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A Study of Fairy Tales
by Laura F. Kready
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a. The tale of the witch 31

b. The tale of the dragon 31

c. Giant tales 31

d. Some tales of transformation 32

e. The tale of strange animal relations and strange creatures 33

f. Unhappy tales 34

g. The tale of capture 34

h. The very long tale 35

i. The complicated or the insincere tale 36

II. The fairy tale as literature 37

1. The fairy tale must be a true classic 38

2. The fairy tale must have mind and soul 39

3. The fairy tale must have the distinguishing marks of literature 40

a. A power to appeal to the emotions 41

1) Literary emotion is not personal 41

2) Literary emotion must have justness 41

3) Literary emotion must have vividness 41

4) Literary emotion must have steadiness 41

5) Literary emotion must have variety 41

6) Literary emotion must have moral quality 41

7) Application of the test of emotion to the Fairy tales 41

8) The value of fairy tales in the development of emotion 44

b. A power to appeal to the imagination 45

1) Appeal to the creative imagination 45

2) Appeal to the associative imagination 46

a) Appeal to fancy 46

3) Appeal to the penetrative imagination 47

4) Appeal to the contemplative imagination 47

a) Philosophy in the fairy tales 48

b) Proverbs in the fairy tales 50

c) Relation of the contemplative imagination to science 52

c. A basis of truth, or appeal to the intellect 53

1) The truth must be idealistic 53

a) It may be realistic 53

b) It may be romantic 53

2) Value of the appeal of literature to the intellect 53

d. A form more or less perfect 54

1) The elements of form: words, sentences, paragraphs, and wholes 58

a) Words, the medium of language must have two powers 54

(1) Denotation, to name what they mean 54

(2) Connotation, to suggest what they imply 54

b) Suggestive power of words illustrated 55

2) General qualities characteristic of perfect form 57

a) Precision or clearness 57

(1) Precision demands that words have denotation 57

(2) Precision appeals to the intellect 57

b) Energy or force 57

(1) Energy demands that words have connotation 58

(2) Energy appeals to the emotions and holds the attention 58

c) Delicacy or emotional harmony 58

(1) Delicacy demands that words have the power of adaptation 58

(2) Delicacy demands that form appeal to the aesthetic sense 58

(3) Delicacy is secured by selection and arrangement of words according to emotional associations 58

d) Personality 58

(1) Personality gives the charm of individuality 58

(2) Personality suggests the character of the writer 58

3) Principles controlling the elements of form, principles of composition 58

a) The principle of sincerity 58

(1) Sincerity demands a just expression 58

b) The principle of unity 59

(1) Unity demands a central idea 59

(2) Unity demands completeness 59

(3) Unity demands no irrelevant material 59

(4) Unity demands method, sequence and climax 59

c) The principle of mass 59

(1) Mass demands that the chief parts readily catch the eye 59

(2) Mass demands harmonious proportion of parts 59

d) The principle of coherence 59

(1) Coherence demands unmistakable relation of parts 59

(2) Coherence demands this unmistakable relation be preserved by the order, forms and connections 59

4) Form characterized by perfect adaptation of words to thought and feeling is called style 59

a) Style demands that form possess the four general qualities of form in perfection: precision, energy, delicacy, and personality 59

b) Style demands that form have its elements controlled by the four general principles: sincerity, unity, mass, and coherence 59

c) Oeyvind and Marit, a modern tale illustrating style 60

d) Three Billy-Goats Gruff, a folk-tale illustrating style 64

e) The folk-tale generally considered as to literary form 65

f) The tale by Grimm, Perrault, Dasent, Harris, Jacobs, Lang, and Andersen considered as to literary form 67

g) The tale of to-day considered as to literary form 69

III. The fairy tale as a short-story 70

1. Characters 71

a. Characters must be unique, original, and striking 72

b. Characters of the fairy tales 72

2. Plot 73

a. Plot must be entertaining, comical, novel, or thrilling 73

b. Plot must show a beginning, a middle, and an end 73

c. Plot must have a distinct climax 74

d. Introduction must be simple 74

e. Conclusion must show poetic justice 74

f. Plot must be good narration and description 74

1) Narration must have truth, interest, and consistency 74

2) Description must have aptness and concreteness 75

g. Structure illustrated by Three Pigs and Briar Rose 76

3. Setting 77

a. Setting must give the time and place, the background of the tale 77

b. Setting must arouse sensation and feeling 77

c. Effect of transformation of setting 77

1) Story sequence preserved by setting illustrated by Robin's Christmas Song 78

d. Setting and phonics, illustrated. The Spider and the Flea 79

e. Setting illustrated. Chanticleer and Partlet 81

4. A blending of characters, plot, and setting illustrated by The Elves and the Shoemaker 82

5. Tests to be applied to fairy tales 84

6. Tales examined and tested by the complete test of interests, classic, literature, short-story, narration, and description 84

a. How the Sun, Moon, and West Wind Went to Dinner (Indian) 84

b. The Straw Ox (Cossack) 86

IV. References 87

III. THE TELLING OF FAIRY TALES

Story-telling as an Art. Introductory 90

1. Story-telling as an ancient art 90

2. The place of the story in the home, library, and the school 93

3. Principles of story-telling 94

I. The teacher's preparation. Rules 94

1. Select the tale for some purpose 94

a. The teacher's problem of selecting the tale psychologically or logically 95

2. Know the tale historically as folk-lore, as literature, and as a short-story 96

a. The various motives contained in the fairy tales listed 97

3. Master the structure of the tale 99

4. Dwell upon the life of the story 99

5. Secure the message 100

6. Master the form 100

II. The presentation of the tale 102

1. Training of the voice 103

a. Study of phonetics 103

2. Exercises in breathing 104

3. A knowledge of gesture 105

a. Gesture precedes speech 106

b. Gesture begins in the face 106

c. Hands and arms lie close to the body in controlled emotion 106

4. A power of personality 106

5. Suggestions for telling 107

a. The establishment of the personal relation between the teacher and the listener 108

b. The placing of the story in a concrete situation for the child 110

c. The consideration of the child's aim in listening, by the teacher in her preparation 112

6. The telling of the tale 112

a. The re-creative method of story-telling. Illustrated by a criticism of the telling of The Princess and the Pea 114

b. The re-creative method illustrated by The Foolish, Timid Rabbit 116

7. Adaptation of the fairy tale. Illustrated by Thumbelina and by The Snow Man 118

III. The return from the child 119

Story-telling as one phase of the art of teaching. Introductory 119

1. Teaching as good art and as great art; and fairy tales as subject-matter suited to accomplish high purposes in teaching 120

2. The part the child has to play in story-telling 121

3. The child's return, the expression of his natural instincts or general interests 125

1. The instinct of conversation 125

a. Language expression, oral re-telling 125

b. The formation of original little stories 126

c. Reading of the tale a form of creative reaction 127

2. The instinct of inquiry 127

a. Appeal of the folk-tale to this instinct 128

b. The instinct of inquiry united to the instinct of conversation, of construction, and of artistic expression, illustrated 128

3. The instinct of construction 129

a. Clay-modelling 129

b. Construction of objects 129

4. The instinct of artistic expression 130

a. Cutting of free silhouette pictures. Illustrated 130

b. Drawing and crayon-sketching. Illustrated 132

c. Painting. Illustrated 132

d. Song. Illustrated 133

e. Dance, rhythm plays. Illustrated 134

f. Game. Illustrated 135

g. Representation of the fairy tale. Illustrated by The Steadfast Tin Soldier 135

h. Free play and dramatization 138

1) Virtues of dramatization 138

a) It develops voice 138

b) It gives grace of movement 138

c) It develops control and poise 138

d) It strengthens attention and power of visualization 138

e) It combines intellectual, emotional, artistic, and physical action 138

f) It impresses many pieces of literature effectively 138

g) It is the true Direct Moral Method and may establish a habit 143

2) Dangers of dramatization 139

a) Dramatization often is in very poor form 139

b) Dramatization may develop boldness in a child 141

c) Dramatization may spoil some literature 142

d) Dramatization has lacked sequence in tales used from year to year 142

i. Illustrations of creative return 144

1) The Country Mouse and the City Mouse as expression in language, dramatization, drawing, and crayon-sketching 144

2) The Elves and the Shoemaker as expression in the dramatic game 145

3) Little Two-Eyes as expression in dramatization. A fairy-play outline. (See Appendix) 145

4) Snow White as expression in dramatization. (See Appendix) 145

5) Sleeping Beauty as expression of partial narration, dramatic game, and dramatization combined 146

6) The Little Lamb and the Little Fish, an original tale developed from a Grimm fragmentary tale, illustrating expression in folk-game and dramatization. (See Appendix) 147

7) The Bird and the Trees, an original play illustrating expression in rhythm play and dramatization 149

8) How the Birds came to Have Different Nests, an original play illustrating language expression and dramatization. (See Appendix) 151

9) Andersen's Fir Tree as expression in dramatization, illustrating organization of ideas through a play 152

IV. References 154

IV. THE HISTORY OF FAIRY TALES

I. The origin of fairy tales 158

1. The fairy tale defined 159

2. The derivation and history of the name, fairy 159

a. Four senses in which fairy has been used 160

3. The theories concerning the origin of fairy tales 161

a. Fairy tales are detritus of myth 161

1) The evolution of the tale 161

b. Fairy tales are myths of Sun, Rain, Dawn, Thunder, etc., the Aryan Theory 162

c. Fairy tales all arose in India, the Philological theory 165

d. Fairy tales owe their origin to the identity of early fancy 167

e. Fairy tales owe their origin to a combination of all these theories 167

II. The transmission of fairy tales 167

1. The oral transmission of fairy tales 167

a. Examples of transmission of fairy tales: Jack the Giant-Killer, Dick Whittington, etc. 168

2. Literary transmission of fairy tales 170

a. An enumeration of the literary collections and books that have handed down the tales; as Reynard the Fox, the Persian King-book, The Thousand and One Nights, Straparola's Nights, Basile's Pentamerone, and Perrault's Tales of Mother Goose 170

b. French publications of fairy tales 179

1) The tales of Perrault 179

2) Tales by followers of Perrault 181

3) A list of tales from the time of Perrault to the present time 183

c. English and Celtic publications of fairy tales 183

1) Tales of Scotland and Ireland 184

2) English tales and books 184

3) A list illustrating the history of the English fairy tale, including chap-books: Jack the Giant-Killer, Tom Hickathrift; old collections; etc. 184

4) A list illustrating the development of fairy-tale illustration in England 188

d. German publications of fairy tales 192

1) A list of tales from the time of the Grimms to the present 193

e. Fairy-tale publications of other nations 193

f. American publications of fairy tales 195

1) A list of tales from the earliest times to 1870 196

g. Recent collections of folk-lore 200

III. References 201

V. CLASSES OF FAIRY TALES

I. Available types of tales 204

1. The accumulative or clock story 205

a. Tales of simple repetition 206

1) The House that Jack Built 206

2) The Key of the Kingdom 207

b. Tales of repetition with an addition 208

1) The Old Woman and Her Pig 208

2) Titty Mouse and Tatty Mouse 208

3) Johnny Cake 209

4) The Gingerbread Man 209

5) The Straw Ox 209

c. Tales of repetition and variation 209

1) The Three Bears 209

2) The Three Billy Goats 211

2. The animal tale 211

a. The evolution of the animal tale 211

b. The animal tale may be an old beast tale 211

1) Henny Penny 213

2) The Foolish Timid Rabbit 214

3) The Sheep and the Pig 215

4) Medio Pollito 215

5) The Three Pigs 216

c. The animal tale may be an elaborated fable, illustrated 211

d. The animal tale may be an imaginary creation, illustrated 211

e. The Good-Natured Bear, a modern type. (See Appendix) 217

3. The humorous tale 217

a. The humorous element for children 218

b. The Musicians of Bremen, a humorous type 219

c. Humorous tales mentioned previously 221

d. Drakesbill, a humorous type 221

4. The realistic tale 223

a. Lazy Jack, a realistic type of common life 224

b. The Old Woman and Her Pig, a realistic type 225

c. How Two Beetles Took Lodgings, a realistic tale of scientific interest 226

d. Titty Mouse and Tatty Mouse, a realistic theme transformed into a romantic tale 227

5. The romantic tale 228

a. Cinderella 228

b. Sleeping Beauty 231

c. Red Riding Hood 232

d. Puss-in-Boots. (See Appendix) 232

1) The Norse Lord Peter (See Appendix) 232

e. Tom Thumb, a romantic tale of fancy. (See Appendix) 232

1) The French Little Thumb. (See Appendix) 232

2) The English Tom Thumb. (See Appendix) 232

f. Snow White and Rose Red, a highly idealized romantic type tested by the standards included here. (See Appendix) 232

6. The old tale and the modern tale 234

a. The modern tale often lacks the great art qualities of the old tale, unity and harmony, sincerity and simplicity 235

b. The modern tale often fails to use the method of suggestion 235

c. The modern tale often does not stand the test of literature 235

d. The modern tale gives richly to the primary and elementary field 235

e. Criticism of a few modern tales 236

1) Little Beta and the Lame Giant, a good modern tale 236

2) The Cock, the Mouse, and the Little Red Hen, a good modern tale 238

3) Peter Rabbit, a classic; other animal tales 239

4) The Elephant's Child, a modern animal tale. (See Appendix) 239

5) A Quick-Running Squash, a good modern tale 240

6) A few St. Nicholas fairy stories 241

7) The Hop-About-Man, a romantic modern fairy tale 241

f. What the modern fairy tale is 243

VI. SOURCES OF MATERIAL FOR FAIRY TALES: A LIST OF FAIRY TALES, FOLK-TALES, PICTURES, PICTURE-BOOKS, POEMS, AND BOOKS.

Basis on which lists are made. Introductory 245

I. A list of fairy tales and folk-tales suited to the kindergarten and first grade 246

1. Tales of Perrault 246

2. Tales of the Grimms 246

3. Norse tales 247

4. English tales, by Jacobs 247

5. Modern fairy tales, by Andersen 248

6. Uncle Remus tales, by Harris 248

7. Miscellaneous tales 249

II. Bibliography of fairy tales 253

III. A list of picture-books 254

IV. A list of pictures 255

V. A list of fairy poems 256

VI. Main standard fairy-tale books 256

VII. Fairy tales of all nations 258

VIII. Miscellaneous editions of fairy tales 259

IX. School editions of fairy tales 262

APPENDIX

Illustrations of creative return 265

Tales suited for dramatization 265

Little Two-Eyes 265

Snow White 266

The Little Lamb and the Little Fish 267

How the Birds came to Have Different Nests 270

Types of tales 272

An animal tale 272

The Good-Natured Bear 272

A few romantic tales 275

Puss-in-Boots and Lord Peter 275

Tom Thumb and Little Thumb 278

Snow White and Rose Red 282

A modern tale 287

The Elephant's Child 287

NOTES:

[1: McLoughlin edition.]

[2: What if we could give the child that which is called education through his voluntary activities, and have him always as eager as he is at play! (Froebel.)

What if we could let the child be free and happy, and yet bring to him those things which he ought to have so that he will choose them freely!

What would be the possibilities for a future race if we would give the child mind a chance to come out and express itself, if we would remove adult repression, offer a stimulus, and closely watch the product, untouched by adult skill. (Unknown.)

The means by which the higher selective interest is aroused, is the exercise of selected forms of activity. (Susan Blow.)]

[3: Little Two-Eyes and Snow White are tales also suited to the first grade for dramatization. See Appendix.]

[4: A similar tale is told by Miss Holbrook in The Book of Nature Myths. Also by Mary McDowell as "The Three Little Christmas Trees." A simple version of this tale, "The Three Little Christmas Trees that Grew on the Hill," is given in The Story-Teller's Book by Alice O'Grady and Frances Throop.]

[5: Joseph Jacobs, in his Introduction to the Cranford edition, and Ashton, in Chap-Books of the Eighteenth Century, furnish most of the facts mentioned here.]

[6: This list has been compiled largely from "Children's Books and Their Illustrators," by Gleeson White, in The International Studio. Special Winter Number, 1897-98.]

[7: The following list, compiled by Mr. H.H.B. Meyer, the chief bibliographer of the Library of Congress, has been furnished through the courtesy of the United States Bureau of Education. A few additional books were inserted by the author. The books at the head of the list give information on the subject.]

[8: The Woman and Her Kid, a version of this tale adapted from an ancient Jewish Sacred Book, is given in Boston Kindergarten Stories, p. 171.]

[9: See Appendix.]

[10: William M. Thackeray, Miscellanies, v. Boston: James Osgood & Co., 1873. "Titmarsh among Pictures and Books"; "On Some Illustrated Christmas Books," 1846.]

[11: A few romantic tales for the first grade are treated in the Appendix: Puss-in-Boots, Lord Peter, Tom Thumb, Little Thumb, and Snow White and Rose Red.]

[12: See Appendix.]

[13: Laura F. Kready, "Picture-Books for Little Children," Kindergarten Review, Sept., 1914.]

[14: For Little Two-Eyes and Snow White, see note on p. 145; for The Little Lamb and the Little Fish, see pp. 147-48; and for How the Birds came to have Different Nests, see p. 151.]

[15: See note, p. 217.]

[16: See note, p. 232]

[17: Reprinted in Living Age, Aug. 13, 1844, vol. 2, p. 1.]

[18: See p. 239]



INDEX

Accumulative or clock story, 205-11.

Action, 20-21.

Adaptation of fairy tales, 117-19.

Adventure, 19-20.

Adventures of Chanticleer and Partlet, 81-82.

American fairy tales, 195-99.

Andersen, Hans C.: tales by, tested as literary form, 69; Steadfast Tin Soldier, 46, 49, 135-38; Fir Tree, 151-53; list of tales by, 248; editions, 256-57.

Animal tale: class, 211-17; evolution of, 211-13; types of, 213-17, 272-75, 287-90.

Animals: an interest, 24; tale of strange, 33-34.

Appendix, 265-90: Little Two-Eyes, 265-66; Snow White, 266-67; The Little Lamb and the Little Fish, 267-70; How the Birds came to Have Different Nests, 270-72; The Good-Natured Bear, 272-75; Puss-in-Boots and Lord Peter, 275-78; Tom Thumb and Little Thumb, 278-82; Snow White and Rose Red, 282-86; The Elephant's Child, 287-90.

Arabian Nights, Thousand and One Nights, 176-78, 190, 196.

Art: of teaching, 119-20; in teaching, good, 120; in teaching, great, 120-21; in literature, good, 39-40; in literature, fine, 39-40; of story-telling, 90-91, 93-94; ancient, of story-telling, 91-93.

Artistic expression, instinct of, 130-54.

Aulnoy, Comtesse d', tales of, 181-82.

Basile, 178-79.

Beaumont, Madam de, 182.

Beautiful, the, 18-19.

Beauty and the Beast, dramatization of, 140-41; editions of, 189, 198.

Bibliography of fairy tales, 253-54.

Bird and the Trees, 148-51.

Books, main standard fairy tale, a list, 256-58. See Sources of material.

Breathing, exercises in, 104-05.

Briar Rose, 77. See also Sleeping Beauty.

Capture, tales of, 34-35.

Celtic fairy tales, 183-84.

Chap-books, 185-87, 188, 196, 198.

Characters, 71-73.

Child: his part in story-telling, 121-25; interests, 13-37; instincts, 125-54; growth: in observation, 6, 47-48; in reason, 6-7, 53-54; in language, 10; in emotion, 44-45; in imagination, 45-53; in experience, 54; in intellect, 53-54; in self-activity, 121-22; in consciousness, 122-23; in initiative, 122; in purpose, 123-25; in creative return possible to him, 123-54; in self-expression, 124-54; in organization of ideas, 153.

Child's Own Book, The, 190.

Cinderella, a chap-book, 187,188, 198; a romantic type, 228-31.

Classes of tales, 204-44: accumulative, 205-11; animal, 211-17; humorous, 217-23; realistic, 223-28; romantic, 228-34; old and modern, compared, 234-43; references, 243-44.

Classic, fairy tale as a, 38-39.

Cock, the Mouse, and the Little Red Hen, 238-39.

Coherence, principle of, 58-59; illustrated, 62, 65.

Complicated or insincere, the, 36.

Composition: general qualities of, 57-58; precision, 57; energy, 57-58; delicacy, 58; personality, 58; principles of, 58-59; sincerity, 58-59; unity, 59; mass, 59; coherence, 59; style in, 59-60.

Comte de Caylus, 182.

Concrete situation, placing of story in, 94-95, 110-11.

Connotation, 54-57.

Consciousness, development of, 122-23.

Construction, expression of instinct of, 129-30.

Conversation, expression of instinct of, 125-27.

Country Mouse and City Mouse, 144-45.

Crayon-sketching, as expression, 132.

Creative return, illustrated, 144-54. See Return.

Criticism: of life, teaching, a, 120-21; of Oeyvind and Marit, 60-64; of Three Billy-Goats Gruff, 64-65; of How the Sun, Moon, and West Wind went out to Dinner, 84-86; of Straw Ox, 86-87; of Steadfast Tin Soldier, 135-38; of Musicians of Bremen, 219-20; of Drakesbill, 221-23; of Puss-in-Boots and Norse Lord Peter, 275-78; of Tom Thumb and Little Thumb, 278-82; of Snow White and Rose Red, 282-86; and of Elephant's Child, 287-90.

Danish tales, 194.

Dasent, Sir George W., tales by, as literary form, 68-69; Norse tales by, 194, 247, 257.

Delicacy, or emotional harmony, quality of, 57-58; illustrated, 60, 61, 64.

Denotation, 54.

Description, 75.

Dick Whittington, illustrating oral transmission of tales, 169; a chap-book, 185, 188, 196, 198.

Diminutive, the, 25-26.

Dragon tales, 31.

Drakesbill, 221-23.

Dramatic game: Elves and the Shoemaker, 145; Sleeping Beauty, 146-47.

Dramatization, as expression, 138-54; virtues of, 138, 143; dangers of, 139-43; of Sleeping Beauty, 146-47; of Bird and the Trees, 149-51; of Fir Tree, 152-53; of Little Two Eyes, 265-66; of Snow White, 266-67; of How the Birds came to have Different Nests, 270-72; and of Puss-in-Boots, 276.

Drawing, as expression, 132.

Dwarf's Tailor, 237.

Editions, main fairy tale, 256-58; fairy tale, of all nations, 258-59; illustrated, 254-55; miscellaneous, of fairy tales, 259-62; school, of fairy tales, 262-64.

Elements to be avoided, 30-36.

Elephant's Child, illustrating: repetition, 27-28; suggestion, 56-57; form, 100-01; modern animal tale, 239, 287-90.

Elves and the Shoemaker, illustrating: structure and short-story, 82-84; story, 82-84; creative return, 145.

Emelyan the Fool, 170.

Emotion, appeal to, distinguishing literary trait, 40-41; qualities of literary, 41; literary, in fairy tales, 41-44; growth of, 44-45; comparison of, in fairy tales and Shakespeare's dramas, 7, 43-44.

Energy or force, quality of, 57-58; illustrated, 61, 64.

English fairy tales, 184-92; collections of, 184-88; illustrating development of illustration, 188-92; by Jacobs, list, 247-48; editions, 257.

Expression in: language, 125-27; reading, 127; inquiry, 127-29; construction, 129-30; art, 130-54; paper-cutting, 130-31; drawing, 132; painting, 132; rhythm play, 133-34; song, 132-33; game, 134-35; representation, 135-38; dramatization, 138-54, 265-72.

Fairy, derivation of, 159-60; history of the name, 160.

Fairy tales: worth of, 1-12; principles of selection for, 13-89; telling of, 90-157; history of, 158-203; classes of, 204-44; sources of material for, 245-64; tributes to, 1-3; interests in, 13-37; as literature, 37-70; as classics, 38-39; possessing mind and soul, 39-40; distinguished by marks of literature, 40; as emotion, 41-45; as imagination, 45-53; philosophy in, 48-52; proverbs in, 50; as truth, 53-54; as form, 54-70; powers of words in, 54-57; general qualities of form in, 57-58; general principles controlling form in, 58-59; style in, defined, 59-60; tested as literary form, 60-70; as a form of short-story, 70-87; characters, 71-73; plot, 73-77; narration, 74-75; description, 75; structure, 76-77; setting, 77-82; three elements blended, 82-84; tested by complete standards, 84-87; teacher's preparation for telling, 94-102; presentation of, by teacher, 102-19; return of child from, 119-54; rules for preparation of, 94-102; selection of, 95-96; motifs in, 96-98; re-telling of, 101-02; training of voice in telling, 103-04; breathing in telling, 104-05; gesture in telling, 105-06; power of personality, in telling, 106-07; suggestions for telling, 107-12; establishment of personal relation in telling, 107-10; placing of, in a concrete situation, 110-11; conception of child's aim in listening to, 112; re-creative method of telling, 112-17; adaptation of, 117-19; art of teaching, in telling, 119-25; as expression of conversation, 125-27; as expression of inquiry, 127-29; as expression of construction, 129-30; as expression of art, 130-54; origin of, 158-67; transmission of, 167-200; French, 179-83; Celtic, 183-84; English, 184-92; German, 192-93; tales of other nations, 193-95; American, 195-99; collections of folklore, 200; accumulative, 205-11; animal, 211-17; humorous, 217-23; realistic, 223-28; romantic, 228-34, 275-86; old and modern, 234-43; of Perrault, 246; of the Grimms, 246-47; Norse, 247; English, by Jacobs, 247-48; modern, by Andersen, 248; Uncle Remus, by Harris, 248-49; miscellaneous, 249-53; bibliography of, 253-54; in picture-books, 254-55; in pictures, 255; in poems, 255-56; in standard books, 256-58; of all nations, 258-59; in miscellaneous editions, 259-62; in school editions, 262-64; in Appendix, 265-90.

Familiar, the, 14-15.

Fancy, 46, 47.

Fir Tree, 151-53.

First-grade fairy tales, 231-34, 265-86.

Folk-game, illustrated by Little Lamb and the Little Fish, 147-48, 267-70.

Folk-tales, generally, as literary form, 65-67; tested as literary form, 60-70; characters of, compared with those of Shakespeare, 7, 43-44; recent collections of, 200.

Foolish, Timid Rabbit, illustrating method in story-telling, 116-17; an animal type, 214.

Form, a distinguishing literary trait, 40, 54; perfect, 57-60; general qualities of, 57-58; precision, a quality, 57; energy, a quality, 57-58; delicacy, a quality, 58; personality, a quality, 58; principles controlling, 58-60: sincerity, 58-59; unity, 59; mass, 59; coherence, 59; style in, 59-60; illustrated: by Oeyvind and Marit, 60-64; by Three Billy-Goats Gruff, 64-65; folk-tales as literary, 65-70; mastery of tale as, 100-02.

French fairy tales, 179-83.

Game, as expression, 134-35.

Gardens of the Tuileries, 1.

German fairy tales, 192-93.

Gesta Romanorum, 174-75.

Gesture, knowledge of, 105-06; library pamphlet relating to, 106.

Giant tales, 31-32.

Golden Egg and the Cock of Gold, 237-38.

Good-Natured Bear, a modern animal type, 217, 272-75; a book, 190.

Grimm, William and Jacob, 67-68; list of tales by, 246-47; editions by, 257; tales by, as literary form, 67.

Harris, J.C., list of Uncle Remus tales by, 248-49; tales by, as literary form, 69; editions by, 257.

Henny Penny, 214.

History of fairy tales, 158-203; origin of fairy tales, 158-67; transmission of fairytales, 167-200; oral transmission, 167-70; literary transmission, 170-200; references, 201-03.

Hop-About-Man, 241-43.

House that Jack Built, 206-07.

How the Birds came to Have Different Nests, 151; 270-72.

How the Sun, Moon, and West Wind went out to Dinner, 84-86.

How Two Beetles Took Lodgings, 226.

Humor in fairy tales: an interest, 21-22; 217-19.

Humorous tales, 217-23; types of, 219-23.

Imagination, a distinguishing literary mark of fairy tales, 40, 45-53; creative, 45; associative, 46; penetrative, 47; contemplative, 47-53; fancy, 46, 47; exhibited in child's return, 122, 125-54.

Imaginative, the, 23.

Initiative, development of, 122, 123-25.

Instincts of child, expression of: conversation, 125-27; inquiry, 127-29; construction, 129-30; artistic expression, 130-54.

Intellect, appeal of fairy tales to, 53-54.

Interests of children, 13-37; sense of life, 14; the familiar, 14-15; surprise, 15-17; sense impression, 17-18; the beautiful, 18-19; wonder, mystery, magic, 19; adventure, 19-20; success, 20; action, 20-21; humor, 21-22; poetic justice, 22-23; the imaginative, 23; animals, 24; portrayal of human relations, 24-25; the diminutive, 25-26; rhythm and repetition, 26-28; the simple and the sincere, 28-29; unity of effect, 29-30; opposed to, 30-36; witch tales, 31; dragon tales, 31; giant tales, 31-32; some tales of transformation, 32-33; tales of strange creatures, 33-34; unhappy tales, 34; tales of capture, 34-35; very long tales, 35-36; complicated or insincere tales, 36.

Introduction, i-iii.

Inquiry, instinct of, 127-29.

Jack the Giant-Killer, 185, 186, 188, 190.

Jacobs, Joseph, list of tales by, 247-48; tales by, as literary form, 69; editions by, 257.

Jatakas, 170.

Key of the Kingdom, 207-08.

Kindergarten: play in, 5-6; work in, unified by the fairy tale, 8-9; language-training in, 10-11; interests of child in, 13-37; standards for literature in, 37-87; standards for composition in, 54-60; story-telling in, 94-119; return to be expected from child in, 119-54; standards of teaching for teacher in, 119-25; instincts of child in, 125-54; history of fairy tales to be used in, 158-203; classes of tales used in, 204-44; sources of material for fairy tales to be used in, 245-64.

King-book, Persian, The, 175-76.

Lang, Andrew, tales by, as literary form, 69.

Lambikin, 21.

Language, expression in, 125-27.

Lazy Jack, 224-25.

Life, a sense of, 14; criticism of, 120-21; fairy tale a counterpart to, 8-9.

Lists: of tales, 246-53; See Sources of material.

Literature, mind and soul in, 39-40; qualities of, 40; fairy tale as, 37-87.

Little Lamb and the Little Fish, 147-48, 267-70.

Little Two-Eyes, 145, 265-66.

Little Thumb, editions, 189; tale, 232, 281-82.

Literary collections of tales, 170-200.

Logical method of selecting tales, 95-96.

Long tales, opposed to child's interests, 35-36.

Lord Peter, 232, 277.

Magpie's Nest, 151, 270-72.

Maerchen Brunnen or Fairy-tale Fountain, 2-3.

Mass, principle of, 58-59; illustrated in: Oeyvind and Marit, 61-62; Three Billy-Goats Gruff, 65.

Medio Pollito, 215-16.

Memory, development of, 226.

Message, of the tale, 100; of this book. See Summaries.

Method of story-telling, the recreative, 113-17; criticism of, 114-16; illustration of, 116-17; direct moral, 143.

Mind, in literature, 40.

Miscellaneous, tales, a list, 249-53; editions, 259-62.

Modern tale, compared with old tale, 234-43; types of, 235-43; what it is, 243; tales, by Andersen, 28-29, 234, 248, 256-57.

Motifs in folk-tales, classified, 97-98.

Mother Goose, tales of, 179-81; her Melodies, 187, 195, 197, 198.

Musicians of Bremen, 130-31, 219-20.

Narration, in fairy tales, 74-75; illustrated by Sleeping Beauty, 146-47.

Norse tales, 194; a list of, 247; editions, 257.

Objectification in fairy tales, 135-38.

Oeyvind and Marit, 60-64.

Old Woman and Her Pig, accumulative type, 207, 208; realistic type, 225-26; an exercise of memory, 226.

Organization of ideas, accomplished through Fir Tree, 152-53; social, of tale, 153-54.

Origin of fairy tales, 158-67.

Outline, 291-303.

Paper-cutting, 130-31.

Painting, as expression, 132.

Panchatantra, the Five Books, 171.

Pause, in story-telling, 104-05.

Pentamerone, The, 178-79.

Perrault, Charles, statue of, 1; list of tales by, 180; tales by, tested as literary form, 68; editions by, 257-58.

Personality, quality of, 57-58; in Oeyvind and Marit, 60; in Three Billy-Goats Gruff, 64; power of, 106-07.

Personal relation, establishment of, 107-10.

Peter Rabbit, 239.

Philosophy, in fairy tales, 48-52; of Uncle Remus Tales, 51-52; of Laboulaye's Tales, 51; of Cat and Mouse in Partnership, 48; of Emperor's New Suit, 48-49; of Ugly Duckling, 49-50; of Elephant's Child, 49; child's, 50-51.

Phonics in fairy tales, 79-81.

Pictures, list, 255.

Picture-Books, list, 254-55.

Plot, element of fairy tale as short-story, 73-77; structure illustrated, 76-77.

Poems, fairy, list, 255-56.

Poetic justice, 22-23.

Poetry, of teaching, 120.

Portrayal of human relations, especially with children, 24-25.

Position, of story-teller, 107.

Precision, quality of, 57; illustrated in: Oeyvind and Marit, 60; Three Billy-Goats Gruff, 64.

Preparation, teacher's, in story-telling, 94-102; rules for telling, 94-102.

Presentation, teacher's, of tale, 102-19; training of voice, 103-04; exercises in breathing, 104-05; gesture, 105-06; power of personality, 106-07; suggestions for telling, 107-12; establishment of personal relation, 108-10; placing of story in concrete situation, 94-95, 110-11; conception of child's aim, 112; telling of tale, 112-19; re-creative method of story-telling, 113-17; adaptation of fairy tales, 117-19.

Princess and Pea, 114-16.

Principles, of selection for fairy tales, 13-89; interests of children, 13-37; fairy tale as literature, 37-70; fairy tale as short-story, 70-87; references, 87-89.

Principles, of composition, 58-60; of story-telling, 94; of teaching, 119-25; concerning instincts of children, 124-25.

Problem, a means of developing consciousness, 122-25.

Proverbs in fairy tales, 50.

Purpose, growth in child's, 123-25.

Puss-in-Boots, 232, 275-78.

Psychological method of selecting tales, 95-96.

Quick-Running Squash, 240.

Realistic, tale, 223-28; types of, 224-28.

Reading, as expression, 127; relation of, to literature, 10-11, 127.

Reason, growth in, 6-7, 10; development of, 53-54.

Re-creative method of story-telling, 113-17.

Red Riding Hood, chap-book, 189; a romantic type, 232-34.

References; chapter I, 12; chapter II, 87-89; chapter III, 154-57; chapter IV, 201-03; chapter V, 243-44.

Relation, of contemplative imagination to language-training, 47-48; of contemplative imagination to power of observation, 47-48; of contemplative imagination to science, 52-53; of literature to intellect, 53-54; of sound to sense or meaning, 55; of sound to action, 55-56; of phonics and emotional effect, 55; of gesture to story-telling, 105-06; personal, between the story-teller and listener, 107-10; of reading to story-telling, 127; of reading to literature, 10, 11, 38, 127; of rhyme to meaning, 56; of fairy tales to nature study, 6, 47-48; of fairy tales to industrial education, 71-73; of fairy tales to child, 3-11; of dramatization to story-telling, 138-54; of fairy tales to literature, 37-70; of fairy tales to composition, 54-70; of fairy tales to story-telling, 90-91.

Repetition, 26-28, 205-11.

Representation, 135-38.

Re-telling of fairy tales, 101-02.

Return, creative, from child, in telling of fairy tales, 119-54: in language, 125-27; in inquiry, 127-29; in construction, 129-30; in artistic expression, 130-54; in paper-cutting, 130-31; in drawing, 132; in painting, 132; in song, 132-33; in rhythm, 133-34; in game, 134-35; in dance, 137, 145, 147; in dramatization, 138-54; illustrated, 145-54, 265-72.

Reynard the Fox, place in the animal tale, 212; history, 172-74; chap-book, 185, 186, 190, 196.

Rhyme, 56.

Rhythm, in fairy tales, 26-28; plays, 133-34.

Robin's Christmas song, 78-79.

Romantic tale, 228-34; types of, 228-34, 275-86.

St. Nicholas, Stories retold from, 241.

Sanskrit Tales, 171.

School editions of fairy tales, 262-64.

Science, relation of contemplative imagination to, 52-53.

Sea Fairy and the Land Fairy, 236-37.

Selection of fairy tales by teacher, psychological or logical, 95-96.

Sense impression, 17-18.

Setting, element of fairy tale as short-story, 77-82; sequence in, 78-79; story told by, 81-82; and phonics, 79-81.

Sheep and Pig, 215.

Short-story, fairy tale as, 70-87: elements of, 70-71; ways of writing, 71; characters, 71-73; plot, 73-77; narration in, 74-75; description in, 75; setting, 77-82; elements of, blended, 82-84; tales tested as, 84-87; telling of, 90-154.

Silhouette pictures, cutting of, 130-31.

Simple and sincere, 28-29.

Sincerity, principle of, 58-59; illustrated in: Oeyvind and Marit, 60, 61; Three Billy-Goats Gruff, 64-65.

Sindibad, The Book of, 172.

Sleeping Beauty, romantic type, 231-32; uniting partial narration, dramatization, and dramatic game, 146-47.

Snow White, 145, 266-67.

Snow White and Rose Red, 232, 282-86.

Song, as expression, 132-33.

Soul, in literature, 39-40.

Sources of material for fairy tales, 245-64: list of fairy tales and folk-tales, 246-53; bibliography of fairy tales, 253-54; list of picture-books, 254-55; list of pictures, 255; list of fairy poems, 255-56; main standard fairy-tale books, 256-58; fairy tales of all nations, 258-59; miscellaneous editions of fairy tales, 259-62; school editions of fairy tales, 262-64.

Sparrow and the Crow, as expression, 125-26.

Spider and the Flea, 79-81.

Standards, for testing fairy tales, 84; for selecting tales, 204-05; for making lists, 245-46. See Summaries.

Standard fairy-tale books, a list, 256-58.

Story, place of, in home, library, and school, 93-94; formation of original stories, 126-27.

Story-telling, an ancient art, 91-93; principles governing, 94; teacher's preparation for, 94-102; rules for, 94-102; presentation in, 102-119; voice in, 103-04; breathing in, 104-05; gesture in, 105-06; re-creative method of, 113-17; return from child, in, 119-54; child's part in, 121-25.

Straparola, 178.

Straparola's Nights, 178.

Straw Ox, 86-87.

Structure, illustrated, 76-77; study of, in story-telling, 99-100.

Study of tale as folk-lore and as literature, 96-99.

Style, defined, 59-60; illustrated, 60-65; qualities of, 59-60; principles controlling, 59-60.

Success, 20.

Suggestion, illustrated by Pope, 55; by Andersen, 136; by Kipling, 56-57; through gesture and sound, 55; through arrangement of words and speech-tunes of voice, 56-57.

Summaries: giving message of book, 13, 37-38, 40, 70-71, 84, 158, 204-05, 235.

Surprise, 15-17.

Swedish tales, 193.

Tales: of Mother Goose, 179-81; of Perrault, 246; of the Grimms, 246-47; Norse, 247; English, by Jacobs, 247-48; modern fairy, by Andersen, 248; Uncle Remus, 248-49; miscellaneous, 249-53; fairy, of all nations, 258-59; literary collections of, 170-200. See Fairy tales.

Teaching, story-telling, a part of the art of, 119-25; poetry of, 120; good art in, 120; great art in, 120-21; a criticism of life, 120-21.

Telling, of fairy tales, 90-154; art of story-telling, 90-94; principles controlling, 94; preparation by teacher for, 94-102; presentation by teacher, in, 102-19; suggestions for, 107-12; return by child, from, 119-54; re-creative method of, 113-17; adaptation of tales for, 117-19; references, 154-57.

Theories of origin of fairy tales: detritus of myth, 161-63; sun-myth theory, 163-64; common Indian heritage, 165-67; identity of early fancy, 167.

Three Bears, illustrating surprise, 16-17; a chap-book, 190; accumulative, 209-11.

Three Billy-Goats Gruff, 64-65.

Three Pigs, illustrating structure, 76; animal type, 216.

Thumbelina, illustrating adaptation, 118; illustrating rhythm play, 134.

Tin Soldier, Steadfast, as emotion, 42; tale of imagination, 46; as representation, 135-38; as a game, 135, 138.

Titty Mouse and Tatty Mouse, 81, 208-09, 227-28.

Tom Hickathrift, 185, 186, 187, 196.

Tom Thumb, chap-book tale, 185, 188, 190, 196; romantic type, 278-81.

Tone-color, in story-telling, 105.

Training of voice, 103-04.

Transformation, tales of, 32-33; kinds of, 276.

Transmission, of tales: oral, 167-170; literary, 170; illustrated by: Dog Gellert, 166; Dick Whittington, 169; Peruonto, 169-70.

Tributes, two public, 1-3.

Truth, basis of, in fairy tales, a distinguishing literary mark, 40, 53-54.

Tuileries, gardens of. See Gardens.

Uncle Remus Tales, by Harris, 248-49; editions, 257.

Unhappy tales, 34.

Unity, of effect, 29-30; principle of composition, 58-59; illustrated in: Oeyvind and Marit, 61; Three Billy-Goats Gruff, 65.

Value, of fairy tales in education, 3-12, 119-25; to give joy, 3-4; to satisfy the play-spirit, 4-6; to develop observation, 6; to give habits of mind, 6-7; to strengthen emotion, 6-7, 44-45; to extend social relations, 7-8 in home, library, and school, 8-9; to give language-training, 10-11; to develop imagination, 45-53; to develop reason, 53-54; to develop power of creative return, 119-54; to develop self-activity, 121-22; to develop consciousness, through problems, 122-23; to develop initiative, 122; to develop purpose, 123-25; to develop self-expression, 124-54; to strengthen originality, 127-29; to develop organization of ideas, 153; and to exercise memory, 226.

Version, of tale, 101-02.

Villeneuve, Madam, 182.

Voice, training of, 103-04.

Witch tales, 31.

Wolf and the Seven Kids, expression in painting, 132; in song, 132-33.

Words, powers of, 54-55; denotation, 54; connotation, 54-55; suggestion, 54-57.

Wonder, mystery, magic, an interest, 19.

Worth of fairy tales, 1-12: two public tributes, 1-3; value of fairy tales in education, 3-12; references, 12.

THE END

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