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A Treatise on Domestic Economy - For the Use of Young Ladies at Home and at School
by Catherine Esther Beecher
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Modes of Preserving Fruit Trees.

Heaps of ashes, or tanner's bark, around peach trees, prevent the attack of the worm. The yellows, is a disease of peach trees, which is spread by the pollen of the blossom. When a tree begins to turn yellow, take it away, with all its roots, before it blossoms again, or it will infect other trees. Planting tansy around the roots of fruit trees, is a sure protection against worms, as it prevents the moth from depositing her egg. Equal quantities of salt and saltpetre, put around the trunk of a peach tree, half a pound to a tree, improves the size and flavor of the fruit. Apply this about the first of April, and if any trees have worms already in them, put on half the quantity, in addition, in June. To young trees, just set out, apply one ounce, in April, and another in June, close to the stem. Sandy soil is best for peaches.

Apple trees are preserved from insects, by a wash of strong ley to the body and limbs, which, if old, should be first scraped. Caterpillars should be removed, by cutting down their nests in a damp day. Boring a hole, in a tree infested with worms, and filling it with sulphur, will often drive them off immediately.

The fire-blight, or brulure, in pear trees, can be stopped, by cutting off all the blighted branches. It is supposed, by some, to be owing to an excess of sap, which is remedied by diminishing the roots.

The curculio, which destroys plums, and other stone fruit, can be checked only by gathering up all the fruit that falls, (which contains their eggs,) and destroying it. The canker-worm can be checked, by applying a bandage around the body of the tree, and every evening smearing it with fresh tar.



CHAPTER XXXVII.

MISCELLANEOUS DIRECTIONS.

Every woman should know how to direct in regard to the proper care of domestic animals, as they often suffer from the negligence of domestics.

The following information, in reference to the care of a horse and cow, may be useful. A stable should not be very light nor very dark; its floor should be either plank or soil, as brick or stone pavements injure the feet. It should be well cleaned, every morning. A horse, kept in a stable, should be rubbed and brushed every day. A stable-horse needs as much daily exercise as trotting three miles will give him. Food or drink should never be given, when a horse is very warm with exercise, as it causes disease. A horse should be fed, three times a day. Hay, sheaf-oats, shorts, corn-meal, and bran, are the best food for horses. When a horse is travelling, order six quarts of oats in the morning, four at noon, and six at night, and direct that neither food nor water be given till he is cool.

Keep a horse's legs free from mud, or disease will often result from the neglect. A horse, much used, should be shod as often as once in two months. Fish-oil and strong perfumes, on the skin, keep flies from annoying a horse. Some horses are made fractious by having the check-rein so tight as to weary the muscles.

A cow should be watered three times a day, and fed with hay, potatoes, carrots, and boiled corn. Turnips and cabbages give a bad taste to the milk. Give a handful of salt to a cow, twice a week, and occasionally give the same quantity to a horse. Let them drink pure water. A well-fed cow gives double the milk that she will if not fed well. A cow should go unmilked, for two months before calving, and her milk should not be used till four days after. The calf must run with the cow for four days, and then be shut from her, except thrice a day, when it should take as much food as it wants, and then the cow should be milked clean.

Hens sit twenty days, and should be well fed and watered, during this time. The first food for chickens should be coarse dry meal. Cold and damp weather is bad for all young fowls, and they should be well protected from it. Pepper-berries are good for fowls which have diseases caused by damp and cold weather.

In Winter, much fuel may be saved, and comfort secured, by stuffing cotton into all cracks about the windows and the surbases of rooms, and by listing the doors. Cover strips of wood with baize, and nail them tight against a door, on the casing.

The following are the causes of smoky chimneys. Short and broad flues, running up straight, as a narrow flue, with a bend in it, draws best. Large openings, at the top, draw the wind down, and should be remedied, by having the summits made tapering. A house higher than a chimney near it, sometimes makes the chimney smoke, and the evil should be remedied, by raising the chimney. Too large a throat to the fireplace, sometimes causes a chimney to smoke, and can be remedied, by a false back, or by lowering the front, with sheet iron. Shallow fireplaces give out more heat, and draw as well, as deep ones.

House-cleaning should be done in dry warm weather. Several friends of the writer maintain, that cleaning paint, and windows, and floors, in hard, cold water, without any soap, using a flannel washcloth, is much better than using warm suds. It is worth trying. In cleaning in the common way, sponges are best for windows, and clean water only should be used. They should be first wiped with linen, and then with old silk. The outside of windows should be washed with a long brush, made for the purpose; and they should be rinsed, by throwing upon them water, containing a little saltpetre.

When inviting company, mention, in the note, the day of the month and week, and the hour for coming. Provide a place for ladies to dress their hair, with a glass, pins, and combs. A pitcher of cold water, and a tumbler, should be added. When the company is small, it is becoming a common method for the table to be set at one end of the room, the lady of the house to pour out tea, and the gentlemen of the party to wait on the ladies and themselves. When tea is sent round, always send a teapot of hot water to weaken it, and a slop-bowl, or else many persons will drink their tea much stronger than they wish.

Let it ever be remembered, that the burning of lights and the breath of guests, are constantly exhausting the air of its healthful principle; therefore avoid crowding many guests into one room. Do not tempt the palate by a great variety of unhealthful dainties. Have a warm room for departing guests, that they may not become chilled before they go out.

A parlor should be furnished with candle and fire screens, for those who have weak eyes; and if, at table, a person sits with the back near the fire, a screen should be hung on the back of the chair, as it is very injurious to the whole system to have the back heated.

Pretty baskets, for flowers or fruits, on centre tables, can be made thus. Knit, with coarse needles, all the various shades of green and brown, into a square piece. Press it with a hot iron, and then ravel it out. Buy a pretty shaped wicker basket, or make one of stiff millinet, or thin pasteboard, cut the worsted into bunches, and sew them on, to resemble moss. Then line the basket, and set a cup or dish of water in it, to hold flowers, or use it for a fruit-basket. Handsome fireboards are made, by nailing black foundation-muslin to a frame the size of the fireplace; and then cutting out flowers, from wall-paper, and pasting them on the muslin, according to the fancy.

India rubber, melted in lamp-oil, and brushed over common shoes, keeps water out, perfectly. Keep small whisk brooms, wherever gentlemen hang their clothes, both up stairs and down, and get them to use them if you can.

Boil new earthen in bran-water, putting the articles in, when cold. Do the same with porcelain kettles. Never leave wooden vessels out of doors, as they fall to pieces. In Winter, lift the handle of a pump, and cover it with blankets, to keep it from freezing.

Broken earthen and china, can often be mended, by tying it up, and boiling it in milk. Diamond cement, when genuine, is very effectual for the same purpose. Old putty can be softened by muriatic acid. Nail slats across nursery windows. Scatter ashes on slippery ice, at the door; or rather, remove it. Clarify impure water with powdered alum, a teaspoonful to a barrel.



NOTE.

A volume, entitled the American Housekeeper's Receipt Book, prepared by the author of this work, under the supervision of several experienced housekeepers, is designed as a Supplement to this treatise on Domestic Economy. The following Preface and Analysis of the Contents will indicate its design more fully:

Preface (for the American Housekeeper's Receipt Book.)

The following objects are aimed at in this work:

First, to furnish an original collection of receipts, which shall embrace a great variety of simple and well-cooked dishes, designed for every-day comfort and enjoyment.

Second, to include in the collection only such receipts as have been tested by superior housekeepers, and warranted to be the best. It is not a book made up in any department by copying from other books, but entirely from the experience of the best practical housekeepers.

Third, to express every receipt in language which is short, simple, and perspicuous, and yet to give all directions so minutely as that the book can be kept in the kitchen, and be used by any domestic who can read, as a guide in every one of her employments in the kitchen.

Fourth, to furnish such directions in regard to small dinner-parties and evening company as will enable any young housekeeper to perform her part, on such occasions, with ease, comfort, and success.

Fifth, to present a good supply of the rich and elegant dishes demanded at such entertainments, and yet to set forth so large and tempting a variety of what is safe, healthful, and good, in connexion with such warnings and suggestions as it is hoped may avail to promote a more healthful fashion in regard both to entertainments and to daily table supplies. No book of this kind will sell without an adequate supply of the rich articles which custom requires, and in furnishing them, the writer has aimed to follow the example of Providence, which scatters profusely both good and ill, and combines therewith the caution alike of experience, revelation, and conscience, "choose ye that which is good, that ye and your seed may live."

Sixth, in the work on Domestic Economy, together with this, to which it is a Supplement, the writer has attempted to secure, in a cheap and popular form, for American housekeepers, a work similar to an English work which she has examined, entitled the Encyclopaedia of Domestic Economy, by Thomas Webster and Mrs. Parkes, containing over twelve hundred octavo pages of closely-printed matter, treating on every department of Domestic Economy; a work which will be found much more useful to English women, who have a plenty of money and well-trained servants, than to American housekeepers. It is believed that most in that work which would be of any practical use to American housekeepers, will be found in this work and the Domestic Economy.

Lastly, the writer has aimed to avoid the defects complained of by most housekeepers in regard to works of this description issued in this country, or sent from England, such as that, in some cases, the receipts are so rich as to be both expensive and unhealthful; in others, that they are so vaguely expressed as to be very imperfect guides; in others, that the processes are so elaborate and fussing as to make double the work that is needful; and in others, that the topics are so limited that some departments are entirely omitted, and all are incomplete.

In accomplishing these objects, the writer has received contributions of the pen, and verbal communications from some of the most judicious and practical housekeepers, in almost every section of this country, so that the work is fairly entitled to the name it bears of the American Housekeeper's Receipt Book.

The following embraces most of the topics contained in this work.

Suggestions to young housekeepers in regard to style, furniture, and domestic arrangements.

Suggestions in regard to different modes to be pursued both with foreign and American domestics.

On providing a proper supply of family stores, on the economical care and use of them, and on the furniture and arrangement of a store-closet.

On providing a proper supply of utensils to be used in cooking, with drawings to illustrate.

On the proper construction of ovens, and directions for heating and managing them.

Directions for securing good yeast and good bread.

Advice in regard to marketing, the purchase of wood, &c.

Receipts for breakfast dishes, biscuits, warm cakes, tea cakes, &c.

Receipts for puddings, cakes, pies, preserves, pickles, sauces, catsups, and also for cooking all the various kinds of meats, soups, and vegetables.

The above receipts are arranged so that the more healthful and simple ones are put in one portion, and the richer ones in another.

Healthful and favourite articles of food for young children.

Receipts for a variety of temperance drinks.

Directions for making tea, coffee, chocolate, and other warm drinks.

Directions for cutting up meats, and for salting down, corning, curing, and smoking.

Directions for making butter and cheese, as furnished by a practical and scientific manufacturer of the same, of Goshen, Conn., that land of rich butter and cheese.

A guide to a selection of a regular course of family dishes, which will embrace a successive variety, and unite convenience with good taste and comfortable living.

Receipts for articles for the sick, and drawings of conveniences for their comfort and relief.

Receipts for articles for evening parties and dinner parties, with drawings to show the proper manner of setting tables, and of supplying and arranging dishes, both on these, and on ordinary occasions.

An outline of arrangements for a family in moderate circumstances, embracing the systematic details of work for each domestic, and the proper mode of doing it, as furnished by an accomplished housekeeper.

Remarks on the different nature of food and drinks, and their relation to the laws of health.

Suggestions to the domestics of a family, designed to promote a proper appreciation of the dignity and importance of their station, and a cheerful and faithful performance of their duties.

Miscellaneous suggestions and receipts.



A GLOSSARY

OF SUCH WORDS AND PHRASES AS MAY NOT EASILY BE UNDERSTOOD BY THE YOUNG READER.

[Many words, not contained in this GLOSSARY, will be found explained in the body of the Work, in the places where they first occur. For these, see INDEX.]

Academy, the Boston, an association in Boston, established for the purpose of promoting the study and culture of the art of music.

Action brought by the Commonwealth, a prosecution conducted in the name of the public, or by the authority of the State.

Alcoholic, made of, or containing, alcohol, an inflammable liquid, which is the basis of ardent spirits.

Alkali, (plural alkalies,) a chemical substance, which has the property of combining with, and neutralizing the properties of, acids, producing salts by the combination. Alkalies change most of the vegetable blues and purples to green, red to purple, and yellow to brown. Caustic alkali, an alkali deprived of all impurities, being thereby rendered more caustic and violent in its operation. This term is usually applied to pure potash. Fixed alkali, an alkali that emits no characteristic smell, and cannot be volatilized or evaporated without great difficulty. Potash and soda are called the fixed alkalies. Soda is also called a fossil, or mineral, alkali, and potash, the vegetable alkali. Volatile alkali, an elastic, transparent, colorless, and consequently invisible gas, known by the name of ammonia, or ammoniacal gas. The odor of spirits of hartshorn is caused by this gas.

Anglo-American, English-American, relating to Americans descended from English ancestors.

Anne, Queen, a Queen of England, who reigned from A. D. 1702, to 1714. She was the daughter of James II., and succeeded to the throne on the death of William III. She died, August 1, 1714, in the fiftieth year of her age. She was not a woman of very great intellect; but was deservedly popular, throughout her reign, being a model of conjugal and maternal duty, and always intending to do good. She was honored with the title of 'Good Queen Anne', which showed the opinion entertained of her virtues by the people.

Anotta, Annotto, Arnotta, or Rocou, a soft, brownish-red substance, prepared from the reddish pulp surrounding the seeds of a tree, which grows in the West Indies, Guiana, and other parts of South America, called the Bixa orellana. It is used as a dye.

Anther, that part of the stamen of a flower which contains the pollen or farina, a sort of mealy powder or dust, which is necessary to the production of the flower.

Anthracite, one of the most valuable kinds of mineral coal, containing no bitumen. It is very abundant in the United States.

Aperient, opening.

Apple-corer, an instrument lately invented for the purpose of divesting apples of their cores.

Arabic, gum, see Gum Arabic.

Archaeology, a discourse or treatise on antiquities.

Arnotto, see Anotta.

Arrow-root, a white powder, obtained from the fecula or starch of several species of tuberous plants in the East and West Indies, Bermuda, and other places. That from Bermuda is most highly esteemed. It is used as an article for the table, in the form of puddings; and also as a highly-nutritive, easily-digested, and agreeable, food, for invalids. It derives its name from having been originally used by the Indians, as a remedy for the poison of their arrows, by mashing and applying it to the wound.

Articulating process, the protuberance, or projecting part of a bone, by which it is so joined to another bone, as to enable the two to move upon each other.

Asceticism, the state of an ascetic, or hermit, who flies from society and lives in retirement, or who practises a greater degree of mortification and austerity than others do, or who inflicts extraordinary severities upon himself.

Astral lamp, a lamp, the principle of which was invented by Benjamin Thompson, (a native of Massachusetts, and afterwards Count Rumford,) in which the oil is contained in a large horizontal ring, having, at the centre, a burner, which communicates with the ring by tubes. The ring is placed a little below the level of the flame, and, from its large surface, affords a supply of oil for many hours.

Astute, shrewd.

Auld Robin Gray, a celebrated Scotch song, in which a young woman laments her having married an old rich man, whom she did not love, for the sake of providing for her poor parents.

Auricles, (from a Latin word, signifying the ear,) the name given to two appendages of the heart, from their fancied resemblance to the ear.

Baglivi, (George,) an eminent physician, who was born at Ragusa, in 1668, and was educated at Naples and Paris. Pope Clement XIV., on the ground of his great merit, appointed him, while a very young man, Professor of Anatomy and Surgery in the College of Sapienza, at Rome. He wrote several works, and did much to promote the cause of medical science. He died, A. D. 1706.

Bass, or bass wood, a large forest tree of America, sometimes called the lime-tree. The wood is white and soft, and the bark is sometimes used for bandages, as mentioned in page 343.

Beau Nash, see Nash.

Bell, Sir Charles, a celebrated surgeon, who was born in Edinburgh, in the year 1778. He commenced his career in London, in 1806, as a lecturer on Anatomy and Surgery. In 1830, he received the honors of knighthood, and in 1836 was appointed Professor of Surgery in the College of Edinburgh. He died near Worcester, in England, April 29, 1842. His writings are very numerous, and have been much celebrated. Among the most important of these, to general readers, are, his Illustrations of Paley's Natural Theology, (which work forms the second and third volumes of the larger series of 'THE SCHOOL LIBRARY,' issued by the Publishers of this volume,) and his treatise on 'The Hand, its Mechanism, and Vital Endowments, as evincing Design.'

Bergamot, a fruit, which was originally produced by ingrafting a branch of a citron or lemon tree, upon the stock of a peculiar kind of pear, called the bergamot pear.

Biased, cut diagonally from one corner to another of a square or rectangular piece of cloth. Bias pieces, triangular pieces cut as above mentioned.

Bituminous, containing bitumen, which is an inflammable mineral substance, resembling tar or pitch in its properties and uses. Among different bituminous substances, the names naphtha and petroleum have been given to those which are fluid; maltha, to that which has the consistence of pitch; and asphaltum, to that which is solid.

Blight, a disease in plants, by which they are blasted, or prevented from producing fruit.

Blond lace, lace made of silk.

Blood heat, the temperature which the blood is always found to maintain, or ninety-eight degrees of Fahrenheit's thermometer.

Blue vitriol, sulphate of copper. See Sulphate.

Blunts, needles of a short and thick shape, distinguished from Sharps, which are long and slender.

Bocking, a kind of thin carpeting, or coarse baize.

Boston Academy, see Academy.

Botany, (from a Greek word, signifying an herb,) a knowledge of plants; the science which treats of plants.

Brazil wood, the central part, or heart, of a large tree which grows in Brazil, called the Caesalpinia echinata. It produces very lively and beautiful red tints, but they are not permanent.

Bronze, a metallic composition, consisting of copper and tin.

Brulure, a French term, denoting a burning or scalding; a blasting of plants.

Brussels, (carpet,) a kind of carpeting, so called from the city of Brussels, in Europe. Its basis is composed of a warp and woof of strong linen threads, with the warp of which are intermixed about five times the quantity of woollen threads, of different colors.

Bulb, a root with a round body, like the onion, turnip, or hyacinth. Bulbous, having a bulb.

Byron, (George Gordon,) Lord, a celebrated Poet, who was born in London, January 22, 1788, and died in Missolonghi, in Greece, April 18, 1824.

Calisthenics, see page 56, note.

Camwood, a dyewood, procured from a leguminous (or pod-bearing) tree, growing on the Western Coast of Africa, and called Baphia nitida.

Cankerworm, a worm which is very destructive to trees and plants. It springs from an egg deposited by a miller that issues from the ground, and in some years destroys the leaves and fruit of apple and other trees.

Carbon, a simple inflammable body, forming the principal part of wood and coal, and the whole of the diamond.

Carbonic acid, a compound gas, consisting of carbon and oxygen. It has lately been obtained in a solid form.

Carmine, a crimson color, the most beautiful of all the reds. It is prepared from a decoction of the powdered cochineal insect, to which alum and other substances are added.

Caster, a small phial or vessel for the table, in which to put vinegar, mustard, pepper, &c.

Chancellor of the Exchequer, the highest judge of the law; the principal financial minister of a government, and the one who manages its revenue.

Chateau, a castle, a mansion.

Chemistry, the science which treats of the elementary constituents of bodies.

Chinese belle, deformities of. In China, it is the fashion to compress the feet of female infants, to prevent their growth; in consequence of which, the feet of all the females of China are distorted, and so small, that the individuals cannot walk with ease.

Chloride, a compound of chlorine and some other substance. Chlorine is a simple substance, formerly called oxymuriatic acid. In its pure state, it is a gas, of green color, (hence its name, from a Greek word, signifying green.) Like oxygen, it supports the combustion of some inflammable substances. Chloride of lime is a compound of chlorine and lime.

Cholera infantum, a bowel complaint, to which infants are subject.

Chyle, a white juice, formed from the chyme, and consisting of the finer and more nutritious parts of the food. It is afterwards converted into blood.

Chyme, the result of the first process which food undergoes in the stomach, previously to its being converted into chyle.

Cicuta, the common American Hemlock, an annual plant of four or five feet in height, and found commonly along walls and fences, and about old ruins and buildings. It is a virulent poison, as well as one of the most important and valuable medicinal vegetables. It is a very different plant from the Hemlock tree, or Pinus Canadensis.

Clarke, (Sir Charles Mansfield,) Dr., a distinguished English physician and surgeon, who was born in London, May 28, 1782. He was appointed Physician to Queen Adelaide, wife of King William IV., in 1830, and in 1831, he was created a baronet. He is the author of several valuable medical works.

Cobalt, a brittle metal, of a reddish-gray color and weak metallic lustre, used in coloring glass. It is not easily melted nor oxidized in the air.

Cochineal, a color procured from the cochineal insect, (or Coccus cacti,) which feeds upon the leaves of several species of the plant called cactus, and which is supposed to derive its coloring matter from its food. Its natural color is crimson; but by the addition of a preparation of potash, it yields a rich scarlet dye.

Cologne water, a fragrant perfume, which derives its name from having been originally made in the city of Cologne, which is situated on the River Rhine, in Germany. The best kind is still procured from that city.

Comparative anatomy, the science which has for its object a comparison of the anatomy, structure, and functions, of the various organs of animals, plants, &c., with those of the human body.

Confection, a sweetmeat; a preparation of fruit with sugar; also a preparation of medicine with honey, sirup, or similar saccharine substance, for the purpose of disguising the unpleasant taste of the medicine.

Cooper, Sir Astley Paston, a celebrated English surgeon, who was born at Brooke, in Norfolk county, England, August 23, 1768, and commenced the practice of Surgery in London, in 1792. He was appointed Surgeon to King George IV., in 1827, was created a baronet in 1821, and died February 12, 1841. He was the author of many valuable works.

Copal, a hard, shining, transparent resin, of a light citron color, brought, originally, from Spanish America, and now almost wholly from the East Indies. It is principally employed in the preparation of copal varnish.

Copper, sulphate of, see Sulphate of copper.

Copperas, (sulphate of iron, or green vitriol,) a bright green mineral substance, formed by the decomposition of a peculiar ore of iron, called pyrites, which is a sulphuret of iron. It is first in the form of a greenish-white powder, or crust, which is dissolved in water, and beautiful green crystals of copperas are obtained by evaporation. It is principally used in dyeing, and in making black ink. Its solution, mixed with a decoction of oak bark, produces a black color.

Coronary, relating to a crown or garland. In anatomy, it is applied to arteries which encompass the heart, in the manner, as it is fancied, of a garland.

Corrosive sublimate, a poisonous substance, composed of chlorine and quicksilver.

Cosmetics, preparations which some people foolishly think will preserve and beautify the skin.

Cream of tartar, see Tartar.

Crimping-iron, an instrument for crimping or curling ruffles, &c.

Curculio, a weevil or worm, which affects the fruit of the plum tree, and sometimes that of the apple tree, causing the unripe fruit to fall to the ground.

Curvature of the spine, see pages 80, 81.

Cuvier, Baron, the most eminent naturalist of the present age, was born, A. D. 1769, and died, A. D. 1832. He was Professor of Natural History in the College of France, and held various important posts under the French Government, at different times. His works on Natural History are of the greatest value.

Cynosure, the star near the North Pole, by which sailors steer. It is used, in a figurative sense, as synonymous with pole-star, or guide.

De Tocqueville, see Tocqueville.

Diamond cement, a cement sold in the shops, and used for mending broken glass, and similar articles.

Drab, a thick woollen cloth, of a light brown or dun color. The name is sometimes used for the color itself.

Dredging-box, a box with holes in the top, used to sift or scatter flour on meat, when roasting.

Drill, (in husbandry,) to sow grain in rows, drills, or channels; the row of grain so sowed.

Duchess of Orleans, see Orleans.

The East, and the Eastern States, those of the United States situated in the north-east part of the Country, including Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Vermont.

Electuary, a mixture, consisting of medicinal substances, especially dry powders, combined with honey or sirup, in order to render them less unpleasant to the taste, and more convenient for internal use.

Elevation, (of a house,) a plan, representing the upright view of a house, as a ground-plan shows its appearance on the ground.

Euclid, a celebrated mathematician, who was born in Alexandria, in Egypt, about two hundred and eighty years before Christ. He distinguished himself by his writings on music and geometry. The most celebrated of his works, is his 'Elements of Geometry,' which is in use at the present day. He established a school at Alexandria, which became so famous, that, from his time to the conquest of Alexandria by the Saracens, (A. D. 646,) no mathematician was found, who had not studied at Alexandria. Ptolemy, King of Egypt, was one of his pupils; and it was to a question of this King, whether there were not a shorter way of coming at Geometry, than by the study of his Elements, that Euclid made the celebrated answer, "There is no royal way, or path, to Geometry."

Equator, or equinoctial line, an imaginary line passing round the earth, from east to west, and directly under the sun, which always shines nearly perpendicularly down upon all countries situated near the equator.

Evolve, to throw off, to discharge.

Exchequer, a court in England, in which the Chancellor presides, and where the revenues of, and debts due to, the King are recovered. This court was originally established by King William, (called 'the Conqueror,') who died A. D. 1087; and its name is derived from a checkered cloth, (French echiquier, a chess-board, checker-work,) on the table.

Excretion, something discharged from the body, a separation of animal matters.

Excrementitious, consisting of matter excreted from the body; containing excrements.

Fahrenheit, (Gabriel Daniel,) a celebrated natural philosopher, who was born at Dantzic, A. D. 1686. He made great improvements in the thermometer; and his name is sometimes used for that instrument.

Farinaceous, mealy, tasting like meal.

To Fell, to turn down, on the wrong side, the raw edges of a seam, after it has been stitched, run, or sewed, and then to hem or sew it to the cloth.

Festivals, of the Jews, the three great annual. These were, the Feast of the Passover, that of Pentecost, and that of Tabernacles; on occasion of which, all the males of the Nation were required to visit the Temple at Jerusalem, in whatever part of the Country they might reside. See Exodus xxiii. 14, 17, xxxiv. 23, Leviticus xxiii. 4, Deuteronomy xvi. 16. The Passover was kept in commemoration of the deliverance of the Israelites from Egypt, and was so named, because, the night before their departure, the destroying angel, who slew all the first-born of the Egyptians, passed over the houses of the Israelites, without entering them. See Exodus xii. The Feast of Pentecost was so called, from a word meaning the fiftieth, because it was celebrated on the fiftieth day after the Passover, and was instituted in commemoration of the giving of the Law from Mount Sinai, on the fiftieth day from the departure out of Egypt. It is also called the Feast of Weeks, because it was kept seven weeks after the Passover. See Exodus xxxiv. 22, Leviticus xxiii. 15-21, Deuteronomy xvi. 9, 10. The Feast of Tabernacles, or Feast of Tents, was so called, because it was celebrated under tents or tabernacles of green boughs; and was designed to commemorate their dwelling in tents, during their passage through the wilderness. At this Feast, they also returned thanks to God, for the fruits of the earth, after they had been gathered. See Exodus xxiii. 16, Leviticus xxiii. 34-44, Deuteronomy xvi. 13, and also St. John vii. 2.

Fire blight, a disease in the pear, and some other fruit trees, in which they appear burnt, as if by fire. It is supposed, by some, to be caused by an insect, others suppose it to be caused by an overabundance of sap.

Fluting-iron, an instrument for making flutes, channels, furrows, or hollows, in ruffles, &c.

Foundation muslin, a nice kind of buckram, stiff and white, used for the foundation or basis of bonnets, &c.

Free States, those States in which slavery is not allowed, as distinguished from Slave States, in which slavery does exist.

French chalk, a variety of the mineral called talc, unctuous to the touch, of a greenish color, glossy, soft, and easily scratched, and leaving a silvery line, when drawn on paper. It is used for marking on cloth, and extracting grease-spots.

Fuller's earth, a species of clay, remarkable for its property of absorbing oil; for which reason it is valuable for extracting grease from cloth, &c. It is used by fullers, in scouring and cleansing cloth, whence its name.

Fustic, the wood of a tree which grows in the West Indies, called Morus tinctoria. It affords a durable, but not very brilliant, yellow dye, and is also used in producing some greens and drab colors.

Gastric, (from the Greek [Greek: gastir], gaster, the belly,) belonging or relating to the belly, or stomach. Gastric juice, the fluid which dissolves the food in the stomach. It is limpid, like water, of a saltish taste, and without odor.

Geology, the science which treats of the earth, as composed of rocks and stones.

Gore, a triangular piece of cloth. Goring, cut in a triangular shape.

Gothic, a peculiar and strongly-marked style of architecture, sometimes called the ecclesiastical style, because it is most frequently used in cathedrals, churches, abbeys, and other religious edifices. Its principle seems to have originated in the imitation of groves and bowers, under which the ancients performed their sacred rites; its clustered pillars and pointed arches very well representing the trunks of trees and their interlocking branches.

Gourmand, or Gormand, a glutton, a greedy eater. In agriculture, it is applied to twigs which take up the sap, but bear only leaves.

Green vitriol, see Copperas.

Griddle, an iron pan, of a peculiarly broad and shallow construction, used for baking cakes.

Ground-plan, the map or plan of the lower floor of any building, in which the various apartments, windows, doors, fireplaces, and other things, are represented, like the rivers, towns, mountains, roads, &c., on a map.

Gum Arabic, a vegetable juice which exudes through the bark of the Acacia, Mimosa nilotica, and some other similar trees, growing in Arabia, Egypt, Senegal, and Central Africa. It is the purest of all gums.

Hardpan, the hard, unbroken layer of earth, below the mould or cultivated soil.

Hartshorn, (spirits of,) a volatile alkali, originally prepared from the horns of the stag or hart, but now procured from various other substances. It is known by the name of ammonia, or spirits of ammonia.

Hemlock, see Cicuta.

Horticulturist, one skilled in horticulture, or the art of cultivating gardens; horticulture being to the garden, what agriculture is to the farm, the application of labor and science to a limited spot, for convenience, for profit, or for ornament,—though implying a higher state of cultivation, than is common in agriculture. It includes the cultivation of culinary vegetables and of fruits, and forcing or exotic gardening, as far as respects useful products.

Hoskin's gloves, gloves made by a person named Hoskin, whose manufacture was formerly much celebrated.

Hydrogen, a very light, inflammable gas, of which water is, in part, composed. It is used to inflate balloons.

Hypochondriasis, melancholy, dejection, a disorder of the imagination, in which the person supposes he is afflicted with various diseases.

Hysteria, or hysterics, a spasmodic, convulsive affection of the nerves, to which women are subject. It is somewhat similar to hypochondriasis in men.

Ingrain, a kind of carpeting, in which the threads are dyed in the grain, or raw material, before manufacture.

Ipecac, (an abbreviation of ipecacuanha,) an Indian medicinal plant, acting as an emetic.

Isinglass, a fine kind of gelatin, or glue, prepared from the swimming-bladders of fishes, used as a cement, and also as an ingredient in food and medicine. The name is sometimes applied to a transparent mineral substance called mica.

Kamtschadales, inhabitants of Kamtschatka, a large peninsula situated on the northeastern coast of Asia, having the North Pacific Ocean on the east. It is remarkable for its extreme cold, which is heightened by a range of very lofty mountains, extending the whole length of the peninsula, several of which are volcanic. It is very deficient in vegetable productions, but produces a great variety of animals, from which the richest and most valuable furs are procured. The inhabitants are in general below the common height, but have broad shoulders and large heads. It is under the dominion of Russia.

Kink, a knotty twist in a thread or rope.

Lapland, a country at the extreme north part of Europe, where it is very cold. It contains lofty mountains, some of which are covered with perpetual snow and ice.

Latin, the language of the Latins, or inhabitants of Latium, the principal country of ancient Italy. After the building of Rome, that city became the capital of the whole country.

Leguminous, pod-bearing.

Lent, a fast of the Christian Church, (lasting forty days, from Ash Wednesday to Easter,) in commemoration of our Saviour's miraculous fast of forty days and forty nights, in the wilderness. The word Lent means spring; this fast always occurring at that season of the year.

Levite, one of the tribe of Levi, the son of Jacob, which tribe was set apart from the others, to minister in the services of the Tabernacle, and the Temple at Jerusalem. The Priests were taken from this tribe. See Numbers i. 47-53.

Ley, water which has percolated through ashes, earth, or other substances, dissolving and imbibing a part of their contents. It is generally spelled lie, or lye.

Linnaeus, (Charles,) a native of Sweden, and the most celebrated naturalist of his age. He was born May 13, 1707, and died January 11, 1778. His life was devoted to the study of natural history. The science of botany, in particular, is greatly indebted to his labors. His 'Amoenitates Academicae' (Academical Recreations) is a collection of the dissertations of his pupils, edited by himself; a work rich in matters relating to the history and habits of plants. He was the first who arranged Natural History into a regular system, which has been generally called by his name. His proper name was Linne.

Lobe, a division, a distinct part; generally applied to the two divisions of the lungs.

Log Cabin, a cabin or house built of logs, as is generally the case in newly-settled countries.

Loire, the largest river of France, being about five hundred and fifty miles in length. It rises in the mountains of Cevennes, and empties into the Atlantic Ocean, about forty miles below the city of Nantes. It divides France into two almost equal parts.

London Medical Society, a distinguished association, formed in 1773. It has published some valuable volumes of its Transactions. It has a library, of about 40,000 volumes, which is kept in a house presented to the Society, in 1788, by the celebrated Dr. Lettsom, who was one of its first members.

Louis XIV., a celebrated King of France and Navarre, who was born Sept. 5, 1638, and died Sept. 1, 1715. His mother having before had no children, though she had been married twenty-two years, his birth was considered as a particular favor from heaven, and he was called the 'Gift of God.' He is sometimes styled 'Louis the Great,' and his reign is celebrated as an era of magnificence and learning, and is notorious as a period of licentiousness. He left behind him monuments of unprecedented splendor and expense, consisting of palaces, gardens, and other like works.

Lumbar, (from the Latin lumbus, the loin,) relating or pertaining to the loins.

Lunacy, writ of, a judicial proceeding, to ascertain whether a person be a lunatic.

Mademoiselle, the French word for Miss, a young girl.

Magnesia, a light and white alkaline earth, which enters into the composition of many rocks, communicating to them a greasy or soapy feeling, and a striped texture, with sometimes a greenish color.

Malaria, (Italian, mal'aria, bad air,) a noxious vapor or exhalation; a state of the atmosphere or soil, or both, which, in certain regions, and in warm weather, produces fever, sometimes of great violence.

Mammon, riches, the Syrian god of riches. See St. Luke, xvi. 11, 13, St. Matthew, vi. 24.

Martineau, (Harriet,) a woman who has become somewhat celebrated by her book of travels in the United States, and by other works.

Mexico, a country situated southwest of the United States, and extending to the Pacific Ocean.

Miasms, such particles or atoms, as are supposed to arise from distempered, putrefying, or poisonous bodies.

Michilimackinac, or Mackinac, (now frequently corrupted into Mackinaw, which is the usual pronunciation of the name,) a military post in the State of Michigan, situated upon an island about nine miles in circuit, in the strait which connects Lakes Michigan and Huron. It is much resorted to by Indians and fur traders. The highest summit of the island is about three hundred feet above the lakes, and commands an extensive view of them.

Midsummer, with us, the time when the sun arrives at his greatest distance from the equator, or about the twenty-first of June, called, also, the summer solstice, (from the Latin sol, the sun, and sto, to stop or stand still,) because, when the sun reaches this point, he seems to stand still for some time, and then appears to retrace his steps. The days are then longer than at any other time.

Migrate, to remove from one place to another; to change residence.

Mildew, a disease of plants; a mould, spot, or stain, in paper, cloths, &c., caused by moisture.

Militate, to oppose, to operate against.

Millinet, a coarse kind of stiff muslin, formerly used for the foundation or basis of bonnets, &c.

Mineralogy, a science which treats of the inorganic natural substances found upon or in the earth, such as earths, salts, metals, &c., and which are called by the general name of minerals.

Minutiae, the smallest particulars.

Monasticism, monastic life; religiously recluse life, in a monastery, or house of religious retirement.

Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley, one of the most celebrated among the female literary characters of England. She was daughter of Evelyn, Duke of Kingston, and was born about 1690, at Thoresby, in England. She displayed uncommon abilities, at a very early age, and was educated by the best masters in the English, Latin, Greek, and French, languages. She accompanied her husband (Edward Wortley Montagu) on an embassy to Constantinople, and her correspondence with her friends was published and much admired. She introduced the practice of inoculation for the smallpox into England, which proved of great benefit to millions. She died at the age of seventy-two, A. D. 1762.

Moral Philosophy, the science which treats of the motives and rules of human actions, and of the ends to which they ought to be directed.

Moreen, a kind of woollen stuff used for curtains, covers of cushions, bed hangings, &c.

Mucous, having the nature of mucus, a glutinous, sticky, thready, transparent fluid, of a salt savor, produced by different membranes of the body, and serving to protect the membranes and other internal parts against the action of the air, food, &c. The fluid of the mouth and nose is mucus.

Mucous membrane, that membrane which lines the mouth, nose, intestines, and other open cavities of the body.

Muriatic acid, an acid, composed of chlorine and hydrogen, called, also, hydrochloric acid, and spirit of salt.

Mush-stick, a stick to use in stirring mush, which is corn meal boiled in water.

Nankeen, or Nankin, a light cotton cloth, originally brought from Nankin, in China, whence its name.

Nash, (Richard,) commonly called Beau Nash, or King of Bath, a celebrated leader of the fashions in England. He was born at Swansea, in South Wales, October 8, 1674, and died in the city of Bath, (England,) February 3, 1761.

Natural History, the history of animals, plants, and minerals.

Natural Philosophy, the science which treats of the powers of Nature, the properties of natural bodies, and their action one upon another. It is sometimes called physics.

New-milch cow, a cow which has recently calved.

Newton, (Sir Isaac,) an eminent English philosopher and mathematician, who was born on Christmas day, 1642, and died March 20, 1727. He was much distinguished for his very important discoveries in Optics and other branches of Natural Philosophy. See the first volume of 'Pursuit of Knowledge under Difficulties,' forming the fourteenth volume of 'THE SCHOOL LIBRARY,' Larger Series.

Non-bearers, plants which bear no flowers nor fruit.

Northern States, those of the United States situated in the Northern and Eastern part of the Country.

Ordinary, see Physician in Ordinary.

Oil of Vitriol, (sulphuric acid, or vitriolic acid,) an acid composed of oxygen and sulphur.

Orleans, (Elizabeth Charlotte de Baviere,) Duchess of, second wife of Philippe, the brother of Louis XIV., was born at Heidelberg, May 26, 1652, and died at the palace of St. Cloud, in Paris, December 8, 1722. She was author of several works; among which were, Memoirs, and Anecdotes, of the Court of Louis XIV.

Ottoman, a kind of hassock, or thick mat, for kneeling upon; so called, from being used by the Ottomans or Turks.

Oxalic acid, a vegetable acid, which exists in sorrel.

Oxide, a compound (which is not acid) of a substance with oxygen; for example, oxide of iron, or rust of metals.

Oxidize, to combine oxygen with a body without producing acidity.

Oxygen, vital air, a simple and very important substance, which exists in the atmosphere, and supports the breathing of animals and the burning of combustibles. It was called oxygen, from two Greek words, signifying to produce acid, from its power of giving acidity to many compounds in which it predominates.

Oxygenized, combined with oxygen.

Pancreas, a gland within the abdomen, just below and behind the stomach, and providing a fluid to assist digestion. In animals, it is called the sweet-bread. Pancreatic, belonging to the pancreas.

Parterre, a level division of ground, a flower garden.

Pearlash, the common name for impure carbonate of potash, which, in a purer form, is called Sal aeratus.

Peristaltic, worm-like.

Philosophy, see Intellectual, Moral, and Natural.

Physician in Ordinary to the Queen, the Physician who attends the Queen in ordinary cases of illness.

Pistil, that part of a flower, generally in the centre, composed of the germ, style, and stigma, which receives the pollen or fertilizing dust of the stamens.

Pitt, William, a celebrated English statesman, son of the Earl of Chatham. He was born, May 28, 1759, and at the age of twenty-three, was made Chancellor of the Exchequer, and soon afterward, Prime Minister. He died, January 23, 1806.

Political Economy, the science which treats of the general causes affecting the production, distribution, and consumption, of articles of exchangeable value, in reference to their effects upon national wealth and welfare.

Pollen, the fertilizing dust of flowers, produced by the stamens, and falling upon the pistils, in order to render a flower capable of producing fruit or seed.

Potter's clay, the clay used in making articles of pottery.

Prairie, a French word, signifying meadow. In the United States, it is applied to the remarkable natural meadows, or plains, which are found in the Western States. In some of these vast and nearly level plains, the traveller may wander for days, without meeting with wood or water, and see no object rising above the plane of the horizon. They are very fertile.

Prime Minister, the person appointed by the ruler of a nation to have the chief direction and management of the public affairs.

Process, a protuberance, or projecting part of a bone.

Pulmonary, belonging to, or affecting, the lungs. Pulmonary artery, an artery which passes through the lungs, being divided into several branches, which form a beautiful network over the air-vessels, and finally empty themselves into the left auricle of the heart.

Puritans, a sect, which professed to follow the pure word of God, in opposition to traditions, human constitutions, and other authorities. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, part of the Protestants were desirous of introducing a simpler, and, as they considered it, a purer, form of church government and worship, than that established by law; from which circumstance, they were called Puritans. In process of time, this party increased in numbers, and openly broke off from the Church, laying aside the English liturgy, and adopting a service-book published at Geneva, by the disciples of Calvin. They were treated with great rigor by the Government, and many of them left the kingdom and settled in Holland. Finding themselves not so eligibly situated in that Country, as they had expected to be, a portion of them embarked for America, and were the first settlers of New England.

Quixotic, absurd, romantic, ridiculous; from Don Quixote, the hero of a celebrated fictitious work, written by Cervantes, a distinguished Spanish writer, and intended to reform the tastes and opinions of his countrymen.

Reeking, smoking, emitting vapor.

Residuum, the remainder, or part which remains.

Routine, a round, or course of engagements, business, pleasure, &c.

To Run a seam, to lay the two edges of a seam together, and pass the threaded needle out and in, with small stitches, a few threads below the edge, and on a line with it.

To Run a stocking, to pass a thread of yarn, with a needle, straight along each row of the stocking, as far as is desired, taking up one loop and missing two or three, until the row is completed, so as to double the thickness at the part which is run.

Sabbatical year, every seventh year, among the Jews, which was a year of rest for the land, when it was to be left without culture. In this year, all debts were to be remitted, and slaves set at liberty. See Exodus xxi. 2, xxiii. 10, Leviticus xxv. 2, 3, &c., Deuteronomy xv. 12, and other similar passages.

Sal aeratus, see Pearlash.

Sal ammoniac, a salt, called also muriate of ammonia, which derives its name from a district in Libya, Egypt, where there was a temple of Jupiter Ammon, and where this salt was found.

Scotch Highlanders, inhabitants of the Highlands of Scotland.

Selvedge, the edge of cloth, a border. Improperly written selvage.

Service-book, a book prescribing the order of public services in a church or congregation.

Sharps, see Blunts.

Shorts, the coarser part of wheat bran.

Shrubbery, a plantation of shrubs.

Siberia, a large country in the extreme northern part of Asia, having the Frozen Ocean on the north, and the Pacific Ocean on the east, and forming a part of the Russian empire. The northern part is extremely cold, almost uncultivated, and contains but few inhabitants. It furnishes fine skins, and some of the most valuable furs in the world. It also contains rich mines of iron and copper, and several kinds of precious stones.

Sinclair, Sir John, of whom it was said, "There is no greater name in the annals of agriculture, than his," was born in Caithness, Scotland, May 10, 1754, and became a member of the British Parliament in 1780. He was strongly opposed to the measures of the British Government towards America, which produced the American Revolution. He was author of many valuable publications, on various subjects. He died December 21, 1835.

Sirloin, the loin of beef. The appellation 'Sir' is the title of a knight, or baronet; and has been added to the word 'loin,' when applied to beef, because a King of England, in a freak of good humor, once conferred the honor of knighthood upon a loin of beef.

Slack, to loosen, to relax, to deprive of cohesion.

Soda, an alkali, usually obtained from the ashes of marine plants.

To Spade, to throw out earth with a spade.

Spermaceti, an oily substance, found in the head of a species of whale, called the spermaceti whale.

Spindling, see page 124.

Spinous process, a process or bony protuberance, resembling a spine or thorn, whence it derives its name.

Spool, a piece of cane or reed, or a hollow cylinder of wood, with a ridge at each end, used to wind yarn and thread upon.

Stamen, (plural stamens and stamina,) in weaving, the warp, the thread, any thing made of threads. In botany, that part of a flower, on which the artificial classification is founded, consisting of the filament or stalk, and the anther, which contains the pollen, or fructifying powder.

Stigma, (plural stigmas and stigmata,) the summit or top of the pistil of a flower.

Style, or Stile, the part of the pistil between the germ and the stigma.

Sub-carbonate, an imperfect carbonate.

Sulphates, Sulphats, Sulphites, salts formed by the combination of some base with sulphuric acid, as Sulphate of copper, (blue vitriol, or blue stone,) a combination of sulphuric acid with copper. Sulphate of iron, copperas, or green vitriol. Sulphate of lime, gypsum, or plaster of Paris. Sulphate of magnesia, Epsom salts. Sulphate of potash, a chemical salt, composed of sulphuric acid and potash. Sulphate of soda, Glauber's salts. Sulphate of zinc, white vitriol.

Sulphuret, a combination of an alkaline earth or metal with sulphur as, Sulphuret of iron, a combination of iron and sulphur.

Sulphuric acid, oil of vitriol, vitriolic acid.

Suture, a sewing; the uniting of parts by stitching; the seam or joint which unites the flat bones of the skull, which are notched like the teeth of a saw, and the notches, being united together, present the appearance of a seam.

Tartar, a substance, deposited on the inside of wine casks, consisting chiefly of tartaric acid and potash. Cream of tartar, the crude tartar separated from all its impurities, by being dissolved in water and then crystallized, when it becomes a perfectly white powder.

Tartaric acid, a vegetable acid which exists in the grape.

Technology, a description of the arts, considered generally, in their theory and practice, as connected with moral, political, and physical science.

Three great Jewish yearly festivals, see Festivals.

Three-ply, or triple ingrain, a kind of carpeting, in which the threads are woven in such a manner as to make three thicknesses of the cloth.

Tic douloureux, a painful affection of the nerves, mostly those of the face.

Tocqueville, (Alexis de,) a celebrated living statesman and writer of France, and author of volumes on the Political Condition, and the Penitentiaries, of the United States, and other works.

Trachea, the windpipe, so named (from a Greek word signifying rough) from the roughness, or inequalities, of the cartilages of which it is formed.

Truckle-bed, or trundle-bed, a bed that runs on wheels.

Tuber, a solid, fleshy, roundish root, like the potato. Tuberous, thick and fleshy; composed of, or having, tubers.

Tucks, (improperly tacks,) folds in garments.

Turmeric, the root of a plant called Curcuma longa, a native of the East Indies, used as a yellow dye.

Twaddle, idle, foolish talk, or conversation.

Unbolted, unsifted.

Unslacked, not loosened, or deprived of cohesion. Lime, when it has been slacked, crumbles to powder, from being deprived of cohesion.

Valance, the drapery or fringe hanging round the cover of a bed, couch, or other similar article.

Vascular, relating to, or full of, vessels.

Venetian, a kind of carpeting, composed of a striped woollen warp on a thick woof of linen thread.

Verisimilitude, probability, resemblance to truth.

Verbatim, word for word.

Vice versa, the side being changed, or the question reversed, or the terms being exchanged.

Viscera, (plural of viscus,) organs contained in the abdomen and in the chest.

Vitriol, a compound mineral salt, of a very caustic taste. Blue vitriol, sulphate of copper. Green vitriol, see Copperas. Oil of vitriol, sulphuric acid. White vitriol, sulphate of zinc.

Waffle-iron, an iron utensil for the purpose of baking waffles, which are thin and soft cakes indented by the iron in which they are baked.

Washleather, a soft, pliable leather, dressed with oil, and in such a way, that it may be washed, without shrinking. It is used for various articles of dress, as under-shirts, drawers, &c., and also for rubbing silver, and other articles having a high polish. The article known, in commerce, as chamois, or shammy, leather, is also called wash-leather.

Welting cord, a cord sewed into the welt or border of a garment.

The West, or Western World. When used in Europe, or in distinction from the Eastern World, it means America. When used in this Country, the West refers to the Western States of the Union. Western Wilds, the wild, thinly-settled lands of the Western States.

White vitriol, see Zinc.

Wilton carpet, a kind of carpets, made in England, and so called from the place which is the chief seat of their manufacture. They are woollen velvets, with variegated colors.

Writ of lunacy, see Lunacy.

Xantippe, the wife of Socrates, noted for her violent temper and scolding propensities. The name is frequently applied to a shrew, or peevish, turbulent, scolding woman.

Zinc, a blueish-white metal, which is used as a constituent of brass, and some other alloys. Sulphate of zinc, or White vitriol, a combination of zinc with sulphuric acid.



INDEX.

A.

Absorbents of the skin, 93, 119.

Accidents and antidotes, 240.

Accounts, 174, 186. By girls, 188.

Acids, 319.

Africans, diet of, 221.

Air, evils of the want of pure, 91, 129, 196, 311. Exercise in the, 129, 133. For infants, 217, 218. Of sick-rooms, 237. Dancing in the, 246. See Ventilation.

Albany Orphan Asylum, 222.

Alcoholic drinks, 107. See Stimulating.

Alton, account of the Monticello Female Seminary at, 54.

Amaryllis, 335.

America, anticipations as to, 36. Conspicuous station of, 36. Changeableness in the conditions in, 40, 46, 48, 257. Labor in, 147.

American women, peculiar responsibilities of, 25. Rights and privileges of, 27. Their distinct line of duty, 28, 32, 33. Influence of, on America, 32, 33. Their equality, 33. Fancied wrongs of, 33. Part to be acted by, 36. Influence of, in the world, 37, 38. Difficulties peculiar to, 38; as housekeepers, 39, 151, 204; from delicacy of constitution, 41, 45, 47, 128. Few perfectly healthy, 43. Causes of unhealthy, 43, 128; mental excitement, 43; their sense of their responsibilities, 44; too little outdoor exercise, 44. Bad early training of, 45. Exposures of, in newly-settled countries, 46. De Tocqueville describes, in the West, 46. In the East and in the West, compared, 47. Should oppose the feeling that labor is degrading, 61. Precedence given to, by the other sex, 141. Housekeeping by, 151. Time and money spent by, for the ornamental, 175. See Daughters, Females, Mothers, and Women.

Amusements, 244, 250.

Anemone, 335.

Anger, on silence in, 152. See Temper, and Tones.

Animal food, 99, 100. For young children, 220. Nourishment of, 221. See Food.

Animals, cruelty to, in sport, 244, 246.

Annual flowers, 337.

Anthracite coal, 281.

Ants, red and black, 323.

Anxiety, a countenance of, 149.

Appetites, gratification of the, 159, 171, 172. Rule as to, 184.

Apple trees, preserving from insects, 350.

Apportionment of time, 157, 160, 181. By regular division of work, 162. Jewish, 181.

Aristocracy, English, 27, 123. The prejudice of, as to labor, 61, 123. Distinguishing mark of, 123. On aping the, 124. Courtesy of, limited, 139. Manners of democracy and, 146. On economy among the, 194. Domestics of, 205.

Arm, muscles of the, 74, 75.

Arsenic, poisoning from, 242.

Arteries, tying up, 240.

Associated charities, 178.

Association, in Illinois, for educating poor females, 59. For education at large, 203.

Astral lamps, 282.

B.

Back-door accommodations, 276.

Baglivi, on health during Lent, 100.

Balls, 247, 248.

Bargains, on making, 190, 194.

Baskets, 321. For centre tables, 354.

Bath, on using the, 120.

Bathing infants, 217. See Washing.

Bathing-rooms, 276.

Beating down prices, 190, 194.

Beaumont, Dr., experiments by, on the digestibility of food, 104, note.

Beauty, effect of exercise on, 132.

Bed-bugs, 323.

Bedrooms, care of, 311.

Beds and bedding, 114, 313, 329. Washing, 287. On making, 314.

Beef's-gall, uses of, 286, 289. To prepare, 292.

Bell, Sir Charles, on nerves, 129.

Benevolence, happiness of, 131. See Charity.

Bile, 89.

Bituminous coal, 281.

Black ants, 323.

Black tea, 110.

Bleeding at the lungs, 243.

Blindness, guarding against, 217, 283.

Blisters, on dressing, 238.

Blood, details as to the circulation of the, 83. Effect of daylight on the, 124; of exercise, 132. Crowded to the brain, when one is excited, 195. When a cause of mental disease, 196. Stopping, 240, 243. When dancing, 246. See Circulation.

Blood-vessels, 81.

Blows on the head, 241.

Boarding-houses, plan as to expenses of, 186.

Boarding schools, curvature of the spine common at, 41. See Female seminaries.

Boards for ironing, 294.

Body, change and renovation of the, 91. Connection of mind and, 195. See Mind.

Boldness in domestics, 209.

Bones, described, 69.

Books, on teaching domestic economy from, 65.

Bosom-boards, 294.

Boston, scientific and literary advantages in, 147.

Bowels, 235, 237, note.

Boys, small, made useful, 164. Domestic arts taught to, 164. See Children.

Brain, excitement of the, 195. Over-action of the, 197.

Breakfast, 103. On late, 127. On the care of, and of dining-rooms, 306.

Broadcloths, cleansing, 289.

Broken limbs, 240.

Brown linens, washing, 288.

Bruises, 240.

Budding, hints on, 342.

Bulbs, 335.

Bulwer's novels, 234.

Burne, Dr., cited, 235.

Burns, treatment of, 241.

Buttonholes, 324.

Byron, Lord, 200, 201.

C.

Cakes, keeping till meal time, 223.

Calicoes, washing, 286, 287. Ironing, 295.

Calisthenics, 56, 247.

Candles, 281. To make, 283.

Caps for infants, 217.

Carpets, hints as to, 302.

Carving, 310.

Castle building, 199.

Cathartics, 235, 237.

Catholics, health of, during Lent, 100.

Cellars, vegetables in dark, 124. On the care of, 322.

Chambers, care of, 311. Couches for, 312. Furniture for, 313.

Character, attention to, at school, 58. Dependence of happiness on, 169. Self-denying benevolence of Christ's, 169.

Charcoal, 242, 281.

Charity, 131. On giving in, 158. Difficulty respecting, 167. General principles respecting, 168. Objects for receiving, 176. For souls of men, 177. By furnishing the poor with means of earning support, 178. Associations for, 178. Indiscriminate bestowal of, 178. Benefit of tracts in distributing, 179. On judging of other people's, 180. Union of, with social enjoyments, 184.

Cheap articles, hints on, 190, 194.

Children, washing, 121, 122. Living in the dark, 124. Early retiring and rising of, 126. Cultivation of good manners in, 141, 142. Too great familiarity with, 143, 226. Should acknowledge acts of kindness, 143; ask leave to use others' articles, 143; avoid wounding others' feelings, 143. To be taught to keep silence, 145, 230. Do not surround with too many rules, 145. On making allowances for, 154. Waiting on, 163. On making useful, 163, 252. On paying, for services, 164, 230. On giving younger, to older, 165. Precocity in, 198. Eating too often, 223. To be guarded as to honesty, deceit, and running in debt, 232. Sharing fruits and flowers, 251. See Boys, Female, Girls, and Young children.

Chimneys, smoky, 352.

Christ's character, 169.

Christianity, principles of, identical with democratic, 25, 34.

Churches, ill-ventilated, 196.

Chyle, 89. Converted into arterial blood, 90. From animal and other food, 99.

Cincinnati, education in, 148.

Circulation, in the skin of infants, 113. Effect of cold on, 113, 118, 119. See Blood.

Clark, Dr., on animal diet for very young children, 220.

Cleaning carpets, 303.

Cleanliness, on realizing the importance of, 118. Of the sick, 238.

Cleansing articles, 298.

Climbing plants, 339.

Closets, of conveniences, 162. Sliding, 278. For washing utensils, 285. In eating-rooms, 306. In kitchens, 322.

Clothing and clothes, 112. Deficiency of, 113, 129. Excess of, 114. Rule as to, 114. Flannel, 114, 115. Of men and women, compared, 115. Example of English women as to, 117. On changing, next to the body, 120. Girls buying their own, 188. On inconsistent, 189. On washing, 285. Ironing, 295. Whitening, 296. Cleansing, 298. Coloring, 300. See Dress, and Tight dressing.

Coal, 281.

Coats, on folding, 315.

Cobalt, poisoning from, 242.

Cockroaches, 323.

Coffee, see Tea.

Cold, on exposure to, 113, 118. Effect of, on infants, 114.

Cold and hot, food, 103. Drinks, 110.

Collecting of specimens, 253.

Colleges, on the endowment of, 51. On physicians in, 198.

Colors, coloring and, 300. For different complexions, 327.

Combe, Andrew, on drinks, 111. On exercising the brain, 199. On infants, 214. On animal food, 221.

Complexions, colors for the different, 327.

Condiments in food, 99.

Constipation, 235, 237, note.

Constitution, delicacy of, in American females, 41, 45, 47; causes of it, 45, 128. On early attention to the, 49. Duties of wealthy mothers, respecting their children's, 50. Effect of stimulating drinks on the, 107.

Conveniences, on providing, 162. For cooking, 319. See Closets.

Convivial meetings, on exposures after, 119, 247.

Cooking, food made unhealthy by, 99, 101. Conveniences wanted for, 319.

Cooper, Sir Astley, cited, 195.

Corrosive sublimate, poisoning from, 241.

Corsets, 116.

Couches, cheap, 312.

Courtesy, want of, 137, 141; causes of it, 138, 148. See Democracy.

Cows, to take care of, 352.

Creeping of infants, 219.

Cribs for infants, 218.

Crickets, 323.

Crockery, 319.

Crocus, 335.

Crown Imperial, 335.

Cruelty in amusements, 244, 246.

Crying of infants, 219.

Curculios, 351.

Currants, 348, 350.

Curtains, 302, 304.

Curvature, see Spine.

Cuts, remedies for, 240.

Cutting and sewing, 324, 328.

Cuvier, cited, 220.

D.

Daffodils, 336.

Dahlias, 336.

Dancing, 245, 246.

Daughters, on schooling, 48. On keeping, as domestic assistants, 60. Educated to domestic work, 67. See Female, and Girls.

Day, on converting into night, 123. Influence of, on vegetables and blood, 124.

Debt, on running into, 232.

Democracy, principles of, identical with Christian, 25, 34. Tendencies of, as to the female sex, 27. On progress towards, 34. On what the success of, depends, 36. Of early rising, 123. Courtesy of manners and, 138, 140, 146.

Derangement, from over-excitement, 197.

Diet, see Food.

Difficulties, peculiar to American women, 38. On estimating them justly, 39, 151. Remedies for, 48, 151.

Digestion, organs of respiration and, 87. Details respecting, 94. Articles easiest for, 101, 104. Experiments respecting, 104. Bulk of food necessary to, 105. Impeded by bathing, 121.

Dining-rooms, care of, 306.

Dinner, setting table for, 309.

Dirt not healthy, 118.

Dish-cloths, 317.

Dishes, on washing, 318.

Dolls, benefits from, 254.

Domestic amusements, 244.

Domestic exercise, 128.

Domestic Economy, on raising, as a science, 50, 67. Reasons for introducing, into school, 63. On teaching, from books, 65. Indispensable part of education, 134.

Domestic education, importance of, in childhood, 48. On early training in, 49, 60, 67. On giving mornings to, 49. In the Monticello Female Seminary, 54. Should alternate with studies, 60. Sufferings for want of, 63. Many mothers unqualified to teach, 65. Dignity of, 67, 135.

Domestics, peculiar difficulties as to, in America, 40, 204. Duties to be done by daughters, and not by, 50. Blessing of a dearth of, 50. Without, 64. On making allowances for, 154, 210, 212. Care of, 204. Of aristocratic lands, 205. Placing ourselves in their situation, 205, 206. Exorbitant wages of, 205. Instability and discontent of, and the remedy, 206. Pride and insubordination of, and the remedy, 207, 208. On calling them servants, 207. Admitted to the table, 209. Bold and forward, 209. Dress and rooms of, 209, 210. Deficiencies of, and the remedies, 210. Getting away, 211. Finding fault with, 211. Patience with, 212. Regard to, in construction of houses, 261. Beds for, 315.

Doors, outside, 260, 263.

Dress, too much attention to, 166. Inconsistency in, 189. Of domestics, 209. See Clothing.

Dresses, for the domestic duties of school girls, 55. Colors for, 327. See Clothing.

Drink, during meal-time, 103.

Drinks, on healthful, 106.

Drowning, 241.

Dumb-waiters, 278, 306.

Dusting, 304, 306.

Duties, enjoyments connected with, 183.

E.

Early rising, 122. Democratic, 123. Reasons for, 124. Time for, 126. Longevity and, 126. Effects of, on a family, 126; on the community, 127; on systematic duty, 166.

Earthen ware, 319.

Eating, intemperance in, 94, 95. At any time, 96. Too fast, 101. Should not be followed by exercise, 102; nor bathing, 121. See Food.

Eating-rooms, care of, 306.

Economy, on domestic, 152. Extravagance changed for, 176. Contradictory ideas as to, 185. General principles as to, 186. Relative obligations of rich and poor as to, 191. Neglect as to, 193. Of the aristocracy, 194.

Education in America, 147. Associations for, 203. See Female, and Monticello.

Employment, for the different divisions of a week, 162. On regular, for all the family, 163.

Enjoyments, see Amusements, and Happiness.

Equality, on democratic, 25. See Democracy, Sexes, and Women.

Establishments, expensive, given up, 176.

Exercise, comparative, of American women and others, 44. Neglect of, 50, 244. Method for securing, at the Monticello Female Seminary, 54. Indispensable to the health of the several parts of the human frame, 73, 97. Of the muscles, 76, 78, 97, 116, 128, 129. Effect of want of, on the spine, 78, 80. Food to be graduated by, 97. After eating, bad, 102. Evils of want of, 129. On furnishing interesting, 131. Walking for, 131. In useful employments, 131. Excessive, 132. Rule as to, 133. On excessive, of the mind and feelings, 197. Of the brain, 199.

Exhalations from the skin, 92.

Expenses, on keeping account of, 173, 174. Economy in, 185, 193. On graduating, by the income, 186. On gentility in being careless of, 193. On extravagance in, 194. See Economy.

Eyes, screening, from light, 217, 283.

F.

Family, on early rising in the, 126. Fathers neglecting the, 255. On attachments of, 256.

Fasting in sickness, 235.

Fathers neglecting home, 255.

Fault-finding, 211.

Featherbeds, 114, 313.

Feelings, inactivity of the, 199.

Feet, on protecting the, 115, 117, 129. Keeping those of infants, warm, 217. Bathing, for a cold, 235.

Female association for educating poor females, 59.

Female education, advantages for, in America, 43. Objects to be attended to, in, 48, 49. Importance of mathematics in, 56. Should be conducted by females, 58. Present waste in conducting, 60. See School.

Female seminaries, on the endowment of, 51. Importance of, 52. Defects of, 53. Suitable, 53. Monticello Female Seminary, described, 54. Division of labor and responsibility in, 58. Requirement for admission to the Monticello, 59. On providing, 61, 68. Reasons for introducing the study of domestic economy into, 63. Establishment of, by a wealthy female, 202. Should have gardens, 251.

Females, influence of, on the character of the young, 37. Building schoolhouses, 202. See American women, Girls, and Women.

Filberts, 348.

Finding fault, 211.

Finger nails, 122, 144.

Fire, escaping from, 243.

Fireplaces and fires, 260, 265, 280, 311.

Fishing, 244.

Flannel, 114. Utility of, 115. On washing, 285, 286.

Fleas, 323.

Flies, on destroying, 323.

Flower baskets, 354.

Flower seeds, on planting, 332.

Flowers, 251, 335. Arranging, 337.

Fluids, on taking, 103, 104.

Folding articles, 315.

Follicles of the skin, 93.

Food, on the conversion of, into nourishment, 87. Responsibility as to, in a family, 94. On taking too much, 94, 95, 128. On one kind of, for each meal, 95. Should be taken at proper times, 96. Strong laboring men need most, 96. Quantity of, to be graduated by exercise, 97. On the quality of, 98. Stimulating, 99. Animal and vegetable, 99, 100, 220, 221. Kinds of, most easily digested, 101, 104, 105. Injurious, from bad cooking, 101. On eating, too fast, 101, 128. On exercise after taking, 102. On hot and cold, 103. Highly concentrated, 104. Certain bulk of, necessary to digestion, 105. For infants, 214, 216. For nurses, 215. Sickness from improper, 235. Preparing, for the sick, 239.

Footstools, 303.

Foreigners, employed as domestics, 40.

Forewarning domestics, 211.

Forwardness of domestics, 209.

Franklin, Benjamin, diet of, 222.

Frocks, to make, 326.

Fruit, on the cultivation of, 251, 347. To preserve, 350.

Fuel, hints as to, 280.

Furnaces, 260, note.

Furniture, on costly, 163, 167. On inconsistent, 188. On selecting, 302. Packing of, for moving, 316. Kitchen, 319.

G.

Games of children, 253.

Garden seeds, to plant, 333.

Gardening, 331.

Gardens, at female institutions, 251. On laying out, 334.

Gas, antidote for, 242.

Gastric juice, 88, 94.

Gathering, in shirts, 325.

Girls, on sending, to school, 48, 60. Should assist their mothers early, 49. Education of, at the Monticello Female Seminary, 54. Confinement of, in school, 133. Small, made useful, 164. Forming habits of system, 167; of making purchases and keeping accounts, 188. Effects of excitement on, 197. Taking care of infants by, 214. See Daughters, and Females.

Gladiolus, 335.

Gloves, cleansing, 298.

Godfrey, Benjamin, Female Seminary endowed by, 54.

Gooseberries, 348, 350.

Gothic cottage, 271.

Government of children, 226. Unsteadiness in, and over-government, 228. Maxims on, 229. See Children, Subordination, and Young children.

Grafting, 344.

Grapes, 349, 350.

Grates, 281.

Gratifications, on physical, 159, 171, 172.

Grease-spots, 289, 297, 298. In carpets, 304.

Greeks and Romans, bathing by, 120.

H.

Habit, in a system of duty, 166.

Handkerchiefs, cleansing, 298.

Happiness, dependence of, on character, 169. On living to make, 169, 200. Connected with duties, 183.

Hard-soap, to make, 291.

Head, blows on the, 241.

Headache, 78, 95.

Health, delicacy and infrequency of, in American women, 41, 45. Effect of mental excitement on 43; of a high sense of responsibility, &c., 44; of want of outdoor exercise, 44; of bad early training, 45; of exposures in newly-settled countries, 46. On preparation for a rational care of, in a family, 68, 69. Connection of exercise and, 73, 76, 78, 97, 133; of the quantity of food and, 94, 95, 100; of the quality, 98. Of Catholics during Lent, 100. Not from dirt, 118. Effect of early rising on, 125. On the duty of sacrificing, 159. Causes which injure the mind's, 196. Amusements and, 245. Laughter and, 253. Regard to, in constructing houses, 260. Ventilation and, 311. Connection of, with cellars, 322. See Air, Exercise, and Sickness.

Hearths, 305.

Hearts, different, 84. Cause of their throbbing, 90.

Heat of the body, regulated by the skin, 92.

Heating houses, 260.

Help, see Domestics.

Helping at table, 310.

Herbaceous roots, 339.

Horse-racing, 245, 246.

Horses, care of, 351.

Hose, on washing, 286, 289.

Hospitality, on manifesting, 144. To strangers, 257.

Hot and cold food and drinks, 103, 110.

Hot-beds, 331.

House-cleaning, 353.

Housekeepers, difficulties peculiar to American women as, 30. Preservation of good temper in, 148, 150. Allowances to be made for, 150. Necessity of a habit of system and order in, 157. General principles for, 158. Plans by, for saving time, 184. See American women.

Housekeeping, on a knowledge of, 134. Dignity and difficulty of, 150, 157. See Labor.

House-plants, to repot, 333. Care of, 341.

Houses, on the construction of, 258. Regard to economy of labor in, 258; to water, 259, 275; to heating, 260; to economy of health, 260; to domestics, 261; to good taste, 261. Plans of, and of domestic conveniences, 261. Shade-trees around, 275. Back-door accommodations to, 276.

Hunger, 94, 132. As a guide for taking food, 97.

Hunting, 244.

Hyacinths, 335.

I.

Illinois, female association in, for educating poor females, 59. See Alton.

Imagination, 199. Works of, 249. See Novel reading.

Impostors, soliciting charity, 178.

Impurity of thought, 233.

Income, see Expenses.

Indigestion, 101. See Health.

Infants, mortality among, 112, 114, 214. Too cold, 113. Plunging, in cold water, 113. Registrations of, 113. On giving, to the older children, 165. Use of, to elicit charity, 179. Importance of knowing how to take care of, 213. Combe, Bell, and Eberle on, cited, 214. Food for, 214, 216, 218. Medicines for, 215, 216, 218, 219. Pure air for, 217, 218. Keeping warm, 217, 218. Keeping their heads cool, 217. Bathing, 217, 218. Nostrums for, 219. Unquiet, 219. To creep, 219. Standing, 219. Crying, 219. See Children, and Mortality.

Ingrafting, 344.

Ink-stains, 298.

Insects, on destroying, 323. Preserving apple trees from, 350.

Institutions, see Female seminaries, and School.

Intelligence, dependence of democracy on, 36.

Intemperance, H. Martineau on, criticized, 30, note. In eating, 94, 95. In drinking, 106. Female responsibility as to, 106.

Invitations, 353.

Ironing, articles to be provided for, 293. Settee for, 293. Boards for, 294. Hints on, 295.

Iron-ware, 319.

J.

Jewish use of time, 182.

Jokes, 253.

Jonquilles, 335.

K.

Kitchens, 163, 259. On taking care of, 317. Floors of, 317. Oilcloths for, 317. Furniture for, 319.

Knitting, to employ time, 185.

Knives and forks, 307.

L.

Labelling powders, 239.

Labor, nobility of, 55, 147. On opposing the idea of the degradation of, 61, 123, 124. Not inconsistent with delicacy, 62. On economy of, in houses, 258.

Laces, doing up of, 292.

Lamps, 281. Care of, 282.

Laplanders and their food, 220.

Lard, used for oil, 281.

Latticed portico, 277.

Laughter, 253.

Laws, necessity of a system of, 25.

Leghorn hats, 299.

Lent, health during, 100.

Ley, to make, 290.

Life, object of, 168.

Light, effects of, 124. Screening eyes from, 217, 283.

Lightning, 243.

Lightning rods, 243.

Lights, 281.

Limbs of trees, on training, 348.

Linens, 288, 328.

Linnaeus, cited, 220.

Liquids, on taking, 103, 104.

Literature, guarding, 249.

Longevity, Sinclair on, 126. From vegetable diet, 221.

Louis XIV., manners of his age, 148.

Lungs, 89. Effects of tight-dressing on the, 90, 117. Bleeding at the, 243.

Luxuries, see Superfluities.

M.

Mahogany furniture, 305.

Manners, good, 136. American defect in, and cause of it, 137. Of the Puritans and their posterity, 137. Principles respecting, 140. Proprieties in, 141. On cultivation of, 141. At home, 142. Leading points as to, claiming attention, 142. Children to be taught, 143. On conventional, 144. At table, 144. Charity for bad, 145. Of the age of Louis XIV., 148. See Children.

Marble, stains on, 305.

Martineau, Harriet, criticized, 30, note, 141, note.

Mathematics, importance of, in a female education, 56.

Mattresses, 312, 329.

Meals, should be five hours apart, 96. On the nature of the, 103. Time of English, 123.

Meat, on eating, 99, 100. See Animal food, and Food.

Mechanical amusements, 254.

Medical men needed in literary institutions, 198.

Medicines, on giving, to infants, 215. On administering, 236, 238. Different effects of different, 236. On purchasing, 239. Labelling, 239.

Men, engaged in women's work, 164, 165.

Mending, 330.

Mental excitement, effect of, on health, 43. On reducing youthful, 48, 49. On invigorating, 56. Effect of, on the mind, 197. See Mind.

Mexicans, teeth of, 110.

Mice, 323.

Mildew, removing, 296.

Milk, for infants, 216, 217.

Milkweed-silk, 227.

Mind, connection of body and, 195. Causes which injure the health of the, 196. On inactivity of, 199. Indications of diseased, 204. See Health, and Mental excitement.

Mineralogical collections, 253.

Modesty in children, 233.

Money, children's earning, 164.

Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley, cited, 135.

Monticello Female Seminary, account of, 54. System of studies there, 57. Effort made there to cure defects of character and habits, 58.

Morals, American, 29. Dependence of democracy on, 36. Attention to, in the Monticello Female Seminary, 58. In children, 233. See Children, and Young children.

Mortality, among infants, 112, 114. Causes of it, 214. At the Albany Orphan Asylum, 222. See Infants.

Mothers, sufferings of American, 42. The great objects for, in educating their daughters, 48. Influence of wealthy, 50. Should raise the science of domestic economy, 51. Few, qualified to teach domestic economy, 65. Influence of, 149, 151. Teaching boys domestic arts, 164. See American women, and Women.

Moths, 323.

Muscles, 74. Exercise of the, 76, 78, 97, 116, 129. Excessive exercise of, 132.

Music, 58, 252.

Muslins, on washing, 288. Starching, 292.

Musquitoes, 323.

N.

Nails, cleaning, 122, 144.

Nankeens, on washing, 288.

Napkins, table, 307.

Narcissus, 335.

Nash, Beau, biography of, 148.

Neatness, in housekeeping, 152. Of sick-rooms, 238. See Cleanliness.

Needle-work, bad economy in, 189.

Nerves, 76. Ramifications of the, 78. Health of, dependent on muscular exercise, 78, 130. Function of, in the stomach, 87. Excited by stimulating drinks, 106, 111. Two kinds of, 129. On cutting off, 130. Exercise and inactivity of, 130. Debility of, 130, 199.

New Englanders, one cause of their tact, 165.

Newton, Sir Isaac, diet of, 222.

Night, converting, into day, 123.

Nightgowns, 114, 329.

Night-lamps, 283.

Novel reading, 199, 234, 249.

Nursery, discipline of the, 224, 230.

Nursery, soil for a, 347.

Nursing, on food while, 215. Of the sick, 237.

O.

Obedience of children, 226. See Children, and Government.

Objects of charity, 176.

Oil, 281. Taking out, 297.

Oilcloths, for kitchens, 317.

Opium, absorbed by the skin, 93. Antidote for, 242.

Order, on a habit of, 157.

Ornaments, 166. Time and money spent for, 175, 259.

Orphan Asylum at Albany, 222.

Ostrich feathers, washing, 299.

Outhouses, 276.

Over-government, 228, 229. See Children, and Government.

P.

Packing, of trunks, 316. Of furniture for moving, 316.

Pain, amusements causing, 244.

Paint-spots, 298.

Pantaloons, on mending, 330.

Parents, exercising of authority by, 226. Should provide amusements, 250. Joining in children's sports, 254.

Parlors, kitchens and, 163, 259. Light work in, to save time, 184. Inconsistently furnished, 189. On the care of, 302. On selecting furniture for, 302. Sweeping, 305. Screens in, 353.

Parties, invitations to, 353.

Passions, the, 170. See Temper.

Peach trees, 350.

Perennial plants, 339.

Peristaltic motion, 87, 96, 102.

Perspiration, 92, 93. Demands supply of food, 96. From exercise, healthful, 114. During sleep, 126. On inducing, 235, 236.

Physical education, see Exercise, and Health.

Physicians, obeying, 239.

Piano, playing on the, 252.

Pictures, 302, 304.

Pills, 236, 237, note.

Pitch, on removing, 297.

Plans, for apportioning time, 158, 160. For duties, 162, 166, 167. For saving time, 184. For expenses, 186. Of houses, 261.

Planting flower seeds, 332.

Plants, collecting, 253. In rooms with stoves, 281. Soil for, 331. Propagation of, 341. See Flowers, and Seeds.

Poisoning, 241.

Politeness, see Courtesy, and Manners.

Poor, Mosaic laws as to the, 182. On work for the, 189, 190. Liberal prices and prompt payment to the, 191. See Charity.

Pores, closing the, 119. See Skin.

Portico, latticed, 277.

Positions, effects of, 73, 80.

Potash-soap, 291.

Pot-plants, soil for, 331.

Pots, transplanting from, 333.

Powders, labelling, 239.

Precocity in children, 198.

Privies, 276.

Propagation of plants, 341.

Propensities, 170.

Property, Jews' use of, 182. Unequal distribution of, 191. On sharing, 191. On using, properly, 193.

Pruning, 346.

Pumps, 275.

Punctuality, and want of it, 128. In paying the poor, 191.

Purchases, on making, 193, 194.

Puritans, manners of the, 137.

Q.

Quality of food, 98.

Quantity of food, see Food.

R.

Ranunculus, 335.

Rats, 323

Red ants, 323.

Registrations of births, 113.

Religion, perversion of, 198.

Religious excitement, 197.

Respect, American want of, 139, 141. Should be required at home, 142. See Courtesy.

Respiration, organs of, 87.

Rewards, governing by, 230.

Roman Catholics, health of, during Lent, 100.

Romans, see Greeks.

Rooms, arrangement of, 259.

Running into debt, 232.

S.

St. Martin, Alexis, experiments on, respecting food, 104.

Salary, plan as to using, 186.

Salt, for bleeding, 243.

Salts, 236.

School, hints on, 48, 223. Too much required in, 49. On keeping, only in the afternoon, 49. On sending young children to, 223.

Schoolrooms and schoolhouses, 133. Not ventilated, 196, 223. Built by a lady in the West, 202. See Female.

Scolds, 149, 154.

Scotch Highlanders, 221.

Screens, in parlors, 353. See Eyes.

Secret vice, 233.

Sedgwick, Miss, her Live and Let Live, 213, note.

Seeds, on planting, 332, 333. Of fruit, on planting, 347.

Self-denial, happiness of, 169. Distinction as to, 170. Of wealthy women, 201, 202. In children, 224, 232.

Servants, on calling domestics, 207. See Domestics.

Services, paying children for, 164.

Settees for ironing, 293.

Setting tables, 307. Rules for, 308.

Sewing, by girls, 254. Hints on. 324.

Sewing-trunks, 162.

Sexes, M. De Tocqueville on the, 28. Distinct lines of action for the, 28, 32, 33. American equality of, 33.

Shade-trees, 275, 340.

Shells, collecting, 253.

Shirts, folding, 315. Making, 328.

Shrubs, for yards, 340.

Sickness, on ignorance and inexperience in time of, 68. On nursing in, 237. From chills and food, 239. Remedies for slight, 240. See Health.

Sick-rooms, hints on, 237. Furniture for, 238.

Silence, children to keep, 145, 230. When in anger, 152.

Silks, on cleansing, 298.

Sinclair, Sir John, on longevity and early rising, 126.

Sinks, 277, 317.

Six Weeks on the Loire, cited, 135.

Skeleton, cut of the, 70.

Skin, described, 91. Function of the, 91. Waste matter from the, 92, 118. Regulates the heat of the body, 92. Absorbent vessels of the, 93, 119. Follicles of the, 93. The organ of touch, 93. Circulation in the, in infants, 113. Effect of cold on the circulation in the, 113, 118, 119. Bathing infants', 217.

Sleep, amount of, required, 125. On protracting, 126. In close apartments, 196, 217, 311. See Ventilation.

Sliding closets, 278.

Smoky chimneys, 352.

Snow, bathing in, 121.

Soap, soda, 288. Soft, 290. Potash, 291. Hard, 291.

Social intercourse, 184.

Soda-soap, 288.

Soda-washing, 287.

Soil, on the preparation of, 331. For a nursery, 347.

Soups, 104, 105.

South-Sea Islanders, 221.

Specimens, collecting, 253.

Spine, frequency of the disease of the, 41; causes, 73, 133. Cut of the, 77. Curvature of the, 80. Difference between a natural and distorted, 80.

Spitting on carpets, 144.

Spots, removing, 289, 297, 298.

Sprains, 240.

Stain-mixture, 296.

Stains, removing, from clothes, 296; from marble, 305.

Starch, to make, 291. To prepare, 292.

Starching, hints on, 292.

Stimulating drinks, no need of, 106, 109, 111. Excite the nervous system, 106, 109, 111. Debilitate the constitution, 107. Temptation from using, 107. Five forms of using, 107. Reasons for using, considered, 107. Dr. Combe on, 111. If good for parents, may not be for children, 111. Compared with animal food, 112.

Stimulating food, 99. See Animal food, and Food.

Stock-grafting, 345.

Stockings, on washing, 286, 289.

Stomach, 87. Peristaltic motion of the, 87, 96, 102. Effects on, of too much food, 94, 95. Rule for the labor and repose of the, 96. Power of accommodation in the, 102. Wants rest, 223.

Storerooms, 271, 322.

Stoves, 281.

Strangers, hospitality to, 257.

Strawberries, 348.

Straw hats, 299.

Straw matting, 304, 311.

Studies, at the Monticello Female Seminary, 57. Pursued at random, 60, 68.

Subordination, social, 26. Female, in America, 27, 29, 32. Of children and others, 140, 224. See Government.

Superfluities, 163. Duty as to, 171-173. On determining respecting, 173.

Sweeping, 134. Of carpets, 303. Of parlors, 305.

Sympathy, on silent social, 149.

System, continual change and renovation of the human, 91. In housekeeping, 152. On habits of, 155. By dividing the week, 162. In proper conveniences, 162. On attempting too much, at once, 166. On commencing, while young, 167. In time, 184.

T.

Table, furniture for a, 306. On setting, 307; rules for, 308. Carving and helping at, 310.

Table manners, 144.

Table-mats, 306.

Tapers, 283.

Tar, on removing, 297.

Tea, coffee and, on the use of, 107, 108. Cause nervous debility, 109. Love of, not natural, 109. If good for adults, may not be for children, 109. Black, least injurious, 110. No nourishment in, 112. See Stimulating.

Teachers, 202, 203.

Teeth, effects of hot drink on, 110. Care of, 122, 144.

Teething of infants, 219.

Temper, on the preservation of good, in a housekeeper, 148; hints for it, 150. Making allowances for, in others, 154. See Passions.

Temptations, amusements with, 245, 248.

Tendons, 75.

Theatres, 245.

Thinning plants, 346.

Thoughts, on pure, 233.

Throat, things in the, 240.

Thunderstorms, 243.

Tic douloureux, 78.

Tight dressing, 80, 90, 129. Evils of, 116. Rule as to, 117.

Time, on apportioning, 157, 160, 181, 184. On saving, 161, 184. Errors as to employing, 180. Devoted by Jews to religion, 183.

Tin ware, 320.

Tocqueville, M. De, on the sexes in America, 28. On progress in nations towards democracy, 34. On female hardships in the West, 46. On aristocratic and democratic manners, 146.

Tones of voice, 148. On governing the, 152. Governing by angry, 230. Effects of angry, on children, 231.

Towels, 321.

Tracts and charity, 179.

Transplanting, 333, 340.

Travelling-bags, 316.

Trees, about houses, 275. On planting, 334. Shade, 340. On transplanting, 340. Pruning and thinning, 346.

Trials, see Difficulties.

Trunks, sewing, 162. In chambers, 313. Packing of, 316.

Tuberous roots, 335.

Tulips, 336.

Turpentine, on removing, 297.

U.

Unbolted flour, 105.

V.

Vegetable food, 99, 100, 220, 221. See Animal food, and Food.

Vegetables, effect of light and darkness on, 124.

Veils, whitening, 293.

Ventilation, importance of, 49, 196, 217, 311. Of sleeping-rooms, 129, 196, 311. Of schoolrooms, 223. Of sick-rooms, 237. In construction of houses, 261, 264. Where stoves are used, 281. See Air.

THE END

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