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A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels, Volume 14
by Robert Kerr
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At nine in the morning on the 23d, the sky began to clear up, and the gale to abate, so that we could carry close-reefed top-sails. At eleven o'clock we were close in with Cape Turnagain, when we tacked and stood off; at noon the said Cape bore west a little northerly, distant six or seven miles. Latitude observed 41 deg. 30' south. Soon after, the wind falling almost to a calm, and flattering ourselves that it would be succeeded by one more favourable, we got up another top-gallant-mast, rigged top-gallant-yards, and loosed all the reefs out of the top-sails. The event was not equal to our wishes. The wind, indeed, came something more favourable, that is at W. by N., with which we stretched along shore to the southward; but it soon increased in such a manner, as to undo what we had but just done, and at last stripped us to our courses, and two close-reefed top-sails under which sails we continued all night. About day-light, the next morning, the gale abating, we were again tempted to loose out the reefs, and rig top-gallant- yards, which proved all lost labour; for, by nine o'clock, we were reduced to the same sail as before.[1] Soon after, the Adventure joined us; and at noon Cape Palliser bore west, distant eight or nine leagues. This Cape is the northern point of Eaheinomauwe. We continued to stretch to the southward till midnight, when the wind abated and shifted to S.E. Three hours after, it fell calm, during which we loosed the reefs out, with the vain hopes that the next wind which came would be favourable. We were mistaken; the wind only took this short repose, in order to gain strength, and fall the heavier upon us. For at five o'clock in the morning, being the 25th, a gale sprung up at N.W. with which we stretched to S.W.; Cape Palliser at this time bore N.N.W., distant eight or nine leagues. The wind increased in such a manner, as obliged us to take in one reef after another; and, at last, it came on with such fury, as made it necessary to take in all our sails with the utmost expedition, and to lie-to under bare poles. The sea rose in proportion with the wind; so that we had a terrible gale and a mountainous sea to encounter. Thus after beating up against a hard gale for two days, and arriving just in sight of our port, we had the mortification to be driven off from the land by a furious storm. Two favourable circumstances attended it, which gave us some consolation; it was fair over head, and we were not apprehensive of a lee-shore.

The storm continued all the day without the least intermission. In the evening we bore down to look for the Adventure, she being out of sight to leeward, and after running the distance we supposed her to be off, brought to again without seeing her; it being so very hazy and thick in the horizon, that we could not see a mile round us, occasioned by the spray of the sea being lifted up to a great height by the force of the wind. At midnight the gale abated; soon after fell little wind; and at last shifted to S.W., when we wore, set the courses and top-sails close-reefed, and stood in for the land. Soon after the wind freshened and fixed at south; but as the Adventure was some distance a-stern, we lay by for her till eight o'clock, when we both made all sail, and steered N. by W. 1/2 W. for the Strait. At noon observed in 42 deg. 27' south, Cape Palliser, by judgment, bore north, distant seventeen leagues. This favourable wind was not of sufficient duration; in the afternoon it fell by little and little, and at length to a calm; this at ten o'clock was succeeded by a fresh breeze from the north, with which we stretched to the westward.

At three o'clock next morning, we were pretty well in with Cape Campbell on the west side of the Strait, when we tacked, and stretched over for Cape Palliser, under courses and close-reefed top-sails, having the wind at N.W., a very strong gale and fair weather. At noon, we tacked and stretched to S.W., with the last-mentioned Cape bearing west, distant four or five leagues. In the afternoon, the gale increased in such a manner as brought us under our courses. We continued to stretch to the S.W. till midnight, when we wore, and set close-reefed top-sails.

On the 28th, at eight o'clock in the morning, we wore, and stood again to the S.W. till noon, when we were obliged to lie-to under the fore-sail. At this time the high land over Cape Campbell bore west, distant ten or twelve leagues. The Adventure four or five miles to leeward. In the afternoon the fury of the gale began to abate; when we set the main-sail, close-reefed main-top-sail, and stood to the windward with the wind at W.N.W. and W. by N. a strong gale, attended with heavy squalls.

In the morning of the 29th, the wind abated and shifted to S.W. a gentle gale. Of this we took immediate advantage, set all our sails, and stood for Cape Palliser, which at noon bore W. by N. 1/2 N., distant about six leagues. The wind continued between the S.W. and south till five in the evening, when it fell calm. At this time we were about three leagues from the Cape. At seven o'clock the calm was succeeded by a gentle breeze from N.N.E., as fair as we could wish; so that we began to reckon what time we should reach the Sound the next day; but at nine the wind shifted to its old quarter N.W., and blew a fresh gale, with which we stretched to the S.W., under single-reefed topsails and courses, with the Adventure in company. She was seen until midnight, at which time she was two or three miles a-stern, and presently after she disappeared; nor was she to be seen at day-light. We supposed she had tacked and stood to the N.E., by which manoeuvre we lost sight of her.

We continued to stretch to the westward with the wind at N.N.W., which increased in such a manner as to bring us under our two courses, after splitting a new main-topsail. At noon Cape Campbell bore W. by N., distant seven or eight leagues. At three in the afternoon the gale began to abate, and to veer more to the north, so that we fetched in with the land, under the Snowy Mountains, about four or five leagues to windward of the Lookers- on, where there was the appearance of a large bay, I now regretted the loss of the Adventure; for had she been with me, I should have given up all thoughts of going to Queen Charlotte's Sound to wood and water, and have sought for a place to get these articles farther south, as the wind was now favourable for ranging along the coast. But our separation made it necessary for me to repair to the Sound, that being the place of rendezvous.

As we approached the land, we saw smoke in several places along the shore; a sure sign that the coast was inhabited. Our soundings were from forty- seven to twenty-five fathoms; that is, at the distance of three miles from the shore, forty-seven fathoms; and twenty-five fathoms at the distance of one mile, where we tacked, and stood to the eastward, under the two courses and close-reefed top-sails; but the latter we could not carry long before we were obliged to hand them. We continued to stand to the eastward all night, in hopes of meeting with the Adventure in the morning.

Seeing nothing of her then, we wore and brought to, under the fore-sail and mizen-stay-sail, the wind having increased to a perfect storm; but we had not been long in this situation before it abated, so as to permit us to carry the two courses, under which we stood to the west; and at noon the Snowy Mountains bore W.N.W., distant twelve or fourteen leagues. At six o'clock in the evening the wind quite ceased; but this proved only a momentary repose; for presently after it began to blow with redoubled fury, and obliged us to lie-to under the mizen-stay-sail; in which situation we continued till midnight, when the storm lessened; and two hours after it fell calm.

On the 1st of November, at four o'clock in the morning, the calm was succeeded by a breeze from the south. This soon after increased to a fresh gale, attended with hazy, rainy weather, which gave us hopes that the N.W. winds were done; for it must be observed, that they were attended with clear and fair weather. We were not wanting in taking immediate advantage of this favourable wind, by setting all our sails, and steering for Cape Campbell, which at noon bore north, distant three or four leagues. At two o'clock we passed the Cape, and entered the Strait with a brisk gale a- stern, and so likely to continue that we thought of nothing less than reaching our port the next morning. Once more we were to be deceived; at six o'clock, being off Cloudy Bay, our favourable wind was succeeded by one from the north, which soon after veered to N.W., and increased to a fresh gale. We spent the night plying; our tacks proved disadvantageous; and we lost more on the ebb than we gained on the flood. Next morning, we stretched over for the shore of Eaheinomauwe. At sun-rise the horizon being extraordinarily clear to leeward, we looked well out for the Adventure; but as we saw nothing of her, judged she had got into the Sound. As we approached the above-mentioned shore, we discovered on the east side of Cape Teerawhitte, a new inlet I had never observed before. Being tired with beating against the N.W. winds, I resolved to put into this place if I found it practicable, or to anchor in the bay which lies before it. The flood being favourable, after making a stretch off, we fetched under the Cape, and stretched into the bay along the western shore, having from thirty-five to twelve fathoms, the bottom everywhere good anchorage. At one o'clock we reached the entrance of the inlet just as the tide of ebb was making out; the wind being likewise against us, we anchored in twelve fathoms water, the bottom a fine sand. The easternmost of the Black Rocks, which lie on the larboard side of the entrance of the inlet, bore N. by E., one mile distant; Cape Teerawhitte, or the west point of the bay, west, distant about two leagues; and the east point of the bay N. by east, four or five miles.

Soon after we had anchored, several of the natives came off in their canoes; two from one shore, and one from the other. It required but little address to get three or four of them on board. These people were extravagantly fond of nails above every other thing. To one man I gave two cocks and two hens, which he received with so much indifference, as gave me little hopes he would take proper care of them.[2]

We had not been at anchor here above two hours, before the wind veered to N.E., with which we weighed; but the anchor was hardly at the bows before it shifted to the south. With this we could but just lead out of the bay, and then bore away for the Sound under all the sail we could set; having the advantage, or rather disadvantage, of an increasing gale, which already blew too hard. We hauled up into the Sound just at dark, after making two boards, in which most of our sails were split; and anchored in eighteen fathoms water, between the White Rocks and the N.W. shore.

The next morning the gale abated, and was succeeded by a few hours calm; after that a breeze sprang up at N.W., with which we weighed and ran up into Ship Cove, where we did not find the Adventure, as was expected.

[1] "The water in Dr Lind's wind-gage was depressed 8-10ths of an inch at times."—W.

"Though we were situated under the lee of a high and mountainous coast, yet the waves rose to a vast height, ran prodigiously long, and were dispersed into vapour as they broke by the violence of the storm. The whole surface of the sea was by this means rendered hazy, and as the sun shone out in a cloudless sky, the white foam was perfectly dazzling. The fury of the wind still increased so as to tear to pieces the only sail which we had hitherto dared to shew, and we rolled about at the mercy of the waves, frequently shipping great quantities of water, which fell with prodigious force on the decks, and broke all that stood in the way. The continual strain slackened all the rigging and ropes in the ship, and loosened every thing, insomuch that it gradually gave way, and presented to our eyes a general scene of confusion. In one of the deepest rolls the arm-chest on the quarter- deck was torn out of its place and overset, leaning against the rails to leeward. A young gentleman, Mr Hood, who happened to be just then to leeward of it, providentially escaped by bending down when he saw the chest falling, so as to remain unhurt in the angle which it formed with the rail. The confusion of the elements did not scare every bird away from us: From time to time a black shearwater hovered over the ruffled surface of the sea, and artfully withstood the force of the tempest, by keeping under the lee of the high tops of the waves. The aspect of the ocean was at once magnificent and terrific: Now on the summit of a broad and heavy billow, we overlooked an immeasurable expanse of sea, furrowed into numberless deep channels: Now, on a sudden, the wave broke under us, and we plunged into a deep and dreary valley, whilst a fresh mountain rose to windward with a foaming crest, and threatened to overwhelm us. The night coming on was not without new horrors, especially for those who had not been bred up to a seafaring life. In the captain's cabin, the windows were taken out and replaced by the dead-lights, to guard against the intrusion of the waves in wearing the ship. This operation disturbed from its retreat a scorpion, which had lain concealed in a chink, and was probably brought on board with fruit from the islands. Our friend Maheine assured us that it was harmless, but its appearance alone was horrid enough to fill the mind with apprehensions. In the other cabins the beds were perfectly soaked in water, whilst the tremendous roar of the waves, the creaking of the timbers, and the rolling motion, deprived us of all hopes of repose. To complete this catalogue of horrors, we heard the voices of sailors from time to time louder than the blustering winds, or the raging ocean itself, uttering horrible vollies of curses and oaths."—G.F.

[2] "In their unthinking situation, the first moment they have nothing ready at hand to satisfy the cravings of appetite, our fowls must fall the victims to their voracity. If there are any hopes of succeeding in the introduction of domestic animals in this country, it must be in the populous bays to the northward, where the inhabitants seem to be the more civilized, and are already accustomed to cultivate several roots for their subsistance."—G.F.



SECTION V.

Transactions at Queen Charlotte's Sound; with an Account of the Inhabitants being Cannibals; and various other Incidents.—Departure from the Sound, and our Endeavours to find the Adventure; with some Description of the Coast.

The first thing we did after mooring the ship, was to unbend all the sails; there not being one but what wanted repair. Indeed, both our sails and rigging had sustained much damage in beating off the Strait's mouth.

We had no sooner anchored than we were visited by the natives, several of whom I remembered to have seen when I was here in the Endeavour, particularly an old man named Goubiah.[1] In the afternoon, I gave orders for all the empty water casks to be landed, in order to be repaired, cleaned, and filled, tents to be set up for the sail-makers, coopers, and others, whose business made it necessary for them to be on shore. The next day we began to caulk the ship's sides and decks, to overhaul her rigging, repair the sails, cut wood for fuel, and set up the smith's forge to repair the iron-work; all of which were absolutely necessary. We also made some hauls with the seine, but caught no fish; which deficiency the natives in some measure, made up, by bringing us a good quantity, and exchanging them for pieces of Otaheitean cloth, &c.

On the 5th, the most part of our bread being in casks, I ordered some to be opened, when, to our mortification, we found a good deal of it damaged. To repair this loss in the best manner we could, all the casks were opened; the bread was picked, and the copper oven set up, to bake such parcels of it, as, by that means, could be recovered. Some time this morning, the natives stole, out of one of the tents, a bag of clothes belonging to one of the seamen. As soon as I was informed of it, I went to them in an adjoining cove, demanded the clothes again, and, after some time spent in friendly application, recovered them. Since we were among thieves, and had come off so well, I was not sorry for what had happened, as it taught our people to keep a better lookout for the future.

With these people I saw the youngest of the two sows Captain Furneaux had put on shore in Cannibal Cove, when we were last here: It was lame of one of its hind legs; otherwise in good case, and very tame. If we understood these people right, the boar and other sow were also taken away and separated, but not killed. We were likewise told, that the two goats I had put on shore up the Sound, had been killed by that old rascal Goubiah. Thus all our endeavours to stock this country with useful animals were likely to be frustrated, by the very people we meant to serve. Our gardens had fared somewhat better. Every thing in them, except the potatoes, they had left entirely to nature, who had acted her part so well, that we found most articles in a flourishing state: A proof that the winter must have been mild. The potatoes had most of them been dug up; some, however, still remained, and were growing, though I think it is probable they will never be got out of the ground.[2]

Next morning I sent over to the cove, where the natives reside, to haul the seine; and took with me a boar, and a young sow, two cocks, and two hens, we had brought from the isles. These I gave to the natives, being persuaded they would take proper care of them, by their keeping Captain Furneaux's sow near five months; for I am to suppose it was caught soon after we sailed. We had no better success with the seine than before; nevertheless we did not return on board quite empty, having purchased a large quantity from the natives. When we were upon this traffic, they shewed a great inclination to pick my pockets, and to take away the fish with one hand, which they had just given me with the other. This evil one of the chiefs undertook to remove, and with fury in his eyes made a shew of keeping the people at a proper distance. I applauded his conduct, but at the same time kept so good a look-out, as to detect him in picking my pocket of an handkerchief; which I suffered him to put in his bosom before I seemed to know any thing of the matter, and then told him what I had lost. He seemed quite ignorant and innocent, till I took it from him; and then he put it off with a laugh, acting his part with so much address, that it was hardly possible for me to be angry with him; so that we remained good friends, and he accompanied me on board to dinner. About that time, we were visited by several strangers, in four or five canoes, who brought with them fish, and other articles, which they exchanged for cloth, &c. These newcomers took up their quarters in a cove near us; but very early the next morning moved off with six of our small water casks; and with them all the people we found here on our arrival. This precipitate retreat of these last, we supposed was owing to the theft the others had committed. They left behind them some of their dogs, and the boar I had given them the day before, which I now took back again as I had not another. Our casks were the least loss we felt by these people leaving us: While they remained, we were generally well supplied with fish at a small expence.

We had fair weather, with the wind at N.E., on the 9th, which gave us some hopes of seeing the Adventure; but these hopes vanished in the afternoon, when the wind shifted to the westward.[3]

The next morning, our friends the natives returned again, and brought with them a quantity of fish, which they exchanged for two hatchets.

Fair weather on the 12th, enabled us to finish picking, airing, and baking our biscuit; four thousand two hundred and ninety-two pounds of which we found totally unfit to eat; and about three thousand pounds more could only be eaten by people in our situation.[4]

On the 13th, clear and pleasant weather. Early in the morning the natives brought us a quantity of fish, which they exchanged as usual. But their greatest branch of trade was the green talc or stone, called by them Poenammoo, a thing of no great value; nevertheless it was so much sought after by our people, that there was hardly a thing they would not give for a piece of it.[5]

The 15th being a pleasant morning, a party of us went over to the East Bay, and climbed one of the hills which overlooked the eastern part of the Strait, in order to look for the Adventure. We had a fatiguing walk to little purpose; for when we came to the summit, we found the eastern horizon so foggy, that we could not see above two miles. Mr Forster, who was one of the party, profited by this excursion, in collecting some new plants. I now began to despair of seeing the Adventure any more; but was totally at a loss to conceive what was become of her. Till now, I thought she had put into some port in the Strait, when the wind came to N.W., the day we anchored in the Cove, and waited to complete her water. This conjecture was reasonable enough at first, but it was now hardly probable she could be twelve days in our neighbourhood, without our either hearing or seeing something of her.

The hill we now mounted is the same that I was upon in 1770, when I had the second view of the Strait: We then built a tower, with the stones we found there, which we now saw had been levelled to the ground; no doubt by the natives, with a view of finding something hid in it. When we returned from the hill, we found a number of them collected round our boat. After some exchanges, and making them some presents, we embarked, in order to return on board; and, in our way, visited others of the inhabitants, by whom we were kindly received.

Our friends, the natives, employed themselves on the 17th in fishing in our neighbourhood; and, as fast as they caught the fish, came and disposed of them to us; insomuch that we had more than we could make use of. From this day to the 22d nothing remarkable happened, and we were occupied in getting every thing in readiness to put to sea, being resolved to wait no longer than the assigned time for the Adventure.

The winds were between the south and west, stormy with rain till the 23d, when the weather became settled, clear, and pleasant. Very early in the morning, we were visited by a number of the natives, in four or five canoes, very few of whom we had seen before. They brought with them various articles (curiosities), which they exchanged for Otaheitean cloth, &c. At first, the exchanges were very much in our favour, till an old man, who was no stranger to us, came and assisted his countrymen with his advice; which, in a moment, turned the trade above a thousand per cent, against us.[6]

After these people were gone, I took four hogs (that is, three sows and one boar), two cocks and two hens, which I landed in the bottom of the West Bay; carrying them a little way into the woods, where we left them with as much food as would serve them ten or twelve days. This was done with a view of keeping them in the woods, lest they should come down to the shore in search of food, and be discovered by the natives; which, however, seemed not probable, as this place had never been frequented by them; nor were any traces of them to be seen near it. We also left some cocks and hens in the woods in Ship Cove; but these will have a chance of falling into the hands of the natives, whose wandering way of life will hinder them from breeding, even suppose they should be taken proper care of. Indeed, they took rather too much care of those which I had already given them, by keeping them continually confined, for fear of losing them in the woods. The sow pig we had not seen since the day they had her from me; but we were now told she was still living, as also the old boar and sow given them by Captain Furneaux; so that there is reason to hope they may succeed. It will be unfortunate, indeed, if every method I have taken, to provide this country with useful animals, should be frustrated. We were likewise told, that the two goats were still alive, and running about; but I gave more credit to the first story than this. I should have replaced them, by leaving behind the only two I had left, but had the misfortune to lose the ram soon after our arrival here, in a manner we could hardly account for. They were both put ashore at the tents, where they seemed to thrive very well; at last, the ram was taken with fits bordering on madness. We were at a loss to tell whether it was occasioned by any thing he had eaten, or by being stung with nettles, which were in plenty about the place; but supposed it to be the latter, and therefore did not take the care of him we ought to have done. One night, while he was lying by the centinel, he was seized with one of these fits, and ran headlong into the sea; but soon came out again, and seemed quite easy. Presently after, he was seized with another fit, and ran along the beach, with the she-goat after him. Some time after she returned, but the other was never seen more. Diligent search was made for him in the woods to no purpose; we therefore supposed he had run into the sea a second time, and had been drowned. After this accident, it would have been in vain to leave the she-goat, as she was not with kid; having kidded but a few days before we arrived, and the kids dead. Thus the reader will see how every method I have taken to stock this country with sheep and goats has proved ineffectual.

When I returned on board in the evening, I found our good friends the natives had brought us a large supply of fish. Some of the officers visiting them at their habitations, saw, among them, some human thigh- bones, from which the flesh had been but lately picked. This, and other circumstances, led us to believe that the people, whom we took for strangers this morning, were of the same tribe; that they had been out on some war expedition; and that those things they sold us, were the spoils of their enemies. Indeed, we had some information of this sort the day before; for a number of women and children came off to us in a canoe, from whom we learnt that a party of men were then out, for whose safety they were under some apprehension; but this report found little credit with us, as we soon after saw some canoes come in from fishing, which we judged to be them.

Having now got the ship in a condition for sea, and to encounter the southern latitudes, I ordered the tents to be struck, and every thing to be got on board.

The boatswain, with a party of men, being in the woods cutting broom, some of them found a private hut of the natives, in which was deposited most of the treasure they had received from us, as well as some other articles of their own. It is very probable some were set to watch this hut; as, soon after it was discovered, they came and took all away. But missing some things, they told our people they had stolen them; and in the evening, came and made their complaint to me, pitching upon one of the party as the person who had committed the theft. Having ordered this man to be punished before them, they went away seemingly satisfied; although they did not recover any of the things they had lost, nor could I by any means find out what had become of them; though nothing was more certain, than that something had been stolen by some of the party, if not by the very man the natives had pitched upon. It was ever a maxim with me, to punish the least crimes any of my people committed against these uncivilized nations. Their robbing us with impunity is, by no means, a sufficient reason why we should treat them in the same manner, a conduct, we see, they themselves cannot justify: They found themselves injured, and sought for redress in a legal way. The best method, in my opinion, to preserve a good understanding with such people, is, first, by shewing them the use of firearms, to convince them of the superiority they give you over them, and then to be always upon your guard. When once they are sensible of these things, a regard for their own safety will deter them from disturbing you, or from being unanimous in forming any plan to attack you; and strict honesty, and gentle treatment on your part, will make it their interest not to do it.

Calm or light airs from the north all day on the 23d, hindered us from putting to sea as intended.[7] In the afternoon, some of the officers went on shore to amuse themselves among the natives, where they saw the head and bowels of a youth, who had lately been killed, lying on the beach; and the heart stuck on a forked stick, which was fixed to the head of one of the largest canoes. One of the gentlemen bought the head, and brought it on board, where a piece of the flesh was broiled and eaten by one of the natives, before all the officers and most of the men. I was on shore at this time, but soon after returning on board, was informed of the above circumstances; and found the quarter-deck crowded with the natives, and the mangled head, or rather part of it, (for the under-jaw and lip were wanting) lying on the tafferal. The skull had been broken on the left side, just above the temples; and the remains of the face had all the appearance of a youth under twenty.[8]

The sight of the head, and the relation of the above circumstances, struck me with horror, and filled my mind with indignation against these cannibals. Curiosity, however, got the better of my indignation, especially when I considered that it would avail but little; and being desirous of becoming an eye-witness of a fact which many doubted, I ordered a piece of the flesh to be broiled and brought to the quarter-deck, where one of these cannibals eat it with surprising avidity. This had such an effect on some of our people as to make them sick. Oedidee (who came on board with me) was so affected with the sight as to become perfectly motionless, and seemed as if metamorphosed into the statue of horror. It is utterly impossible for art to describe that passion with half the force that it appeared in his countenance. When roused from this state by some of us, he burst into tears; continued to weep and scold by turns; told them they were vile men; and that he neither was, nor would be any longer their friend. He even would not suffer them to touch him; he used the same language to one of the gentlemen who cut off the flesh; and refused to accept, or even touch the knife with which it was done. Such was Oedidee's indignation against the vile custom; and worthy of imitation by every rational being.

I was not able to find out the reason for their undertaking this expedition; all I could understand for certain was, that they went from hence into Admiralty Bay (the next inlet to the west), and there fought with their enemies, many of whom they killed. They counted to me fifty; a number which exceeded probability, as they were not more, if so many, themselves. I think I understood them clearly, that this youth was killed there; and not brought away prisoner, and afterwards killed. Nor could I learn that they had brought away any more than this one; which increased the improbability of their having killed so many. We had also reason to think that they did not come off without loss; for a young woman was seen, more than once, to cut herself, as is the custom when they lose a friend or relation.

That the New Zealanders are cannibals, can now no longer be doubted. The account given of this in my former voyage, being partly founded on circumstances, was, as I afterwards understood, discredited by many persons. Few consider what a savage man is in his natural state, and even after he is, in some degree, civilized. The New Zealanders are certainly in some state of civilization; their behaviour to us was manly and mild, shewing, on all occasions, a readiness to oblige. They have some arts among them which they execute with great judgment and unwearied patience; they are far less addicted to thieving than the other islanders of the South Sea; and I believe those in the same tribe, or such as are at peace one with another, are strictly honest among themselves. This custom of eating their enemies slain in battle (for I firmly believe they eat the flesh of no others) has undoubtedly been handed down to them from the earliest times; and we know it is not an easy matter to wean a nation from their ancient customs, let them be ever so inhuman and savage; especially if that nation has no manner of connexion or commerce with strangers. For it is by this that the greatest part of the human race has been civilized; an advantage which the New Zealanders, from their situation, never had. An intercourse with foreigners would reform their manners, and polish their savage minds. Or, were they more united under a settled form of government, they would have fewer enemies, consequently this custom would be less in use, and might in time be in a manner forgotten. At present, they have but little idea of treating others as themselves would wish to be treated, but treat them as they expect to be treated. If I remember right, one of the arguments they made use of to Tupia, who frequently expostulated with them against this custom, was, that there could be no harm in killing and eating the man who would do the same by them if it was in his power. "For," said they, "can there be any harm in eating our enemies, whom we have killed in battle? Would not those very enemies have done the same to us?" I have often seen them listen to Tupia with great attention; but I never found his arguments have any weight with them, or that with all his rhetoric, he could persuade any one of them that this custom was wrong. And when Oedidee, and several of our people, shewed their abhorrence of it, they only laughed at them.

Among many reasons which I have heard assigned for the prevalence of this horrid custom, the want of animal food has been one; but how far this is deducible either from facts or circumstances, I shall leave those to find out who advanced it. In every part of New Zealand where I have been, fish was in such plenty, that the natives generally caught as much as served both themselves and us. They have also plenty of dogs; nor is there any want of wild fowl, which they know very well how to kill. So that neither this, nor the want of food of any kind, can, in my opinion, be the reason. But, whatever it may be, I think it was but too evident, that they have a great liking for this kind of food.[9]

I must here observe, that Oedidee soon learnt to converse with these people, as I am persuaded, he would have done with the people of Amsterdam, had he been a little longer with them; for he did not understand the New Zealanders, at first, any more, or not so much, as he understood the people of Amsterdam.

At four o'clock in the morning, on the 24th, we unmoored with an intent to put to sea; but the wind being at N. and N.E. without, and blowing strong puffs into the cove, made it necessary for us to lie fast. While we were unmooring, some of our old friends came on board to take their leave of us, and afterwards left the cove with all their effects; but those who had been out on the late expedition remained; and some of the gentlemen having visited them, found the heart still sticking on the canoe, and the intestines lying on the beach; but the liver and lungs were now wanting. Probably they had eaten them, after the carcase was all gone.

On the 25th, early in the morning, we weighed, with a small, breeze out of the cove, which carried us no farther than between Motuara and Long Island, where we were obliged to anchor; but presently after a breeze springing up at north, we weighed again, turned out of the Sound, and stood over for Cape Teerawhitte.

During our stay in the Sound, we were plentifully supplied with fish, procured from the natives at a very easy rate; and, besides the vegetables our own gardens afforded, we found every where plenty of scurvy grass and cellery, which I caused to be dressed every day for all hands. By this means, they had been mostly on a fresh diet for the three preceding months; and at this time, we had neither a sick nor scorbutic man on board. It is necessary to mention, for the information of others, that we had now some pork on board, salted at Ulietea, and as good as any I ever eat. The manner in which we cured it, was this: In the cool of the evening the hogs were killed, dressed, cut up, the bones cut out, and the flesh salted while it was yet hot. The next morning we gave it a second salting, packed it into a cask, and put to it a sufficient quantity of strong pickle. Great care is to be taken that the meat be well covered with pickle, otherwise it will soon spoil.

The morning before we sailed, I wrote a memorandum, setting forth the time we last arrived, the day we sailed, the route I intended to take, and such other information as I thought necessary for Captain Furneaux, in case he should put into the Sound; and buried it in a bottle under the root of a tree in the garden, which is in the bottom of the cove, in such a manner as must be found by him or any other European who might put into the cove. I, however, had little reason to hope it would fall into the hands of the person for whom it was intended, thinking it hardly possible that the Adventure could be in any port in New Zealand, as we had not heard of her all this time. Nevertheless I was resolved not to leave the coast without looking for her, where I thought it most likely for her to be. It was with this view that I stood over for Cape Teerawhitte, and afterwards ran along- shore, from point to point, to Cape Palliser, firing guns every half hour; but all to no effect. At eight o'clock we brought-to for the night, Cape Palliser bearing S.E. by E. distant three leagues; in which situation we had fifty fathoms water.

I had now an opportunity of making the following remarks on the coast between Cape Teerawhitte and Cape Palliser: The bay which lies on the west side of the last Cape, does not appear to run so far inland to the northward as I at first thought; the deception being caused by the land in the bottom of it being low: It is, however, at least five leagues deep, and full as wide at the entrance. Though it seems to be exposed to southerly and S.W. winds, it is probable there may be places in the bottom of it sheltered even from these. The bay or inlet, on the east side of Cape Teerawhitte, before which we anchored, lies in north, inclining to the west, and seemed to be sheltered from all winds. The middle cape, or point of land that disjoins these two bays, rises to a considerable height, especially inland; for close to the sea is a skirt of low land, off which lie some pointed rocks, but so near to the shore as to be noways dangerous. Indeed, the navigation of this side of the Strait seems much safer than the other, because the tides here are not near so strong. Cape Teerawhitte and Cape Palliser lie in the direction of N. 69 deg. W., and S. 69 deg. east, from each other distant ten leagues. The cape which disjoins the two bays above- mentioned lies within, or north of this direction. All the land near the coast, between and about these capes, is exceedingly barren; probably owing to its being so much exposed to the cold southerly winds. From Cape Teerawhitte to the Two Brothers, which lie off Cape Koamoroo, the course is nearly N.W. by N. distant sixteen miles. North of Cape Teerawhitte, between it and Entry Island, is an island lying pretty near the shore. I judged this to be an island when I saw it in my former voyage, but not being certain, left it undetermined in my chart of the Strait, which is the reason of my taking notice of it now, as also of the bays, &c. above- mentioned.

At day-light in the morning on the 26th, we made sail round Cape Palliser, firing guns as usual, as we ran along the shore. In this manner we proceeded till we were three or four leagues to the N.E. of the Cape; when the wind shifted to N.E., we bore away for Cape Campbell on the other side of the Strait. Soon after, seeing a smoke ascend, at some distance inland, away to the N.E, we hauled the wind, and continued to ply till six o'clock in the evening; which was several hours after the smoke disappeared, and left us not the least signs of people.

Every one being unanimously of opinion that the Adventure could neither be stranded on the coast, nor be in any of the harbours thereof, I gave up looking for her, and all thoughts of seeing her any more during the voyage, as no rendezvous was absolutely fixed upon after leaving New Zealand. Nevertheless, this did not discourage me from fully exploring the southern parts of the Pacific Ocean, in the doing of which I intended to employ the whole of the ensuing season.

On our quitting the coast, and consequently all hopes of being joined by our consort, I had the satisfaction to find that not a man was dejected, or thought the dangers we had yet to go through, were in the least increased by being alone; but as cheerfully proceeding to the south, or wherever I might think proper to lead them, as if the Adventure, or even more ships, had been in our company.[10]

[1] "They expressed great satisfaction at our calling them by their names, doubtless because it served to persuade them that we were particularly concerned for their welfare, by retaining them in memory. The weather was fair and warm, considering the season, but our New Zealanders were all covered with shaggy cloaks, which are their winter dresses."—G.F.

[2] "We found almost all the radishes and turnips shot into seed, the cabbages and carrots very fine, and abundance of onions and parsley in good order; the pease and beans were almost entirely lost, and seemed to have been destroyed by rats. The potatoes were likewise all extirpated; but, from appearances, we guessed this to have been the work of the natives. The thriving state of our European pot-herbs, gave us a strong and convincing proof of the mildness of the winter in this part of New Zealand, where it seems it had never frozen hard enough to kill these plants, which perish in our winters. The indigenous plants of this country were not yet so forward; the deciduous trees and shrubs, in particular, were but just beginning to look green, and the vivid colour of their fresh leaves well contrasted with the dark wintery hue of the evergreens. The flag, of which the natives prepare their hemp, was, however, in flower, together with some other early species."—G.F.

[3] "The weather, during this time, was as boisterous and inconstant, as that which had so long kept us out of this harbour. Scarce a day passed without heavy squalls of wind, which hurried down with redoubled velocity from the mountains, and strong showers of rain, which retarded all our occupations. The air was commonly cold and raw, vegetation made slow advances, and the birds were only found in vallies sheltered from the chilling southern blast. This kind of weather, in all likelihood, prevails throughout the winter, and likewise far into the midst of summer, without a much greater degree of cold in the former, or of warmth in the latter season. Islands far remote from any continent, or at least not situated near a cold one, seem in general to have an uniform temperature of air, owing, perhaps, to the nature of the ocean, which every where surrounds them. It appears from the meteorological journals, kept at Port Egmont, on the Falkland Islands, (inserted in Mr Dalrymple's collection) that the extremes of the greatest cold, and the greatest heat, observed there throughout the year, do not exceed thirty degrees on Fahrenheit's scale. The latitude of that port is 51 deg. 25' S.; and that of Ship Cove, in Queen Charlotte's Sound, only 41 deg. 5'. This considerable difference of site will naturally make the climate of New Zealand much milder than that of Falkland's Islands, but cannot affect the general hypothesis concerning the temperature of all islands; and the immense height of the mountains in New Zealand, some of which are covered with snow throughout the year, doubtless contributes to refrigerate the air, so as to assimilate it to that of the Falkland's Islands, which are not so high."—G.F.

[4] "In the morning, the weather being clear again, Dr Sparrman, my father, and myself, went to the Indian Cove, which we found uninhabited. A path, made by the natives, led through the forest a considerable way up the steep mountain, which separates this cove from Shag Cove. The only motive which could induce the New Zealanders to make this path, appeared to be the abundance of ferns towards the summit of the mountain, the roots of that plant being an article of their diet. The steepest part of the path was cut in steps, paved with shingle or slate, but beyond that the climbers impeded our progress considerably. About half way up, the forest ended, and the rest was covered with various shrubs and ferns, though it appeared to be naked and barren from the ship. At the summit we met with many plants which grow in the vallies, and by the sea-side, at Dusky Bay, owing to the difference of the climate, which is so much more vigorous in that southern extremity of New Zealand. The whole to the very top consists of the same talcous clay, which is universal all over the island, and of a talcous stone, which, when exposed to the sun and air, crumbles in pieces, and dissolves into lamellae. Its colour is whitish, greyish, and sometimes tinged with a dirty yellowish-red, perhaps owing to irony particles. The south side of the mountain is clad in forests, almost to the summit. The view from hence was very extensive and pleasing: We looked into East Bay as into a fish-pond, and saw Cape Tera-wittee beyond the Strait. The mountains in the south arose to a vast height, and were capt with snow; and the whole prospect on that side was wild and chaotic."—G.F.

[5] "Our sailors carried on their former amours with the women, amongst whom there was but one who had tolerable features, and something soft and humane in her looks. She was regularly given in marriage by her parents to one of our ship-mates, who was particularly beloved by this nation, for devoting much of his time to them, and treating them with those marks of affection, which, even among a savage race, endear mankind to one another. Togheeree, for so the girl was called, proved as faithful to her husband as if he had been a New Zealander, and constantly rejected the addresses of other seamen, professing herself a married woman, (tirratane.) Whatever attachment the Englishman had to his New Zealand wife, he never attempted to take her on board, foreseeing that it would be highly inconvenient to lodge the numerous retinue which crowded in her garments, and weighed down the hair of her head. He, therefore, visited her on shore, and only day by day, treating her with plenty of the rotten part of our biscuit, which we rejected, But which she and all her countrymen eagerly devoured."—G.F.

[6] "They were more dressed than we had commonly seen any, during this second stay, at Queen Charlotte's Sound; their hair was tied up, and their cheeks painted red. All these circumstances conspired to confirm the account which the women had given us the day before, that their husbands were gone to fight, as it is usual for them to put on their best apparel on those occasions. I am much afraid that their unhappy differences with other tribes, were revived on our account. Our people, not satisfied with purchasing all the hatchets of stone, &c. &c. of which the natives of our acquaintance were possessed, continually enquired for more, and shewed them such large and valuable pieces of Otaheite cloth, as would not fail to excite their desires. It is not improbable, that as soon as this appetite prevailed among the New Zealanders, they would reflect that the shortest way to gratify it, would be to rob their neighbours of such goods, as the Europeans coveted. The great store of arms, ornaments, and clothes, which they produced at this time, seemed to prove, that such a daring and villainous design had really been put in execution; nor was it to be supposed that this could have been accomplished without bloodshed."—G.F.

[7] An instance of the ferocity of manners of this savage nation, was presented this day. A boy, about six or seven years old, demanded a piece of broiled penguin, which his mother held in her hands. As she did not immediately comply with his demand, he took up a large stone and threw it at her. The woman, incensed at this action, ran to punish him, but she had scarcely given him a single blow, when her husband came forward, beat her unmercifully, and dashed her against the ground, for attempting to correct her unnatural child. Our people, who were employed in filling water, told my father they had frequently seen similar instances of cruelty among them, and particularly, that the boys had actually struck their unhappy mother, whilst the father looked on lest she should attempt to retaliate. Among all savage nations the weaker sex is ill-treated, and the law of the strongest is put in force. Their women are mere drudges, who prepare raiment and provide dwellings, who cook and frequently collect their food, and are requited by blows, and all kinds of severity. At New Zealand, it seems they carry this tyranny to excess, and the males are taught, from their earliest age, to hold their mothers in contempt, contrary to all our principles of morality."—G.F.

Mr Forster immediately goes on to relate the remainder of this day's occurrences, so painfully pregnant in discoveries relative to this savage people. The reader, it is believed, will think the account in the text abundantly minute, without any addition. What a fine specimen to prove the accuracy of Rousseau's delineation of our species, in its uncontaminated state!—E.

[8] Mr G. Forster informs us, that Mr Pickersgill purchased the head from the savages for a nail, and that it was afterwards deposited in the collection of Mr John Hunter. He adds, that some of these people expressed an ardent desire of repossessing it, signifying, by the most intelligible gestures, that it was delicious to the taste. This strongly corroborates what Captain Cook afterwards states, of their really relishing such kind of food.—E.

[9] This distressing subject has, perhaps, already too much engrossed the reader's attention and feelings; and, unfortunately, it must again be brought before him, when we treat of the third voyage of Cook. He might think then, that at present, he ought to be spared farther comment on what is so odious; but neither the apprehension, nor the experience of the unpleasant impressions it produces, is sufficient reason for declining the consideration of the atrocities of which human nature is capable. Self-conceit, indeed, may be mortified at the unavoidable thought of identity of species, which it may seek many imaginary devices to conceal; and feverish sensibility may be wrought up to indignant discontent, at the power which placed it amid such profligacy. But the humble philosopher, on the other hand, will investigate the causes, without ceasing to deplore the effects, and will rejoice in the belief, that there are any means by which mankind may be redeemed from the condemnation which his judgment cannot fail to award. To him, accordingly, the following observations of Mr G. Forster are addressed, as preparatory to the farther consideration of the subject, in which he will afterwards be engaged. "Philosophers, who have only contemplated mankind in their closets, have strenuously maintained, that all the assertions of authors, ancient and modern, of the existence of men-eaters, are not to be credited; and there have not been wanting persons amongst ourselves who were sceptical enough to refuse belief to the concurrent testimonies, in the history of almost all nations, in this particular. But Captain Cook had already, in his former voyage, received strong proof that the practice of eating human flesh existed in New Zealand; and as now we have with our own eyes seen the inhabitants devouring human flesh, all controversy on that point must be at an end. The opinions of authors on the origin of this custom, are infinitely various, and have lately been collected by the very learned canon, Pauw, at Xanten, in his Recherches Philosophiques sur les Americains, vol. i, p. 207. He seems to think that men were first tempted to devour each other from real want of food, and cruel necessity. His sentiments are copied by Dr Hawkesworth, who has disingenuously concealed their author. Many weighty objections, however, may be made against this hypothesis; amongst which the following is one of the greatest. There are very few countries in the world so miserably barren as not to afford their inhabitants sufficient nourishment, and those, in particular, where anthropophagi still exist, do not come under that description. The northern isle of New Zealand, on a coast of near four hundred leagues, contains scarcely one hundred thousand inhabitants, according to the most probable guess which can be made; a number inconsiderable for that vast space of country, even allowing the settlements to be confined only to the sea-shore. The great abundance of fish, and the beginnings of agriculture in the Bay of Plenty, and other parts of the Northern Isle, are more than sufficient to maintain this number, because they have always had enough to supply strangers with what was deemed superfluous. It is true, before the dawn of the arts among them, before the invention of nets, and before the cultivation of potatoes, the means of subsistence may have been more difficult, but then the number of inhabitants must likewise have been infinitely smaller. Single instances are not conclusive in this case, though they prove how far the wants cf the body may stimulate mankind to extraordinary actions. In 1772, during a famine which happened throughout all Germany, a herdsman was taken on the manor of Baron Boineburg, in Hessia, who had been urged by hunger to kill and devour a boy, and afterwards to make a practice of it for several months. From his confession, it appeared, that he looked upon the flesh of young children as a very delicious food; and the gestures of the New Zealanders indicated exactly the same thing. An old woman, in the province of Matogrosso, in Brazil, declared to the Portuguese governor, M. de Pinto, afterwards ambassador at the British court, that she had eaten human flesh several times, liked it very much, and should be very glad to feast upon it again, especially if it was part of a little boy. But it would be absurd to suppose from such circumstances, that killing men for the sake of feasting upon them, has ever been the spirit of a whole nation; because it is utterly incompatible with the existence of society. Slight causes have ever produced the most remarkable events among mankind, and the most trifling quarrels have fired their minds with incredible inveteracy against each other. Revenge has always been a strong passion among barbarians, who are less subject to the sway of reason, than civilized people, and has stimulated them to a degree of madness, which is capable of all kinds of excesses. The people who first consumed the body of their enemies, seem to have been bent upon exterminating their very inanimate remains, from an excess of passion; but, by degrees, finding the meat wholesome and palatable, it is not to be wondered at that they should make a practice of eating their enemies as often as they killed any, since the action of eating human flesh, whatever our education may teach us to the contrary, is certainly neither unnatural nor criminal in itself. It can only become dangerous as far as it steels the mind against that compassionate fellow-feeling, which is the great basis of society; and for this reason, we find it naturally banished from every people as soon as civilization has made any progress among them. But though we are too much polished to be cannibals, we do not find it unnaturally and savagely cruel to take the field, and to cut one another's throats by thousands, without a single motive, besides the ambition of a prince, or the caprice of his mistress! Is it not from prejudice that we are disgusted with the idea of eating a dead man, when we feel no remorse in depriving him of life? If the practice of eating human flesh makes men unfeeling and brutal, we have instances that civilized people, who would, perhaps, like some of our sailors, have turned sick at the thought of eating human flesh, have committed barbarities, without example, amongst cannibals. A New Zealander, who kills and eats his enemy, is a very different being from an European, who, for his amusement, tears an infant from the mother's breast, in cool blood, and throws it on the earth, to feed his hounds,—an atrocious crime, which Bishop Las Casas says, he saw committed in America by Spanish soldiers. The New Zealanders never eat their adversaries unless they are killed in battle; they never kill their relations for the purpose of eating them; they do not even eat them if they die of a natural death, and they take no prisoners with a view to fatten them for their repast; though these circumstances have been related, with more or less truth, of the American Indians. It is therefore not improbable, that in process of time, they will entirely lay aside this custom; and the introduction of new domestic animals into their country might hasten that period, since greater affluence would tend to make them more sociable. Their religion does not seem likely to be an obstacle, because from what we could judge, they are not remarkably superstitious, and it is only among very bigotted nations that the custom of offering human flesh to the gods, has prevailed after civilization."—These are evidently hasty speculations, and by no means conclusive, but they point with tolerable clearness to some principle of human nature adequate, independent of necessity, to account for the practice, and shew in what manner the investigation into its nature, causes, and remedy, ought to be carried on.—E.

[10] "The officers and passengers entered upon this second cruise under several difficulties, which did not exist before. They had now no livestock to be compared to that which they took from the Cape of Good Hope; and the little store of provisions, which had supplied their table with variety in preference to that of the common sailor, was now so far consumed, that they were nearly upon a level, especially as the seamen were inured to that way of life, by constant habit, almost from their infancy; and the others had never experienced it before. The hope of meeting with new lands was vanished, the topics of common conversation were exhausted, the cruise to the south could not present any thing new, but appeared in all its chilling horrors before us, and the absence of our consort doubled every danger. We had enjoyed a few agreeable days between the tropics, we had feasted as well as the produce of various islands would permit, and we had been entertained with the novelty of many objects among different nations; but according to the common vicissitudes of fortune, this agreeable moment was to be replaced by a long period of fogs and frosty weather, of fasting, and of tedious uniformity. If any thing alleviated the dreariness of the prospect, with a great part of our shipmates, it was the hope of completing the circle round the South Pole, in a high latitude, during the next inhospitable summer, and of returning to England within the space of eight months. This hope contributed to animate the spirits of our people during the greatest part of our continuance in bad weather; but in the end it vanished like a dream, and the only thought which could make them amends, was the certainty of passing another season among the happy islands in the torrid zone."—G.F.



SECTION VI.

Route of the Ship from New Zealand in Search of a Continent; with an Account of the various Obstructions met with from the Ice, and the Methods pursued to explore the Southern Pacific Ocean.

AT eight o'clock in the evening of the 26th, we took our departure from Cape Palliser, and steered to the south, inclining to the east, having a favourable gale from the N.W. and S.W. We daily saw some rock-weeds, seals, Port Egmont hens, albatrosses, pintadoes, and other peterels; and on the 2d of December, being in the latitude of 48 deg. 23' south, longitude 179 deg. 16' west, we saw a number of red-billed penguins, which remained about us for several days. On the 5th, being in the latitude 50 deg. 17' south, longitude 179 deg. 40' east, the variation was 18 deg. 25' east. At half an hour past eight o'clock the next evening, we reckoned ourselves antipodes to our friends in London, consequently as far removed from them as possible.[1]

On the 8th, being in the latitude 55 deg. 39', longitude 178 deg. 53' west, we ceased to see penguins and seals, and concluded that those we had seen, retired to the southern parts of New Zealand, whenever it was necessary for them to be at land. We had now a strong gale at N.W., and a great swell from S.W. This swell we got as soon as the south point of New Zealand came in that direction; and as we had had no wind from that quarter the six preceding days, but, on the contrary, it had been at east, north, and N.W., I conclude there can be no land to the southward, under the meridian of New Zealand, but what must lie very far to the south. The two following days we had very stormy weather, sleet and snow, winds between the north and south- west.

The 11th the storm abated, and the weather clearing up, we found the latitude to be 61 deg. 15' south, longitude 173 deg. 4' W. This fine weather was of short duration; in the evening, the wind increased to a strong gale at S. W., blew in squalls, attended with thick snow showers, hail, and sleet. The mercury in the thermometer fell to thirty-two; consequently the weather was very cold, and seemed to indicate that ice was not far off.[2]

At four o'clock the next morning, being in the latitude of 62 deg. 10' south, longitude 172 deg. west, we saw the first ice island, 11 deg. 1/2 farther south than the first ice we saw the preceding year after leaving the Cape of Good Hope. At the time we saw this ice, we also saw an antarctic peterel, some grey albatrosses, and our old companions pintadoes and blue peterels. The wind kept veering from S.W. by the N.W. to N.N.E. for the most part a fresh gale, attended with a thick haze and snow; on which account we steered to the S.E. and E., keeping the wind always on the beam, that it might be in our power to return back nearly on the same track, should our course have been interrupted by any danger whatever. For some days we had a great sea from the N.W. and S.W., so that it is not probable there can be any land near, between these two points.

We fell in with several large islands on the 14th, and about noon, with a quantity of loose ice, through which we sailed. Latitude 64 deg. 55' south, longitude 163 deg. 20' west. Grey albatrosses, blue peterels, pintadoes, and fulmers, were seen. As we advanced to the S.E. by E. with a fresh gale at west, we found the number of ice islands increase fast upon us. Between noon and eight in the evening we saw but two; but before four o'clock in the morning of the 15th, we had passed seventeen, besides a quantity of loose ice which we ran through. At six o'clock, we were obliged to haul to the N.E., in order to clear an immense field that lay to the south and S. E. The ice, in most part of it, lay close packed together; in other places, there appeared partitions in the field, and a clear sea beyond it. However, I did not think it safe to venture through, as the wind would not permit us to return the same way that we must go in. Besides, as it blew strong, and the weather at times was exceedingly foggy, it was the more necessary for us to get clear of this loose ice, which is rather more dangerous than the great islands. It was not such ice as is usually found in bays or rivers and near shore; but such as breaks off from the islands, and may not improperly be called parings of the large pieces, or the rubbish or fragments which fall off when the great islands break loose from the place where they are formed.[3]

We had not stood long to the N.E. before we found ourselves embayed by the ice, and were obliged to tack and stretch to the S.W., having the field, or loose ice, to the south, and many huge islands to the north. After standing two hours on this tack, the wind very luckily veering to the westward, we tacked, stretched to the north, and soon got clear of the loose ice; but not before we had received several hard knocks from the larger pieces, which, with all our care, we could not avoid. After clearing one danger we still had another to encounter; the weather remained foggy, and many large islands lay in our way; so that we had to luff for one, and bear up for another. One we were very near falling aboard of, and, if it had happened, this circumstance would never have been related.[4] These difficulties, together with the improbability of finding land farther south, and the impossibility of exploring it, on account of the ice, if we should find any, determined me to get more to the north. At the time we last tacked, we were in the longitude of 159 deg. 20' W., and in the latitude of 66 deg. 0' S. Several penguins were seen on some of these islands, and a few antarctic peterels on the wing.

We continued to stand to the north, with a fresh gale at west, attended with thick snow showers, till eight o'clock in the evening, when the wind abated, the sky began to clear up, and at six o'clock in the morning of the 16th it fell calm. Four hours after, it was succeeded by a breeze at N.E. with which we stretched to the S.E., having thick hazy weather, with snow showers, and all our rigging coated with ice. In the evening, we attempted to take some up out of the sea, but were obliged to desist; the sea running too high, and the pieces being so large, that it was dangerous for the boat to come near them.

The next morning, being the 17th, we succeeded better; for, falling in with a quantity of loose ice, we hoisted out two boats; and by noon got on board as much as we could manage. We then made sail for the east, with a gentle breeze northerly, attended with snow and sleet, which froze to the rigging as it fell. At this time we were in the latitude of 64 deg. 41' south, longitude 155 deg. 44' west. The ice we took up proved to be none of the best, being chiefly composed of frozen snow; on which account it was porous, and had imbibed a good deal of salt water; but this drained off, after lying a while on deck, and the water then yielded was fresh. We continued to stretch to the east, with a piercing cold northerly wind, attended with a thick fog, snow, and sleet, that decorated all our rigging with icicles. We were hourly meeting with some of the large ice islands, which, in these high latitudes, render navigation so very dangerous: At seven in the evening, falling in with a cluster of them, we narrowly escaped running aboard of one, and, with difficulty, wore clear of the others. We stood back to the west till ten o'clock; at which time the fog cleared away, and we resumed our course to the east. At noon, the next day, we were in the latitude of 64 deg. 49' S., longitude 149 deg. 19' W. Some time after, our longitude, by observed distance of the sun and moon, was 149 deg. 19' W.; by Mr Kendal's watch 148 deg. 36'; and, by my reckoning, 148 deg. 43', latitude 64 deg. 48' S.

The clear weather, and the wind veering to N.W., tempted me to steer south; which course we continued till seven in the morning of the 20th, when the wind changing to N.E. and the sky becoming clouded, we hauled up S.E. In the afternoon the wind increased to a strong gale, attended with a thick fog, snow, sleet, and rain, which constitutes the very worst of weather. Our rigging, at this time, was so loaded with ice, that we had enough to do to get our topsails down, to double the reef. At seven o'clock in the evening, in the longitude of 147 deg. 46', we came, the second time, within the antarctic or polar circle, continuing our course to the S.E. till six o'clock the next morning. At that time, being in the latitude of 67 deg. 5' S., all at once we got in among a cluster of very large ice islands, and a vast quantity of loose pieces; and as the fog was exceedingly thick, it was with the utmost difficulty we wore clear of them. This done, we stood to the N.W. till noon, when, the fog being somewhat dissipated, we resumed our course again to the S.E. The ice islands we met with in the morning were very high and rugged, forming at their tops, many peaks; whereas the most of those we had seen before, were flat at top, and not so high; though many of them were between two and three hundred feet in height, and between two and three miles in circuit, with perpendicular cliffs or sides, astonishing to behold.[5] Most or our winged companions had now left us; the grey albatrosses only remained; and, instead of the other birds, we were visited by a few antarctic peterels.

The 22d we steered E.S.E. with a fresh gale at north, blowing in squalls, one of which took hold of the mizen top-sail, tore it all to rags, and rendered it forever after useless. At six o'clock in the morning, the wind veering towards the west, our course was east northerly. At this time we were in the latitude of 67 deg. 31', the highest we had yet been in, longitude 142 deg. 54' W.

We continued our course to the E. by N. till noon, the 23d, when being in the latitude of 67 deg. 12', longitude 138 deg. 0', we steered S.E.; having then twenty-three ice islands in sight, from off the deck, and twice that number from the mast-head; and yet we could not see above two or three miles round us. At four o'clock in the afternoon, in the latitude of 67 deg. 20', longitude 137 deg. 12', we fell in with such a quantity of field, or loose ice, as covered the sea in the whole extent from south to east, and was so thick and close as wholly to obstruct our passage. At this time, the wind being pretty moderate, and the sea smooth, we brought-to, at the outer edge of the ice, hoisted out two boats, and sent them to take some up. In the mean time, we laid hold of several large pieces along-side, and got them on board with our tackle. The taking up ice proved such cold work, that it was eight o'clock by the time the boats had made two trips, when we hoisted them in, and made sail to the west, under double-reefed top-sails and courses, with a strong gale at north, attended with snow and sleet, which froze to the rigging as it fell, making the ropes like wires, and the sails like boards or plates of metal. The sheaves also were frozen so fast in the blocks, that it required our utmost efforts to get a top-sail down and up; the cold so intense as hardly to be endured; the whole sea, in a manner, covered with ice; a hard gale, and a thick fog.[6]

Under all these unfavourable circumstances, it was natural for me to think of returning more to the north; seeing no probability of finding any land here, nor a possibility of getting farther south. And to have proceeded to the east in this latitude, must have been wrong, not only on account of the ice, but because we must have left a vast space of sea to the north unexplored, a space of 24 deg. of latitude; in which a large tract of land might have lain. Whether such a supposition was well-grounded, could only be determined by visiting those parts.

While we were taking up ice, we got two of the antarctic peterels so often mentioned, by which our conjectures were confirmed of their being of the peterel tribe. They are about the size of a large pigeon; the feathers of the head, back, and part of the upper side of the wings, are of a light- brown; the belly, and under side of the wings white, the tail feathers are also white, but tipped with brown; at the same time, we got another new peterel, smaller than the former, and all of a dark-grey plumage. We remarked that these birds were fuller of feathers than any we had hitherto seen; such care has nature taken to clothe them suitably to the climate in which they live. At the same time we saw a few chocolate-coloured albatrosses; these, as well as the peterels above-mentioned, we no where saw but among the ice; hence one may with reason conjecture that there is land to the south. If not, I must ask where these birds breed? A question which perhaps will never be determined; for hitherto we have found these lands, if any, quite inaccessible. Besides these birds, we saw a very large seal, which kept playing about us some time. One of our people who had been at Greenland, called it a sea-horse; but every one else took it for what I have said. Since our first falling in with the ice, the mercury in the thermometer had been from 33 to 31 at noon-day.

On the 24th, the wind abated, veering to the N.W., and the sky cleared up, in the latitude of 67 deg. 0' longitude 138 deg. 15'. As we advanced to the N.E. with a gentle gale at N.W., the ice islands increased so fast upon us, that this day, at noon, we could see near 100 round us, besides an immense number of small pieces. Perceiving that it was likely to be calm, I got the ship into as clear a birth as I could, where she drifted along with the ice, and by taking the advantage of every light air of wind, was kept from falling aboard any of these floating isles. Here it was we spent Christmas day, much in the same manner as we did the preceding one. We were fortunate in having continual day-light, and clear weather, for had it been as foggy as on some of the preceding days, nothing less than a miracle could have saved us from being dashed to pieces.[7]

In the morning of the 26th, the whole sea was in a manner covered with ice, 200 large islands, and upwards, being seen within the compass of four or five miles, which was the limits of our horizon, besides smaller pieces innumerable. Our latitude at noon was 66 deg. 15', longitude 134 deg. 22'. By observation we found that the ship had drifted, or gone about 20 miles to the N.E. or E.N.E.; whereas, by the ice islands, it appeared that she had gone little or nothing; from which we concluded that the ice drifted nearly in the same direction, and at the same rate. At four o'clock a breeze sprung up at W.S.W., and enabled us to steer north, the most probable course to extricate ourselves from these dangers.

We continued our course to the north with a gentle breeze at west, attended with clear weather, till four o'clock the next morning, when meeting with a quantity of loose ice, we brought-to, and took on board as much as filled all our empty casks, and for several days present expence. This done, we made sail, and steered N.W. with a gentle breeze at N.E., clear frosty weather. Our latitude at this time was 65 deg. 53' S., longitude 133 deg. 42' W.; islands of ice not half so numerous as before.[8]

At four in the morning of the 28th, the wind having veered more to the E. and S.E., increased to a fresh gale, and was attended with snow showers. Our course was north till noon the next day. Being then in the latitude of 62 deg. 24', longitude 134 deg. 37', we steered N.W. by N. Some hours after, the sky cleared up, and the wind abating, veered more to the south.

On the 30th, had little wind westerly; dark gloomy weather; with snow and sleet at times; several whales seen playing about the ship, but very few birds; islands of ice in plenty, and a swell from W.N.W.

On the 31st, little wind from the westward, fair and clear weather, which afforded an opportunity to air the spare sails, and to clean and smoke the ship between decks. At noon our latitude was 59 deg. 40' S., longitude 135 deg. 11' W. Our observation to-day gave us reason to conjecture that we had a southerly current. Indeed, this was no more than what might reasonably be supposed, to account for such huge masses of ice being brought from the south. In the afternoon we had a few hours calm, succeeded by a breeze from the east, which enabled us to resume our N.W. by N. course.[9]

January 1st, the wind remained not long at east, but veered round by the south to the west; blew fresh, attended with snow showers. In the evening, being in the latitude of 58 deg. 39' S., we passed two islands of ice, after which we saw no more till we stood again to the south.

At five o'clock in the morning on the 2d, it fell calm; being at this time in the latitude of 58 deg. 2', longitude 137 deg. 12'. The calm being succeeded by a breeze at east, we steered N.W. by W. My reason for steering this course, was to explore part of the great space of sea between us and our track to the south.

On the 3d, at noon, being in latitude 56 deg. 46', longitude 139 deg. 45', the weather became fair, and the wind veered to S.W. About this time we saw a few small divers (as we call them) of the peterel tribe, which we judged to be such as are usually seen near land, especially in the bays, and on the coast of New Zealand. I cannot tell what to think of these birds; had there been more of them, I should have been ready enough to believe that we were, at this time, not very far from land, as I never saw one so far from known land before. Probably these few had been drawn thus far by some shoal of fish; for such were certainly about us, by the vast number of blue peterels, albatrosses, and such other birds as are usually seen in the great ocean; all or most of which left us before night. Two or three pieces of seaweed were also seen, but these appeared old and decayed.

At eight o'clock in the evening, being in the latitude of 56 deg. S., longitude 140 deg. 31' W., the wind fixing in the western board, obliged us to steer north-easterly, and laid me under the necessity of leaving unexplored a space of the sea to the west, containing near 40 deg. of longitude, and half that of latitude. Had the wind continued favourable, I intended to have run 15 or 20 degrees of longitude more to the west in the latitude we were then in, and back again to the east in the latitude of 50 deg.. This route would have so intersected the space above mentioned, as hardly to have left room for the bare supposition of any land lying there. Indeed, as it was, we have little reason to believe that there is; but rather the contrary, from the great hollow swell we had had, for several days, from the W. and N.W., though the wind had blown from a contrary direction great part of the time; which is a great sign we had not been covered by any land between these two points.

While we were in the high latitudes, many of our people were attacked with a slight fever, occasioned by colds. It happily yielded to the simplest remedies; was generally removed in a few days; and, at this time, we had not above one or two on the sick list.[10]

We proceeded N.E. by N. till the 6th, at noon. Being then in the latitude of 52 deg. 0' S., longitude 135 deg. 32' W., and about 200 leagues from our track to Otaheite, in which space it was not probable, all circumstances considered, there is any extensive land, and it being still less probable any lay to the west, from the great mountainous billows we had had, and still continued to have, from that quarter, I therefore steered N.E., with a fresh gale at W.S.W.

At eight o'clock in the morning, on the 7th, being in the latitude of 50 deg. 49' S., we observed several distances of the sun and moon, which gave the longitude as follows, viz.

By Mr. Wales, 133 deg. 24' 0" West. Gilbert, 133 10 0 Clarke, 133 0 0 Smith, 133 37 25 Myself, 133 37 0 ——————- Mean, 133 21 43

By the Watch, 133 44 0 west. My reckoning, 133 39 0 ——————- Variation of the compass, 6 2 0 East. thermometer, 50 0 0

The next morning we observed again, and the results were agreeable to the preceding observations, allowing for the ship's run. I must here take notice, that our longitude can never be erroneous, while we have so good a guide as Mr Kendall's watch. This day, at noon, we steered E.N.E. 1/2 E., being then in the latitude of 49 deg. 7' S., longitude 131 deg. 2' W.

On the 9th, in latitude 48 deg. 17' S., longitude 127 deg. 10' W., we steered east, with a fine fresh gale at west, attended with clear pleasant weather, and a great swell from the same direction as the wind.

In the morning of the 10th, having but little wind, we put a boat in the water, in which some of the officers went and shot several birds. These afforded us a fresh meal; they were of the peterel tribe, and such as are usually seen at any distance from land. Indeed, neither birds, nor any other thing was to be seen, that could give us the least hopes of finding any; and, therefore, at noon the next day, being then in the latitude of 47 deg. 51' S., longitude 122 deg. 12' W., and a little more than 200 leagues from my track to Otaheite in 1769, I altered the course, and steered S.E., with a fresh gale at S.W. by W. In the evening, when our latitude was 48 deg. 22' S., longitude 121 deg. 29' W., we found the variation to be 2 deg. 34' E., which is the least variation we had found without the tropic. In the evening of the next day, we found it to be 4 deg. 30' E., our latitude, at that time, was 50 deg. 5' S., longitude 119 deg. 1/2 W.

Our course was now more southerly, till the evening of the 13th, when we were in the latitude of 53 deg. 0' S., longitude 118 deg. 3' W. The wind being then at N.W. a strong gale with a thick fog and rain, which made it unsafe to steer large, I hauled up S.W., and continued this course till noon the next day, when our latitude was 56 deg. 4' S., longitude 122 deg. 1' W. The wind having veered to the north, and the fog continuing, I hauled to the east, under courses and close-reefed top-sails. But this sail we could not carry long; for before eight o'clock in the evening, the wind increased to a perfect storm, and obliged us to lie-to, under the mizen-stay-sail, till the morning of the 16th, when the wind having a good deal abated, and veered to west, we set the courses, reefed top-sails, and stood to the south. Soon after, the weather cleared up, and, in the evening, we found the latitude to be 56 deg. 48' S., longitude 119 deg. 8' W.[11] We continued to steer to the south, inclining to the east, till the 18th, when we stood to the S.W., with the wind at S.E., being at this time in the latitude of 61 deg. 9' S., longitude 116 deg. 7' W. At ten o'clock in the evening, it fell calm, which continued till two the next morning, when a breeze sprung up at north, which soon after increased to a fresh gale, and fixed at N.E. With this we steered south till noon on the 20th, when, being now in the latitude of 62 deg. 34' S., longitude 116 deg. 24' W., we were again becalmed.

In this situation we had two ice islands in sight, one of which seemed to be as large as any we had seen. It could not be less than two hundred feet in height, and terminated in a peak not unlike the cupola of St Paul's church. At this time we had a great westerly swell, which made it improbable that any land should lie between us and the meridian of 133 deg. 1/2, which was our longitude, under the latitude we were now in, when we stood to the north. In all this route we had not seen the least thing that could induce us to think we were ever in the neighbourhood of any land. We had, indeed, frequently seen pieces of sea-weed; but this, I am well assured, is no sign of the vicinity of land; for weed is seen in every part of the ocean. After a few hours calm, we got a wind from S.E.; but it was very unsettled, and attended with thick snow-showers; at length it fixed at S. by E., and we stretched to the east. The wind blew fresh, was piercing cold, and attended with snow and sleet. On the 22d, being in the latitude of 62 deg. 5' S., longitude 112 deg. 24' W., we saw an ice island, an antartic peterel, several blue peterels, and some other known birds; but no one thing that gave us the least hopes of finding land.

On the 23d, at noon, we were in the latitude of 62 deg. 22' S., longitude 110 deg. 24'. In the afternoon, we passed an ice island. The wind, which blew fresh, continued to veer to the west; and at eight o'clock the next morning it was to the north of west, when I steered S. by W. and S.S.W. At this time we were in the latitude of 63 deg. 20' S., longitude 108 deg. 7' W., and had a great sea from S.W. We continued this course till noon the next day, the 25th, when we steered due south. Our latitude, at this time, was 65 deg. 24' S., longitude 109 deg. 31' W.; the wind was at north; the weather mild and not unpleasant; and not a bit of ice in view. This we thought a little extraordinary, as it was but a month before, and not quite two hundred leagues to the east, that we were in a manner blocked up with large islands of ice in this very latitude. Saw a single pintadoe peterel, some blue peterels, and a few brown albatrosses. In the evening, being under the same meridian, and in the latitude of 65 deg. 44' S., the variation was 19 deg. 27' E.; but the next morning, in the latitude of 66 deg. 20' S., longitude the same as before, it was only 18 deg. 20' E.; probably the mean between the two is the nearest the truth. At this time, we had nine small islands in sight; and soon after we came, the third time, within the antartic polar circle, in the longitude of 109 deg. 31' W. About noon, seeing the appearance of land to the S.E., we immediately trimmed our sails and stood towards it. Soon after it disappeared, but we did not give it up till eight o'clock the next morning, when we were well assured that it was nothing but clouds, or a fog bank; and then we resumed our course to the south, with a gentle breeze at N.E., attended with a thick fog, snow, and sleet.

We now began to meet with ice islands more frequently than before; and, in the latitude of 69 deg. 38' S., longitude 108 deg. 12' W., we fell in with a field of loose ice. As we began to be in want of water, I hoisted out two boats and took up as much as yielded about ten tons. This was cold work, but it was now familiar to us. As soon as we had done, we hoisted in the boats, and afterwards made short boards over that part of the sea we had in some measure made ourselves acquainted with. For we had now so thick a fog, that we could not see two hundred yards round us; and as we knew not the extent of the loose ice, I durst not steer to the south till we had clear weather. Thus we spent the night, or rather that part of twenty-four hours which answered to night; for we had no darkness but what was occasioned by fogs.

At four o'clock in the morning of the 29th, the fog began to clear away; and the day becoming clear and serene, we again steered to the south with a gentle gale at N.E. and N.N.E. The variation was found to be 22 deg. 41' E. This was in the latitude of 69 deg. 45' S., longitude 108 deg. 5' W.; and, in the afternoon, being in the same longitude, and in the latitude of 70 deg. 23' S., it was 24 deg. 31' E. Soon after, the sky became clouded, and the air very cold. We continued our course to the south, and passed a piece of weed covered with barnacles, which a brown albatross was picking off. At ten o'clock, we passed a very large ice island; it was not less than three or four miles in circuit. Several more being seen a-head, and the weather becoming foggy, we hauled the wind to the northward; but in less than two hours, the weather cleared up, and we again stood south.

On the 30th, at four o'clock in the morning, we perceived the clouds, over the horizon to the south, to be of an unusual snow-white brightness, which we knew denounced our approach to field-ice. Soon after, it was seen from the top-mast-head; and at eight o'clock, we were close to its edge. It extended east and west, far beyond the reach of our sight. In the situation we were in, just the southern half of our horizon was illuminated, by the rays of light reflected from the ice, to a considerable height. Ninety- seven ice hills were distinctly seen within the field, besides those on the outside; many of them very large, and looking like a ridge of mountains, rising one above another till they were lost in the clouds. The outer or northern edge of this immense field, was composed of loose or broken ice close packed together, so that it was not possible for any thing to enter it. This was about a mile broad, within which, was solid ice in one continued compact body. It was rather low and flat (except the hills), but seemed to increase in height, as you traced it to the south; in which direction it extended beyond our sight. Such mountains of ice as these, I believe, were never seen in the Greenland seas, at least, not that I ever heard or read of, so that we cannot draw a comparison between the ice here and there.

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