthinus (araruna), ii, 396 Madeira-Mamore Railway, ii, 402-404 Madeira River, ii, 277, 347, 411-414 Magalhaes, Couto de, i, 109 Malampaya Sound, i, 9 Malan, Father A., i, 309 Mammals of Brazil (Appendix), 480 Manaos, ii, 402, 405-411 Manaos, Commandants of the Federal Troops in, ii, 409, 414, 416 Manaos, Improvements, Limited, ii, 410 Mangabeira, the, i, 406 Mangabel, ii, 374-377 Manobos, ii, 434 Maps, i, 116, 414 Maps, inaccurate, i, 404 Maribondos (hornets), ii, 194 Masisea, ii, 430 Maso, Dr. Alberto, ii, 408, 416 Matto Grosso (State of), i, 3 May, Jeckill & Randolph, Messrs., ii, 403-404 Maya Indians of Yucatan, ii, 254 Mazagan, i, 70 Medicinal plants, i, 152 (Appendix), 477-480 Minas Geraes, Province of, i, 3 Minerals, i, 4 Minister of Marine, ii, 407 Mirage, ii, 473 Miranda, Dr. Bertino, ii, 408 Miriatiriami, ii, 440 Mitchell, Mr., English Consul at Iquitos, ii, 419 Mockill, Mr., Chief of Peruvian Corporation, ii, 458, 464 Mogyana Railway, i, 38-51 Mollendo, ii, 458 Monoliths, i, 363, 364 Mori Brothers, ii, 260 Mori, Don Eulogio, ii, 367 Morro da Meza, i, 59 Mountain sickness, ii, 461 Mules, i, 140, 389 Mueller, Severiano, i, 7 Mundurucu Indians, ii, 248, 252, 369 Mundurucu Indians, vocabulary of the language (Appendix), 486-496

Nasua socialis (coati), i, 319; ii, 354 Nasua solitaria (coati), i, 319 Nazaratec River, ii, 437 Nery, Julio V., ii, 266, 275, 276, 280, 283 New York (Ucayalli), ii, 421 Nunes, Dom Pedro, ii, 343-348

Obidos, ii, 399 Oliveira, Regis de, i, 11 Ollaguee Volcano, ii, 474 Opisthocomus cristatus (cigana), ii, 132 Oroya, ii, 454 Oroya, railway, ii, 454-456 Oruro, ii, 472, 473, 474

Pachitea River, ii, 431-435 Pack-saddles, i, 78 Palms, i, 5 Pampas, ii, 445 Para chestnut, ii, 207 Para Fiscal Agency, ii, 268, 272 Para Province of, i, 3 Paraguay River, birthplace of, i, 414 Paraguay River, sources of, i, 416 Parana River, i, 167 Parana River, birthplace of, i, 414 Paranahyba River, i, 60 Paredao Grande, the, i, 292 Paredaozinho, i, 287 Parintins, ii, 412 Passos, Dr. F. Pereira, i, 8 Pasture lands, i, 6 Paulista Railway, i, 24 Paulistas, the, i, 17, 105 Pedro II., Emperor, i, 100, 109, 134 Penelope cristata (jacu), ii, 26, 132, 237, 296, 354 Peruvian Corporation, ii, 458-471 Peruvian Railway, ii, 458-473 Philadelphia (Ucayalli), ii, 424 Photography, ii, 82 Pichis River, ii, 435-438 Pinto, Mr., ii, 368 Pium, i, 173, 300, 302 Podiceps Americanus (mergulhao commun), ii, 48 Polvora, the, i, 300 Pombas Island, ii, 369 Poopo, Lake, ii, 473-474 Port Bermudez, ii, 437 Port Guaqui, ii, 471 Porto do Castanho, i, 161 Porto Velho, ii, 1, 20, (Rio Madeira) 403 Potzuzu, ii, 435 Pouso Alto, i, 86 Prado, Antonio, i, 7, 22, 26 Praia da Rainha, i, 110 Preguya, the, ii, 432 Prices of commodities, ii, 259, 372, 410, 424 Prison of Goyaz, i, 123 Province of Loreto, Prefect of, ii, 420, 430, 437 Pueblo Pardo, ii, 449 Putumayo River, ii, 417

Raft made of demijohns, ii, 335-341 Railways, i, 111 Redemptionist Friars, i, 90, 92 Reptiles of Brazil (Appendix), 484 Requena, ii, 422 Riberao Preto, i, 38 Rio Arinos, i, 413, 431; ii, 1-150 Rio Barreiros or das Garcas, i, 195, 196, 206, 264, 265, 284 Rio Caitte, i, 416 Rio Canuma, ii, 269, 412 Rio Capim Branco, i, 335, 337, 346 Rio Chabo, i, 409 Rio Chanchamayo, ii, 449 Rio Claro, i, 149 Rio Corgo Fundo, i, 194 Rio Corisho, i, 416 Rio Crepore, ii, 374 Rio Cuyaba, i, 359, 402, 404, 405 Rio das Mortes, i, 116, 350 Rio dos Patos, ii, 39, 43 Rio Estivado, i, 416 Rio Euphrasia, ii, 268 Rio Grande, i, 46 Rio Jamanchin, ii, 378 Rio Jangada, i, 359 Rio Las Almas, i, 153 Rio Macucu, i, 417 Rio Madeira, ii, 127 Rio Manso, i, 387-389 Rio Misericordia, ii, 268 Rio Mollah, i, 416 Rio Montagna, ii, 377-378 Rio Paraguay (Parana), i, 323 Rio Parana, i, 349, 411, 415 Rio Pedra Grande, i, 366, 369 Rio Ponte Alto, i, 154 Rio Preto, i, 413 Rio Roncador, i, 364, 369 Rio S. Florencio, ii, 268 Rio S. Lourenco, i, 341, 349 Rio S. Lourenco, headwaters of, i, 323 Rio S. Manoel or Tres Barras, i, 403 Rio S. Thome, ii, 268 Rio Secundury, ii, 269, 328, 333, 349, 351 Rio Sumidoro, ii, 53 Rio Tapajoz, ii, 269 Rio Tarma, ii, 452 Rio Trombetas, ii, 399 Rio Uruguatos, ii, 218 Rio Verde, i, 403 Rio Vermelho, i, 109, 133 Rio Xingu, i, 403; ii, 127 Rio Xingu, nearest point to Rio Tapajoz, ii, 379 Rio de Janeiro, i, 9 Rock carvings, i, 338 Rodadeiro or toboggan slide of the Incas, ii, 467 Rodriguez, Jose Carlos, i, 7 Rondon, Col., i, 12 Ross, Mr., ii, 391 "Round Table" of the Incas, the, ii, 467 Royal Mail Steamship Co., i, 9; ii, 476 Rubber, i, 36; ii, 4, 46, 48, 60, 63, 78, 91, 97, 267, 272, 369, 434 Rubber, coagulation of the latex, ii, 8 Rubber, collection of the latex, ii, 6 Rubber, collectors, i, 424; ii, 1

S. Antonio, i, 88 S. Benedicto, Mt., ii, 274, 367 S. Isabel (Castanho), ii, 373 S. Jeronimo, ii, 429 S. Luiz de Caceres, i, 419, 429 S. Luiz de Shuaro, ii, 449 S. Manoel, Collectoria of, ii, 264 S. Manoel, Tres Barras or Paranatinga River, ii, 263 S. Paulo, i, 16 S. Paulo, elevation of, i, 23 S. Paulo, State of, i, 20, 22 S. Ramon, ii, 451 Salesian Friars, i, 132, 264, 280, 284, 309 Salto Benjamin, i, 342 Salto Floriano Peixoto, i, 342 Sand-dunes, ii, 459 Santarem, ii, 385 Santarem to Belem (Para), ii, 385-391 Sauba Ants (Oecodonia cephalotes), ii, 119, 315, 318-320 Schmidt, Col. (The Coffee King), i, 37 Schnoor, Luiz, i, 56 Seringueiros, or rubber collectors, the, i, 424; ii, 1, 22, 250, 258, 272, 273, 276, 361, 369, 371, 379, 411, 428 Serra Azul, the, i, 399-405, 411 Serra das Pedra, i, 405 Serra de Almerin, ii, 387 Serra de Callos, i, 70, 74 Serra de Pasco, ii, 435 Serra de Sta. Rita (or Dourada), i, 96 Serra do Sappe, i, 77 Serra do Tombador, i, 419, 429 Sete Lagoas, i, 413-415, 416 Sillistayni towers, ii, 471 Siphonia elastica (Hevea Brasiliensis), or rubber trees, i, 429; ii, 4, 60, 63, 78, 91, 97, 249 Slavery, i, 423; ii, 11, 19, 22, 40 Snakes, i, 93; ii, 162, 180 Snakes of Brazil (Appendix), 485 Solimoes River, ii, 416-418, 421 Sorveira (milk trees), ii, 10, 105, 288 Stars, i, 179 Starvation, ii, 300-345 Sungaro Paro Mts., ii, 437

Tabatinga, ii, 418 Table of comparative anthropometric measurements, i, 261 Tamandua Bandeira, the, i, 307, 316 Tambos, ii, 438, 441, 443, 444, 446, 447, 448 Tapajoz River, ii, 367-385 Tapanhonas Indians, ii, 70 Tapiche River, ii, 423 Tapirus Americanus (Anta), i, 316; ii, 76, 345 Tarma, ii, 452 Taxipa I., ii, 390 Telepathy, ii, 363 Termites (Termes album), i, 155-8, 348, 431 Terra Blanca Lake, ii, 426 Thermal springs, i, 76 Titicaca Lake, ii, 471, 474 Tocantins River, i, 110 Toledo, Pedro de, i, 7, 12, 15 Trans-Andine Railway, ii, 475 Troglodytes fuscus, ii, 395 Tucano, the, i, 164 Tunnels, ii, 451, 452, 454

Uancabamba, ii, 435 Uberaba, i, 48 Uberabinha, i, 50 Ucayalli River, ii, 421-431 Urubu, i, 154 Useful Plants (Appendix), 477-480

Valparaiso, ii, 475 Vampire Indians, ii, 432 Vastres gigas (pirarucu), ii, 387 Venus, i, 296; ii, 128 Vocabularies of Indian languages—Apiacar, Bororo, Campas, Mundurucu (Appendix), 486-496

Water during long periods of starvation, ii, 309 Watersheds, i, 96, 349, 355, 414 Wellman's Balloon, ii, 425 Wild boar, i, 152 Wireless telegraphy, ii, 422, 437 Women of Goyaz, i, 128 Woods for construction (Appendix), 477-480 Woods, fibrous (Appendix), 477-480 Woods, lactiferous (Appendix), 477-480 Woods, oleaginous (Appendix), 477-480 Woods, resinous (Appendix), 477-480

Yanna Yakka River, ii, 425 Yessup, ii, 438 Yuta (jute), ii, 425

Printed by Hazell, Watson & Viney, Ld., London and Aylesbury.

Transcriber's Notes:

1. This text contains diacritical marks and symbols, where possible these are represented in the text by the following symbols.

Diacritical mark above below ————————————— ——— ——— macron (straight line) x x breve (u-shaped symbol) x x tilde x x

2. Printing/spelling errors which have been corrected are:

Volume 1: Page 43, "Butataes" changed to "Batataes" Page 44, "Batateas" changed to "Batataes" Page 58, "Schoor" changed to "Schnoor"

Volume 2: Page viii, "Solimoẽs" changed to "Solimoes" Page 7, "0.25 c" changed to "0.25 m" Page 14, "Jurnena" changed to "Juruena" Page 316, "expect" changed to "except" Page 497, "Jappalin" changed to "Jappelin" Page 498, "Cepo" changed to "Cepa" "Cryptorus" changed to "Crypturus" Page 500, "Nair" changed to "Nair" Page 501, "Mayu" changed to "Maya" Page 502, "Ollague" changed to "Ollaguee" "Reinha" changed to "Rainha" Page 503, "Crepury" changed to "Crepore" "Jamachin" changed to "Jamanchin" "Peixeto" changed to "Peixoto" Page 504, "Transandine" changed to "Trans-Andine" "Vastris" changed to "Vastres"


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