[Sidenote: Confederate attack on Washington, 1864.]
[Sidenote: Sheridan in the Valley. Hero Tales, 263-290.]
[Sidenote: Confederate disaster, October, 1864.]
[Sidenote: Lincoln reelected, November, 1864. McMaster, 425-426.]
432. Sheridan's Valley Campaigns, 1864.—The conditions now were very unlike the conditions of 1862. Now, Grant was in command instead of McClellan or Pope. He controlled the movements of all the armies without interference from Washington, and he had many more men than Lee. Without letting go his hold on Petersburg, Grant sent two army corps by water to Washington. Early was an able and active soldier, but he delayed his attack on Washington until soldiers came from the James. He then withdrew to the Shenandoah Valley. Grant now gave Sheridan forty thousand infantry and fifteen thousand cavalry, and sent him to the Valley with orders to drive Early out and to destroy all supplies in the Valley which could be used by another Southern army. Splendidly Sheridan did his work. At one time, when he was away, the Confederates surprised the Union army. But, hearing the roar of the battle, Sheridan rode rapidly to the front. As he rode along, the fugitives turned back. The Confederates, surprised in their turn, were swept from the field and sent whirling up the Valley in wild confusion (October 19, 1864). Then Sheridan destroyed everything that could be of service to another invading army and rejoined Grant at Petersburg. In the November following this great feat of arms, Lincoln was reelected President.
[Sidenote: Mobile Bay, 1864. Hero Tales, 303-322.]
[Sidenote: Kearsarge and Alabama.]
433. The Blockade and the Cruisers, 1863-64.—The blockade had now become stricter than ever. For by August, 1864, Farragut had carried his fleet into Mobile Bay and had closed it to commerce. Sherman had taken Savannah. Early in 1865 Charleston was abandoned, for Sherman had it at his mercy, and Terry captured Wilmington. The South was now absolutely dependent on its own resources, and the end could not be far off. On the open sea, with England's aid a few vessels flew the Confederate flag. The best known of these vessels was the Alabama. She was built in England, armed with English guns, and largely manned by Englishmen. On June 19, 1864, the United States ship Kearsarge sank her off Cherbourg, France. Englishmen were also building two ironclad battleships for the Confederates. But the American minister at London, Mr. Charles Francis Adams, said that if they were allowed to sail, it would be "war." The English government thereupon bought the vessels.
[Sidenote: Sherman's northern march, 1865.]
434. Sherman's March through the Carolinas, 1865.—Early in 1865 Sherman set out on the worst part of his great march. He now directed his steps northward from Savannah toward Virginia. The Confederates prepared to meet him. But Sherman set out before they expected him, and thus gained a clear path for the first part of his journey. Joseph E. Johnston now took command of the forces opposed to Sherman and did everything he could to stop him. At one moment it seemed as if he might succeed. He almost crushed the forward end of Sherman's army before the rest of the soldiers could be brought to its rescue. But Sherman's veterans were too old soldiers to be easily defeated. They first beat back the enemy in front, and when another force appeared in the rear they jumped to the other side of their field breastworks and defeated that force also. Night then put an end to the combat, and by morning the Union force was too strong to be attacked. Pressing on, Sherman reached Goldsboro' in North Carolina. There he was joined by Terry from Wilmington and by Schofield from Tennessee. Sherman now was strong enough to beat any Confederate army. He moved to Raleigh and completely cut Lee's communications with South Carolina and Georgia, April, 1865.
[Sidenote: Condition of Lee's army.]
[Sidenote: Higginson, 317.]
[Sidenote: Surrender of the Southern armies, April 1865. Source-book, 329-333].
435. Appomattox, April, 1865.—The end of the Confederacy was now plainly in sight. Lee's men were starving. They were constantly deserting either to go to the aid of their perishing families or to obtain food from the Union army. As soon as the roads were fit for marching, Grant set his one hundred and twenty thousand men once more in motion. His object was to gain the rear of Lee's army and to force him to abandon Petersburg. A last despairing attack on the Union center only increased Grant's vigor. On April 1 Sheridan with his cavalry and an infantry corps seized Five Forks in the rear of Petersburg and could not be driven away. Petersburg and Richmond were abandoned. Lee tried to escape to the mountains. But now the Union soldiers marched faster than the starving Southerners. Sheridan, outstripping them, placed his men across their path at Appomattox Court House. There was nothing left save surrender. The soldiers of the Army of Northern Virginia, now only thirty-seven thousand strong, laid down their arms, April 9, 1865. Soon Johnston surrendered, and the remaining small isolated bands of Confederates were run down and captured.
[Sidenote: Murder of Lincoln, April 14, 1865. Higginson, 322-323; Source-book, 333-335.]
436. Lincoln murdered, April 14, 1865.—The national armies were victorious. President Lincoln, never grander or wiser than in the moment of victory, alone stood between the Southern people and the Northern extremists clamoring for vengeance. On the night of April 14 he was murdered by a sympathizer with slavery and secession. No one old enough to remember the morning of April 15, 1865, will ever forget the horror aroused in the North by this unholy murder. In the beginning Lincoln had been a party leader. In the end the simple grandeur of his nature had won for him a place in the hearts of the American people that no other man has ever gained. He was indeed the greatest because the most typical of Americans. Vice-President Andrew Johnson, a war Democrat from Tennessee, became President. The vanquished secessionists were soon to taste the bitter dregs of the cup of defeat.
QUESTIONS AND TOPICS
[Use maps constantly while studying this period. The maps provided in Dodge's Bird's-Eye View are admirably adapted to this purpose.]
Sec. 380.—a. What did Lincoln say about the Union? What did he say about slavery? What oath did Lincoln take?
b. Was his inaugural conciliatory to the South?
Sec.Sec. 381, 382.—a. What was the result of Buchanan's attempt to send supplies to Fort Sumter?
b. Why did Lincoln inform the governor of South Carolina of his determination to succor Fort Sumter?
c. What was the effect on Northern opinion of the attack on Fort Sumter?
d. Could the Southerners have done otherwise than fire on the flag?
Sec.Sec. 383-385.—a. Why were the Virginians so divided? What resulted from this division?
b. What were the "border states"? Could these states have been neutral?
c. Describe the especial importance of Maryland.
d. What oath had the officers of the United States army and navy taken? Did Lee and other officers who resigned necessarily believe in the right of secession? Give your reasons.
Sec.Sec. 386, 387.—a. State the advantages of the Southerners from the geographical point of view.
b. Explain how rivers were lines of defense.
c. Describe carefully the plan of the Bull Run campaign.
d. Why was the Shenandoah Valley so important?
Sec.Sec. 388-390.—a. Why was McClellan placed in command of the Army of the Potomac?
b. Of what advantage to the South were the negroes?
c. Describe the plan of the Peninsular Campaign. What was the great objection to it?
Sec. 391.—a. Describe the Merrimac, the Monitor. Compare them with the Congress.
b. What effect did the Monitor-Merrimac fight have on McClellan's campaign?
Sec.Sec. 392, 393.—a Describe the Peninsular Campaign. Why were not more soldiers sent to McClellan?
b. What is meant by the phrase "change of base"?
c. How did Lee secure the removal of McClellan's army from the James?
Sec.Sec. 394, 395.—a Why did Lee invade Maryland? b. Describe the battle of Antietam, of Fredericksburg. What was the result of each of these battles?
Sec.Sec. 396, 397.—a. Give an account of the early life and training of Grant and of Thomas.
b. Why were the seizures of Cairo and Paducah and the battle of Mill Springs important?
c. What is meant by the phrase "unconditional surrender"?
Sec.Sec. 398, 399.—a. Explain carefully the importance to the South of New Orleans and the lower Mississippi.
b. Give an account of Farragut's early life. How did it fit him for this work?
c. Describe the operations against New Orleans.
Sec. 400.—a. Explain carefully the plan of the campaign to Corinth Why was Corinth important?
b. What quality in Grant was conspicuous at Shiloh?
Sec. 401.—a. What was Bragg's object in invading Kentucky? How far did he succeed? Why was Chattanooga important?
Sec.Sec. 402, 403.—a. What is a blockade? What was the effect of the blockade on the South?
b. Had sea power been in Southern hands, could the Union have been saved?
c. Why was Charleston so difficult to capture? (Compare with the Revolutionary War.)
Sec.Sec. 405, 406.—a. What help did the Southerners hope to obtain from Great Britain and France? Why? How were their hopes disappointed?
b. What do you think of the action of the English mill operatives?
c. Describe the Trent Affair. What do you think of Lincoln's action? Did the British government act wisely?
Sec.Sec. 406, 407.—a. What had the Republican party declared about slavery in the states? What had Lincoln said in his inaugural?
b. How had the war altered Lincoln's power as President?
c. Why was it necessary for Lincoln to follow Northern sentiment?
d. What is contraband of war? How were the slaves contraband?
Sec.Sec. 408, 409.—a. What steps had already been taken by Congress toward freeing the slaves?
b. How was the Emancipation Proclamation justified? Upon what would its enforcement depend?
c. What slave states were not affected by this proclamation?
d. How was slavery as an institution abolished throughout the United States?
Sec.Sec. 410, 411.—a. Why was not the North united upon this war?
b. What is the force of the writ of habeas corpus? Why is it so important?
c. What was the "draft," and why was it necessary?
Sec.Sec. 412-415.—a. Explain the position of the armies at the beginning of 1863.
b. Why was the conquest of Vicksburg so difficult? How was it finally captured?
c. What effect did the control of the Mississippi have upon the Confederacy?
Sec. 416.—a. What was Lee's object in invading Pennsylvania?
b. What position did the Union army keep as regards the Confederates?
Sec.Sec. 417-419.—a. Describe the battle-field of Gettysburg. Why was the battle so important?
b. Describe in detail the principal events of each day of the battle.
c. Learn Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address." How was this ground hallowed? What was the great task before the people?
Sec.Sec. 420, 421.—a. Describe the battle of Chickamauga. Review Thomas's services up to this time.
b. Describe the three parts of the battle of Chattanooga.
Sec.Sec. 422, 423.—a. How had Grant shown his fitness for high command? Was it wise to have one man in command of all the armies? Why?
b. Review Sherman's career up to this time. Why did Grant impose trust in him?
c. What was the result of Hood's attacks?
Sec.Sec. 424-426.—a. What was the real object of Sherman's march to the sea?
b. Describe the destruction of Hood's army. What does it show as to Thomas's ability?
c. What did Sherman's army accomplish on its way to the sea?
Sec.Sec. 427-430.—a. Compare the conditions of the two armies in Virginia. Explain the advantages of the Confederates.
b. Describe the battle of the Wilderness, noting the conditions favorable to the Confederates.
c. Describe the movement to the James. What advantages had Grant not possessed by McClellan?
Sec.Sec. 431, 432.—a. Why was Petersburg important?
b. How did Lee try to compel the withdrawal of Grant? Why did he not succeed?
c. Describe Sheridan's work in the Shenandoah Valley. Read a short account of Sheridan's career to 1865, and state his services to the Union cause.
Sec.Sec. 433.—a. How had Sherman's victories affected the blockade?
b. What aid had Great Britain given to the Confederates? Why did she not give more assistance?
Sec.Sec. 434, 435.—a. How did Sherman's occupation of Raleigh affect Lee?
b. Describe the condition of Lee's army. How was its capture accomplished?
Sec. 436.—a. Why was Lincoln's death a terrible loss to the South?
b. Why is he the greatest of all Americans?
a. Review the steps which led to the war for the Union.
b. What were Lincoln's personal views as to slavery? Why could he not carry them out?
c. What were Lincoln's leading characteristics? Give illustrations to support your view.
d. Study Grant's military career and try to find out why he succeeded where others failed.
e. Arrange a table of the leading campaigns, giving dates, leaders, end to be attained, important battles, and result.
f. Give the two most important battles of the war. Why do you select these?
TOPICS FOR SPECIAL WORK.
a. Life in Southern prisons.
b. The Shenandoah Valley in the war.
c. Any important battle or naval action, or leading general, or naval commander.
d. The part played by your own state or town in the war, or the history of one of your state regiments.
SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS
A few days spent upon a study of the field of war will save a great deal of time. Channing's Students' History will enable the teacher to indicate the most important strategic points. Maps have been sparingly provided in this book, as the simple plans in Dodge's Bird's-eye View can easily be reproduced on the blackboard. In general, campaigns should be studied rather than battles.
Pictures relating to this period are easily obtainable and may be freely used. It is an excellent plan to ask some veteran to describe his experiences, and the local post of the Grand Army of the Republic will often lend material aid in making the war real to the pupils. Grant's career should be especially studied, and the reasons for his successes carefully noted.
Indeed, the study of this period may well center around Lincoln and Grant. Lincoln's inaugurals are too difficult to be studied thoroughly. But the teacher can easily select portions, as the last paragraph of the second inaugural. Lincoln's Gettysburg Address should be learned by every pupil, and his letter to Greeley (Students' History, p. 539) will throw a flood of light on Lincoln's character. In studying this period, as well as other periods, it is better to dwell on the patriotism and heroism of our soldiers, sailors, and statesmen than to point out their mistakes and personal faults.
Literature is so rich in reference to this time that nothing more than the mention of the works of Lowell, Whittier, Holmes, and Longfellow is needed.
RECONSTRUCTION AND REUNION, 1865-1888
Books for Study and Reading
References.—Scribner's Popular History, V; McMaster's School History, chs. xxx-xxxiii; Andrews's Last Quarter-Century.
Home Readings.—Hale's Mr. Merriam's Scholars.
PRESIDENT JOHNSON AND RECONSTRUCTION, 1861-1869
[Sidenote: Position of the seceded states.]
[Sidenote: Lincoln's policy of reconstruction. McMaster, 427-428.]
437. Lincoln's Reconstruction Policy.—The great question now before the country was what should be done with the Southern states and people. And what should be done with the freedmen? On these questions people were not agreed. Some people thought that the states were "indestructible"; that they could not secede or get out of the Union. Others thought that the Southern states had been conquered and should be treated as a part of the national domain. Lincoln thought that it was useless to go into these questions. The Southern states were out of the "proper practical relations with the Union." That was clear enough. The thing to do, therefore, was to restore "proper practical relations" as quickly and as quietly as possible. In December, 1863, Lincoln had offered a pardon to all persons, with some exceptions, who should take the oath of allegiance to the United States, and should promise to support the Constitution and the Emancipation Proclamation. Whenever one-tenth of the voters in any of the Confederate states should do these things, and should set up a republican form of government, Lincoln promised to recognize that government as the state government. But the admission to Congress of Senators and Representatives from such a reconstructed state would rest with Congress. Several states were reconstructed on this plan. But public opinion was opposed to this quiet reorganization of the seceded states. The people trusted Lincoln, however, and had he lived he might have induced them to accept his plan.
[Sidenote: Andrew Johnson President, 1865.]
[Sidenote: His ideas on reconstruction. McMaster, 428.]
438. President Johnson's Reconstruction Plan.—Johnson was an able man and a patriot. But he had none of Lincoln's wise patience. He had none of Lincoln's tact and humor in dealing with men. On the contrary, he always lost his temper when opposed. Although he was a Southerner, he hated slavery and slave owners. On the other hand, he had a Southerner's contempt for the negroes. He practically adopted Lincoln's reconstruction policy and tried to bring about the reorganization of the seceded states by presidential action.
[Sidenote: Force of Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation.]
[Sidenote: Abolition of slavery, 1865.]
439. The Thirteenth Amendment, 1865.—President Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation (p. 331) had freed the slaves in those states and parts of states which were in rebellion against the national government. It had not freed the slaves in the loyal states. It had not destroyed slavery as an institution. Any state could reestablish slavery whenever it chose. Slavery could be prohibited only by an amendment of the Constitution. So the Thirteenth Amendment was adopted, December, 1865. This amendment declares that "neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, ... shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction." In this way slavery came to an end throughout the United States.
[Sidenote: Forced labor in the South. McMaster, 429.]
[Sidenote: The Freedmen's Bureau. Source-book, 339-342.]
440. Congress and the President, 1865-66.—Unhappily many of the old slave states had passed laws to compel the negroes to work. They had introduced a system of forced labor which was about the same thing as slavery. In December, 1865, the new Congress met. The Republicans were in the majority. They refused to admit the Senators and Representatives from the reorganized Southern states and at once set to work to pass laws for the protection of the negroes. In March, 1865, while the war was still going on, and while Lincoln was alive, Congress had established the Freedmen's Bureau to look after the interests of the negroes. Congress now (February, 1866) passed a bill to continue the Bureau and to give it much more power. Johnson promptly vetoed the bill. In the following July Congress passed another bill to continue the Freedmen's Bureau. In this bill the officers of the Bureau were given greatly enlarged powers, the education of the blacks was provided for, and the army might be used to compel obedience to the law. Johnson vetoed this bill also.
[Sidenote: Civil Rights Bill, 1866.]
[Sidenote: It is passed over Johnson's veto.]
[Sidenote: The Fourteenth Amendment, 1866.]
441. The Fourteenth Amendment.—While this contest over the Freedmen's Bureau was going on, Congress passed the Civil Rights Bill to protect the freedmen. This bill provided that cases concerning the civil rights of the freedmen should be heard in the United States courts instead of in the state courts. Johnson thought that Congress had no power to do this. He vetoed the bill, and Congress passed it over his veto. Congress then drew up the Fourteenth Amendment. This forbade the states to abridge the rights of the citizens, white or black. It further provided that the representation of any state in Congress should be diminished whenever it denied the franchise to any one except for taking part in rebellion. Finally it guaranteed the debt of the United States, and declared all debts incurred in support of rebellion null and void. Every Southern state except Tennessee refused to accept this amendment.
[Sidenote: Elections of 1866.]
[Sidenote: Tenure of Office Act, 1867.]
[Sidenote: The Reconstruction Acts, 1867.]
[Sidenote: Process of reconstruction. Source-Book, 344-346.]
442. The Reconstruction Acts, 1867.—The Congressional elections of November, 1866, were greatly in favor of the Republicans. The Republican members of Congress felt that this showed that the North was with them in their policy as to reconstruction. Congress met in December, 1866, and at once set to work to carry out this policy. First of all it passed the Tenure of Office Act to prevent Johnson dismissing Republicans from office. Then it passed the Reconstruction Act. Johnson vetoed both of these measures, and Congress passed them both over his veto. The Reconstruction Act was later amended and strengthened. It will be well to describe here the process of reconstruction in its final form. First of all the seceded states, with the exception of Tennessee, were formed into military districts. Each district was ruled by a military officer who had soldiers to carry out his directions. Tennessee was not included in this arrangement, because it had accepted the Fourteenth Amendment. But all the other states, which had been reconstructed by Lincoln or by Johnson, were to be reconstructed over again. The franchise was given to all men, white or black, who had lived in any state for one year—excepting criminals and persons who had taken part in rebellion. This exception took the franchise away from the old rulers of the South. These new voters could form a state constitution and elect a legislature which should ratify the Fourteenth Amendment. When all this had been done, Senators and Representatives from the reconstructed state might be admitted to Congress.
[Sidenote: Charges against Johnson.]
[Sidenote: He is impeached.]
[Sidenote: But not convicted.]
443. Impeachment of Johnson, 1868.—President Johnson had vetoed all these bills. He had declared that the Congress was a Congress of only a part of the states, because Representatives from the states reconstructed according to his ideas were not admitted. He had used language toward his opponents that was fairly described as indecent and unbecoming the chief officer of a great nation. Especially he had refused to be bound by the Tenure of Office Act. Ever since the formation of the government the Presidents had removed officers when they saw fit. The Tenure of Office Act required the consent of the Senate to removals as well as to appointments. Among the members of Lincoln's cabinet who were still in office was Edwin M. Stanton. Johnson removed him, and this brought on the crisis. The House impeached the President. The Senate, presided over by Chief Justice Chase, heard the impeachment. The Constitution requires the votes of two-thirds of the Senators to convict. Seven Republicans voted with the Democrats against conviction, and the President was acquitted by one vote.
[Sidenote: Napoleon's plans.]
[Sidenote: Action of the United States.]
[Sidenote: Withdrawal of the French, 1868.]
444. The French in Mexico.—Napoleon III, Emperor of the French, seized the occasion of the Civil War to set the Monroe Doctrine at defiance and to refound a French colonial empire in America. At one time, indeed, he seemed to be on the point of interfering, to compel the Union government to withdraw its armies from the Confederate states. Then Napoleon had an idea that perhaps Texas might secede from the Confederacy and set up for itself under French protection. This failing, he began the establishment of an empire in Mexico with the Austrian prince, Maximilian, as Emperor. The ending of the Civil War made it possible for the United States to interfere. Grant and Sheridan would gladly have marched troops into Mexico and turned out the French, but Seward said that the French would have to leave before long anyway. He hastened their going by telling the French government that the sooner they left the better. They were withdrawn in 1868. Maximilian insisted on staying. He was captured by the Mexicans and shot. The Mexican Republic was reestablished.
[Sidenote: Purchase of Alaska, 1867.]
[Sidenote: The fur seals.]
[Sidenote: Boundary controversy.]
445. The Purchase of Alaska, 1867.—In 1867 President Johnson sent to the Senate, for ratification, a treaty with Russia for the purchase of Russia's American possessions. These were called Alaska, and included an immense tract of land in the extreme Northwest. The price to be paid was seven million dollars. The history of this purchase is still little known. The Senate was completely taken by surprise, but it ratified the treaty. Until recent years the only important product of Alaska has been the skins of the fur seals. To preserve the seal herds from extinction, the United States made rules limiting the number of seals to be killed in any one year. The Canadians were not bound by these rules, and the herds have been nearly destroyed. In recent years large deposits of gold have been found in Alaska and in neighboring portions of Canada. But the Canadian deposits are hard to reach without first going through Alaska. This fact has made it more difficult to agree with Great Britain as to the boundary between Alaska and Canada.
[Sidenote: Grant nominated for the presidency.]
[Sidenote: The Democrats.]
[Sidenote: Grant elected, 1868.]
446. Grant elected President, 1868.—The excitement over reconstruction and the bitter contest between the Republicans in Congress and the President had brought about great confusion in politics. The Democrats nominated General F. P. Blair, a gallant soldier, for Vice-President. For President they nominated Horatio Seymour of New York. He was a Peace Democrat. As governor of New York during the war he had refused to support the national government. The Republicans nominated General Grant.
He received three hundred thousand more votes than Seymour. Of the two hundred and ninety-four electoral votes, Grant received two hundred and fifteen.
FROM GRANT TO CLEVELAND, 1869-1889
[Sidenote: The Fifteenth Amendment, 1870.]
447. The Fifteenth Amendment.—In February, 1869, just before Grant's inauguration, Congress proposed still another amendment, providing that neither the United States nor any state could abridge the rights of citizens of the United States on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. The state legislatures hastened to accept this amendment, and it was declared in force in March, 1870.
[Sidenote: Progress of reconstruction.]
[Sidenote: Reunion, 1870.]
448. End of Reconstruction.—Three states only were still unreconstructed. These were Virginia, Texas, and Mississippi. In 1869 Congress added to the conditions on which they could be readmitted to the Union the acceptance of the Fifteenth Amendment. Early in 1870 they all complied with the conditions and were readmitted. The Union was now again complete. Since 1860 four states had been added to the Union. These were Kansas, West Virginia, Nevada, and Nebraska. There were now thirty-seven states in all.
[Sidenote: The carpetbaggers. McMaster, 439-414.]
[Sidenote: The Ku-Klux-Klan.]
[Sidenote: The Force Acts.]
449. The Southerners and the Negroes.—The first result of the Congressional plan of reconstruction was to give the control of the Southern states to the freedmen and their white allies. Some of these white friends of the freedmen were men of character and ability, but most of them were adventurers who came from the North to make their fortunes. They were called the "carpetbaggers," because they usually carried their luggage in their hands. The few Southern whites who befriended the negroes were called "scalawags" by their white neighbors. Secret societies sprang into being. The most famous was the Ku-Klux-Klan. The object of these societies was to terrorize the freedmen and their white friends and to prevent their voting. This led to the passage of the Force Acts. These laws provided severe penalties for crimes of intimidation. They also provided that these cases should be tried in United States courts. Federal soldiers, stationed in the South, could be used to compel obedience to the law.
[Sidenote: Relations with Great Britain.]
[Sidenote: Treaty of Washington, 1871. Source-Book, 355-358.]
[Sidenote: The Geneva Award.]
450. The Alabama Claims.—During the Civil War vessels built in British shipyards, or refitted and supplied with coal at British ports, had preyed upon American commerce. The most famous of these vessels was the Alabama. The claims for losses caused by these vessels which the United States presented to Great Britain were therefore called the "Alabama Claims." There also were disputes with Great Britain over the fisheries and over the western end of the Oregon boundary. In 1871 the United States and Great Britain made an arrangement called the Treaty of Washington. By this treaty all these points of dispute were referred to arbitration. The Oregon boundary was decided in favor of the United States, but the fishery dispute was decided in favor of Great Britain. The "Alabama Claims" were settled by five arbitrators who sat at Geneva in Switzerland. They decided that Great Britain had not used "due diligence" to prevent the abuse of her ports by the Confederates. They condemned her to pay fifteen and one-half million dollars damages to the United States.
[Sidenote: The Chicago fire, 1871.]
451. The Chicago Fire, 1871.—Early one morning in October, 1871, a Chicago woman went to the barn to milk her cow. She carried a lighted kerosene lamp, for it was still dark. The cow kicked over the lamp. The barn was soon ablaze. A furious gale carried the burning sparks from one house to another. And so the fire went on spreading all that day and night and the next day. Nearly two hundred million dollars' worth of property was destroyed. The homes of nearly one hundred thousand persons were burned down. In a surprisingly short time the burnt district was rebuilt, and Chicago grew more rapidly than ever before.
[Sidenote: Rings. Source-Book, 352-355.]
452. Corruption in Politics.—New York City had no two hundred million dollar fire. But a "ring" of city officers stole more than one hundred and fifty million dollars of the city's money. In other cities also there was great corruption. Nor were the state governments free from bribery and thieving. Many officers in the national government were believed to be mixed up in schemes to defraud the people. The truth of the matter was that the Civil War had left behind it the habit of spending money freely. A desire to grow suddenly rich possessed the people. Men did not look closely to see where their money came from.
[Sidenote: Objections to Grant.]
[Sidenote: Liberal Republicans.]
[Sidenote: Horace Greeley.]
[Sidenote: Grant reelected, 1872.]
453. Election of 1872.—In fact, this condition of the public service made many persons doubtful of the wisdom of reelecting President Grant. There was not the slightest doubt as to Grant's personal honesty. There were grave doubts as to his judgment in making appointments. Reconstruction, too, did not seem to be restoring peace and prosperity to the South. For these reasons many voters left the Republican party. They called themselves Liberal Republicans and nominated Horace Greeley for President. He had been one of the most outspoken opponents of slavery. The Democrats could find no better candidate, so they, too, nominated Greeley. But many Democrats could not bring themselves to vote for him. They left their party for the moment and nominated a third candidate. The result of all this confusion was the reelection of Grant. But the Democrats elected a majority of the House of Representatives.
[Sidenote: Rebellion in Cuba, 1867.]
[Sidenote: Spanish cruelty.]
[Sidenote: The Virginius affair.]
[Sidenote: Spanish promises end rebellion, 1877.]
454. The Cuban Rebellion, 1867-77.—When the other Spanish-American colonies won their independence (p. 223), Cuba remained true to Spain. But by 1867 the Cubans could no longer bear the hardships of Spanish rule. They rebelled and for ten years fought for freedom. The Spaniards burned whole villages because they thought the inhabitants favored the rebels. They even threatened to kill all Cuban men found away from their homes. This cruelty aroused the sympathy of the Americans. Expeditions sailed from the United States to help the Cubans, although the government did everything it could to prevent their departure. One of these vessels carrying aid to the Cubans was named the Virginius. The Spaniards captured her, carried her to Santiago, and killed forty-six of her crew. There came near being a war with Spain over this affair. But the Spaniards apologized and saluted the American flag. In 1877 President Grant made up his mind that the war had lasted long enough. He adopted a severe tone toward Spain. The Spanish government made terms with the rebels, and the rebellion came to an end.
[Sidenote: The Credit Mobilier.]
[Sidenote: The Whiskey Ring.]
455. Scandals in Political Life.—In 1872 the House of Representatives made a searching inquiry into the charges of bribery in connection with the building of the Pacific railroads. Oakes Ames of Massachusetts was the head of a company called the "Credit Mobilier." This company had been formed to build the Union Pacific Railway. Fearing that Congress would pass laws that might hurt the enterprise, Ames gave stock in the company to members of Congress. But nothing definite could be proved against any members, and the matter dropped. Soon after the beginning of Grant's second term, many evil things came to light. One of these was the Whiskey Ring, which defrauded the government of large sums of money with the aid of the government officials. Grant wished to have a thorough investigation, and said, "Let no guilty man escape." The worst case of all, perhaps, was that of W. W. Belknap, Secretary of War. But he escaped punishment by resigning.
[Sidenote: Failure of reconstruction. Source-Book, 349-351.]
456. Anarchy in the South.—Meantime reconstruction was not working well in the South. This was especially true of Louisiana, Arkansas, and South Carolina. In Louisiana, and in Arkansas also, there were two sets of governors and legislatures, and civil war on a small scale was going on. In South Carolina the carpetbaggers and the negroes had gained control. They stole right and left. In other Southern states there were continued outrages on the negroes. President Grant was greatly troubled. "Let us have peace," was his heartfelt wish. But he felt it necessary to keep Federal soldiers in the South, although he knew that public opinion in the North was turning against their employment. It was under these circumstances that the election of 1876 was held.
[Sidenote: Election of 1876. Higginson, 331-334.]
[Sidenote: The electoral commission.]
[Sidenote: Hayes inaugurated, 1877.]
457. Election of 1876.—The Republican candidate was Rutherford B. Hayes of Ohio. He was a gallant soldier of the Civil War, and was a man of the highest personal character. His Democratic opponent was Samuel J. Tilden of New York—a shrewd lawyer who had won distinction as governor of the Empire State. When the electoral returns were brought in, there appeared two sets of returns from each of three Southern states, and the vote of Oregon was doubtful. The Senate was Republican, and the House was Democratic. As the two houses could not agree as to how these returns should be counted, they referred the whole matter to an electoral commission. This commission was made up of five Senators, five Representatives, and five justices of the Supreme Court. Eight of them were Republicans and seven were Democrats. They decided by eight seven that Hayes was elected, and he was inaugurated President on March 4, 1877.
[Sidenote: Southern politics Higginson, 334-335.]
[Sidenote: Troops withdrawn.]
458. Withdrawal of the Soldiers from the South.—The People of the North were weary of the ceaseless political agitation in the South. The old Southern leaders had regained control of nearly all the Southern states. They could not be turned out except by a new civil war, and the Northern people were not willing to go to war again. The only other thing that could be done was to withdraw the Federal soldiers and let the Southern people work out their own salvation as well as they could. President Hayes recalled the troops, and all the Southern states at once passed into the control of the Democrats.
[Sidenote: Panic and hard times.]
[Sidenote: The Pittsburgh riots, 1877.]
459. Strikes and Riots, 1877.—The extravagance and speculation of the Civil War, and the years following its close, ended in a great panic in 1873. After the panic came the "hard times." Production fell off. The demand for labor diminished. Wages were everywhere reduced. Strikes became frequent, and riots followed the strikes. At Pittsburg, in western Pennsylvania, the rioters seized the railroad. They burned hundreds of railroad cars and locomotives. They destroyed the railroad buildings. At last the riot came to an end, but not until millions of dollars' worth of property had been destroyed.
[Sidenote: The Stalwart Republicans.]
[Sidenote: Garfield elected President, 1880.]
460. Election of 1880.—At the beginning of his administration Hayes had declared that he would not be a candidate for reelection. Who should be the Republican standard bearer? Grant's friends proposed to nominate him for a third term. The politicians who advocated a third term for Grant were opposed to the candidacy of James G. Blaine. They were called the Stalwart Republicans. In the convention they voted steadily and solidly for Grant. Finally their opponents, with the cry of "Anything to beat Grant," suddenly turned to an entirely new man, whose name had been little mentioned. This was James A. Garfield of Ohio. He had won distinction in the Civil War and had served with credit in Congress. For Vice-President the Republicans nominated Chester A. Arthur, a New York banker. The Democrats, on their part, nominated one of the most brilliant and popular soldiers of the Army of the Potomac, General Winfield Scott Hancock. The campaign was very hotly contested. In the end Garfield won.
[Sidenote: Garfield murdered, 1881.]
[Sidenote: President Arthur.]
[Sidenote: Civil Service Reform. Source-Book, 363-365.]
461. Garfield murdered; Civil Service Reform.—President Garfield took the oath of office on March 4, 1881. On July 2 he was shot in the back by a disappointed office-seeker. Week after week he endured terrible agony. At length, on September 19, the martyred President died. Now at last the evils of the "Spoils System" were brought to the attention of the American people. Vice-President Arthur became President and entered heartily into projects of reform. A beginning was soon made. But it was found to be a very difficult thing to bring about any lasting reform. The Constitution gives the President the appointment of officers, subject to the confirmation of the Senate. No act of Congress can diminish the constitutional powers of the President except so far as he consents, and one President cannot bind succeeding Presidents. Any scheme of reform also costs money, which must be voted annually by Congress. It follows, therefore, that the consent of every President and of both Houses of every Congress is necessary to make the reform of the civil service permanent. Nevertheless the reform has made steady progress until now by far the greater part of the civil service is organized on the merit system.
[Sidenote: J.G. Blaine]
[Sidenote: The Mugwumps.]
[Sidenote: Grover Cleveland.]
[Sidenote: Cleveland elected President, 1884.]
[Sidenote: Tariff reform.]
462. Election of 1884.—In 1884 the Republicans nominated James G. Blaine of Maine for President. He was a man of magnetic address and had made many friends, but he also had made many enemies. Especially many Republican voters distrusted him. They felt that he had used his position for private gain, although nothing was proved against him. These Republicans were called "Mugwumps." They "bolted" the nomination and supported the Democratic candidate, Grover Cleveland. As mayor of Buffalo, Cleveland had done very well. He had then been elected governor of New York by a very large majority. The campaign of 1884 was conducted on lines of personal abuse that recall the campaigns of 1800 and of 1828. Cleveland carried four large Northern states and the "solid South" and was elected.
463. Cleveland's Administration, 1885-89.—The great contest of Cleveland's first term was a fierce struggle over the tariff. The government's need of money during the Civil War had compelled Congress to raise large sums by means of internal revenue taxes. These taxes in turn had brought about a great increase in the tariff rates on goods imported from foreign countries. The internal revenue taxes had been almost entirely removed, but the war tariff substantially remained in force. In 1887 Cleveland laid the whole question before Congress. For a time it seemed probable that something would be done. But the opposition in Congress was very active and very strong. It fell out, therefore, that nothing important was done. The real significance of Cleveland's first administration lay in the fact that the Southerners were once again admitted to a share in the government of the nation. It marked, therefore, the reunion of the American people.
QUESTIONS AND TOPICS
Sec.Sec.437, 438.—a. Explain carefully Lincoln's plan for reconstruction. How was it affected by his death?
b. What was Johnson's attitude toward reconstruction? Precisely what is meant by "reconstruction"?
Sec.Sec.439-441.—a. What was the force of the Emancipation Proclamation? How was the institution of slavery abolished?
b. Explain the reasons for the establishment of the freedmen's bureau. What do you think of the provision relating to the use of the army?
c. How was Congress able to pass a bill over the President's veto?
d. Explain carefully the Fourteenth Amendment. What do you think of the provision as to debts?
Sec.Sec.442, 443.—a. Why were the elections of 1866 important?
b. What was the force of the Tenure of Office Act, and why was it passed?
c. Describe the actual process of reconstruction.
d. Why was Johnson impeached? Why did the impeachment fail?
Sec.Sec.444, 445.—a. How did this act of Napoleon's set the Monroe Doctrine at defiance?
b. What action did the government take? With what result?
c. What advantage has Alaska been to the United States?
Sec.446.—a. What were the issues in the campaign of 1868?
b. What had Blair done for the Union?
c. What did the election of Grant show?
Sec.Sec.447-449.—a. What were the provisions of the Fifteenth Amendment?
b. Under what conditions were the remaining seceded states readmitted?
c. What was the Force Act? Why was it passed?
Sec.450.—a. How was the injury to our shipping during the Civil War connected with Great Britain?
b. What is meant by "arbitration"? Is it better to settle disputes by arbitration or by war?
Sec.Sec.451-452.—a. Describe the Chicago fire and its results.
b. Why was there so much bribery and corruption at this time?
c. Should city governments be conducted as business enterprises?
Sec.453.—a. Why was there so much opposition to Grant's reelection?
b. Why did the Democrats nominate Greeley? What was the result of the election?
Sec.454.—a. What trouble broke out in Cuba? Why?
b. Describe the Virginius affair. How did the Cuban rebellion come to an end?
Sec.Sec.455, 456.—a. What scandal arose in connection with the Union Pacific Railway?
b. What was the "Whiskey Ring"? What was Grant's wish?
c. What troubles arose in the South? Could they have been avoided?
Sec.Sec.457, 458.—a. Why was there a dispute about the election of 1876? How was it settled?
b. Was it wise to let the Southerners work out their questions for themselves or not? Why?
Sec.Sec.459, 460.—a. Compare the panic of 1873 with that of 1877 explaining the likenesses and differences.
b. Why was opposition to the nomination of Grant so strong?
c. Who were nominated? Who was elected?
Sec.Sec.461.—a. What was the cause of Garfield's murder?
b. Why is Civil Service Reform so difficult?
c. What is meant by the "Merit System"? Do you consider such a system better or worse than the Spoils System? Why?
Sec.Sec.462, 463.—a. Why was Blaine so strongly opposed? Who were the "Mugwumps"? How did their action influence the election?
b. What is the difference between internal revenue taxes and customs duties?
c. What was the real significance of Cleveland's first election?
a. Give all the treaties with Great Britain, with dates, reason for the treaty, and results.
b. Why were there no executions for treason at the close of the Civil War?
c. What two methods does the Constitution provide for its amendment? Which method has always been followed?
d. What were the chief difficulties in the way of reconstruction?
e. What are the important duties of citizens? Why do you select these?
TOPICS FOR SPECIAL WORK
a. Impeachment of Johnson.
b. The Chicago fire.
c. Civil Service Reform.
d. Industrial activity in the South.
The importance of the topics treated in Part XIV can hardly be overestimated. The opportunities to impress the pupils with their public duties are many and important. Reconstruction should be broadly treated and not discussed in a partisan spirit. It is better to dwell on our duties to the negroes than to seek out Northern blunders and Southern mistakes. In connection with the amendments the whole question of the suffrage can be discussed in the responsibility devolving upon the voter fully set forth. Questions of municipal organizations also arise and can be illustrated by local experience.
NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT, 1889-1900
Books for Study and Reading
References.—Scribner's Popular History, V, 579-659; McMaster's School History, chs. xxxiv, xxxv.
Home Readings.—Any short, attractive account of the Spanish War.
CONFUSION IN POLITICS
[Sidenote: Benjamin Harrison elected President, 1888.]
464. Benjamin Harrison elected President, 1888.—In 1888 the Democrats put forward Cleveland as their candidate for President. The Republicans nominated Benjamin Harrison of Indiana. Like Hayes and Garfield, he had won renown in the Civil War and was a man of the highest honor and of proved ability. The prominence of the old Southern leaders in the Democratic administration, and the neglect of the business interests of the North, compelled many Northern Republicans who had voted for Cleveland to return to the Republican party. The result was the election of Harrison and of a Republican majority in the House of Representatives.
[Sidenote: The McKinley tariff, 1890.]
465. The McKinley Tariff, 1890.—One of the questions most discussed in the campaign of 1888 was the reform of the tariff. There seem to have been two sets of tariff reformers. One set of reformers proposed to reform the tariff by doing away with as much of it as possible. The other set of reformers proposed to readjust the tariff duties so as to make the protective system more consistent and more perfect. Led by William McKinley, the Republicans set to work to reform the tariff in this latter sense. This they did by generally raising the duties on protected goods. The McKinley Tariff Act also offered reciprocity to countries which would favor American goods. This offer was in effect to lower certain duties on goods imported from Argentina, for instance, if the Argentine government would admit certain American goods to Argentina on better terms than similar goods imported from other countries.
[Sidenote: Gold and Silver]
[Sidenote: Sherman Silver Law.]
466. The Sherman Silver Law, 1890.—In the Civil War gold and silver had disappeared from circulation. But after the close of the war a gradual return was made to specie payments. In the colonial days the demand for silver, as compared with the demand for gold, outran the supply. The consequence was that silver was constantly becoming worth more in comparison with gold. In the nineteenth century the supply of silver has greatly outstripped the demand, with the result that silver has greatly declined in value as compared with gold. In 1871 the government decided to use silver for small coins only, and not to allow silver to be offered in payment of a larger sum than five dollars. This was called the "demonetization of silver." In 1878 a small but earnest band of advocates of the free coinage of silver secured the passage of an act of Congress for the coinage of two million silver dollars each month. The silver in each one of these dollars was only worth in gold from ninety to sixty cents. In 1890, Senator John Sherman of Ohio brought in a bill to increase the coinage of these silver dollars which, in 1894, were worth only forty nine cents on the dollar in gold.
[Sidenote: Business depression.]
[Sidenote: Cleveland elected President, 1892.]
467. Election of 1892.—One result of this great increase in the silver coinage was to alarm business men throughout the country. Business constantly declined. Every one who could lessened his expenses as much as possible. Mill owners and railroad managers discharged their workers or reduced their wages. Harrison and Cleveland were again the Republican and Democratic candidates for the presidency. As is always the case, the party in power was held to be responsible for the hard times. Enough voters turned to Cleveland to elect him, and he was inaugurated President for the second time (March 4, 1893).
[Sidenote: Scarcity of money.]
[Sidenote: Repeal of the Sherman Law.]
[Sidenote: Wilson tariff.]
468. Silver and the Tariff.—In the summer of 1893 there was a great scarcity of money. Thousands of people withdrew all the money they could from the banks and locked it up in places of security. But Congress repealed the Sherman Silver Law and put an end to the compulsory purchase of silver and the coinage of silver dollars. This tended to restore confidence. The Democrats once more overhauled the tariff. Under the lead of Representative Wilson of West Virginia they passed a tariff act, lowering some duties and placing many articles on the free list.
[Sidenote: Chicago Exhibition, 1893.]
469. The Chicago Exhibition, 1893.—The four hundredth anniversary of the Columbian discovery of America occurred in October, 1892. Preparations were made for holding a great commemorative exhibition at Chicago. But it took so long to get everything ready that the exhibition was not held until the summer of 1893. Beautiful buildings were erected of a cheap but satisfactory material. They were designed with the greatest taste, and were filled with splendid exhibits that showed the skill and resources of Americans, and also with the products of foreign countries. Hundreds of thousands of persons from all parts of the country visited the exhibition with pleasure and great profit. No more beautiful or successful exhibition has ever been held.
[Sidenote: William McKinley.]
[Sidenote: W.J. Bryan.]
[Sidenote: McKinley elected President, 1896.]
470. Election of 1896.—In 1896 the Republicans held their convention at St. Louis and nominated William McKinley of Ohio for President. They declared in favor of the gold standard, unless some arrangement with other nations for a standard of gold and silver could be made. They also declared for protection to home industries. The Democrats held their convention at Chicago. The men who had stood by Cleveland found themselves in a helpless minority. William Jennings Bryan of Nebraska was nominated for President on a platform advocating the free coinage of silver and many changes in the laws in the direction of socialism. The Populists and the Silver Republicans also adopted Bryan as their candidate. Now, at last, the question of the gold standard or the silver standard was fairly before the voters. They responded by electing McKinley and a Republican House of Representatives.
[Sidenote: The Dingley tariff, 1897.]
471. The Dingley Tariff, 1897.—The Republicans, once more in control of the government, set to work to reform the tariff in favor of high protection. Representative Dingley of Maine was chairman of the committee of the House that drew up the new bill, and the act as finally passed goes by his name. It raised the duties on some classes of goods and taxed many things that hitherto had come in free. Especially were duties increased on certain raw materials for manufactures, with a view to encourage the production of such materials in the United States. The reciprocity features of the McKinley tariff (P. 383) were also restored.
THE SPANISH WAR, 1898
[Sidenote: The Cubans rebel, 1894.]
[Sidenote: Spanish cruelties, Source-book, 374-379.]
472. The Cuban Rebellion, 1894-98.—The Cubans laid down their arms in 1877 (p. 372) because they relied on the promises of better government made by the Spaniards. But these promises were never carried out. Year after year the Cuban people bore with their oppression. But at last their patience was worn out. In 1894 they again rebelled. The Spaniards sent over an army to subdue them. Soon tales of cruelty on the part of the Spaniards reached the United States. Finally the Spanish governor, General Weyler, adopted the cruel measure of driving the old men, the women, and the children from the country villages and huddling them together in the seaboard towns. Without money, without food, with scant shelter, these poor people endured every hardship. They died by thousands. The American people sent relief, but little could be done to help them. The Cubans also fitted out expeditions in American ports to carry arms and supplies to the rebels. The government did everything in its power to stop these expeditions, but the coast line of the United States is so long that it was impossible to stop them all, especially as large numbers of the American people heartily sympathized with the Cubans. Constant disputes with Spain over the Cuban question naturally came up and gave rise to irritation in the United States and in Spain.
[Sidenote: Destruction of the Maine, 1898.]
[Sidenote: Cuban independence recognized.]
473. The Declaration of War, 1898.—On January 5, 1898, the American battleship Maine anchored in Havana harbor. On February 15 she was destroyed by an explosion and sank with two hundred and fifty-three of her crew. A most competent Court of Inquiry was appointed. It reported that the Maine had been blown up from the outside. The report of the Court of Inquiry was communicated to the Spanish government in the hope that some kind of apology and reparation might be made. But all the Spanish government did was to propose that the matter should be referred to arbitration. The condition of the Cubans was now dreadful. Several Senators and Representatives visited Cuba. They reported that the condition of the Cubans was shocking. The President laid the whole matter before Congress for its determination. On April 19, 1898, Congress recognized the independence of the Cuban people and demanded the withdrawal of the Spaniards from the island. Congress also authorized the President to compel Spain's withdrawal and stated that the United States did not intend to annex Cuba, but to leave the government of the island to its inhabitants. Before these terms could be formally laid before the Spanish government, it ordered the American minister to leave Spain.
[Sidenote: Battle of Manila Bay, May 1, 1898.]
474. The Destruction of the Spanish Pacific Fleet.—Admiral Dewey, commanding the American squadron on the Asiatic station, had concentrated all his vessels at Hong Kong, in the belief that war was at hand. Of course he could not stay at Hong Kong after the declaration of war. The only thing that he could do was to destroy the Spanish fleet and use Spanish ports as a naval base. The Spanish fleet was in Manila Bay. Thither sailed Dewey. In the darkness of the early morning of May 1, Dewey passed the Spanish forts at the entrance of the bay. The fleet was at anchor near the naval arsenal, a few miles from the city of Manila. As soon as it was light Dewey opened fire on the Spaniards. Soon one Spanish ship caught fire, then another, and another. Dewey drew off out of range for a time while his men rested and ate their breakfasts. He then steamed in again and completed the destruction of the enemy's fleet. Not an American ship was seriously injured. Not one American sailor was killed. This victory gave the Americans the control of the Pacific Ocean and the Asiatic waters, as far as Spain was concerned. It relieved the Pacific seacoast of the United States of all fear of attack. It made it possible to send soldiers and supplies to Manila, without fear of attack while on the way. And it was necessary to send soldiers because Dewey, while he was supreme on the water and could easily compel the surrender of Manila, could not properly police the town after its capture.
[Sidenote: Defense of the Atlantic seaboard.]
[Sidenote: Blockade of Cuba.]
475. The Atlantic Seacoast and the Blockade.—No sooner did war seem probable than the people on the Atlantic seacoast were seized with an unreasoning fear of the Spanish fleets. For the Spaniards had a few new fast ships. The mouths of the principal harbors were blocked with mines and torpedoes. The government bought merchant vessels of all kinds and established a patrol along the coast. It also blockaded the more important Cuban seaports. But the Cuban coast was so long that it was impossible to blockade it all. As it was, great suffering was inflicted on the principal Spanish armies in Cuba.
[Sidenote: The Spanish-Atlantic fleet.]
[Sidenote: The American fleet.]
476. The Atlantic Fleets.—Before long a Spanish fleet of four new, fast armored cruisers and three large sea-going torpedo-boat destroyers appeared in the West Indies. The Spanish admiral did not seem to know exactly where to go. But after sailing around the Caribbean Sea for a time, he anchored in Santiago harbor—on the southern coast of Cuba. In the American navy there were only two fast armored cruisers, the New York and the Brooklyn. These with five battleships—the Oregon, Iowa, Indiana, Massachusetts, and Texas—and a number of smaller vessels were placed under the command of Admiral Sampson and sent to Santiago. Another fleet of sea-going monitors and unarmored cruisers maintained the Cuban blockade.
[Sidenote: The Oregon's voyage.]
477. The Oregon's Great Voyage.—When the Maine was destroyed, the Oregon was at Puget Sound on the northwest coast. She was at once ordered to sail to the Atlantic coast at her utmost speed. Steadily the great battleship sped southward along the Pacific coast of North America, Central America, and South America. She passed through Magellan Straits and made her way up the eastern coast of South America. As she approached the West Indies, it was feared that she might meet the whole Spanish fleet. But she never sighted them. She reached Florida in splendid condition and at once joined Sampson's squadron.
[Sidenote: Sinking of the Merrimac]
478. The Blockade of the Spanish Fleet.—Santiago harbor seemed to have been designed as a place of refuge for a hard-pressed fleet. Its narrow winding entrance was guarded by huge mountains strongly fortified. The channel between these mountains was filled with mines and torpedoes. The American fleet could not go in. The Spanish fleet must not be allowed to come out unseen. Lieutenant Hobson was ordered to take the collier Merrimac into the narrow entrance and sink her across the channel at the narrowest part. He made the most careful preparations. But the Merrimac was disabled and drifted by the narrowest part of the channel before she sank. The Spanish admiral was so impressed by the heroism of this attempt that he sent a boat off to the American squadron to assure them that Hobson and his six brave companions were safe.
[Sidenote: Destruction of the Spanish Fleet.]
[Sidenote: Lessons of the victory.]
479. Destruction of the Spanish Fleet.—As the American vessels could not enter Santiago harbor to sink the Spanish ships at their anchors, it became necessary to send an army to Santiago. But the Spaniards did not wait for the soldiers to capture the city. On Sunday morning, July 3, the Spanish fleet suddenly appeared steaming out of the harbor. The Massachusetts was away at the time, getting a supply of coal, and the New York was steaming away to take Admiral Sampson to a conference with General Shafter. But there were enough vessels left. On came the Spaniards. The American ships rushed toward them. The Spaniards turned westward and tried to escape along the coast. Soon one of them was set on fire by the American shells. She was run on shore to prevent her sinking. Then another followed her, and then a third. The torpedo-boat destroyers were sunk off the entrance to the harbor. But one ship now remained afloat. Speedily, she, too, was overtaken and surrendered. In a few hours the whole Spanish fleet was destroyed; hundreds of Spanish seamen were killed, wounded, or drowned, and sixteen hundred Spanish sailors captured. The American loss was one man killed and two wounded. The American ships were practically ready to destroy another Spanish fleet had one been within reach. At Manila Bay and off Santiago the American fleets were superior to the enemy's fleets. But the astounding results of their actions were due mainly to the splendid manner in which the American ships had been cared for and, above all, to the magnificent training and courage of the men behind the guns. Years of peace had not in any way dimmed the splendid qualities of the American sea-fighters.
[Sidenote: Military preparations.]
[Sidenote: The volunteers.]
480. The American Army.—Meantime the American soldiers on shore at Santiago were doing their work under great discouragement, but with a valor and stubbornness that will always compel admiration. While the navy was silently and efficiently increased to be a well-ordered force, the army was not so well managed at first. Soldiers there were in plenty. From all parts of the Union, from the South and from the North, from the West and from the East, from the cattle ranches of the plains and the classrooms of the great universities, patriots offered their lives at their country's call. But there was great lack of order in the management of the army. Sickness broke out among the soldiers. Volunteer regiments were supplied with old-fashioned rifles. It seemed to be difficult to move one regiment from one place to another without dire confusion. When the Spanish fleet was shut up in Santiago harbor, a force of fifteen thousand soldiers under General Shafter was sent to capture Santiago itself and make the harbor unsafe for the ships.
[Sidenote: The landing.]
[Sidenote: La Guasimas. Source-Book, 380-382.]
[Sidenote: San Juan and Caney.]
[Sidenote: Fall of Santiago.]
481. The Santiago Expedition.—On June 22 and 23 the expedition landed not far to the east of the entrance to Santiago harbor. Steep and high mountains guard this part of the coast. But no attempt was made to prevent the landing of the Americans. Dismounted cavalrymen of the regular army and Roosevelt's Rough Riders, also on foot, at once pushed on toward Santiago. At La Guasimas the Spaniards tried to stop them. But the regulars and the Rough Riders drove them away, and the army pushed on. By June 28 it had reached a point within a few miles of the city. The Spaniards occupied two very strong positions at San Juan (San Huan) and Caney. On July 1 they were driven from them. The regulars and the volunteers showed the greatest courage and heroism. They crossed long open spaces in the face of a terrible fire from the Spaniards, who were armed with modern rifles. The rains now set in, and the sufferings of the troops became terrible. On July 3 the Spanish fleet sailed out of the harbor to meet its doom from the guns of the American warships. Reinforcements were sent to Shafter, and heavy guns were dragged over the mountain roads and placed in positions commanding the enemy's lines. The Spaniards surrendered, and on July 17 the Americans entered the captured city.
[Sidenote: The Porto Rico expedition.]
482. The Porto Rico Campaign.—The only other important colony still remaining to Spain in America was Porto Rico. General Nelson A. Miles led a strong force to its conquest. Instead of landing on the northern coast near San Juan, the only strongly fortified position on the seacoast, General Miles landed his men on the southern coast near Ponce (Pon-tha). The inhabitants received the Americans with the heartiest welcome. This was on August 1. The American army then set out to cross the island. But before they had gone very far news came of the ending of the hostilities.
[Sidenote: Fall of Manila.]
483. Fall of Manila.—When the news of Dewey's victory (p. 390) reached the United States, soldiers were sent to his aid. But this took time, for it was a very long way from San Francisco to the Philippines and vessels suitable for transports were not easily procured on the Pacific coast. General Wesley Merritt was given command of the land forces. Meantime, for months Dewey with his fleet blockaded Manila from the water side, while Philippine insurgents blockaded it from the land side. Foreign vessels, especially the German vessels, jealously watched the operations of the American fleet and severely taxed Dewey's patience. On August 17 Merritt felt strong enough to attack the city. It was at once surrendered to him.
[Sidenote: Treaty of Peace, 1898.]
484. End of the War.—The destruction of the Spanish Atlantic fleet and the fall of Santiago convinced the Spaniards that further resistance was useless. So it was agreed that the fighting should be stopped. This was in July, 1898. But the actual treaty of peace was not made until the following December. The conditions were that Spain should abandon Cuba, should cede to the United States Porto Rico, the Philippines, and some smaller islands, and should receive from the United States twenty million dollars. For many years American missionaries, merchants, and planters had been interested in the Hawaiian Islands. The war showed the importance of these islands to the United States as a military and naval station, and they were annexed.
485. Prosperity.—The years 1898-1900 have been a period of unbounded prosperity for the American people. Foreign trade has increased enormously, and the manufactures of the United States are finding a ready market in other countries. A rebellion has been going on in the Philippines, but it seems to be slowly dying out (February, 1900).
QUESTIONS AND TOPICS
Sec.Sec. 464, 465.—a. Why was Harrison chosen President?
b. What is "tariff reform"? What is "reciprocity"? Do you consider such a method wise or not? Why?
Sec.Sec. 466, 467.—a. Why was silver demonetized? What is meant by the word "demonetization"?
b. What was the Sherman Silver Law? What effect did it have upon business?
c. Was there any reason for the fear on the part of business men?
d. Why was Harrison defeated in 1892?
Sec.Sec. 468, 469.—a. Why did money become scarce in the summer of 1893?
b. How did the repeal of the Sherman Law affect confidence in the future of business?
c. Describe the Chicago Exhibition. What is the advantage of such an exhibition?
Sec.Sec. 470, 471.—a. Who were the leading candidates for the presidency in 1896? What principles did they stand for?
b. Explain the provisions of the Dingley Tariff.
c. Ask some business man what he thinks of the wisdom of changing the tariff very often.
Sec.Sec. 472, 473.—a. What promises had the Spaniards made to the Cubans and how had they kept them?
b. What do you think of Weyler's policy?
c. Could the Spanish war have been avoided?
Sec. 474.—a. Why could not Admiral Dewey remain at Hong Kong?
b. Describe the battle of Manila Bay. What were the results of this action?
Sec.Sec. 475-477.—a. Why were the American people on the Atlantic seacoast alarmed? Were the harbors well defended?
b. Compare the American and the Spanish Atlantic fleets. Why was the voyage of the Oregon important?
Sec.Sec. 478, 479.—a. Describe the harbor of Santiago. What advantages did it possess for the Spaniards?
b. How did Hobson try to prevent the escape of the Spanish fleet?
c. Describe the encounter between the two fleets.
d. To what was this great success due?
Sec.Sec. 480-482.—a. From what parts of the country did the volunteers come?
b. Why was there so much confusion in the army?
c. Describe the Santiago campaign and the suffering of the soldiers.
d. Describe the Porto Rico expedition. Why did General Miles land on the southern coast?
Sec.Sec. 483-485.—a. Why were the soldiers needed after Dewey's victory?
b. Give the conditions of peace. Exactly what was the condition as to Cuba?
c. Why are the Hawaiian Islands important to the United States?
a. What are the advantages and disadvantages of a tariff?
b. What important matters have been definitely settled during the past one hundred years?
c. What are some of the problems now before the American people?
d. Should the United States be a "world power"?
TOPICS FOR SPECIAL WORK
a. Present condition of any part of the United States or dependent territories.
b. Any campaign or battle of the Spanish War.
c. Present political parties and their principles.
SUGGESTIONS TO THE TEACHER
Interesting constitutional questions will inevitably arise in teaching this section, but the events are too recent to admit of dogmatizing on lines of policy. The Spanish War and the Philippine trouble are too near to be properly judged, and the facts only should be taught. The duties and responsibilities resting upon the United States through its closer connection with all parts of the world can, however, be emphasized without the display of partisan spirit. Furthermore, the causes of present prosperity and the industrial advantages of the United States may well demand attention. Throughout every part of this section, also, the importance of good citizenship, in the broadest sense of the word, should receive special emphasis.
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
WE THE PEOPLE of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this CONSTITUTION for the United States of America.
SECTION. 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
SECTION. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.
No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.
Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.
When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.
The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.
SECTION. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.
Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.
No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.
The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.
The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.
The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.
Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.
SECTION. 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators.
The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.
SECTION. 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.
Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a member.
Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.
Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.
SECTION. 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.
No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.
SECTION. 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.
Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections, to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.
Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.
SECTION. 8. The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;
To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;
To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;
To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;
To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;
To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;
To establish Post Offices and post Roads;
To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;
To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;
To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;
To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;
To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;
To provide and maintain a Navy;
To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;
To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;
To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;
To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;—And To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.
SECTION. 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.
The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.
No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.
No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.
No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.
No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.
No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.
No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.
SECTION. 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.
No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.
No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.
SECTION, 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.
The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.
The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.
No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.
In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.
The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.
Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:—
"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."
SECTION. 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.
He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.
The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.
SECTION. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.
SECTION. 4. The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.