A Dictionary of Austral English
by Edward Morris
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"Red gum, a wood which has of late years been exported to England in great quantities; it has all the properties of mahogany."

1868. W. Carleton, 'Australian Nights,' p. 14:

"While she, the younger, went to fill Her red-gum pitcher at the rill."

1870. J. O. Tucker, 'The Mute,' etc., p. 85:

"Then the dark savage 'neath the red gum's shade Told o'er his deeds."

1890. 'The Argus,' June 14, p. 4, col. I

"Those of the leaden hue are red gums."

Rough Gum—

1833. C. Sturt, 'Southern Australia,' vol. I. c. iii. p. 118:

"The rough-gum abounded near the creek."

Rusty Gum—

1847. L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 48:

"The range was openly timbered with white gum, spotted gum, Iron-bark, rusty gum and the cypress pine."

Salmon Gum—

1893. 'The Australasian,' Aug. 3, p. 252, col. 4:

"The chief descriptions are salmon, morrel and white gums, and gimlet-wood. The bark of the salmon gum approaches in colour to a rich golden brown, but the satin-like sheen on it has the effect of making it several shades lighter, and in the full glare of the sun it is sufficiently near a rich salmon tint to justify its name."

Silver Gum—

1888. D. Macdonald, 'Gum Boughs,' p. 113:

"When so many of our Australian trees were named 'gums,' a distinguishing prefix for each variety was clearly necessary, and so the words red, blue, yellow, white and scarlet, as marking some particular trait in the tree, have come into everyday use. Had the pioneer bush botanist seen at least one of those trees at a certain stage in its growth, the term 'silver gum' would have found expression."

Spotted Gum—

1847. L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 11:

"Ironbark ridges here and there with spotted gum . . . diversified the sameness."

Swamp Gum—

1853. 'Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Van Diemen's Land,' vol. ii, p. 132 [James Mitchell, On the Strength of Timber, etc., read Nov.12, 1851]:

"The Swamp Gum grows to the largest size of any of this family in Van Diemen's Land. Its growth is nearly twice as rapid as that of the Blue Gum: the annular layers are sometimes very large; but the bark, and the whole tree indeed, is so like the Blue Gum, as not to be easily distinguished from it in outward appearance. It grows best in moist places, which may probably have given rise to its name. Some extraordinary dimensions have been recorded of trees of this species. I lately measured an apparently sound one, and found it 21 feet in circumference at 8 feet from the ground and 87 feet to the first branches. Another was 18 1/2 feet in circumference at 10 feet from the ground, and 213 feet to the highest branch or extreme top. A third reached the height of 251 feet to the highest branch: but I am told that these are pigmies compared to the giants of even the Blue Gum species found in the southern districts."

1880. Garnet Watch, 'Victoria in 1880,' p. 100:

"Groups of native trees, including the black wattle, silver box, messmate, stringy bark, and the picturesque but less useful swamp gum."

Water Gum—

1847. L. Leichhhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 387:

"Long hollows surrounded with drooping tea-trees and the white watergums."

Weeping Gum—

1852. Mrs. Meredith, 'My Home in Tasmania,' vol. i. p. 169:

"A kind of Eucalyptus, with long drooping leaves, called the 'Weeping Gum,' is the most elegant of the family."

White Gum—

1827. Vigors and Horsfield, 'Transactions of Linnaean Society,' vol. xv. p, 278:

"The natives tell me that it [the ground-parrot] chiefly breeds in a stump of a small White Gum-tree."

1847. L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 48:

"The range was openly timbered with white gum."

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 471:

"E. leucoxylon, F. v. M. The 'blue or white gum' of South Australia and Victoria is a gum-tree with smooth bark and light-coloured wood (hence the specific name). The flowers and fruit of E. leucoxylon are very similar to those of E. sideroxylon, and in this way two trees have been placed under one name which are really quite distinct. Baron Mueller points out that there are two well-marked varieties of E. leucoxylon in Victoria. That known as 'white-gum' has the greater portion of the stem pale and smooth through the outer layers of the bark falling off. The variety known chiefly as the 'Victorian Ironbark,' retains the whole bark on the stem, thus becoming deeply fissured and furrowed, and very hard and dark coloured."

Yellow Gum—

1848. T. L. Mitchell, 'Tropical Australia,' p. 107:

"We this day passed a small group of trees of the yellow gum, a species of eucalyptus growing only on the poor sandy soil near Botany Bay, and other parts of the sea-coast near Sydney."

York Gum—

1846. J. L. Stokes, 'Discoveries in Australia,' vol. II. c. iv. p. 132:

"York gum . . . abundant in York on good soil."

Gum- (In Composition). See Gum.

1862. H. C. Kendall, 'Poems,' p. 134:

"I said to myself in the gum-shadowed glen."

1868. W. L. Carleton, 'Australian Nights,' p. 1:

"To see the gum-log flaming bright Its welcome beacon through the night."

1890. 'The Argus,' August 2, p. 4, col. 3:

"Make a bit of a shelter also. You can always do it with easily-got gum-boughs."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Colonial Reformer,' c. xvii. p. 201:

"The edge of the long, black, gum-shrouded lagoon."

Gummy, n. name given to a shark of Victorian and Tasmanian waters, Mustelus antarcticus, Gunth., and called Hound (q.v.) in New South Wales, Victoria, and New Zealand. The word Gummy is said to come from the small numerous teeth, arranged like a pavement, so different from the sharp erect teeth of most other sharks. The word Hound is the Old World name for all the species of the genus Mustelus. This fish, says Hutton, is much eaten by the Maoris.

Gum-sucker, n. slang for Victorian-born, not now much used; but it is not always limited to Victorians.

1827. P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i. p. 201:

"The acacias are the common wattles of this country; from their trunks and branches clear transparent beads of the purest Arabian gum are seen suspended in the dry spring weather, which our young currency bantlings eagerly search after and regale themselves with."

[The practice of 'gum-sucking' is here noticed, though the word does not occur.]

1855. W. Howitt, 'Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 24:

"If he had not been too 'cute to be bitten twice by the over-'cute 'gumsuckers,' as the native Victorians are called."

1890. 'Quiz '(Adelaide), Dec. 26:

"Quiz will take good care that the innocent Australians are not fooled without a warning. Really L. and his accomplices must look upon gumsuckers as being pretty soft."

Gunyah, n. aboriginal name for a black-fellow's hut, roughly constructed of boughs and bark; applied also to other forms of shelter. The spelling varies greatly: in Col. Mundy's book (1855) there are no fewer than four forms. See Humpy and Gibber. What Leichhardt saw (see quotation 1847) was very remarkable.

1798. D. Collins, 'Account of English Colony in New South Wales,' in an aboriginal vocabulary of Port Jackson, p. 610:

"Go-nie—a hut."

1830. R.Dawson, 'Present State of Australia,' p. 70:

"One of their gunyers (bark huts)."

Ibid. p. 171:

"A native encampment, consisting of eight or ten 'gunyers.' This is the native term for small huts, which are supported by three forked sticks (about three feet long) brought together at the top in a triangular form: the two sides towards the wind are covered by long sheets of bark, the third is always left open to the wind."

1833. C. Sturt, 'Southern Australia,' vol. I. c. ii. p. 78:

"We observed a fresh-made gunneah (or native hut)."

1839. T. L. Mitchell, 'Three Expeditions into the Interior of Eastern Australia,' c. ii. p. 35:

"Three huts, or gunyahs, consisted of a few green boughs, which had just been put up for shelter from the rain then falling."

1845. J. O. Balfour, 'Sketch of New South Wales,' p. 10:

"Their only habitation . . . is formed by two sheets of bark stripped from the nearest tree, at the first appearance of a storm, and joined together at an angle of 45 degrees. This, which they call a gunnya, is cut up for firewood when the storm has passed."

1846. C. P. Hodgson, 'Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 238:

"Behind appears a large piece of wood hooded like a 'gunnya' or 'umpee.'"

1847. L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 290:

"We saw a very interesting camping place of the natives, containing several two-storied gunyas."

1852. 'Settlers and Convicts; or, Recollections of Sixteen Years' Labour in the Australian Backwoods,' p. 211:

"I coincided in his opinion that it would be best for us to camp for the night in one of the ghibber-gunyahs. These are the hollows under overhanging rocks."

1852. G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes,' ed. 1855, p. 164:

"A sloping sheet of bark turned from the wind—in bush lingo, a break-weather—or in guneeahs of boughs thatched with grass." [p. 200]: "Guneah." [p. 558]: "Gunneah." [p. 606]: "Gunyah."

1860. G.Bennett, 'Gatherings of a Naturalist,' p. 114 [Footnote]:

"The name given by the natives to the burrow or habitation of any animals is 'guniar,' and the same word is applied to our houses."

1880. P. J. Holdsworth, 'Station, Hunting':

"hunger clung Beneath the bough-piled gunyah."

1885. R. M. Praed, 'Australian Life,' p. 19:

"The sleepy blacks came out of their gunyahs." [p. 52]: "A gunya of branches."

1890. Lyth, 'Golden South,' c. ii. p. 16:

"Where this beautiful building now stands, there were only the gunyahs or homes of the poor savages."

1890. A. J. Vogan, 'Black Police,' p. 98:

"One of the gunyahs on the hill. . . . The hut, which is exactly like all the others in the group,—and for the matter of that all within two or three hundred miles,—is built of sticks, which have been stuck into the ground at the radius of a common centre, and then bent over so as to form an egg-shaped cage, which is substantially thatched on top and sides with herbage and mud."

Gunyang, n. the aboriginal word for the Kangaroo Apple (q.v.), though the name is more strictly applied not to Solanum aviculare, but to S. vescum.

1877. F. von Muller, 'Botanic Teachings,' p. 106:

"The similarity of both [S. vescum and S. aviculare] to each other forbids to recommend the fruit of the Gunyang as edible."

1878. W. R. Guilfoyle, 'Australian Botany,' p. 73:

"Kangaroo Apple, Solanum aviculare. . . . The Gunyang (Solanum vescum) is another variety found in Victoria."

1888. D. Macdonald, 'Gum Boughs,' p. 222:

"A couple of tiny streams trickle across the plains to the sea, a dwarfed ti-tree, clinging low about the ground, like the gunyang or kangaroo apple, borders the banks."

Gurnard, n. i.q. Gurnet (q.v.).

Gurnet, n. The species of Trigla found in British waters, called Gurnards are of the family of Cottidae. The word Gurnet is an obsolete or provincial form of Gurnard, revived in Australia, and applied to the fish Centropogon scorpoenoides, Guich., family Scorpoenidae. The original word Gurnard is retained in New Zealand, and applied to the new species Trigla kumu (kumu being the Maori name), family Cottidae. The Flying Gurnet is Trigla polyommata, Richards., found on all the Australian coasts from New South Wales to Western Australia, family Cottidae. It is a distinct species, not included in the British species. They have large pectoral fins, but are not known to possess the power of supporting themselves in the air like the "flying fish" which belong to other genera. Sir Fredk. McCoy says that Sebastes Percoides, Richards., is called Gurnet, or Garnet-perch, by the fishermen and dealers, as well as the more common Neosebastes scorpoenoides, Guich., and Scorpoena panda, Richards.

Gutter, n. in Australian goldmining, "the lower and auriferous part of the channel of an old river of the Tertiary period " ('Century'). "The lowest portion of a lead. A gutter is filled with auriferous drift or washdirt, which rests on the palaeozoic bed-rock." (Brough Smyth, 'Glossary of Mining Terms.')

1864. J. Rogers, 'New Rush,' p. 55:

"Duffers are so common And golden gutters rare."

1871. J. J. Simpson, 'Recitations,' p. 23:

"Privations and hardships you all have to suffer Ere you can expect to get on to the gutter."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. viii. p. 81:

"If we happened to drop right down on the 'gutter' or main course of the lead, we were all right."

1890. 'Goldfields of Victoria,' p.23:

"The Company . . . are putting in a drive to strike the old Shakspeare gutter."

1891. 'The Australasian,' Nov. 21, p. 1015:

"Evidently both claims had been driving for a 'gutter.' One of them had got to the end of its tether before reaching it."

Gutter-flags, n. Flags fixed on the surface to denote where the course of a gutter or lead underground has been discovered." (Brough Smyth, 'Glossary of Mining Terms.')

Gweeon, n. a stone tomahawk of the aborigines. Gweh-un, in Mukthang language, Gippsland. Apparently a remnant of a term occurring along the east side of Australia; Burgoin, New South Wales; bulgoon and balgon, Burdekin River, Queensland; related to balgoungo, to chop.

Gymnobelideus, n. the scientific name of the genus confined to Australia of Squirrel Phalangers, or Squirrel Opossums, as they have been called. See Opossum. The name was given by Sir Frederick McCoy in 1867. Only two specimens have been found, and they are in the Melbourne Museum of Natural History. There is only one species, G. leadbeateri, M'Coy. In general form they resemble the so-called Australian Flying Squirrel (q.v.), save for the absence of the parachute. They have large naked ears. (Grk. gymnos, naked, and Latin, belideus, the Flying-Phalanger or Squirrel.)

Gymnorrhina, n. the scientific name of the Australian genus of Piping Crow-Shrikes, called locally by the vernacular name of Magpies (q.v.). They have the nostrils and beak unfeathered. (Grk. gymnos, naked, and rhis, nose.) For the species see under Magpie.


Haddock, n. The New Zealand Haddock is Gadus australis, Hutton, Pseudophycis barbatus, Gunth., and Merlucius gayi, Guich., or australis, Hutton, all belonging to the family Gadidae or Cod-fishes. The European species of Merlucius is known as the "Hake."

Haeremai, interj. Maori term of welcome, lit. come hither; haere is the verb. It has been colloquially adopted.

1769. J. Hawkesworth, 'Voyages,' vol. iii. p. 229 (ed. 1785):

"When they came near enough to be heard, they waved their hands, and called out 'Horomai.' These ceremonies we were told were certain signs of their friendly disposition."

1832. 'Henry Williams' Journal,' in H. Carleton's 'Life of Henry Williams,' p. 112:

"After breakfast we went to them all; they were very glad to see us, and gave us the usual welcome, 'Haeremai! Haeremai!'"

1845. E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' p. 249:

"As I ascended the steep hill with my train, scarcely any greeting was addressed to me, no shouts of haeremai, so universal a welcome to the stranger, were to be heard."

1863. F. E. Maning (The Pakeha-Maori ), 'Old New Zealand,' p. 14:

"The boat nears the shore, and now arises from a hundred voices the call of welcome, 'Haere mai! haere mai! hoe mai!' Mats, hands, and certain ragged petticoats all waving in the air in sign of welcome. Then a pause. Then, as the boat came nearer, another burst of haere mai! But unaccustomed as I was then to the Maori salute, I disliked the sound. There was a wailing, melancholy cadence that did not strike me as being the appropriate note of welcome."

1867. F. Hochstetter, 'New Zealand,' (English edition) p. 438:

"Rev. Mr. Chapman received me at his garden gate with a hearty welcome, the natives shouted their friendly 'haeremai,' and ere long we were all in comfortable shelter beneath the missionary's roof."

1883. F. S. Renwick, 'Betrayed,' p. 34:

"Haire mai ho! 'tis the welcome song Rings far on the summer air."

Hair-trigger, n. a Tasmanian name for any plant of genus Stylidium. Called also Trigger-plant, and Jack in a Box (q.v.).

1852. Mrs. Meredith, 'My Home in Tasmania,' vol. ii. p. 71:

"The Stylidium, or as we named it, the 'Hair-trigger,' is common all over the colony."

Haka, n. Maori word for a dance.

1845. E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' p. 198:

"A haka was now performed by about one hundred and fifty men and women. They seated themselves in ranks in one of the courtyards of the pa, stripped to the waist. An old chieftainess, who moved along the ranks with regular steps, brandishing an ornamental spear in time to her movements, now recited the first verse of a song in a monotonous, dirge-like measure. This was joined in by the others, who also kept time by quivering their hands and arms, nodding their heads and bending their bodies in accordance with each emphasis and pause."

1852. G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes,' c. xvi. p. 409 (3rd ed. 1855):

"I witnessed a national spectacle which was new to me—a sort of incantation performed by women alone—the haka, I think it is called."

1872. A.Domett, 'Ranolf,' XV. c. vi. p. 242:

"The haka-dances, where she shone supreme."

1873. 'Appendix to Journal of House of Representatives,' G. I, B., p. 8:

"Thursday was passed by them [the natives] in feasting and hakas."

1883. F. S. Renwick, 'Betrayed,' p. 34:

"A rushing throng in the furious haka share."

1896. 'Otago Witness,' Jan. 23, p. 50, col. 5:

"He also received a visit from three or four hostile natives, who, with blood-curdling yells, duly performed the indispensable haka."

Hakea, n. the scientific name given, in honour of Baron Hake of Hanover, to "a large Australian genus of plants belonging to the follicular section of the Proteaceae, tribe Grevilleae, and distinguished from Grevillea by its axillary inflorescence and samaroid seeds. The species, nearly 100 in number [Maiden's index to 'Useful Native Plants' gives sixteen], are all evergreen shrubs, or small trees, with alternate coriaceous, variously lobed, often spiny leaves. They are ornamental in cultivation, and several have acquired special names—H. ulicina, Native Furze; H. laurina, Cushion-flower; H. acicularis (Lissosperma), Native Pear; H. flexilis, Twine-bush." ('Century.')

1877. F. v. Muller, 'Botanic Teachings,' p. 50:

"Proteaceae are more extensively still represented in Victoria by the well known genera Grevillea and Hakea, the former dedicated to the Right Hon. C. F. Greville, of Paddington, the latter genus named in honour of Baron Hake, of Hanover, both having been alike patrons of horticulture at the end of the last century."

1897. 'The Australasian,' Jan. 30, p. 226, col. 3:

"Recently, according to 'Nature,' Mr. G. M. Thomson, an eminent authority on New Zealand botany, has shown that one of the genera, namely Hakea, though absent at present from the islands [of New Zealand], formerly existed there. Plant remains were found at St. Bathans, in a bed of clay, which have been identified by him as Hakea. The question of the identification of fossil plants is always a difficult one, but as Mr. Thomson announces that he has obtained fruit capsules and leaves there can be but little doubt as to the correctness of his determinations. Hitherto the genus has been regarded as Australian only, and about 100 species are known, of which no less than 65 are West Australian. It would seem then that the Hakeas had obtained a footing in Eastern Australia before the connection with New Zealand had disappeared, and that probably the genus is a far older one than had been anticipated. Why, after finding its way to New Zealand, it should have died out there is a question to which no answer can as yet be supplied."

Hand-fish, n. a Tasmanian fish, Brachionichthys hirsutus, Lacep., family Pediculati. The name is used in the northern hemisphere for a different fish, which is also called there the Frog-fish and Toad-fish. The name arises from a fancied resemblance of the profile of the fish to a human hand. It is also called Frog-fish and Tortoise-shell fish. Mrs. Meredith calls it Tortoise-shell Fish from its colour, when figuring it in 'Tasmanian Friends and Foes' under its former scientific name of Cheironectes Politus. The surface of its skin is hirsute with minute spines, and the lobe at the end of the detached filament of the dorsal fin—called the fintacle—hangs loose. The scientific names of the genus are derived from Grk. brachiown, "the arm," and cheir, "the hand." The armlike pectoral fins are used for holding on to stones or seaweed.

1850. 'Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Van Diemen's Land,' Jan. 9, vol. i. p. 268:

"A little spotted fish belonging to the genus Chironectes . . . Mr. Champ writes thus respecting the frog fish:— 'It was found in the sea at Port Arthur by a person who was with me, and when caught had all the appearance of having four legs, from the position and shape of the fins; the two longest of which, from the sort of elbow in them, and the division into (rays) what resemble fingers, seem to form a connecting link between fins and legs or arms.'"

1880. Mrs.'Meredith, 'Tasmanian Friends and Foes,' p. 249:

"It has fins like feet; one small pair where pectoral fins usually are, and a larger pair, with absolute elbows to them, and apparently shoulder-blades too, only those do not belong to the fore pair of feet! A very antipodean arrangement truly! The markings on the body and on the delicate pellucid fins are like tortoise-shell."

Hand, Old, n. one who has been a convict.

1861. T. McCombie, 'Australian Sketches,' p. 141:

"The men who have been convicts are termed 'old hands'; they are mostly rude, rough men, with no moral principle or religious feeling, and who have little sympathy for humanity."

1865. J. O. Tucker, 'Australian Story,' c. i. p. 85:

"Reformed convicts, or, in the language of their proverbial cant, 'old hands.'"

1865. F. H. Nixon, 'Peter Perfume,' p. 102:

"'Boshman' in the old-hand vernacular signifies a fiddler." ["Bosh in gypsy means music and also violin." -Barrere and Leland.]

1885. J. Rae, 'Chirps by an Australian Sparrow,' p. 99:

"The old hands were quite tidy too With hats of cabbage-tree."

Hang up, v. to tie up a horse.

1860. W. Kelly, 'Life in Victoria,' p. 49 [Footnote]:

"In Melbourne there are posts sunk in the ground almost opposite every door. . . . Fastening your horse to one of these posts is called 'hanging him up.'"

1885. H. Finch-Hatton, 'Advance Australia,' p. 32:

"We got off, hung our horses up to a tree."

1890. E. W. Hornung, 'Bride from the Bush,' p. 296:

"The mail-boy is waiting impatiently in the verandah, with his horse 'hung up' to one of the posts."

Hapalote, n. Anglicized form of Hapalotis (Grk. hapalos, soft, and 'ous, 'owtis) ear), a peculiar Australian genus of rodents of the mouse family. They are called Jumping Mice, and have soft ears, and enlarged hind limbs like the jerboa, but are not marsupial like the kangaroo. There are many species.

Hapu, n. Maori word for sub-tribe; sometimes even, family.

1857. C. Hursthouse, 'New Zealand, the Britain of the South,' vol. i. p. 162:

"The 70,000 semi-civilised natives now in New Zealand are divided into some dozen chief tribes, and into numerous sub-tribes and 'harpu.'"

1873. 'Appendix to Journals of House of Representatives,' vol. iii. G. 7, p. 87:

"Were not all your hapu present when the money was paid? My hapu, through whom the land Nvas claimed, were present: we filled the room."

1882. T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open,' p. 171:

"An important structure that engaged the united labours of the hapu."

1887. J. White, 'Ancient History of the Maori,' vol. i. p. 290:

"Each of which is subdivided again into Hapu, or smaller communities."

1891. Rev. J. Stacks, 'Report of Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science,' vol. iii. sect. G. p. 378:

"On arriving in New Zealand, or Ao-tea-roa, the crews of the colonizing fleet dispersed themselves over the length and breadth of these islands, and formed independent tribes or nations, each of which was divided into hapus and the hapus into families."

Hapuku, n. Maori name for a fish, Oligorus gigas, Gunth., called later Polyprion prognathus (see quotation, 1895), pronounced hapuka, frequently corrupted into habuka, the Groper (q.v.). It is variously called a Cod, a Perch and a Sea-Perch. See quotations.

1845 (about). 'New Plymouth's National Song,' Hursthouse's 'New Zealand,' p 217:

"Lowing herds on every side, Hapuka in every tide."

1855. Rev. R. Taylor, 'Te Ika a Maui, p. 411:

"Hapuku, or whapuku, commonly called the cod, but a much richer fish in flavour: externally it more resembles the salmon, and is known in New Holland as the dew or Jew-fish. It attains a large size and is considered the best fish of New Zealand."

1862. Anon., 'From the Black Rocks on Friday,' 'All the Year Round,' May 17, 1862, No. 160:

"A kind of codfish called by the natives whapuku or hahpuka."

1878. P. Thomson, 'Transactions of New Zealand Institute,' vol. XI. art. lii. p. 383:

"The hapuka, or groper, was in pretty regular supply."

1880. Guenther, 'Study of Fishes,' p. 392:

"The second (Oligorus gigas) is found in the sea, on the coast of New Zealand, and called by the Maoris and colonists 'Hapuku' . . . Dr. Hector, who has had opportunities of examining it in a fresh state, has pointed out anatomical differences from the Murray Cod."

1880. W. Colenso, 'Transactions of the New Zealand Institute,' vol. XIII. art. ii. p. 46:

"A feast of good things prepared—eels, and hapuku (codfish), and taro."

1884. W. D. Hay, in the 'Field,' May 10, p. 637, col. 1:

"The pakirikiri(Percis colias) is the fish to which settlers in the north of New Zealand generally give the name of whapuka."

1895. 'Oxford English Dictionary' (s.v.Cod):

"In New Zealand, a serranoid fish Polyprion prognathus, called by the Maories hapuku."

Hardhead, n, the English sportsman's name for the ruddy duck (Erismatura rubida). Applied by sportsmen in Australia to the White-eyed Duck, Nyroca australis, Gould. See Duck.

Hardwood, n. The name is applied to many Australian timbers something like teak, but especially to Backhousia bancroftii, F. v. M. and Bailey, N.O. Myrtaceae. In Tasmania, it means any gum-timber (Eucalyptus). It is in constant and universal use for building and fencing in Australia.

1888. Candish, 'Whispering Voices,' p. 108:

"Sitting on a block of hardwood . . . is the gray-haired forest feller."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. iii. p. 24:

"It was a hammer-like piece of hardwood above a plate of tin."

1891. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Sydney-side Saxon,' p. 93:

"A hardwood slab-door weighs a goodish deal, as any one may find out that has to hump it a hundred yards."

Hardyhead, n. name given in Sydney to the fish Atherina pinguis, Lacep., family Atherinidae.

Hare-Kangaroo, n. a small Kangaroo, resembling the British hare. Called also Hare-Wallaby. The scientific name is Lagorchestes (q.v.).

1871. G. Krefft, 'Mammals of Australia':

"The Hare-kangaroos, so called from their resemblance to that well known rodent, are the fleetest of the whole tribe, and though they do not exceed a common hare in bulk, they can make clear jumps of eight and ten feet high."

Hare-Wallaby, n. See Hare-Kangaroo, Wallaby, and Lagorchestes.

Harlequin-Pigeon, n. formerly referred to the genus Peristera, but now to the genus Phaps. It is commonly called in the interior the "flock" pigeon.

1847. L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 296:

"Large flocks of Peristera histrionica (the harlequin- pigeon) were lying on the patches of burnt grass on the plains."

Harmonic Thrush, n. See Port Jackson Thrush.

Harpagornis, n. a scientific name for a partly fossilised, huge raptorial bird of New Zealand. From Greek HARPA? harpax robbing, and 'ornis, a bird.

1878. A. Newton, 'Encyclopaedia Britannica,' vol. iii. p. 731:

"There is a harpagornis, a bird of prey of stature sufficient to have made the largest dinornis its quarry."

Harrier, n. English bird-name (that which harries), assigned in New Zealand to Circus gouldii, Bonap. (also called Swamp-hawk), and in Australia to C. assimilis, Jard. and Selb., or C. approximans, Bonap., called Spotted Harrier.

1888. W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 206:

"Circus Gouldi, Bonap., New Zealand harrier, or Gould's harrier."

Hat, Black, n. slang for a new immigrant.

1887. R. M. Praed, 'Longleat of Kooralbyn,' c. xxviii. p. 277:

"Lord! if I were Mr. Dyson Maddox, I'd never let it be said that a black hat had cut me out sweetheartin'."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Colonial Reformer,' c. iii. p. 21:

"A 'black hat' in Australian parlance means a new arrival."

Hat, Old. See Old-hat.

Hatter. (1) A solitary miner—miner who works without a mate partner: sc. one who has everything under his own hat.

1869. Brough Smyth, 'Goldfields of Victoria,' p. 613 ('Glossary of Mining Terms'):

"One who works alone. He differs from the fossicker who rifles old workings, or spends his time in trying abandoned washdirt. The hatter leads an independent life, and nearly always holds a claim under the bye-laws."

1884. R. L. A.Davies, 'Poems and Literary Remains,' p. 267:

"Oh, a regular rum old stick; . . . he mostly works a 'hatter.' He has worked with mates at times, and leaves them when the claim is done, and comes up a 'hatter' again. He's a regular old miser."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, 'The Miner's Right,' p. 37:

"Instead of having to take to fossicking like so many 'hatters' —solitary miners."

(2) By extension to other professions.

1893. 'The Herald' (Melbourne), Aug. 28, p. i. col. 7:

"He had been a burglar of the kind known among the criminal classes as 'a hatter.' That is to say, he burgled 'on his own hook,' never in a gang. He had never, he told me, burgled with a companion."

Hatteria, n. scientific name for a genus of reptiles containing a Lizard peculiar to New Zealand, the only living representative of the order Rhynchocephalinae. See Tuatara.

Hatting, quasi pres. partic., solitary mining. See Hatter.

1891. 'The Age,' Nov. 25, p. 6, col. 7:

"Two old miners have been hatting for gold amongst the old alluvial gullies."

Hat-tree, n. name given to a species of Sterculia, the Bottle-trees (q.v.).

Hau-hau, n. a Maori superstition. This superstition arose in Taranaki in 1864, through the crazy fancies of the chief Te Ua, who communed with angels and interpreted the Bible. The meaning of the word is obscure, but it probably referred to the wind which wafted the angels to the worshippers whilst dancing round an erect pole. Pai Marire was another name for the superstition, and signifies "good and peaceful." (See Gudgeon's 'War in New Zealand,' p. 23 sq.; also Colenso's pamphlet on 'Kereopa,' p. 4.)

Hawk, n. This common English bird-name is applied in Australia to many species—

Brown-Hawk— Hieracadiea orientalis, Sehl.

Crested-H.— Baza subcristata, Gould.

Eagle-H.— Another name for Wedge-tailed Eagle. (See Eagle and Eagle-hawk.)

Fish-H.— Another name for Osprey. (See Fish-hawk.)

Gos-H.— Astur approximans, V. and H.

Grey Gos-H.— A. cinereus, Vieill.

Lesser Gos-H.— A. cruentus, Gould.

Lesser White Gos-H.— A. leucosomus, Sharpe.

Red Gos-H.— A. radiatus, Lath.

Sparrow-H.— Accipiter cirrhocephalus, Vieill.

Striped Brown-H.— Hieracidea berigora, V. and H. [See Berigora.]

Swamp-H. [See Harrier.]

White Gos-H.— Astur novae-hollandiae, Gm.

See also Nankeen-Hawk, and Night-Hawk.

In New Zealand, the varieties appear in the quotation, 1889.

1888. W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 206: [A complete description.]

1889. Prof. Parker, 'Catalogue of New Zealand Exhibition,' p. 117:

"Of the three species recognized, two, the quail-hawk (Harpa Novae Zealandiae) and the bush-hawk (H. ferox) [or sparrow-hawk], belong to a genus peculiar to New Zealand." [The third is the New Zealand harrier, Circus Gouldi, also found in Australia.]

Hazel, n. name applied in Victoria to the tree Pomaderris apetala, Labill., N.O. Rhamnaceae.

1889. J. H. Maiden. 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 590:

"Called 'hazel' in 'Victoria. A tall shrub, or small tree. The wood is excellent, of a beautiful satiny texture, and adapted for carvers' and turners' work. [Grows in] all the colonies except Western Australia and Queensland."

Head, n. the rammer for crushing quartz in gold-mining.

1890. 'Goldfields of Victoria,' p.7:

"Forty additional heads will be shortly added to the crushing power, bringing the battery up to sixty heads."

Head-Station, n. the principal buildings, including the owner's or manager's house, the hut, store, etc., of a sheep or cattle run.

1885. Mrs. Campbell Praed [Title]:

"The Head Station."

Heart-Pea, n. i.q. Balloon-Vine (q.v.).

Heartsease, n. i.q. Brooklime, (q.v.).

Heartseed, n. i.q. Balloon-Vine (q.v.)

Heartwood. n. See Ironwood.

Heath, n. In Tasmania, where the Epacris is of very beautiful colour, this name is popularly used for Epacris impressa, Labill., N.O. Epacrideae. See Epacris.

Hedgehog-Fruit, n. Popular name applied to the fruit of Echinocarpus australis, Benth., N.O. Tiliaceae. The tree is also called Maiden's Blush (q.v.).

Hedge-Laurel, n. a name given to the tree Mapau (q.v.), an evergreen shrub of New Zealand, of the genus Pittosporum (q.v.). It has dark glossy foliage and handsome flowers, and is planted and cultivated in the form of tall garden hedges. See also Laurel.

Hei-tiki, n. Maori name for a neck ornament made of greenstone (q.v.).

1835. W. Yate, 'Account of New Zealand,' p. 151:

"The latter idea [that they are representatives of gods] was conceived from the hei-tiki being taken off the neck, laid down . . . and then wept and sung over."

1889. Dr. Hocken, 'Catalogue of New Zealand Exhibition,' p. 81:

"Hei means ornament for the neck. Tiki was the creator of man, and these are the representations of him. By a sort of license, they are occasionally taken to represent some renowned ancestor of the possessor; but wooden Tikis, some of immense size, usually represented the ancestors, and were supposed to be visited by their spirits. These might be erected in various parts of a pa, or to mark boundaries, etc. The Maories cling to them as sacred heirlooms of past generations, and with some superstitious reverence."

Helmet-Orchis, n. This English name is applied in Australia to the orchid Pterostylis cucullata, R. Br.

1852. Mrs. Meredith, 'My Home in Tasmania,' vol. ii. p. 168:

"I also found three varieties of a singular green orchis, of a helmet shape, growing singly, on rather tall slender footstalks."

Hemp, Queensland, n. name given to the common tropical weed Sida rhombifolia, Linn., N.O. Malvaceae. Called also Paddy Lucerne, and in other colonies Native Lucerne, and Jelly Leaf. It is not endemic in Australia.

Hemp-bush, n.</hw> the plant Plagianthus pulchellus, A. Gray, N.O. Halvaceae, native of Australia and New Zealand. Though not true hemp (cannabis), it yields a fibre commercially resembling it.

He-Oak, n. See Oak and She-Oak.

Heron, n. common English bird-name. The species present in Australia are—

Ashy Reef H.— Demiegretta asha, Sykes.

Great-billed H.— Ardea sumatrana, Rafll.

Grey H.— A. cinerea, Linn.

Night H.— Nycticorax caledonicus, Lath.

Reef H.— Demiegretta sacra, Gmel.

White-fronted H.— Ardea novae-hollandiae, Lath.

White-necked H.— A. pacifica, Lath.

The Cranes and the Herons are often popularly confused.

1884. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Melbourne Memories,' p. 11:

"There did I shoot . . . a blue crane—the Australian heron."

Herring, n. Various species of Clupeidae, to which the European Herring belongs, are known by this name in Australasia, and the word is also applied to an entirely different fish, Prototroctes maraena, Gunth., the Yarra Herring, Freshwater Herring, Grayling (q.v.), or Cucumber-Mullet, found in the rivers of Victoria or Tasmania. The Clupeidae are Clupea sagax (called also Maray, q.v., and Pilchard), C. sundaica, C. hypselosoma Bleek., C. novae-hollandiae, Cuv, and Val., C. vittata, Castln, (called the Smelt, q.v.), and others. In Western Australia Chatoessus erebi, Richards., is called the Perth Herring. See also Picton Herring, Aua, and Sardine.

Herring-cale, n. name given in New South Wales to the fish Olistherops brunneus, Macl., family Labridae, or Wrasses.

Hickory, n. The name Hickory is originally American, and is derived from the North-American Indian; its earliest form was Pohickery. The tree belongs to the genus Carya. The wood is excellent for gig-shafts, carriage-poles, fishing-rods, etc. The name is applied in Australia to various trees whose wood is suitable for similar purposes. In Tasmania, the name Hickory is given to Eriostemon squameus, Labill., N.O. Rutacea. Native Hickory, or Hickory-Acacia, is Acacia leprosa, Sieb., N.O. Leguminosae, and in the southern part of New South Wales, Acacia melanoxylon. (Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 358.)

1884. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Melbourne Memories,' c. v. p. 35:

"The beautiful umbrageous blackwood, or native hickory, one of the handsomest trees in Australia."

Hickory-Eucalypt, n. one of the names for the tree Eucalyptus punctata, DeC., N.O. Myrtaceae. Called also Leather-jacket (q.v.).

Hickory-Wattle, n. a Queensland name for Acacia aulacocarpa, Cunn., N.O. Leguminosae; called Hickory about Brisbane.

Hielaman, n. a word of Sydney and neighbourhood. The initial h, now frequently used by the natives, is not found in the earliest forms. The termination man is also English. Elimang (Hunter), e-lee-mong (Collins), hilaman (Ridley). A narrow shield of an aboriginal, made of bark or wood. Notice Mr. Grant's remarkable plural (1881 quotation).

1798. D. Collins, 'Account of English Colony in New South Wales,' p. 612:

"E-lee-mong-shield made of bark."

1834. L. E. Threlkeld, 'Australian Grammar,' p. 5:

"As an initial, h occurs in only a few words, such as hilaman, a 'shield.'"

Ibid. p. 10:

"As a barbarism, 'hillimung-a shield.'"

[A barbarism means with Mr. Threlkeld little more than "not belonging to the Hunter district."]

1839. T. L. Mitchell, 'Three Expeditions into the Interior of Eastern Australia,' vol. ii. p. 349:

"There is much originality in the shield or hieleman of these people. It is merely a piece of wood, of little thickness, and two feet, eight inches long, tapering to each end, cut to an edge outwards, and having a handle or hole in the middle, behind the thickest part."

1852. G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes' (edition 1355), p. 102:

"The hieleman or shield is a piece of wood, about two and a half feet long, tapering to the ends, with a bevelled face not more than four inches wide at the broadest part, behind which the left hand passing through a hole is perfectly guarded."

1865. S. Bennett, 'Australian Discovery,' p. 251:

"Hieleman, a shield. Saxon, heilan; English, helm or helmet (a little shield for the head)."

[This is a remarkable contribution to philological lore. In no dictionary is the Saxon "heilan" to be found, and a misprint may charitably be suspected. There is no doubt that the h is an English Cockney addition to the aboriginal word. It would need an ingenious fancy to connect "e-leemong" with "helm."]

1873. J. B. Stephens, 'Black Gin, etc.,' p. 26:

"No faint far hearing of the waddies banging Of club and heelaman together clanging, War shouts and universal boomeranging."

1881. A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 66:

"Nullah-nullahs, paddy-melon sticks, boomerangs, tomahawks, and heelimen or shields lay about in every direction."

Hielaman-tree, n. another name for the Bats-wing Coral (q.v.), Erythrina vespertilio, Benth., N.O. Leguminosae.

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 426:

"'Heilaman [sic] tree.' The wood is soft, and used by the aborigines for making their 'heilamans' or shields."

Hinau, n. Maori name for the New Zealand tree, Elaeocarpus dentatus, Vahl., N.O. Tiliaceae.

1845. E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. ii. p. 317:

"Another export was much talked of. This was the bark of the hinau, a large forest tree which abounds all over the country near Cook's Strait. The natives extract from this bark the black dye for their mats."

1873. 'Catalogue of Vienna Exhibition':

"Hinau—a white wood used for turner's work."


"The natives produce the black dye for their flax-work, for which purpose the bark is first bruised and boiled for a short time. When cold the flax is put into the mixture . . . it is then steeped thoroughly for two days in red swamp mud, rich in peroxide of iron."

1883. J. Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand,' p. 130:

"Hinau, a small tree about fifty feet high and eighteen inches thick in stem, with brown bark which yields a permanent blue-black dye, used for tanning . . . used by Maoris for colouring mats and baskets. Wood a yellowish brown colour and close-grained; very durable for fencing and piles."

Hoki, n. a New Zealand fish, Coryphaenoides novae-zelandiae. Coryphaenoides belongs to the family Macruridae, which are deep-sea Gadoids. See Tasmanian Whip-tail.

Holly, Native, n. name given in Australia to the tree Lomatia ilicifolia, R. Br., N.O. Proteaceae, and in Tasmania to Coprosma hirtella, Labill., N.O. Rubiaceae; called also Coffee Plant.

Holly, Smooth, n. name given to the tree Hedycarya angustifolia, A. Cunn., N.O. Monimiaceae; called also Native Mulberry.

Hollyhock-tree, n. name given to Hibiscus splendens, Fraser, N.O. Malvaceae.

Holy City, n. a nickname for Adelaide. See Farinaceous City.

1875. R. and F. Hill, 'What we Saw in Australia,' p. 264:

". . . including so many churches that we are at a loss to understand why Adelaide should, in virtue of her supposed superabundance, be nicknamed by her neighbours the Holy City."

Holy-cross Toad, n. See Catholic Frog.

Holy-Dollar, n. punning name for a dollar out of which a Dump (q.v.) had been punched.

1822. 'Hobart Town Gazette,' Aug. 10 [Proclamation by Sir Thomas Brisbane, Governor-in-Chief of New South Wales and its dependencies, then including Van Diemen's Land]

"Whereas in the Year of our Lord 1813, it was deemed expedient to send a Quantity of Spanish Dollars to the Colony. . . . And whereas His Excellency, the then Governor, thought proper to direct, that every such Dollar, with a small circular Piece of Silver, struck out of its Centre, should be current within this Territory, and every part thereof, for the Sum of Five Shillings."

[These were called holy (holey) dollars, or ring dollars, though the name does not occur in the above quotation.]

1857. D. Bunce, 'Australasiatic Reminiscences,' p. 59:

"We were more particularly struck with the character and various kinds of currency [in Tasmania in 1833]. Our first change for a pound consisted of two dumps, two holy dollars, one Spanish dollar, one French coin, one half-crown, one shilling, and one sixpence."

Honey-Ant, n. name given to various species of Ants, in which the body of certain individuals becomes enormously distended by sweet food with which they are fed by the worker ants, for whom this store of honey serves as a food supply. When the side of the distended abdomen is tapped, the ant passes the 'honey' out of its mouth, and it is then eaten. Three species are known in Australia, Camponotus inflatus, Lubbock; C. cowlei, Froggatt; and C. midas, Froggatt. The aboriginal name of the first is 'Yarumpa.'

1896. W. W. Froggatt, 'Horne Expedition in Central Australia,' pt. ii. p. 386:

"Our Australian honey ants belong to the genus Camponotus, members of which are found to all parts of the world, and are known as 'sugar-ants,' from their fondness for all kinds of sweets."

Honey-bird, n. See next word.

Honey-eater, n. an Australian bird, with a tongue specially adapted for being formed into a tube for the absorption of honey from flowers. The name is applied to the following species—

Banded Honey-eater— Myzomela pectoralis, Gould.

Black H.— M. nigra, Gould.

Black-chinned H.— Melithreptus gularis, Gould.

Black-headed H.— M. melanocephalus, Gould.

Blue-faced H.— Entomyza cyanotis, Swain. [See Blue-eye.]

Bridled H.— Ptilotis frenata, Ramsay.

Broadbent H.— Stigmatops alboauricularis, Ramsay.

Brown H.— S. ocularis, Gould.

Brown-backed H.— Glyciphila modesta, Gray.

Brown-headed H.— Melithreptus brevirostrus.

Cockerill H.- Ptilotis cockerelli, Gould.

Crescent H.— Meliornis australasiana, Shaw.

Dusky H.— Myzomela obscura, Gould.

Fasciated H.— Ptilotis fasciogularis, Gould.

Fuscous H.— P. fusca, Gould.

Gay H.— Melithreptus vinitinatus, Gould.

Golden-backed H.— M. latior, Gould.

Helmeted H.— Ptilotis cassidix, Jard.

Least H.— Stigmatops subocularis,

Long-billed H.— Meliornis longirostris, Gould.

Moustached H.— M. mystacalis, Gould.

New Holland H.— M. novae-hollandiae, Lath.

Painted H.— Entomophila picta, Gould.

Pied H.— Certhionyx leucomelas, Cuv.

Red-headed Honey-eater— Myzomela erythrocephala, Gould.

Red-throated H.— Entomophila rufigularis,

Rufous-breasted H.— E. albigularis, Gould.

Sanguineous H.— Myzomela sanguineolenta, Lath. [See Blood-bird.]

Singing H.— Ptilotis vittata, Cuv.

Spiny-cheeked H.— Acanthochaea rufigularis, Gould.

Streak-naped H.— Ptilotis filigera, Gould.

Striped H.— Plectorhyncha lanceolata, Gould.

Strong-billed H.— Melithreptus validirostris, Gould. [See also Cherry picker.]

Tawny-crowned H.— Glyciphila fulvifrons, Lewin.

Varied H.— Ptilotis versicolor, Gould.

Warty-faced H.— Meliphaga phrygia, Lath. (Called also the Mock Regent-bird, q.v.)

Wattle-cheeked H.— Ptilotis cratitia, Gould.

White-breasted H.— Glyciphila fasciata, Gould.

White-cheeked H.— Meliornis sericea, Gould.

White-eared H.— Ptilotis leucotis, Lath.

White-fronted H.— Glyciphila albifrons, Gould.

White-gaped H.— Stomiopora unicolor, Gould.

White-naped H.— Melithreptus lunulatus, Shaw. [See also Golden-Eye.]

White-plumed H.— Ptilotis penicillata, Gould.

White-quilled H.— Entomyza albipennis, Gould.

White-throated H.— Melithreptus albogularis, Gould.

Yellow H.— Ptilotis flavescens, Gould.

Yellow-eared H.— P. lewini, Swains.

Yellow-faced H.— P. chrysops, Lath.

Yellow-fronted H.— P. plumula, Gould.

Yellow-plumed H.— P. ornata, Gould.

Yellow-spotted H.— P. gracilis, Gould.

Yellow-streaked H.— P. macleayana, Ramsay.

Yellow-throated H.— P. flavicollis, Vieill.

Yellow-tinted H.— P. flava, Gould.

Yellow-tufted H.— P. auricomis, Lath.

Gould enumerated the species, nearly fifty years ago, in his 'Birds of Australia' (vol. iv.) as follows:—


Meliphaga Novae-Hollandiae, Vig. and Horsf, New Holland Honey-eater ... ... ... ... 23

M. longirostris, Gould, Long-billed H. ... 24

M. sericea, Gould, White-cheeked H. ... ... 25

M. mystacalis, Gould, Moustached H. ... ... 26

M. Australasiana, Vig. and Horsf, Tasmanian H. 27

Glyciphila fulvifrons, Swains., Fulvous-fronted H. ... ... 28

G. albifrons, Gould, White-fronted H. ... 29

G. fasciata, Gould, Fasciated H. ... ... 30

G. ocularis, Gould, Brown H. ... ... 31

Ptilotis chrysotis, Yellow-eared H.... ... 32

P. sonorus, Gould, Singing H. ... ... 33

P. versicolor, Gould, Varied H. ... ... 34

P. flavigula, Gould, Yellow-throated H. ... 35

P. leucotis, White-eared H. ... ... 36

P. auricomis, Yellow-tufted H. ... ... 37

P. cratilius, Gould, Wattle-cheeked H. ... 38

P. ornatus, Gould, Graceful Ptilotis ... 39

P. plumulus, Gould, Plumed P. ... ... 40

P. flavescens, Gould, Yellow-tinted H. ... 41

P. flava, Gould, Yellow H. ... ... 42

P. penicillatus, Gould, White-plumed H. ... 43

P. fuscus, Gould, Fuscous H. ... ... 44

P. chrysops, Yellow-faced H. ... ... 45

P. unicolor, Gould, Uniform H. ... ... 46

Plectorhyncha lanceolata, Gould, Lanceolate H. 47

Zanthomyza Phrygia, Swains., Warty-faced H. .. 48

Melicophila picata, Gould, Pied H. ... ... 49

Entomophila pitta, Gould, Painted H. ... 50

E. albogularis, Gould, White-throated H. ... 51

E. rufogularis, Gould, Red-throated H. ... 52

Acanthogenys rufogularis, Gould, Spiny-cheeked H. ... 53

Anthochaera inauris</i>, Wattled H. ... ... 54

A. Carunculata, Wattled H. ... ... 55 [Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 106.]

Myzomela sanguinolenta, Sanguineous H. ... 63

M. erythrocephala, Gould, Red-headed H. ... 64

M. pectoralis, Gould, Banded H. ... ... 65

M. nigra, Gould, Black H. ... ... 66

M. obscura, Gould, Obscure H. ... ... 67

Entomyza cyanotis, Swains., Blue-faced Entomyza 68

E. albipennis, Gould, White-pinioned H. ... 69

Melithreptus validirostris, Gould, Strong-billed H. ... ... 70

M. gularis, Gould, Black-throated H. ... 71

M. lunulatus, Lunulated H. ... ... 72

M. brevirostris, Gould,

M. chloropsis, Gould, Swan River H. ... 73

M. albogularis, Gould, White-throated H. (as well as pl. 51) ... ... 74

M. melanocephalus, Gould, Black-headed H. ... 75

Myzantha garrula, Vig. and Horsf, Garrulous H. 76

M. obscura, Gould, Sombre H. ... ... 77

M. lutea, Gould, Luteous H. ... ... 78

In the Supplement of 1869 Gould adds—


Ptilotis cassidix, Jard., Helmeted H. ... 39

P. fasciogularis, Gould, Fasciated H. ... 40

P. notata, Gould, Yellow-spotted H. ... 41

P. filigera, Gould, Streaked H. ... 42

P. Cockerelli, Gould, Cockerell's H. ... 43

Tropidorhynchus buceroides, Helmeted H. ... 44

[Note.—The Brush Wattle-birds, Friar-birds, Spine-bills, and the Yellow-throated Minah, are known as Honey-eaters, and the whole series are sometimes called Honey-birds.]

1897. A. J. Campbell (in 'The Australasian,' Jan. 23), p. 180, col. i:

"The honey-eaters or meliphagous birds are a peculiar and striking feature in Australian ornithology. As Gould points out, they are to the fauna what the eucalypts, banksias, and melaleucas are to the flora of Australia. They are closely adapted to feeding on these trees. That great author asks:— 'What can be more plain than that the brushlike tongue is especially formed for gathering the honey from the flower-cups of the eucalypti, or that their diminutive stomachs are especially formed for this kind of food, and the peculiar insects which constitute a portion of it?'"

Honey-Eucalypt, n. See Box-tree, Yellow.

Honey-flower, n. Lambertia formosa, Smith, N.O. Proteaceae.

1802. G. Barrington, 'History of New South Wales,' c. iv. p. 101:

"They . . . returned . . . dreadfully exhausted, having existed chiefly by sucking the wild honey-flower and shrubs."

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 37:

"'Honey-flower' or 'honeysuckle,' a plant as well known to small boys about Sydney as to birds and insects. It obtains its vernacular name on account of the large quantity of a clear honey-like liquid the flowers contain. After sucking some quantity the liquid generally produces nausea and headache."

Honey-plant, n. name given in Tasmania to Richea scoparia Hook., N.O. Epacris.

Honeysuckle, n. name given to the Banksias (q.v.); also called Bottle-brush (q.v.). The species are—

Coast Honeysuckle— Banksia integrifolia, Linn.

Common H.— B. marginata, Cav.

Heath H.— B. serrata, Linn.

New Zealand H.— Knightia excelsa, R.Br.

Silvery H.— Grevillea striata, R.Br.

Tasmanian H.— Banksia margirata, Cav. /sic. Probably marginata/

1834. Ross, 'Van Diemen's Land Annual,' p. 125:

"Some scattered honeysuckles, as they, are called, but which, being specimens of a ligneous evergreen shrub (Banksia Australis), my English reader will please not to assimilate in his mind's eye in any respect with the woodbine."

1846. G. H. Haydon, 'Five Years in Australia Felix,' p. 84:

"The honeysuckle (Banksia integrifolia) will greatly disappoint those who, from its name, expect to see anything similar to the sweet-scented climbers of English hedges and gardens—this being a tree attaining to thirty or forty feet in height, with spiral yellow flowers. The blossoms at the proper seasons yield a great quantity of honey, which on a dewy morning may be observed dropping from the flowers."

1848. Letter by Mrs. Perry, given in Goodman's 'Church in Victoria during Episcopate of Bishop Perry,' p. 83:

"In the course of our journey today we passed through a thin wood of honeysuckle trees, for, I should think, about three miles. They take their name from the quantity of honey contained in the yellow cone-shaped flower, which is much prized and sucked by the natives—the aborigines, I mean."

1852. Mrs. Meredith, 'My Home in Tasmania,' vol. i. p. 164:

"The honeysuckle-tree (Banksia latifolia) is so unreasonably named . . . so very unlike any sort or species of the sweet old flower whose name it so unfittingly bears. . . . The blossoms form cones, which when in full bloom, are much the size and shape of a large English teazel, and are of a greenish yellow. . . . The honeysuckle trees grow to about thirty feet in height."

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 10:

"Banksia, spp., N.O. Proteaceae. The name 'honeysuckle' was applied to this genus by the early settlers, from the fact that the flowers, when in full bloom, contain, in a greater or lesser quantity, a sweet, honey-like liquid, which is secreted in considerable quantities, especially after a dewy night, and is eagerly sucked out by the aborigines."

1892. A. Sutherland, 'Elementary Geography of British Colonies,' p. 271:

"It [banksia] is called the 'honeysuckle' by the people of Australia, though it has no resemblance to an English honeysuckle. Many of the banksias grow into stately trees."

Honeywood, n. name given in Tasmania to the tree Bedfordia salicina, DeC., N.O. Compositae; also there called Dogwood (q.v.).

Hoop-Pine, n. another name for the tree Araucaria cunninghami or Moreton-Bay Pine. See Pine.

Hoot, n. slang term for compensation, payment, money; characteristic corruption of Maori Utu (q.v.)

1896. 'Truth' (Sydney), Jan. 12:

"There are several specimens of bush slang transplanted from the Maori language. 'Hoot' is a very frequent synonym for money or wage. I have heard a shearer at the Pastoralist Union office in Sydney when he sought to ascertain the scale of remuneration, enquire of the gilt-edged clerk behind the barrier, 'What's the hoot, mate?' The Maori equivalent for money is utu, pronounced by the Ngapuhi and other northern tribes with the last syllable clipped, and the word is very largely used by the kauri-gum diggers and station hands in the North Island. The original meaning of utu in Maori is 'revenge.' When the missionaries first settled in New Zealand, they found that the savage inhabitants had no conception of any recompense except the grim recompense of blood. Under Christianizing influences the natives were induced to forego the blood-revenge for injuries, on receiving a solatium in goods or land, and so utu came to have the double meaning of revenge and recompense, and eventually became recognized as the Maori word for money."

Hop-bush, n. "the name for all species of Dodonaea" (Maiden, p. 417), N.O. Sapindaceae.

1883. F. M. Bailey, 'Queensland Flora,' Synopsis, p. 82:

"The capsules of many Dodonaeas are used for hops, and thus the shrubs are known as hop-bushes in Queensland."

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 621:

"'Hop-bush,' called 'switch-sorrel' in Jamaica, and according to Dr. Bennett, 'apiri' in Tahiti. Found in all the colonies."

Hopping-fish, or Climbing-fish, n. a fish of the north of New South Wales and of Queensland, Periophthalmus australis, Castln., family Gobiidae. Called also Skipper.

1882. Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'Fish of New South Wales,' p. 27:

"On the confines of the northern boundaries of New South Wales may be seen a very remarkable Goby called the 'Hopping-fish.' The pectoral fins are developed into regular legs, with which the fish hops or leaps along the mud flats . . . The eyes are on the top of the head, and very prominent, and moreover they can be thrust very far out of their sockets, and moved independently of one another, thus the fish can see long distances around, and overtake the small crabs in spite of the long stalks to their optics. It is a tropical form, yet it is said to be found on the mud-flats of the Richmond River."

Hops, Native, or Wild, n. In Australia, the fruit of the Hop-bush (see above), Dodonaea spp. In Tasmania, Daviesia latifolia, R.Br., N.O. Leguminosae, and called also there Bitter-Leaf.

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 23:

"'Native hops,' on account of the capsules bearing some resemblance to hops, both in appearance and taste. In the early days of settlement the fruits of these trees were extensively used, yeast and beer of excellent quality being prepared from them. They are still so used to a small extent. D. attenuata, A. Cunn., for instance, was largely used in the Western District. In times of drought cattle and sheep eat them."

1896. A. B. Paterson, 'Man from Snowy River,' p. 7:

"The wild-hop scrub grew thickly, and the hidden ground was full Of wombat-holes, and any slip was death."

Horizontal, n. a Tasmanian shrub, Anodopetalum biglandulosum, Cunn., N.O. Saxifrageae. Horizontal Scrub, peculiar to the island, occurs in the western forests; it derives its name from the direction of the growth of its lower stems, and constitutes a tedious obstacle to the progress of the traveller.

1888. R. M. Johnston, 'Geology of Tasmania' [Introd. p. vii:

"The Horizontal is a tall shrub or tree. . . . Its peculiar habit—to which it owes its name and fame—is for the main stem to assume a horizontal and drooping position after attaining a considerable height, from which ascend secondary branches which in turn assume the same horizontal habit. From these spring tertiary branchlets, all of which interlock, and form . . . an almost impenetrable mass of vegetation."

1891. 'The Australasian,' April 4: "That stuff as they calls horizontal, a mess of branches and root."

Hornerah, n. aboriginal name for a throwing-stick; a dialectic variation of Woomera (q.v.). a nonce-use.

1830. R. Dawson, 'Present State of Australia,' p. 20:

"I observed, too, that they used a stick, shaped thus _, called the hornerah (which assists them in throwing the spear)."

Horn-Ray, n. a New Zealand and Australian Ray, the fish Rhinobatus banksii, Mull and Heule. In this genus of Rays the cranial cartilage is produced into a long rostral process (Guenther): hence the name.

Horopito, n. Maori name for the New Zealand shrub, Drimys axillaris, Forst., N.O. Magnoliaceae; called also Pepper-tree (q.v.).

1847. G. F. Angas, 'Savage Life and Scenes in Australia and New Zealand,' vol. ii. p. 17:

A delicious fragrance, like that of hyacinth and jessamine mingled, filled the warm still air with its perfume. It arose from the petals of a straggling shrub, with bright green shining leaves resembling those of the nutmeg-tree; and a profusion of rich and delicate blossoms, looking like waxwork, and hanging in clusters of trumpet-shaped bells: I observed every shade of colour amongst them, from pinkish white to the deepest crimson, and the edges of the petals were irregularly jagged all round. The natives call this plant horopito."

Ibid. p. 75:

"The fuchsia and the horopito were also abundant."

1883. J. Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand, p. 129:

"Horopito, pepper-tree, winter's bark. A small slender evergreen tree, very handsome. Whole plant aromatic and stimulant; used by the Maoris for various diseases. Wood very ornamental in cabinet-work."

1889. T. Kirk, 'Forest Flora of New Zealand,' p. 1:

"The Horopito, or pepper-tree of the settlers, is an ornamental shrub or small tree occurring in woods, on the margin of which it is sometimes found in great abundance."

Horse-Mackerel, n. The name is applied in Sydney to the fish Auxis ramsayi, Castln., family Scombridae. In New Zealand it is Caranx (or Trachurus) trachurus, Cuv. and Val., which is the same fish as the Horse-Mackerel of England. This is called Yellow-tail on the Australian coasts. See Trevally.

Horseradish-tree, n. name given to Codonocarpus cotinifolius, F. v. M., N.O. Phytolaceae.

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 164:

"'Quinine-tree,' 'medicine-tree' of the interior. Called also 'horse-radish tree' owing to the taste of the leaves. The bark contains a peculiar bitter, and no doubt possesses medicinal properties. The taste is, however, quite distinct from quinine."

Horseshoe-Fern, n. name given in New Zealand to the fern Marattia fraxinia, Sm., called in Australia the Potato-Fern. See under Fern.

Hot Wind, n. an Australian meteorological phenomenon. See quotations, especially 1879, A. R. Wallace. The phrase is of course used elsewhere, but its Australian use is peculiar. The hot wind blows from the North. Mr. H. C. Russell, the Government Astronomer of New South Wales, writes—"The hot wind of Australia is a circulation of wind about the anticyclone in the rear of which, as it moves to the east, there is a strong force of wind from north to north- west, which blowing over the heated plains of the interior gathers up its excessive temperature and carries it to the southern colonies. They seldom last more than two or three days in Sydney, and the great heat by which they are remembered never lasts more than a few hours of one day, and is always a sign of the end, which is an inrush of southerly wind, the circulation forming the front of the new incoming anticyclone."

1833. C. Sturt, 'Southern Australia,' Vol. II. c. iii. p. 66:

"This was the only occasion upon which we felt the hot winds in the interior."

1846. J. L. Stokes, 'Discoveries in Australia,' Vol. II. c. vi. p. 243:

"These squalls generally succeed the hot winds that prevail at this season in South Australia, coming from the interior."

Footnote—"During the hot winds we observed the thermometer, in the direct rays of the sun, to be 135 degrees."

1846. Ibid. c. xii. p. 403:

"A hot wind set in; . . . at one time the thermometer at the public offices [Adelaide] was 158 degrees."

1849. C. Sturt, 'Expedition into Central Australia,' vol. ii. p. 90:

"I sought shelter behind a large gum tree, but the blasts of heat were so terrific that I wondered the very grass did not take fire. . . . Everything, both animate and inanimate, gave way before it: the horses stood with their backs to the wind, and their noses to the ground, without the muscular strength to raise their heads; the birds were mute, and the leaves of the trees, under which we were sitting, fell like a snow shower around us. At noon I took a thermometer, graduated to 127 degrees, out of my box, and observed that the mercury was up to 125 degrees. Thinking that it had been unduly influenced, I put it in the fork of a tree close to me, sheltered alike from the wind and the sun. In this position I went to examine it about an hour afterwards, when I found that the mercury had risen to the top of the instrument, and that its further expansion had burst the bulb. . . . We had reached our destination, however, before the worst of the hot wind set in."

1850. J. B. Clutterbuck, 'Port Phillip in 1849,' p. 25:

"The immediate cause of the hot winds has given rise to much speculation. . . . The favourite theory is that they are generated in the sandy plains of the interior, which becoming powerfully heated, pour their glowing breath upon the fertile regions of the south."

1871. Dingo, 'Australian Rhymes,' p. 7:

"A hot wind swift envelopes me In dust from foot to head."

1879. A. R. Wallace, 'Australasia,' (1893) vol. i. p. 39:

"They are evidently produced by the sinking down to the surface of that north-westerly current of heated air which . . . is always passing overhead. The exact causes which bring it down cannot be determined, though it evidently depends on the comparative pressure of the atmosphere on the coast and in the interior. Where from any causes the north-west wind becomes more extensive and more powerful, or the sea breezes diminish, the former will displace the latter and produce a hot wind till an equilibrium is restored. It is the same wind passing constantly overhead which prevents the condensation of vapour, and is the cause of the almost uninterrupted sunny skies of the Australian summer."

1879. Rev. J. H. Zillmann, 'Australian Life,' p. 40:

"Scientific men, however, tell us that those hot winds are just what make Australia so healthy a climate—that they act as scavengers, and without them the death-rate of the colonies would be alarmingly great."

Hot-windy, adj. See above.

1871. Dingo, 'Australian Rhymes,' p. 18:

"A spell that still makes me forget The dust and the hot-windy weather."

Houhere, or Hohere, n. Maori name for a New Zealand tree, Hoheria populnea, A. Cunn., N.O. Malvaceae; called also Lacebark (q.v.) and xeRibbonwood (q.v.).

1883. J. Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand,' p. 130:

"Houhere, ribbonwood of Dunedin. [The name is now more general.] An ornamental shrub-tree ten to thirty feet high. Bark fibrous and used for cordage, and affords a demulcent drink. Wood splits freely for shingles, but is not durable. . . . Bark used for making a tapa cloth by the Maoris in olden times."

1889. T. Kirk, 'Forest Flora of New Zealand,' p. 87:

"In one or other of its varied forms the 'houhere' is found in nearly every district in N.Z. It is everywhere admired for its handsome foliage, and the beauty of its pure white flowers, which are produced in vast profusion during the early winter months. . . . The bark is capable of division into a number of layers. . . . By settlers all forms are termed 'ribbonwood,' or less frequently 'lace-bark'—names which are applied to other plants; they are also termed 'thousand-jacket.'"

1895. 'Longman's Geography Reader for New Zealand,' p. 231:

"The houhere is a small tree with beautiful white flowers, and the bark splits up into thin layers which look like delicate lace; hence the plant is called lace-bark or ribbon-wood by the colonists."

Houi, n. Maori name for New Zealand tree, Ribbonwood (q.v.), N.O. Malvaceae, kindred to Hoheria, Plagianthus Betulinus, sometimes called Howi. In Maori, the verb houwere means to tie, to bind: the outer bark was used for tying.

Hound, n. (sometimes Smooth Hound), the Old World name for all the sharks of the genus Mustelus ("the Hell-hound of the Deep"); applied specially in New South Wales and New Zealand to the species Mustelus antarcticus, Guenth., also called Gummy (q.v.).

Hovea, n. scientific name for a genus of shrubs. "After Anthony Pantaleon Hove, a Polish botanist. A small genus of highly ornamental leguminous shrubs, from Australia, having blue or purple flowers in axillary clusters, or very short racemes, alternate simple leaves, and short turgid pods." ('Century.')

Huia, n. Maori name for a New Zealand bird, like a starling, Heteralocha acutirostris, Gould, of limited occurrence, chiefly found in North Island; having beak straight and short in the male, long and curved in female. The tail feathers are highly prized for ornament by the Maoris.

1845. E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 91:

"The huia is a black bird about as large as a thrush, with long thin legs and a slender semi-circular beak, which he uses in seeking in holes of trees for the insects on which he feeds. In the tail are four long black feathers tipt with white. These feathers are much valued by the natives as ornaments for the hair on great occasions. . . . The natives attracted the birds by imitating the peculiar whistle, from which it takes the name of huia."

1883. F. S. Renwick, 'Betrayed,' p. 36:

"One snow-tipped hui feather graced his hair."

1888. W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 7:

[A full description.]

Hump, to, v. to shoulder, carry on the back; especially, to hump the swag, or bluey, or drum. See Swag, Bluey, Drum.

1855. W. Howitt, 'Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 226:

"He 'humped his swag,' in digger's phrase, that is, shouldered his pack and disappeared in the woods."

1857. 'Geelong Advertiser,' quoted in 'Argus,' Oct. 23, p. 5, col. 3:

"The despised old chum bought his swag, 'humped it,' grumbled of course."

1891. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Sydney-side Saxon,' p. 93:

"A hardwood slab-door weighs a goodish deal, as any one may find out that has to hump it a hundred yards."

1893. Haddon Chambers, 'Thumbnail Sketches of Australian Life,' p. 224:

"I 'humped my swag'—i.e. tied my worldly possessions, consisting of a blanket, a pannikin, and an odd pair of boots, upon my back-and 'footed it' for the capital."

1896. H. Lawson, 'When the World was Wide,' p. 134:

"But Bill preferred to hump his drum A-paddin' of the hoof."

Hump, n. a long walk with a swag on one's back.

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. 3, p. 46:

"We get a fair share of exercise without a twenty-mile hump on Sundays."

Humpy, n. (1) a native hut. The aboriginal word is Oompi; the initial h is a Cockney addition, and the word has been given an English look, the appearance of the huts suggesting the English word hump. [The forms himbing and yamba occur along the East coast of Australia. Probably it is kindred with koombar, bark, in Kabi dialect, Mary River, Queensland.] The old convict settlement in Moreton Bay, now broken up, was called Humpy Bong (see Bung), sc. Oompi Bong, a dead or deserted settlement. The aboriginal names for hut may be thus tabulated

Gunyah ) . . . New South Wales. Goondie )

Humpy (Oompi) . . . Queensland.

Mia-mia . . . Victoria and Western Australia.

Wurley (Oorla) . . . South Australia.

Whare . . . New Zealand.

1846. C. P. Hodgson, 'Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 228:

"A 'gunyia' or 'umpee.'"

1873. J. Brunton Stephens, 'Black Gin,' p. 16:

"Lo, by the 'humpy' door, a smockless Venus."

(2) Applied to a settler's house, very small and primitive.

1881. A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 133:

"To dwell in the familiar old bark 'humpy,' so full of happy memories. The roof was covered with sheets of bark held down by large wooden riders pegged in the form of a square to one another."

1885. R. M. Praed, 'Australian Life,' p. 57:

"A lonely hut . . . and a kitchen—a smaller humpey—at the back."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Squatter's Dream,' p. 247:

"He's to bed in the humpy."

1893. Gilbert Parker, 'Pierre and his People,' p. 135:

"Shon McGann was lying on a pile of buffalo robes in a mountain hut,—an Australian would call it a humpey."

Hungry Quartz, n. a miner's term for unpromising Quartz (q.v.)

Huon-Pine, n. a large Tasmanian evergreen tree, Dacrydium franklinii, Hook, N.O. Coniferae. The timber is prized in cabinet-work, being repellent to insects, durable, and fairly easy to work; certain pieces are beautifully marked, and resemble bird's-eye maple. The Huon is a river in the south of Tasmania, called after a French officer. See Pine.

1800. J. J. Labillardiere, 'Voyage a la Recherche de la Perouse,' tom. i., Introd. p. xi:

"Ces deux flutes recurent des noms analogues au but de l'entreprise. Celle que montoit le general, Dentrecasteaux, fut nommee la Recherche, et l'autre, commandee par le major de vaisseau, Huon Kermadec, recut le nom de l'Esperance. . . . Bruny Dentrecasteaux [fut le] commandant de l'expedition, [et] Labillardiere [fut le] naturaliste."

[Of these gentlemen of France and their voyage the names Bruni Island, D'Entrecasteaux Channel, Recherche Bay, Port Esperance, Kermandie [sic] River, Huon Island, Huon River, perpetuate the memory in Southern Tasmania, and the Kermadec Islands in the Southern Ocean.]

1820. C. Jeffreys, R.N., 'Geographical and Descriptive Delineations of the Island of Van Diemen's Land,' p. 28:

"On the banks of these newly discovered rivers, and the harbour, grows the Huon Pine (so called from the river of that name, where it was first found)."

1829. 'The Tasmanian Almanack,' p. 87:

"1816. Huon pine and coal discovered at Port Davey and Macquarie Harbour."

1832. J. Bischoff, 'Van Diemen's Land,' Vol. ii. p. 23:

"Huon-pine is by far the most beautiful wood found in the island."

1852. G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes,' (edition 1855) p. 515:

"Knots of the beautiful Huon pine, finer than bird's-eye maple for ornamental furniture."

1865. Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'History of the Discovery and Exploration of Australia,' vol. i. p. 71:

"The river was named the Huon, and has since become celebrated for the production which yields the pretty cabinet-wood known as Huon pine."

1890. Lyth, 'Golden South,' c. xii. p. 102:

"The huon-pine is of immense height and girth."

Hut, n. the cottage of a shepherd or a miner. The word is English but is especially common in Australia, and does not there connote squalor or meanness. The "Men's Hut" on a station is the building occupied by the male employees.

1844. 'Port Phillip Patriot,' July 11, pt. 1, c. 3:

"At the head station are a three-roomed hut, large kitchen, wool-shed, etc."

1862. G. T. Lloyd, 'Thirty-three Years in Tasmania,' p. 21:

"If a slab or log hut was required to be erected . . . a cart-load of wool was pitchforked from the wasting heap, wherewith to caulk the crevices of the rough-hewn timber walls."

1884. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Melbourne Memories,' c. vi. p. 42:

"'The hut,' a substantial and commodious structure, arose in all its grandeur."

1890. Id. 'Miner's Right,' c. vi. p. 62:

"Entering such a hut, as it is uniformly, but in no sense of contempt, termed—a hut being simply lower in the scale than a cottage—you will find there nothing to shock the eye or displease the taste."

1891. W. Tilley, 'Wild West of Tasmania,' p. 29:

"Bark and weatherboard huts alternating with imposing hotels and stores."

Hut-keep, v. to act as hut-keeper.

1865. S. Sidney, 'Three Colonies of Australia,' p. 380

"At this, as well as at every other station I have called at, a woman 'hutkeeps,' while the husband is minding the sheep."

1890. 'Melbourne Argus,' June 14th, p. 4, col. 2:

"'Did you go hut-keeping then?' 'Wrong again. Did I go hut-keeping? Did you ever know a hut-keeper cook for sixty shearers?'"

Hut-keeper, n. Explained in quotations.

1802. D. Collins, 'Account of New South Wales,' vol. ii. p. 285:

"Old men, unfit for anything but to be hut-keepers who were to remain at home to prevent robbery, while the other inhabitants of the hut were at labour."

1846. J. L. Stokes, 'Discoveries in Australia,' vol. II. c. iii. p. 458

"My object was to obtain these heads, which the . . . hut-keeper instantly gave."

1853. G. Butler Earp, 'What we Did in Australia,' p. 17:

"The lowest industrial occupation in Australia, viz. a hut-keeper in the bush . . . a station from which many of the wealthiest flockmasters in Australia have risen."

1883. E. M. Curr, 'Recollections of Squatting in Victoria' (1841-1851), p. 21:

"A bush hut-keeper, who baked our damper, fried our chops."

Hyacinth, Native, n. a Tasmanian flower, Thelymitra longifolia, R. and G. Forst., N.O. Orchideae.

Hyaena, n. See Thylacine, and Tasmanian Tiger.

Hypsiprymnodon, n. the scientific name of the genus of the Australian animal called Musk Kangaroo. (Grk. hupsiprumnos, with a high stern.) A very small, rat-like, arboreal kangaroo, about ten inches long. The strong musky odour from which it takes its vernacular name is perceptible in both sexes.

1874. R. Lydekker, 'Marsupialia,' p. 73:

"The third and last subfamily (Hypsiprymnodontidae) of the Macropodidae is represented solely by the remarkable creature known, from its strong scent, as the Musk-kangaroo."


Ibis, n. There are twenty-four species of this bird distributed over all the warmer parts of the globe. Those present in Australasia are—

Glossy (Black, or Bay) Ibis— Ibis falcinellus, Linn.

Straw-necked I.— Geronticus spinnicollis, Jameson.

White I.— Threskiornis strictipennis, Gould.

Of these the last two are confined to Australia, the first is cosmopolitan.

1847. L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 155:

"All they had for supper and breakfast were a straw-coloured ibis, a duck and a crow."

Ibid. p. 300:

"Crows were feasting on the remains of a black Ibis."

1848. J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. vi.:

"Geronticus spinicollis, straw-necked ibis (pl. 45). This beautiful ibis has never yet been discovered out of Australia, over the whole of which immense country it is probably distributed."

"Threskiornis strictipennis, white ibis" (pl. 46).

"Ibis falcinellus, Linn., glossy ibis" (pl. 47).

1892. 'The Australasian,' April 9, p. 707, col. 4:

"When the hoarse-voiced jackass mocked us, and the white-winged ibis flew Past lagoons and through the rushes, far away into the blue."

Ice-Plant, n. Tasmanian name for Tetragonia implexicoma, Hook., N.O. Ficoideae, B. Fl. Various species of Tetragonia are cultivated as Spinach (q.v.).

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 63:

"Called 'ice-plant' in Tasmania. Baron Mueller suggests that this plant be cultivated for spinach. [Found in] all the colonies except Queensland."

Identity, Old, n. phrase denoting a person well known in a place. a term invented in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1862, in a popular topical song, by Mr. R. Thatcher, an improvisator. In the song the "Old Identity," the former resident of Dunedin, was distinguished from the "New Iniquity," as the people were termed who came from Australia.

1879. W. J. Barry, 'Up and Down,' p. 197:

"The old identities were beginning to be alive to the situation."

1894. 'Sydney Morning Herald,' Oct.:

"It is permissible to wonder about the origin of the phrase 'an old identity.' Surely no man, however old, can be an identity? An entity he is, or a nonentity; an individual, a centenarian, or an oldest inhabitant; but identity is a condition of sameness, of being identical with something. One can establish one's identity with that of some one who is being sought or sued, but once established it escapes us."

Inaka, n. a fish. See Inanga.

Inanga or Inaka, n. (the ng as in the word singer, not as in finger), a New Zealand fish, Galaxias attenuatus, or Retropinna richardsoni. It is often called the Whitebait and Minnow, and in Tasmania the larger variety is called Jolly-tail. The change from Inanga to Inaka is a dialectal Maori variation, answering exactly to the change from North Island Kainga to South Island Kaik (q.v.).

1845. E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. ii. p. 100:

"This fish is called hinanga [sic.], and resembles Blackwall white-bait in size and flavour. Its colour is a pinkish white, spotted with black."

1896. 'The Australasian,' Aug. 28, p. 407, col. 3:

"About the same size as this fish [the cockabully] is the 'inaka' much used for bait. Indeed, it is called the New Zealand whitebait. A friend from Victoria having used this bait, I asked him to spell the name of the fish, and he wanted to make it like the patriarch who 'walked with God' —Enoch-a. The more correct shape of the Maori word is inanga; but in the South Island 'k' often takes the place of that distinctive Maori letter 'ng,' as 'kainga' becomes kaik; ngaio, kaio."

Inchman, n. a Tasmanian name for the Bull-dog Ant (q.v.), from its length, which is sometimes nearly an inch.

Indians, pl. n. early and now obsolete name for the Aboriginals in Australia and even for the Maoris.

1769. J. Banks, 'Journal,' Oct. 21 (Sir J. D. Hooker edition), p. 191:

"We applied to our friends the Indians for a passage in one of their canoes."

[These were Maoris.]

1770. Ibid. April 28:

"During this time, a few of the Indians who had not followed the boat remained on the rock opposite the ship, threatening and menacing with their pikes and swords."

[These were Australian Aboriginals.]

1825. Barron Field, 'Geographical Memoirs of New South Wales,' p. 437:

"Some of the Indians have also seriously applied to be allowed convict labourers, as the settlers are, although they have not patience to remain in the huts which our Government has built for them, till the maize and cabbage that have been planted to their hands are fit to gather."

1830. 'The Friend of Australia,' p. 244:

"It is the observation of some writers, that the system pursued in Australia for educating the children of the Indians is not attended with success. The black children will never do any good there, until some other plan is commenced . . ."

Indigo, Native, n. all the species of Swainsonia, N.O. Leguminosae, are called "Native Indigos." See Indigo-plant. In Tasmania, the Native Indigo is Indigofera australis, Willd., N.O. Leguminosae. The plants are also called Indigo-plant and Darling-pea (q.v.). Swainsonia belongs to the same N.O. as Indigofera tinctoria, which furnishes the Indigo of commerce.

1826. J. Atkinson, 'Agriculture and Grazing in New South Wales,' p. 24:

"Indigo brushes are not very common; the timber in these is generally white or blackbutted gum; the ground beneath is covered with the native indigo, a very beautiful plant, with a light purple flower."

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 140:

"The 'darling-pea' or 'indigo-plant' is a dreaded plant from the great amount of loss it has inflicted on stockowners. Its effect on sheep is well known; they separate from the flock, wander about listlessly, and are known to the shepherds as ' pea-eaters,' or 'indigo-eaters.' When once a sheep takes to eating this plant it seldom or never fattens, and may be said to be lost to its owner. The late Mr. Charles Thorn, of Queensland, placed a lamb which had become an 'indigo-eater' in a small paddock, where it refused to eat grass. It, however, ate the indigo plant greedily, and followed Mr. Thorn all over the paddock for some indigo he held in his hand."

Indented Servants, n. same as Assigned (q.v.) Servants.

1810. 'History of New South Wales' (1818), p. 352:

"Public Notice. Secretary's Office, Sydney, July 21, 1810. A ship being daily expected to arrive here from England with female convicts, whom it is His Excellency the Governor's intention to distribute among the settlers, as indented servants. . . ."

Ink-plant, n. another name for the "toot," a New Zealand shrub, Coriaria thymifolia, N.O. Coriarieae. Called Ink-plant on account of its juice, which soon turns to black. There is also an European Ink-plant, Coriaria myrtifolia, so that this is only a different species.

Ironbark, n. Early settlers gave this name to several large Eucalypts, from the hardness of their bark, especially to E. leucoxylon, F. v. M., and E. resinifera, Smith. In Queensland it is applied to E. siderophloia, Benth. See also Leguminous Ironbark, and Lemon-scented Ironbark.

1802. G. Barrington, 'History of New South Wales,' c. viii. p. 263:

"A species of gum-tree, the bark of which on the trunk is that of the ironbark of Port Jackson."

1830. R. Dawson, 'Present State of Australia,' p. 183:

"It was made out of a piece of bark from a tree called ironbark (nearly as hard when dry as an English elm-board)."

1865. Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'History of the Discovery and Exploration of Australia,' vol. ii. p. 45:

"But this gradually changed to an ironbark (Eucalyptus resinifera) and cypress-pine forest."

187. T. Laslett, 'Timber and Timber Trees', p. 199:

"The Ironbark-tree (Eucalyptus resinifera) is . . . widely spread over a large part of Australia. . . . A lofty forest tree of moderate circumference. . . . It is believed to have been named as above by some of the earliest Australian settlers on account of the extreme hardness of its bark; but it might with equal reason have been called ironwood. The wood is of a deep red colour, very hard, heavy, strong, extremely rigid, and rather difficult to work . . . used extensively in shipbuilding and engineering works in Australia; and in this country (England) it is employed in the mercantile navy for beams, keelsons, and . . . below the line of flotation."

1883. G. W. Rusden, 'History of Australia,' vol. i. p. 77:

"The ironbark (Eucalyptus sideroxylon) became from its durability a synonym for toughness."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. xxvii. p. 248:

"The corrugated stems of the great ironbark trees stood black and columnar."

1893. 'The Age,' May 11, p. 7, col. 3, (advt.):

"Monday, 15th May.—Supply in one or more contracts of not less than 20 beams of 400 ironbark or box beams for cattle pits, delivered at any station. Particulars at the office of the Engineer for Existing Lines."

With qualifications. Silver-leaved—

1847. L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 65:

"The silver-leaved ironbark (Eucalyptus pulverulentus) was here coming into blossom."


1847. Ibid. p. 154:

"The narrow-leaved ironbark [grew] on a lighter sandy soil."

Iron hand, a term of Victorian politics. It was a new Standing Order introducing what has since been called the Closure, and was first moved in the Victorian Legislative Assembly on Jan. 27, 1876.

1876. 'Victorian Hansard,' Jan. 20, vol. xxiii. p. 2002:

"They [the Government] have dealt with the Opposition with a velvet glove; but the iron hand is beneath, and they shall feel it."

1884. G. W. Rusden, 'History of Australia,' vol. iii. p. 406:

"The cloture, or the 'iron hand,' as McCulloch's resolution was called, was adopted in Victoria, for one session."

Ironheart, n. a New Zealand tree, Metrosideros tomentosa, N.O. Myrtaceae; native name, Pohutukawa.

1872. A. Domett, 'Ranolf,' p. 311:

"It was the 'downy ironheart' That from the cliffs o'erhanging grew, And o'er the alcove, every part, Such beauteous leaves and blossoms threw."

"Note.—This most lovely tree is common about the northern coasts and cliffs of the North Island and the banks of Lake Tarawera."

Ironwood, n. The name is used of many hard-wooded trees in various parts of the world. The Australian varieties are—

Ironwood (Queensland)— Acacia excelsa, Benth., N.O. Leguminosae; Melaleuca genistifolia, Smith, N.O. Myrtaceae.

Ironwood (North Queensland)— Myrtus gonoclada, F. v. M., N.O. Myrtaceae.

Ironwood (North New South Wales)— Olea paniculata, R.Br., N.O. Jasmineae.

Ironwood (Tasmania)— Notelaea ligustrina, Vent., N.O. Jasmineae.

Scrub Ironwood— Myrtus hillii, Benth., N.O. Myrtaceae.

For Ironwood of New Zealand, see Puriri.

1802. G. Barrington, 'History of New South Wales,' c. xii. p. 479:

"A club of iron-wood, which the cannibals had left in the boat."

1823. W. B. Cramp, 'Narrative of a Voyage to India,' p. 17:

". . . they have a short club made of iron wood, called a waday, and a scimeter made of the same wood."

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 579:

"'Ironwood' and 'Heartwood' of Tasmania; 'Spurious Olive,' 'White Plum' of Gippsland. An exceedingly hard, close-grained wood, used for mallets, sheaves of blocks, turnery, etc. The heartwood yields a very peculiar figure ; it is a very fair substitute for lignum-vitae."

Irriakura, n. an aboriginal name for the tubers of Cyperus rotundus, Linn., N.O. Cyperaceae, adopted by white men in Central Australia.

1896. E. C. Stirling, 'Home Expedition in Central Australia,' Anthropology, p. 60:

"Cyperus rotundus. In almost every camp we saw large quantities of the tunicated tubes of this plant, which are generally called 'Erriakura' or 'Irriakura' by the Arunta natives. . . Even raw they are pleasant to the taste, having an agreeable nutty flavour, which is much improved by the slight roasting."

Ivory-wood, n. an Australian timber, Siphonodon australe, Benth., N.O. Celastrinae.

Ivy, n. a child's name for the ivy-leaf geraniums, especially the double pink-flowered one called Madame Kruse. In Australia the warm climate makes these all evergreens, and they are trained over fences and walls, sometimes to the height of twenty or thirty feet, supplanting the English ivy in this use, and covered with masses of flowers.

Ivy, Native, an Australian plant, Muehlenbeckia adpressa, Meissn., N.O. Polygonaceae; called also Macquarie Harbour Vine, or Grape. The name is widely applied also to the acclimatised Cape Ivy, or German Ivy (Senecio scandens).

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 46:

"'Native Ivy,' Macquarie Harbour Vine or Grape of Tasmania. The currant-like fruits are sub-acid, and were, and perhaps still are, used for tarts, puddings, and preserves; the leaves taste like sorrel."

Ivy, Wild, n. an Australian creeper, Platylobium triangulare, R. Br., N.O. Leguminosae.

Ivy-tree, n. New Zealand tree, genus Panax, N.O. Araliacae; Maori name, Horoeka. It is also called Lancewood (q.v.).

1883. J. Hector, 'Handbook of New' Zealand,' p. 127:

"Horoeka, ivy-tree. an ornamental, slender, and sparingly-branched tree. Wood close-grained and tough."


Jabiru, n. The word comes from Brazil, and was first given there to the large stork Mycteria (Xenorhynchus) Americana. The Australian species is M. australis, Lath. It has the back and neck dark grey, changing on the neck to scarlet. There is a black-necked stork in Australia (Xenorhynchus asiaticus), which is also called the Jabiru.

1847. L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 194:

"We saw a Tabiroo [sic] (Mycteria)."

1860. G. Bennett, 'Gatherings of a Naturalist,' p. 195:

"In October, 1858, I succeeded in purchasing a fine living specimen of the New Holland Jabiru, or Gigantic Crane of the colonists (Mycteria Australis)"

1890. C. Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals,' p. 323:

"The splendid Australian jabiru (Mycteria Australis), and I had the good fortune to shoot on the wing a specimen of this beautiful variety of the stork family."

Jacana, n. a Brazilian word for a bird of the genus Parra (q.v.). The Australian species is the Comb-crested Jacana, Parra gallinacea, Temm. It is also called the Lotus-bird (q.v.).

Jack in a Box, i.q. Hair-trigger (q.v.).

1854. 'The Home Companion,' p. 554:

"When previously mentioning the elegant Stylidium graminifolium (grass-leaved Jack-in-a-box), which may be easily known by its numerous grassy-like radical leaves, and pretty pink flowers, on a long naked stem, we omitted to mention a peculiarity in it, which is said to afford much amusement to the aborigines, who are, generally speaking, fond of, and have a name for, many of the plants common in their own territories. The stigma lies at the apex of a long column, surrounded and concealed by the anthers. This column is exceedingly irritable, and hangs down on one side of the flower, until it is touched, when it suddenly springs up and shifts to the opposite side of the blossom or calyx."

1859. D. Bunce, 'Australasiatic Reminiscences,' p. 26:

"Stylidium (native Jack in a box). This genus is remarkable for the singular elasticity of the column stylis, which support the anthers, and which being irritable, will spring up if pricked with a pin, or other little substance, below the joint, before the pollen, a small powder, is shed, throwing itself suddenly over, like a reflex arm, to the opposite side of the flower. Hence the colonial designation of Jack in a box."

Jack the Painter, n. very strong bush-tea, so called from the mark it leaves round the drinker's mouth.

1855. G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes,' p. 163:

"Another notorious ration tea of the bush is called Jack the Painter—a very green tea indeed, its viridity evidently produced by a discreet use of the copper drying-pans in its manufacture."

1878. 'The Australian,' vol. i. p. 418:

"The billy wins, and 'Jack the Painter' tea Steams on the hob, from aught like fragrance free."

1880. Garnet Walch, 'Victoria in 1880,' p. 113

"Special huts had to be provided for them [the sundowners], where they enjoyed eleemosynary rations of mutton, damper, and 'Jack the Painter.'"

Jackaroo, n. a name for a Colonial Experience (q.v.), a young man fresh from England, learning squatting; called in New Zealand a Cadet (q.v.). Compare the American "tenderfoot." A verse definition runs:

"To do all sorts and kinds of jobs, Help all the men Jacks, Bills or Bobs, As well as he is able. To be neither boss, overseer, nor man, But a little of all as well as he can, And eat at the master's table."

The word is generally supposed to be a corruption (in imitation of the word Kangaroo) of the words "Johnny Raw." Mr. Meston, in the 'Sydney Bulletin,' April 18, 1896, says it comes from the old Brisbane blacks, who called the pied crow shrike (Strepera graculina) "tchaceroo," a gabbling and garrulous bird. They called the German missionaries of 1838 "jackeroo," a gabbler, because they were always talking. Afterwards they applied it to all white men.

1880. W. Senior, 'Travel and Trout,' p. 19:

"Jackaroos—the name given to young gentlemen newly arrived from home to gather colonial experiences."

1881. A. C. Grant 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 53:

"The young jackaroo woke early next morning."

[Footnote]: "The name by which young men who go to the Australian colonies to pick up colonial experience are designated."

1885. H. Finch-Hatton, 'Advance Australia,' p. 85:

"Of course before starting on their own account to work a station they go into the bush to gain colonial experience, during which process they are known in the colony as 'jackaroos.'"

1891. Rolf Boldrewood, 'A Sydneyside Saxon,' p. 74:

"We went most of the way by rail and coach, and then a jackaroo met us with a fine pair of horses in a waggonette. I expected to see a first cousin to a kangaroo, when the coachdriver told us, instead of a young gentleman learning squatting."

1894. 'Sydney Morning Herald' (date lost):

"'Jack-a-roo' is of the same class of slang; but the unlucky fellow—often gentle and soft-handed—who does the oddwork of a sheep or cattle station, if he finds time and heart for letters to any who love him, probably writes his rue with a difference."

Jackaroo, v. to lead the life of a Jackaroo.

1890. Tasma, 'In her Earliest Youth,' p. 152:

"I've seen such a lot of those new chums, one way and another. They knock down all their money at the first go-off, and then there's nothing for them to do but to go and jackaroo up in Queensland."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Squatter's Dream,' c. xix. p. 239:

"A year or two more Jackerooing would only mean the consumption of so many more figs of negro-head, in my case."

Jackass-fish, n. another Sydney name for the Morwong (q.v.).

Jackass, Laughing, n. (1) The popular name of an Australian bird, Dacelo gigas, Bodd, the Great Brown Kingfisher of Australia; see Dacelo. To an Australian who has heard the ludicrous note of the bird and seen its comical, half-stupid appearance, the origin of the name seems obvious. It utters a prolonged rollicking laugh, often preceded by an introductory stave resembling the opening passage of a donkey's bray.

But the name has been erroneously derived from the French jacasse, as to which Littre gives "terme populaire. Femme, fille qui parle beaucoup." He adds, that the word jacasse appears to come from jacquot, a name popularly given to parrots and magpies, our "Poll." The verb jacasser means to chatter, said of a magpie. The quotation from Collins (1798) seems to dispose of this suggested French origin, by proving the early use of the name Laughing Jackass. As a matter of fact, the French name had already in 1776 been assigned to the bird, viz. Grand Martin-pecheur de la Nouvelle Guinee. [See Pierre Sonnerat, 'Voyage a la Nouvelle Guinee' (Paris, 1776), p. 171.] The only possibility of French origin would be from the sailors of La Perouse. But La Perouse arrived in Botany Bay on January 26, 1788, and found Captain Phillip's ships leaving for Sydney Cove. The intercourse between them was very slight. The French formed a most unfavourable idea of the country, and sailed away on March 10. If from their short intercourse, the English had accepted the word Jackass, would not mention of the fact have been made by Governor Phillip, or Surgeon White, who mention the bird but by a different name (see quotations 1789, 1790), or by Captain Watkin Tench, or Judge Advocate Collins, who both mention the incident of the French ships?

The epithet "laughing" is now often omitted; the bird is generally called only a Jackass, and this is becoming contracted into the simple abbreviation of Jack. A common popular name for it is the Settlers'-Clock. (See quotations—1827, Cunningham; 1846, Haydon; and 1847, Leichhardt.) The aboriginal name of the bird is Kookaburra (q.v.), and by this name it is generally called in Sydney; another spelling is Gogobera.

There is another bird called a Laughing Jackass in New Zealand which is not a Kingfisher, but an Owl, Sceloglaux albifacies, Kaup. (Maori name, Whekau). The New Zealand bird is rare, the Australian bird very common. The so-called Derwent Jackass of Tasmania is a Shrike (Cracticus cinereus, Gould), and is more properly called the Grey Butcher-bird. See Butcher-bird.

1789. Governor Phillip, 'Voyage,' p. 287:

Description given with picture, but under name "Great Brown Kingsfisher" [sic].

Ibid. p. 156:

Similar bird, with description and picture, under name "Sacred King's Fisher."

1790. J. White, 'Voyage to New South Wales,' p. 137:

"We not long after discovered the Great Brown King's Fisher, of which a plate is annexed. This bird has been described by Mr. Latham in his 'General Synopsis of Birds,' vol. ii. p. 603.

Ibid. p. 193:

"We this day shot the Sacred King's-Fisher (see plate annexed)."

1798. Collins, 'Account of English Colony in New South Wales,' p. 615, (Vocabulary):

"Gi-gan-ne-gine. Bird named by us the Laughing Jackass. Go-con-de—inland name for it."

1827. P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i. p. 232:

"The loud and discordant noise of the laughing jackass (or settler's-clock, as he is called), as he takes up his roost on the withered bough of one of our tallest trees, acquaints us that the sun has just dipped behind the hills."

1827. Vigors and Horsfield, 'Transactions of Linnaean Society,' vol. xv. p. 204:

"The settlers call this bird the Laughing Jackass. I have also heard it called the Hawkesbury-Clock (clocks being at the period of my residence scarce articles in the colony, there not being one perhaps in the whole Hawkesbury settlement), for it is among the first of the feathered tribes which announce the approach of day."

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