A Dictionary of Austral English
by Edward Morris
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(3) To search for gold generally, even by stealing.

1861. T. McCombie, 'Australian Sketches,' p. 60:

"A number of idle and disorderly fellows had introduced a practice which was termed 'fossicking.' . . . In the dead hours of midnight they issued forth, provided with wax tapers, and, entering upon the ground, stole the auriferous earth."

(4) To search about for anything, to rummage.

1870. S. Lemaitre, 'Songs of Goldfields,' p. 14:

"He ran from the flat with an awful shout Without waiting to fossick the coffin lid out."

1890. 'The Argus,' Aug. 2, p. 4, col. 3:

"Half the time was spent in fossicking for sticks."

1891. 'The Argus,' Dec. 19, p. 4, col. 2:

"I was . . . a boy fossicking for birds' nests in the gullies."

1893. 'The Australasian,' Jan. 14:

"The dog was fossicking about."

Fossicker, n. one who fossicks, sc. works among the tailings of old gold-mines for what may be left.

1853. C. Rudston Read, 'What I heard, saw, and did at the Australian Gold Fields,' p. 150:

"The man was what they called a night fossicker, who slept, or did nothing during the day, and then went round at night to where he knew the claims to be rich, and stole the stuff by candle-light."

1861. T. McCombie, 'Australian Sketches,' p. 87:

"I can at once recognize the experienced 'fossickers,' who know well how to go to work with every chance in their favour."

1864. J. Rogers, 'New Rush,' pt. ii. p. 32:

"Steady old fossickers often get more Than the first who open'd the ground."

1869. R. Brough Smyth, 'Goldfields of Victoria,' p. 612:

"A fossicker is to the miner as is the gleaner to the reaper; he picks the crevices and pockets of the rocks."

1891. 'The Australasian,' Nov. 21, p. 1015:

"We had heard that, on this same field, years after its total abandonment, a two hundred ounce nugget had been found by a solitary fossicker in a pillar left in an old claim."

1891. 'The Argus,' Dec. 19, p. 4, col. 2:

"The fossickers sluiced and cradled with wonderful cradles of their own building."

Four-o'clock, n. another name for the Friar-bird (q.v.).

Free-select, v. to take up land under the Land Laws. See Free-selector. This composite verb, derived from the noun, is very unusual. The word generally used is to select.

1884. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Melbourne Memories,' c. xix. p. 134:

"Everything which he could have needed had he proceeded to free-select an uninhabited island."

Free-selection, n. (1) The process of selecting or choosing land under the Land Laws, or the right to choose. Abbreviated often into Selection. See Free-selector.

1865. 'Ararat Advertiser' [exact date lost]:

"He was told that the areas open for selection were not on the Geelong side, and one of the obliging officials placed a plan before him, showing the lands on which he was free to choose a future home. The selector looked vacantly at the map, but at length became attracted by a bright green allotment, which at once won his capricious fancy, indicating as it did such luxurious herbage; but, much to his disgust, he found that 'the green lot' had already been selected. At length he fixed on a yellow section, and declared his intention of resting satisfied with the choice. The description and area of land chosen were called out, and he was requested t0 move further over and pay his money. 'Pay?' queried the fuddled but startled bona fide, 'I got no money (hic), old 'un, thought it was free selection, you know.'"

1870. T. H. Braim, 'New Homes,' ii. 87:

"A man can now go and make his free selection before survey of any quantity of land not less than 40 nor more than 320 acres, at twenty shillings an acre."

1878. 'The Australian,' vol. i. p. 743:

"You may go to nine stations out of ten now without hearing any talk but 'bullock and free-selection.'"

1880. G. Sutherland, 'Tales of Goldfields,' p. 82:

"His intention . . . was to take up a small piece of land under the system of 'free-selection.'"

1884. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Melbourne Memories,' c. xx. p. 162:

"This was years before the free-selection discovery."

(2) Used for the land itself, but generally in the abbreviated form, Selection.

1887. R. M. Praed, 'Longleat of Kooralbyn,' vol. vi, p. 56:

"I've only seen three females on my selection since I took it up four years last November."

Free-selector, n. (abbreviated often to Selector), one who takes up a block of Crown land under the Land Laws and by annual payments acquires the freehold. [320 acres to Victoria, 640 in New South Wales.]

1864. J. Rogers, 'New Rush,' pt. i. p. 21:

"Free selectors we shall be When our journey's end we see."

1866. 'Sydney Morning Herald,' Aug. 9:

"The very law which the free selector puts in force against the squatter, the squatter puts in force against him; he selected upon the squatter's run, and the squatter selects upon his grazing right."

1873. Ibid. p. 33:

"Men who select small portions of the Crown lands by means of land orders or by gradual purchase, and who become freeholders and then permanently wedded to the colony."

1873. A. Trollope, 'Australia and New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 33:

"The condition of the free-selector—that of ownership of a piece of land to be tilled by the owner—is the one which the best class of immigrants desire."

1875. 'Melbourne Spectator,' June 12, p. 70, col. 2:

"A public meeting of non-resident selectors has been held at Rushworth."

1884. Marcus Clarke, 'Memorial Volume,' p. 85:

"A burly free selector pitched his tent in my Home-Station paddock and turned my dam into a wash."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Colonial Reformer,' c. xii. p. 116:

"No, no; I've kept free-selectors out all these years, and as long as I live here I'll do so still."

Freezer, n. a sheep bred and raised in order that its mutton may be frozen and exported.

1893. J. Hotson, Lecture in 'Age,' Nov.30, p. 7, col. 2:

"In the breeding of what are in New Zealand known as 'freezers' there lies a ready means of largely increasing the returns from our land."

Fresh-water Herring, n. In Sydney, the fish is Clupea richmondia, Macl. Elsewhere in Australia, and in Tasmania, it is another name for the Grayling (q.v.).

Fresh-water Perch, n. name given in Tasmania to the fish Microperca tasmaniae.

Friar-bird, n. an Australian bird, of the genus called Philemon, but originally named Tropidorhynchus (q.v.). It is a honey-eater, and is also called Poor Soldier and other names; see quotation, 1848. The species are—

Friar-Bird— Philemon corniculatus, Lath. [Called also Leather-head, q.v.]

Helmeted F.— P. buceroides, Swains.

Little F.— P. sordidus, Gould.

Silvery-crowned F.— P. argenticeps, Gould.

Yellow-throated F.- P. citreogularis, Gould.

Western F.— P. occidentalis, Ramsay.

1798. D. Collins, 'Account of English Colony in New South Wales,' p. 615 (Vocab.):

"Wirgan,—bird named by us the friar."

1827. Vigors and Horsfield, 'Transactions of Linnaean Society,' vol. xv. p. 324:

"Friar,—a very common bird about Paramatta, called by the natives 'coldong:' It repeats the words 'poor soldier' and 'four o'clock' very distinctly."

1845. 'Voyage to Port Phillip,' p. 53:

"The cheerful sedge-wren and the bald-head friar, The merry forest-pie with joyous song."

1848. J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. iv. pl. 58:

"Tropidorhynchus Corniculatus, Vig. and Hors.

"From the fancied resemblance of its notes to those words, it has obtained from the Colonists the various names of 'Poor Soldier,' 'Pimlico,' 'Four o'clock,' etc. Its bare head and neck have also suggested the names of 'Friar Bird,' 'Monk,' 'Leather Head,' etc."

1855. W. Blandowski, 'Transactions of the Philosophical Society of Victoria,' vol. i. p. 64:

"The Tropidorhynchus corniculatus is well known to the colonists by the names 'poor soldier,' 'leather-headed jackass,' 'friar-bird,' etc. This curious bird, in common with several other varieties of honey-eaters, is remarkable on account of its extreme liveliness and the singular resemblance of its notes to the human voice."

Frilled-Lizard, n. See quotation.

1875, G. Bennett, 'Proceedings of Royal Society of Tasmania,' p. 56:

"Notes on the Chlamydosaurus or frilled-lizard of Queensland (C. Kingii.) "

Frogsmouth, n. an Australian bird; genus Podargus, commonly called Mopoke (q.v.). The mouth and expression of the face resemble the appearance of a frog. The species are—

Freckled Frogsmouth— Podargus phaloenoides, Gould.

Marbled F.— P. marmoratus, Gould.

Plumed F.— P. papuensis, Quoy and Gaim.

Tawney F.— P. strigoides, Lath.

1895. W. O. Legge, 'Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science' (Brisbane), p. 447:

"The term 'Frogsmouth' is used in order to get rid of that very objectionable name Podargus, and as being allied to the other genera Batrachostomus and Otothrix of the family Steatorninae in India. It is a name well suited to the singular structure of the mouth, and presumably better than the mythical title of 'Goatsucker.' 'Night-hawk,' sometimes applied to the Caprimulginae, does not accord with the mode of flight of the genus Podargus."

Frontage, n. land along a river or creek, of great importance to a station. A use common in Australia, not peculiar to it.

1844. 'Port Phillip Patriot,' July i8, p. 3, col. 7:

". . . has four miles frontage to the Yarra Yarra."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Squatter's Dream,' c. iii. p. 29:

"Jack was piloted by Mr. Hawkesbury through the 'frontage' and a considerable portion of the 'back' regions of Gondaree."

Frost-fish, n. name given in Australia and New Zealand to the European Scabbard-fish, Lepidopus caudatus, White. The name is said to be derived from the circumstance that the fish is found alive on New Zealand sea-beaches on frosty nights. It is called the Scabbard-fish in Europe, because it is like the shining white metal sheath of a long sword. Lepidopus belongs to the family Trichiuridae, it reaches a length of five or six feet, but is so thin that it hardly weighs as many pounds. It is considered a delicacy in New Zealand.

1888. W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. ii. p. 51:

"The frost-fish . . . the most delicately flavoured of all New Zealand fishes, is an inhabitant of deep water, and on frosty nights, owing probably to its air-bladders becoming choked, it is cast up by the surf on the ocean-beach."

Fruit-Pigeon, n. The name is given to numerous pigeons of the genera Ptilinopus and Carpophaga. In Australia it is assigned to the following birds:—

Allied Fruit-Pigeon— Ptilinopus assimilis, Gould.

Purple-breasted F.-P.— P. magnifica, Temm.

Purple-crowned F.-P.— P. superbus, Temm.

Red-crowned F.-P.— P. swainsonii, Gould.

Rose-crowned F.-P.— P. ewingii Gould.

White-headed F.-P.— Columba leucomela, Temm.

And in New Zealand to Carpophaga novae-zealandiae, Gmel. (Maori name, Kereru Kuku, or Kukupa.)

Fryingpan-Brand, n. a large brand used by cattle-stealers to cover the owner's brand. See Duffer and Cattle-Duffer.

1857. Frederic De Brebant Cooper, 'Wild Adventures in Australia,' p. 104:

". . . This person was an 'old hand,' and got into some trouble on the other side (i.e. the Bathurst side) by using a 'frying-pan brand.' He was stock-keeping in that quarter, and was rather given to 'gulley-raking.' One fine day it appears he ran in three bullocks belonging to a neighbouring squatter, and clapt his brand on the top of the other so as to efface it."

Fuchsia, Native, n. The name is applied to several native plants.

(1) In Australia and Tasmania, to various species of Correa (q.v.), especially to Correa speciosa, And., N.O. Rutaceae.

(2) In Queensland, to Eremophila maculata, F. v. M., N.O. Myoporineae.

(3) In New Zealand, to Fuchsia excorticata, Linn., N.O. Onagrariae. (Maori name, Kotukutuktu, q.v.). See also Tooky-took and Konini.

1860. Geo. Bennett, 'Gatherings of a Naturalist in Australasia,' pp. 371-2:

"The Correa virens, with its pretty pendulous blossoms (from which it has been named the 'Native Fuchsia'), and the Scarlet Grevillea (G. coccinea) are gay amidst the bush flowers."

1880. Mrs.Meredith, 'Tasmanian Friends and Foes,' p. 23:

"I see some pretty red correa and lilac." [Footnote]: "Correa speciosa—native fuchsia of Colonies."

1883. F. M. Bailey, 'Synopsis of Queensland Flora,' p. 374:

"E. maculata. A . . . shrub called native fuchsia, and by some considered poisonous, by others a good fodder bush."

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 126:

"E. maculata. . . . Called 'Native Fuchsia' in parts of Queensland."

1892. 'Otago Witness,' Nov. 24, 'Native Trees':

"A species of native fuchsia that is coming greatly into favour is called [Fuchsia] Procumbens. It is a lovely pot plant, with large pink fruit and upright flowers."

Full up of, adj. (slang), sick and tired of. "Full on," and "full of," are other forms.

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. xxiii. p. 213:

"She was 'full up' of the Oxley, which was a rowdy, disagreeable goldfield as ever she was on."

Furze, Native, n. a shrub, Hakea ulcina, R. Br. See Hakea.

Futtah, n. a settlers' corruption of the Maori word Whata (q.v.).

1895. W.S. Roberts, 'Southland in 1856,'p. 28:

"These stores were called by the Europeans futters,—but the Maori name was Whata."

1896. 'Southland Daily News,' Feb. 3:

"'Futtah is familiar as 'household words.' There were always rats in New Zealand—that is, since any traditions of its fauna existed. The original ones were good to eat. They were black and smooth in the hair as the mole of the Old Country, and were esteemed delicacies. They were always mischievous, but the Norway rat that came with the white man was worse. He began by killing and eating his aboriginal congener, and then made it more difficult than ever to keep anything eatable out of reach of his teeth. Human ingenuity, however, is superior to that of most of the lower animals, and so the 'futtah' came to be—a storehouse on four posts, each of them so bevelled as to render it impossible for the cleverest rat to climb them. The same expedient is to-day in use on Stewart Island and the West Coast —in fact, wherever properly constructed buildings are not available for the storage of things eatable or destructible by the rodents in question."


Galah, n. a bird.(The accent is now placed on the second syllable.) Aboriginal name for the Cacatua roseicapilla, Vieill., the Rose-breasted Cockatoo. See Cockatoo. With the first syllable compare last syllable of Budgerigar (q.v.)

1890. 'The Argus,' Sept. 20, p. 13, col. 5:

"They can afford to screech and be merry, as also the grey, pink-crested galahs, which tint with the colours of the evening sky a spot of grass in the distance."

1890. Lyth, 'Golden South,' c. xiv. p. 127:

"The galahs, with their delicate grey and rose-pink plumage, are the prettiest parrots."

1891. Francis Adams, 'John Webb's End,' p. 191:

"A shrieking flock of galahs, on their final flight before they settled to roost, passed over and around him, and lifting up his head, he saw how all their grey feathers were flushed with the sunset light, their coloured breasts deepening into darkest ruby, they seemed like loosed spirits."

Gallows, n. Explained in quotation. Common at all stations, where of course the butchering is done on the premises.

1866. Lady Barker, 'Station Life in New Zealand,' p. 64:

"The gallows, a high wooden frame from which the carcases of the butchered sheep dangle."

Gang-gang, or Gan-gan, n. the aboriginal word for the bird Callocephalon galeatum, Lath., so called from its note; a kind of cockatoo, grey with a red head, called also Gang-gang Cockatoo. See Cockatoo.

1833. C. Sturt, 'Southern Australia,' vol. i. Intro. p. xxxviii:

"Upon the branches the satin-bird, the gangan, and various kinds of pigeons were feeding."

1848. J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. v. pl. 14:

"Callocephalon Galeatum, Gang-gang Cockatoo, Colonists of New South Wales."

Gannet, n. the English name for the Solan Goose and its tribe. The Australian species are—

The Gannet— Sula serrator, Banks.

Brown G. (called also Booby)— S. leucogastra, Bodd.

Masked G.— S. cyanops, Sunder.

Red-legged G.— S. piscator, Linn.

The species in New Zealand is Dysporus serrator, Grey; Maori name, Takapu.

Garfish, n. In England the name is applied to any fish of the family Belonidae. The name was originally used for the common European Belone vulgaris. In Melbourne the Garfish is a true one, Belone ferox, Gunth., called in Sydney "Long Tom." In Sydney, Tasmania, and New Zealand it is Hemirhamphus intermedius, Cantor.; and in New South Wales, generally, it is the river-fish H. regularis, Gunth., family Sombresocidae. Some say that the name was originally "Guard-fish," and it is still sometimes so spelt. But the word is derived from xGar, in Anglo-Saxon, which meant spear, dart, javelin, and the allusion is to the long spear-like projection of the fish's jaws. Called by the Sydney fishermen Ballahoo, and in Auckland the Piper (q.v.).

1847. L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 288:

"Charley brought me . . . the head bones of a large guard-fish."

1849. Anon., 'New South Wales: its Past, Present, and Future Condition,' p. 99:

"The best kinds of fish are guard, mullet, and schnapper."

1850. Clutterbuck, 'Port Phillip,' c. iii. p. 44:

"In the bay are large quantities of guard-fish."

1875. 'Spectator' (Melbourne), June I9, p. 81, col.1:

"Common fish, such as trout, ruffies, mullet, garfish."

1882. Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'Fish of New South Wales,' p. 83:

"Of the garfishes we have four species known to be found on our coasts. One, Hemirhamphus regularis, is the favourite breakfast fish of the citizens of Sydney. H. melanochir, or 'river garfish,' is a still better fish, but has become very scarce. H. argentcus, the common Brisbane species . . . and H. commersoni."

Gastrolobium, n. scientific name of a genus of Australian shrubs, N.O. Leguminosae, commonly known as Poison Bushes (q.v.). The species are—

Gastrolobium bilobum, R. Br. G. callistachys, Meissn. G. calycium, Benth. G. obovatum, Benth. G. oxylobioides, Benth. G. spinosum, Benth. G. trilobum, Benth.

All of which are confined to Western Australia. The species Gastrolobium grandiflorum, F. v. M. (also called Wall-flower), is the only species found out of Western Australia, and extends across Central Australia to Queensland. All the species have pretty yellow and purple flowers. The name is from the Greek gastaer, gastros, the belly, and lobion, dim. of lobos, "the capsule or pod of leguminous plants." ('L. & S.')

Geebung, or Geebong, n. aboriginal name for the fruit of various species of the tree Persoonia, and also for the tree itself, N.O. Proteaceae.

1827. P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i. p. 221:

"The jibbong is another tasteless fruit, as well as the five corners, much relished by children."

1847. L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition, p. 478:

"We gathered and ate a great quantity of gibong (the ripe fruit of Persoonia falcata)."

1852. G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes,' c. vi,. p. 176, 3rd edition 1855:

"The geebung, a native plum, very woolly and tasteless."

1885. R. M. Praed, 'Australian Life,' p. 113:

"We gathered the wild raspberries, and mingling them with geebongs and scrub berries, set forth a dessert."

1885. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Robbery under Arms,' p. 255:

"You won't turn a five-corner into a quince, or a geebung into an orange."

1889. J. M. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 584:

"A 'geebung' (the name given to the fruits of Persoonias, and hence to the trees themselves)."

Gerygone, n. scientific and vernacular name of a genus of small warblers of Australia and New Zealand; the new name for them is Fly-eater (q.v.). In New Zealand they are called Bush-warblers, Grey-warblers, etc., and they also go there by their Maori name of Riro-riro. For the species, see Fly-eater and Warbler. The name is from the Greek gerugonae, "born of sound," a word used by Theocritus.

1895. W. O. Legge, 'Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science' (Brisbane), p. 447:

"[The habits and habitats of the genus] Gerygone suggested the term Fly-eater, as distinguished from Fly-catcher, for this aberrant and peculiarly Australasian form of small Fly-catchers, which not only capture their food somewhat after the manner of Fly-catchers, but also seek for it arboreally."

Ghilgai, n. an aboriginal word used by white men in the neighbourhood of Bourke, New South Wales, to denote a saucer-shaped depression in the ground which forms a natural reservoir for rainwater. Ghilgais vary from 20 to 100 yards in diameter, and are from five to ten feet deep. They differ from Claypans (q.v.), in being more regular in outline and deeper towards the centre, whereas Claypans are generally flat-bottomed. Their formation is probably due to subsidence.

Giant-Lily, n. See under Lily.

Giant-Nettle, i.q. Nettle-tree (q.v.).

Gibber, n. an aboriginal word for a stone. Used both of loose stones and of rocks. The G is hard.

1834. L. E. Threlkeld, 'Australian Grammar,' p. x. [In a list of 'barbarisms']:

"Gibber, a stone."

[Pace Mr. Threlkeld, the word is aboriginal, though not of the dialect of the Hunter District, of which he is speaking.]

1852. 'Settlers and Convicts; or Recollections of Sixteen Years' Labour in the Australian Backwoods,' p. 159:

"Of a rainy night like this he did not object to stow himself by the fireside of any house he might be near, or under the 'gibbers' (overhanging rocks) of the river. . . ."

1890. A .J. Vogan, 'Black Police,' p. 338:

"He struck right on top of them gibbers (stones)."

1894. Baldwin Spencer, in 'The Argus,' Sept. 1, p. 4, col. 2:

"At first and for more than a hundred miles [from Oodnadatta northwards], our track led across what is called the gibber country, where the plains are covered with a thin layer of stones—the gibbers—of various sizes, derived from the breaking down of a hard rock which forms the top of endless low, table-topped hills belonging to the desert sandstone formation."

Gibber-gunyah, n. an aboriginal cave-dwelling. See Gibber and Gunyah, also Rock-shelter.

1852. 'Settlers and Convicts; or, Recollections of Sixteen Years' Labour in the Australian Backwoods,' p. 211:

"I coincided in his opinion that it would be best for us to camp for the night in one of the ghibber-gunyahs. These are the hollows under overhanging rocks."

1863. Rev. R. W. Vanderkiste, 'Lost, but not for Ever,' p. 210:

"Our home is the gibber-gunyah, Where hill joins hill on high, Where the turrama and berrambo Like sleeping serpents lie."

1891. R. Etheridge, jun., 'Records of the Australian Museum,' vol. i. no. viii. p. 171:

"Notes on Rock Shelters or Gibba-gunyahs at Deewhy Lagoon."

Giddea, Gidya, or Gidgee, adj. aboriginal word of New South Wales and Queensland for—

(1) a species of Acacia, A. homalophylla, Cunn. The original meaning is probably small, cf. gidju, Warrego, Queensland, and kutyo, Adelaide, both meaning small.

(2) A long spear made, from this wood.

1878. 'Catalogue of Objects of Ethno-typical Art in National Gallery, Melbourne,' p. 46:

"Gid-jee. Hardwood spear, with fragments of quartz set in gum on two sides and grass-tree stem. Total length, 7 feet 8 inches."

1885. R. M. Praed, 'Australian Life,' p. 51:

"Gidya scrubs."

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 357:

"A. homalophylla. A 'Spearwood.' Called 'Myall' in Victoria. . . . Aboriginal names are . . . Gidya, Gidia, or Gidgee (with other spellings in New South Wales and Queensland). This is the commonest colonial name . . . much sought after for turner's work on account of its solidity and fragrance. . . . The smell of the tree when in flower is abominable, and just before rain almost unbearable."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Colonial Reformer,' c. xvii. p. 211:

"I sat . . . watching the shadows of the gydya trees lengthen, ah! so slowly."

1890. C. Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals,' p. 37:

"Kind of scrub, called by the colonists gydya-scrub, which manifests itself even at a distance by a very characteristic, but not agreeable odour, being especially pungent after rain."

1896. Baldwin Spencer, 'Home Expedition in Central Australia,' Narrative, p. 22:

"We camped beside a water-pool on the Adminga Creek, which is bordered for the main part by a belt of the stinking acacia, or giddea (A. homalophylla). When the branches are freshly cut it well deserves the former name, as they have a most objectionable smell."

Gill-bird, n. an occasional name for the Wattle-bird (q.v.).

1896. 'Menu' for October 15:

"Gill-bird on Toast."

Gin, n. a native word for an aboriginal woman, and used, though rarely, even for a female kangaroo. See quotation 1833. The form gun (see quotation 1865) looks as if it had been altered to meet gunae, and of course generate is not derived from gunae, though it may be a distant relative. In 'Collins's Vocabulary' occurs "din, a woman." If such a phonetic spelling as djin had been adopted, as it well might have been, to express the native sound, where would the gunae theory have been?

1798. D. Collins, 'Account of English Colony in New South Wales,' Vocabulary, p. 612:

"Din—a woman."

1830. R. Dawson, 'Present State of Australia,' p. 152:

"A proposition was made by one of my natives to go and steal a gin (wife)."

Ibid. p. 153:

"She agrees to become his gin."

1833. Lieut. Breton, R.N., 'Excursions in New South Wales,' p. 254:

"The flying gin (gin is the native word for woman or female) is a boomall, and will leave behind every description of dog."

1834. L. E. Threlkeld, 'Australian Grammar,' p. x:

"As a barbarism [sc. not used on the Hunter], jin—a wife."

1845. J. O. Balfour, 'Sketch of New South Wales,' p. 8:

"A gin (the aboriginal for a married woman)."

1846. C. P. Hodgson, 'Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 367:

"Gin, the term applied to the native female blacks; not from any attachment to the spirit of that name, but from some (to me) unknown derivation."

1846. J. L. Stokes, 'Discovery in Australia,' vol. I. c. iv. p. 74:

"Though very anxious to . . . carry off one of their 'gins,' or wives . . . he yet evidently holds these north men in great dread."

1847. J. D. Lang, 'Cooksland,'p. 126, n.:

"When their fire-stick has been extinguished, as is sometimes the case, for their jins or vestal virgins, who have charge of the fire, are not always sufficiently vigilant."

1852. G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes' (edition 1855), p. 98:

"Gins—native women—from gune, mulier, evidently!"

1864. J. Rogers, 'New Rush,' pt. 2, p. 46:

"The females would be comely looking gins, Were not their limbs so much like rolling-pins."

1865. S. Bennett, 'Australian Discovery,' p. 250:

"Gin or gun, a woman. Greek gunae and derivative words in English, such as generate, generation, and the like."

1872. C. H. Eden, 'MY Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 118:

"The gins are captives of their bow and spear, and are brought home before the captor on his saddle. This seems the orthodox way of wooing the coy forest maidens. . . . All blacks are cruel to their gins."

1880. J. Brunton Stephens, 'Poems' [Title]:

"To a black gin."

1885. R. M. Praed, 'Australian Life,' p. 23:

"Certain stout young gins or lubras, set apart for the purpose, were sacrificed."

Ginger, Native, n. an Australian tree, Alpinia caerulea, Benth., N.O. Scitamineae. The globular fruit is eaten by the natives.

1890. C. Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals,' p. 296:

"Fresh green leaves, especially of the so-called native ginger (Alpinia caerulea)."

Give Best, v. Australian slang, meaning to acknowledge superiority, or to give up trying at anything.

1883. Keighley, 'Who are You?' p. 87:

"But then—the fact had better be confessed, I went to work and gave the schooling best."

1887. J. Farrell, 'How he Died,' p. 80:

"Charley gave life best and died of grief."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. xviii. p. 174:

"It's not like an Englishman to jack up and give these fellows best."

Globe-fish, n. name given to the fish Tetrodon hamiltoni, Richards., family Gymnodontes. The Spiny Globe-fish is Diodon. These are also called Toad-fish (q.v.), and Porcupine-fish (q.v.). The name is applied to other fish elsewhere.

Glory Flower, or Glory Pea, i.q. Clianthus (q.v.).

Glory Pea, i.q. Clianthus (q.v.).

Glucking-bird, n. a bird so named by Leichhardt, but not identified. Probably the Boobook (q.v.), and see its quotation 1827; see also under Mopoke quotation, Owl, 1846.

1847. L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 23:

"The musical note of an unknown bird, sounding like 'gluck gluck' frequently repeated, and ending in a shake . . . are heard from the neighbourhood of the scrub."

Ibid. p. 29:

"The glucking bird—by which name, in consequence of its note, the bird may be distinguished—was heard through the night."

Ibid. p. 47:

"The glucking-bird and the barking owl were heard throughout the moonlight nights."

Ibid. pp. 398, 399:

"During the night, we heard the well-known note of what we called the 'Glucking bird,' when we first met with it in the Cypress-pine country at the early part of our expedition. Its re-appearance with the Cypress-pine corroborated my supposition, that the bird lived on the seeds of that tree."

Glue-pot, n. part of a road so bad that the coach or buggy sticks in it.

1892. 'Daily News,' London (exact date lost):

"The Bishop of Manchester [Dr. Moorhouse, formerly Bishop of Melbourne], whose authority on missionary subjects will not be disputed, assures us that no one can possibly understand the difficulties and the troubles attendant upon the work of a Colonial bishop or clergyman until he has driven across almost pathless wastes or through almost inaccessible forests, has struggled through what they used to call 'glue-pots,' until he has been shaken to pieces by 'corduroy roads,' and has been in the midst of forests with the branches of trees falling around on all sides, knowing full well that if one fell upon him he would be killed."

Goai, n. common name in southern island of New Zealand for Kowhai (q.v.), of which it is a corruption. It is especially used of the timber of this tree, which is valuable for fencing. The change from K to G also took place in the name Otago, formerly spelt Otakou.

1860. John Blair, 'New Zealand for Me,':

"The land of the goai tree, mapu, and pine, The stately totara, and blooming wild vine."

1863. S. Butler, 'First Year in Canterbury Settlement,' p. 104:

"I remember nothing but a rather curiously shaped gowai-tree."

Goanna, Guana, and Guano, n. popular corruptions for Iguana, the large Lace-lizard (q.v.), Varanus varius, Shaw. In New Zealand, the word Guano is applied to the lizard-like reptile Sphenodon punctatum. See Tuatara. In Tasmania, the name is given to Taliqua schincoides, White, and throughout Australia any lizard of a large size is popularly called a Guana, or in the bush, more commonly, a Goanna. See also Lace-lizard.

1802. G. Barrington, 'History of New South Wales,' c. viii. p. 285:

"Among other reptiles were found . . . some brown guanoes."

1830. R. Dawson, 'Present state of Australia,' p. 118:

"At length an animal called a guana (a very large species of lizard) jumped out of the grass, and with amazing rapidity ran, as they always do when disturbed, up a high tree."

1864. J. Ropers, 'New Rush,' p. 6:

"The shy guana climbs a tree in fear."

1891. Rolf Boldrewood, 'A Sydney-side Saxon,' p. 99:

"A goanna startled him, and he set to and kicked the front of the buggy in."

1896. H. Lawson, 'When the World was Wide,' p. 139:

"And the sinister 'gohanna,' and the lizard, and the snake."

Go-ashore, n. an iron pot or cauldron, with three iron feet, and two ears, from which it was suspended by a wire handle over the fire. It is a corruption of the Maori word Kohua (q.v.), by the law of Hobson-Jobson.

1849. W. Tyrone Power, 'Sketches in New Zealand with Pen and Pencil,' p. 160:

"Engaged in the superintendence of a Maori oven, or a huge gipsy-looking cauldron, called a 'go-ashore.'"

1877. An Old Colonist, 'Colonial Experiences,' p. 124:

"A large go-ashore, or three-legged pot, of the size and shape of the cauldron usually introduced in the witch scene in Macbeth."

1879. C. L. Innes, 'Canterbury Sketches,' p. 23:

"There was another pot, called by the euphonious name of a 'Go-ashore,' which used to hang by a chain over the fire. This was used for boiling."

Goborro, n. aboriginal name for Eucalyptus microtheca, F. v. M. See Dwarf-box, under Box.

Goburra, and Gogobera, n. variants of Kookaburra (q.v.).

Goditcha. See Kurdaitcha.

Godwit, n. the English name for birds of the genus Limosa. The Australian species are—

Black-tailed G.,— Limosa melanuroides, Gould;

Barred-rumped G.,— L. uropygialis, Gould.

Gogobera, and Goburra, n. variants of Kookaburra (q.v.).

Gold-. The following words and phrases compounded with "gold" are Australian in use, though probably some are used elsewhere.

Gold-bearing, verbal adj. auriferous.

1890. 'Goldfields of Victoria,' p. 13:

"A new line of gold-bearing quartz."

Gold-digging, verbal n. mining or digging for gold.

1880. G. Sutherland, 'Tales of Gold. fields,' p. 36:

"There were over forty miners thus playing at gold-digging in Hiscock's Gully."

Gold-digger, n.

1852. J. Bonwick [Title]:

"Notes of a Gold-digger."

Gold-fever, n. the desire to obtain gold by digging. The word is more especially applied to the period between 1851 and 1857, the early Australian discovery of gold. The term had been previously applied in a similar way to the Californian excitement in 1848-49. Called also Yellow fever.

1888. A. J. Barbour, 'Clara,' c. ix. p. 13:

"The gold fever coursed through every vein."

Gold-field, n. district where mining for gold is carried on.

1858. T. McCombie, 'History of Victoria, c. xv. p. 215:

"All were anxious to get away for the gold fields."

1880. G. Sutherland, [Title] 'Tales of Goldfields,' p. 19:

"Edward Hargreaves, the discoverer of the Australian goldfields . . . received L15,000 as his reward."

Gold-founded, part. adj. founded as the result of the discovery of gold.

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. ix. p. 91:

"I rode up the narrow street, serpentine in construction, as in all gold-founded townships."

Gold-hunter, n. searcher after gold.

1852. G. S. Rutter [Title]:

"Hints to Gold-hunters."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. v. p. 48:

"I was not as one of the reckless gold-hunters with which the camp was thronged."

Gold-mining, verbal n.

1852. J. A.Phillips [Title]:

"Gold-mining; a Scientific Guide for Australian Emigrants."

1880. G. Sutherland, 'Tales of Goldfields,' p. 23:

"He had already had quite enough of gold-mining."

Gold-seeking, adj.

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. xv. p. 150:

"The great gold-seeking multitude had swelled . . . to the population of a province."

Golden Bell-Frog, n. name applied to a large gold and green frog, Hyla aurea, Less., which, unlike the great majority of the family Hylidae to which it belongs, is terrestrial and not arboreal in its habits, being found in and about water-holes in many parts of Australia.

1881. F. McCoy, 'Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria,' Dec. 6, pl. 53:

"So completely alike was the sound of the Bell-frogs in an adjoining pond at night to the noise of the men by day."

Golden-chain, n. another name for the Laburnum (q.v.).

Golden-eye, n. the bird Certhia lunulatu, Shaw; now called Melithreptus lunulatus, Shaw, and classed as White-naped Honey-eater (q.v.).

1827. Vigors and Horsfield, 'Transactions of Linnaean Society,' vol. xv. p. 315:

"'This bird,' Mr. Caley says, 'is called Golden-eye by the settlers. I shot it at Iron Cove, seven miles from Sydney, on the Paramatta road.'"

Golden-Perch, n. a fresh-water fish of Australia, Ctenolates ambiguus, Richards., family Percidae, and C. christyi, Castln.; also called the Yellow-belly. C. ambiguus is common in the rivers and lagoons of the Murray system.

Golden-Rosemary, n. See Rosemary.

Golden-Wattle, n. See Wattle.

1896. 'The Argus,' July 20, p. 5, col. 8:

"Many persons who had been lured into gathering armfuls of early wattle had cause to regret their devotion to the Australian national bloom, for the golden wattle blossoms produced unpleasant associations in the minds of the wearers of the green, and there were blows and curses in plenty. In political botany the wattle and blackthorn cannot grow side by side."

1896. 'The Melburnian,' Aug. 28, p. 53:

"The last two weeks have been alive with signs and tokens, saying 'Spring is coming, Spring is here.' And though this may not be the 'merry month of May,' yet it is the time of glorious Golden Wattle,—wattle waving by the river's bank, nodding aloft its soft plumes of yellow and its gleaming golden oriflamme, or bending low to kiss its own image in the brown waters which it loves."

Goodenia, n. the scientific and popular name of a genus of Australian plants, closely resembling the Gentians; there are many species. The name was given by Sir James Smith, president of the Linnaean Society, in 1793. See quotation.

1793. 'Transactions of the Linn.can Society,' vol. ii. p. 346:

"I [Smith] have given to this . . . genus the name of Goodenia, in honour of . . . Rev. Dr. Goodenough, treasurer of this Society, of whose botanical merits . . . example of Tournefort, who formed Gundelia from Gundelscheimer."

[Dr. Goodenough became Bishop of Carlisle; he was the grandfather of Commodore Goodenough.]

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 188:

"A species of Goodenia is supposed to be used by the native gins to cause their children to sleep on long journeys, but it is not clear which is used."

Goodletite, n. scientific name for a matrix in which rubies are found. So named by Professor Black of Dunedin, in honour of his assistant, William Goodlet, who was the first to discover the rubies in the matrix, on the west coast.

1894. 'Grey River Argus,' September:

"Several sapphires of good size and colour have been found, also rubies in the matrix—Goodletite."

Goondie, n. a native hut. Gundai = a shelter in the Wiradhuri dialect. It is the same word as Gunyah (q.v.).

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Colonial Reformer,' c. xvii. p. 204:

"There were a dozen 'goondies' to be visited, and the inmates started to their work."

Goose, n. English bird-name. The Australian species are—

Cape Barren Goose— Cereopsis novae-hollandiae, Lath. [Gould ('Birds of Australia,' vol. vii. pl. 1) calls it the Cereopsis Goose, or Cape Barren Goose of the Colonists.]

Maned G. (or Wood-duck, q.v.)— Branta jubata, Lath.

Pied G.— Anseranus melanoleuca, Lath. Called also Magpie-Goose and Swan-Goose.

1843. J. Backhouse, 'Narrative of a Visit to the Australian Colonies,' p. 75:

"Five pelicans and some Cape Barren Geese were upon the beach of Preservation Island [Bass Strait]."

Goose-teal, n. the English name for a very small goose of the genus Nettapus. The Australian species are—

Green,— Nettapus pulchellus, Gould;

White-quilled,— N. albipennis, Gould.

Gooseberry-tree, Little, n. name given to the Australian tree Buchanania mangoides, F. v. M., N.O. Anacardiaceae.

1847. L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition, p. 479:

"My companions had, for several days past, gathered the unripe fruits of Coniogeton arborescens, R. Br., which, when boiled, imparted an agreeable acidity to the water. . . . When ripe, they became sweet and pulpy, like gooseberries. . . . This resemblance induced us to call the tree 'the little gooseberry-tree.' "

Gordon Lily, n. See under Lily.

Gouty-stem, n. the Australian Baobab-tree (q.v.), Adansonia gregori, F. v. M. According to Maiden (p. 60), Sterculia rupestris, Benth., is also called Gouty-stem, on account of the extraordinary shape of the trunk. Other names of this tree are the Sour-gourd, and the Cream-of-tartar tree.

1846. J. L. Stokes, 'Discovery in Australia,' vol. II. c. iii. p. 115:

"The gouty-stem tree . . . bears a very fragrant white flower, not unlike the jasmine."

1865. Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'History of the Discovery and Exploration of Australia,' vol. i. p. 2S9 [Note]:

"This tree is distinguished by the extraordinary swollen appearance of the stem, which looks as though the tree were diseased or the result of a freak of nature. The youngest as well as the oldest trees have the same deformed appearance, and inside the bark is a soft juicy pulp instead of wood, which is said to be serviceable as an article of food. The stem of the largest tree at Careening Bay was twenty-nine feet in girth; it is named the Adansonia digitata. A species is found in Africa. In Australia it occurs only on the north coast."

Government, n. a not unusual contraction of "Government service," used by contractors and working men.

Government men, n. an obsolete euphemistic name for convicts, especially for assigned servants (q.v.).

1846. G. H. Haydon, 'Five Years in Australia Felix,' p. 122:

"Three government men or convicts."

1852. J. West, 'History of Tasmania,' vol. ii. p. 127:

"Government men, as assigned servants were called."

Government stroke, n. a lazy style of doing work, explained in quotations. The phrase is not dead.

1856. W. W. Dobie, 'Recollections of a Visit to Port Phillip,' p. 47:

"Government labourers, at ten shillings a-day, were breaking stones with what is called 'the Government stroke,' which is a slow-going, anti-sweating kind of motion. . . ."

1873. A. Trollope, 'Australia and New Zealand,' c. ix. [near end] p. 163:

"In colonial parlance the government stroke is that light and easy mode of labour—perhaps that semblance of labour—which no other master will endure, though government is forced to put up with it."

1893. 'Otago Witness,' December 2r, p. 9, col. 1:

"The government stroke is good enough for this kind of job."

1897. 'The Argus,' Feb. 22, p. 4, col. 9:

"Like the poor the unemployed are always with us, but they have a penchant for public works in Melbourne, with a good daily pay and the 'Government stroke' combined."

Grab-all, n. a kind of net used for marine fishing near the shore. It is moored to a piece of floating wood, and by the Tasmanian Government regulations must have a mesh of 2 1/4 inches.

1883. Edward O. Cotton, 'Evidence before Royal Commission on the Fisheries of Tasmania,' p. 82:

"Put a graball down where you will in 'bell-rope' kelp, more silver trumpeter will get in than any other fish."

1883. Ibid. p. xvii:

"Between sunrise and sunset, nets, known as 'graballs,' may be used."

Grammatophore, n. scientific name for "an Australian agamoid lizard, genus Grammatophora." ('Standard.')

Grape, Gippsland, n. called also Native Grape. An Australian fruit tree, Vitis hypoglauca, F. v. M., N.O. Viniferae; called Gippsland Grape in Victoria.

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 66:

"Native grape; Gippsland grape. This evergreen climber yields black edible fruits of the size of cherries. This grape would perhaps be greatly improved by culture. (Mueller.)"

Grape, Macquarie Harbour, or Macquarie Harbour Vine (q.v.), n. name given to the climbing shrub Muehlenbeckia adpressra, Meissn. N.O. Polygonaceae. Called Native Ivy in Australia. See under Ivy.

Grape-eater, n. a bird, called formerly Fig-eater, now known as the Green-backed White-eye (q.v.), Zosterops gouldi, Bp.

1848. J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. iv. pl. 82:

"Zosterops chloronotus, Gould, Green-backed Z.; Grape and Fig-eater, Colonists of Swan River."

Grass, n. In Australia, as elsewhere, the name Grass is sometimes given to plants which are not of the natural order Gramineae, yet everywhere it is chiefly to this natural order that the name is applied. A fair proportion of the true Grasses common to many other countries in the world, or confined, on the one hand to temperate zones, or on the other to tropical or sub-tropical regions, are also indigenous to Australia, or Tasmania, or New Zealand, or sometimes to all three countries. In most cases such grasses retain their Old World names, as, for instance, Barnyard- or Cock-spur Grass (Panicum crus-galli, Linn.); in others they receive new Australian names, as Ditch Millet (Paspalum scrobitulatum, F. v. M.), the 'Koda Millet' of India; and still again certain grasses named in Latin by scientific botanists have been distinguished by a vernacular English name for the first time in Australia, as Kangaroo Grass (Anhistiria ciliata, Linn.), which was "long known before Australia became colonized, in South Asia and all Africa" (von Muller), but not by the name of the Kangaroo.

Beyond these considerations, the settlers of Australia, whose wealth depends chiefly on its pastoral occupation, have introduced many of the best Old-World pasture grasses (chiefly of the genera Poa and Festuca), and many thousands of acres are said to be "laid down with English grass." Some of these are now so wide-spread in their acclimatization, that the botanists are at variance as to whether they are indigenous to Australia or not; the Couch Grass, for instance (Cynodon dactylon, Pers.), or Indian Doub Grass, is generally considered to be an introduced grass, yet Maiden regards it as indigenous.

There remain, "from the vast assemblage of our grasses, even some hundred indigenous to Australia" (von Muller), and a like number indigenous to New Zealand, the greater proportion of which are endemic. Many of these, accurately named in Latin and described by the botanists, have not yet found their vernacular equivalents; for the bushman and the settler do not draw fine botanical distinctions. Maiden has classified and fully described 158 species as "Forage Plants," of which over ninety have never been christened in English. Mr. John Buchanan, the botanist and draughtsman to the Geographical Survey of New Zealand, has prepared for his Government a 'Manual of the Indigenous Grasses of New Zealand,' which enumerates eighty species, many of them unnamed in English, and many of them common also to Australia and Tasmania. These two descriptive works, with the assistance of Guilfoyle's Botany and Travellers' notes, have been made the basis of the following list of all the common Australian names applied to the true Grasses of the N.O. Gramineae. Some of them of very special Australian character appear also elsewhere in the Dictionary in their alphabetical places, while a few other plants, which are grasses by name and not by nature, stand in such alphabetical place alone, and not in this list. For facility of comparison and reference the range and habitat of each species is indicated in brackets after its name; the more minute limitation of such ranges is not within the scope of this work. The species of Grass present in Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand are—

1. Alpine Rice Grass— Ehrharta colensoi, Cook. (N.Z.)

2. Alpine Whorl G.— Catabrosa antarctica, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

3. Bamboo G.— Glyceria ramigera, F. v. M. (A.) Called also Cane Grass. Stipa verticillata, Nees.(A.)

4. Barcoo G. (of Queensland)— Anthistiria membranacea, Lindl. (A.) Called also Landsborough Grass.

5. Barnyard G.— Panicum crus-galli, Linn. (A., not endemic.) Called also Cockspur Grass.

6. Bayonet G.— Aciphylla colensoi.(N.Z.) Called also Spear-Grass (see 112), and Spaniard (q.v.).

7. Bent G.—Alpine— Agrostis muellerii, Benth. (A., N.Z., not endemic.) Deyeuxia setifolia, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

8. Bent G.—Australian— Deyeuxia scabra, Benth. (A., T., N.Z.)

9. Bent G.—Billardiere's— D. billardierii, R. Br. (A., T., N.Z.)

10. Bent G.—Brown— Agrostis carina, Linn. (N.Z.)

11. Bent G.—Campbell Island— A. antarctica, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

12. Bent G.—Dwarf Mountain— A. subululata, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

13. Bent G.—Oat-like— Deyeuxia avenoides, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

14. Bent G.—Pilose— D. pilosa, Rich. (N.Z.)

15. Bent G.—Slender— Agrostis scabra, Willd. (A., T., N.Z.)

16. Bent G.—Spiked— Deyeuxia quadriseta, R. Br. (A., T., N.Z.) Called also Reed Grass.

17. Bent G.—Toothea— D. forsteri, Kunth. (A., T., N.Z.)

18. Bent G.—Young's— D. youngii, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

19. Blady G.— Ipperata arundinacea, Cyr. (A.)

20. Blue G.— Andropogon annulatus, Forst. (A.) A. pertusus, Willd. (A.) A. sericeus, R. Br. (A.)

21. Brome G.—Seaside.— 8romus arenarius, Labill. (A., N.Z.) Called also Wild Oats.

22. Canary G.— Phalaris canariensis. (A.)

23. Cane G.— (i.q. Bamboo Grass. See 3.)

24. Chilian G.— (i.q. Rat—tailed Grass. See 97.)

25. Cockspur G.— (i.q. Barnyard Grass. See 5.)

26. Couch G.— Cynodon dactylon, Pers. (A., not endemic.) Called also Indian Doub Grass.

27. Couch G.—Native— Distichlys maritima, Raffinesque. (A.)

28. Couch G.—Water— (i.q. Seaside Millet. See 50.)

29. Feather G.— (Several species of Stipa. See 101.)

30. Fescue G.—Hard— Festuca duriuscula, Linn. (Australasia, not endemic.)

31. Fescue G.—Poa-like— F. scoparia, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

32. Fescue G.—Sandhill— F. littoralis, R. Br., var. triticoides, Benth. (A., T., N.Z.)

33. Fescue G.—Sheeps'— F. ovina, Linn. (A., T.)

34. Finger G.—Cocksfoot— Panicum sanguinale, Linn. (A., not endemic.) Called also Hairy Finger Grass, and Reddish Panic Grass.

35. Finger G.—Egyptian— Eleusine aegyptica, Pers. (A., not endemic.)

36. Finger G.—Hairy— (i.q .Cocksfoot Finger Grass. See 33.)

37. Foxtail G.— (i.q. Knee jointed Foxtazl Grass. See 42.)

38. Hair G.—Crested— Koeleria cristata, Pers. (A., T., N.Z.)

39. Hair G.—Turfy— Deschampia caespitosa, Beavo. (N.Z., not endemic.)

40. Holy G.— Hierochloe alpina, Roem. & Schult. (Australasia, not endemic.)

41. Indian Doub G.— (i.q. Couch Grass. See 26.)

42. Kangaroo G. (A., T., not endemic)— Andropogon refractus, R. Br. Anthistiria avenacea, F. v. M. (Called also Oat Grass.) A. ciliata, Linn. (Common K.G.) A. frondosa, R. Br. (Broad-leaved K.G.)

43. Knee-jointed Fox-tail G.— Alopecurus geniculatus, Linn. (Australasia, not endemic.)

44. Landsborough G.— (i.q. Barcoo Grass. See 4.)

45. Love G.—Australian— Eragrostis brownii, Nees. (A.)

46. Manna G.— Glyceria fluitans, R. Br. (A.,T.)

47. Millet—Australian— Panicum decompositum, R. Br. (A., not endemic.) Called also Umbrella Grass.

48. Millet—Ditch— Paspalum scrobitulatum, F. v. M. (A., N.Z., not endemic.) The Koda Millet of India.

49. Millet—Equal-glumed— Isachne australis, R. Br. (A., N.Z., not endemic.)

50. Millet-Seaside— Paspalum distichum, Burmann. (A., N.Z., not endemic.) Called also Silt Grass, and Water Couch Grass.

51. Mitchell G.— Astrebla elymoides, F. v. M. (A., True Mitchell Grass.) A. pectinata, F. v. M. (A.) A. tritzcoides, F. v. M. (A.)

52. Mouse G.— (i.q.) Longhaired Plume Grass. See 72.)

53. Mulga G.— Danthonia racemosa, R. Br. (A.) Neurachnea Mitchelliana, Nees. (A.)

54. New Zealand Wind G.— Apera arundinacea, Palisot. (N.Z., not endemic.)

55. Oat G.— Anthistiria avenacea, F. v. M. (Called also Kangaroo Grass. See 41.)

56. Oat G.—Alpine— Danthonia semi-annularis, R. Br., var. alpina. (N.Z.)

57. Oat G.—Buchanan's— D. buchanii; Hook. f. (N.Z.)

58. Oat G.—Few-flowered— D. pauciflora, R. Br. (A., T., N.Z.)

59. Oat G.—Hard— D. pilosa, R. Br., var. stricta. (N.Z.)

60. Oat G.—Naked— D. nuda, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

61. Oat G.—New Zealand— D. semi-annularis, R. Br. (A., T., N.Z.)

62. Oat G.—Purple-awned— D. pilosa, R. Br. (A., T., N.Z.)

63. Oat G.—Racemed— D. pilosa, R. Br., var. racemosa. (N.Z.)

64. Oat G.—Shining— Trisetum antarcticum, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

65. Oat G.—Sheep— Danthonia semi-annularis, R. Br., var. gracilis.(N.Z.)

66. Oat G.—Spiked— Trisetum subspicatum, Beauv. (Australasia, not endemic.)

67. Oat G.—Thompson's Naked— Danthonia thomsonii (new species).

68. Oat G.—Wiry-leaved— D. raoulii, Steud, var. Australis, Buchanan. (N.Z.)

69. Oat G.—Young's— Trisetum youngii, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

70. Panic G.—Reddish— (i.q. Cocksfoot Finger-Grass. See 34.)

71. Panic G.—Slender— Oplismenus salarius, var. Roem. and Schult. (A., N.Z., not endemic.)

72. Paper G.—Native— Poa caespitosa, Forst. (A., T., N.Z.) Called also Wiry Grass, Weeping Polly, and Tussock Poa Grass; and, in New Zealand, Snow Grass.

73. Plume G.—Long-haired— Dichelachne crinita, Hook. f. (A., T., N.Z.)

74. Plume G.—Short-haired— D. sciurea, Hook. f. (A., T., N.Z.)

75. Poa G.—Auckland Island— Poa foliosa, Hook. f., var. a. (N.Z.)

76. Poa G.—Brown-flowered— P. lindsayi, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

77. Poa G.—Brown Mountain P. mackayi (new species). (N.Z.)

78. Poa G.—Colenso's— P. colensoi, Hook. f.(N.Z.) 79.

79. Poa G.—Common Field— P. anceps, Forst., var. b, foliosa, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

80. Pea G.—Dense-flowered P. anceps, Forst., var. d, densiflora, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

81. Poa G.—Dwarf— P. pigmaea (new species). (N.Z.)

82. Pea G.—Hard short-stemmed— P. anceps, Forst., var. c, brevicalmis, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

83. Poa G.—Kirk's— P. kirkii (new species). (N.Z.)

84. Poa G.—Large-flowered— P. foliosa, Hook. f., var. B. (N.Z.)

85. Poa G.—Little— P. exigua, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

86. Poa G.—Minute— P, foliosa, Hook. f., var. C. (N.Z.)

87. Poa G.—Minute Creeping— P. pusilla, Berggren. (N.Z.)

88. Pea G.—Nodding Plumed— P. anceps, Forst., var. A, elata, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

89. Poa G.—One-flowered— P. unifora (new species). (N.Z.)

90. Poa G.—Short-glumed— P. breviglumus, Hook. f.(N.Z.)

91. Poa G.—Slender— P. anceps, Forst., var. E, debilis, Kirk, Ms. (N.Z.)

92. Poa G.—Small Tussock— P. intemedia (new species). (N.Z.)

93. Poa G.—Tussock— P. caespitosa, Forst. (A., T., N.Z. See 71.)

94. Poa G.—Weak-stemmed— Eragrostis imbebecilla, Benth. (A., N.Z.)

95. Poa G.—White-flowered— Poa sclerophylla, Berggren. (N.Z.)

96. Porcupine G. (q.v.)— Triodia (various species).

97. Rat-tailed G.— Sporobulus indicus, R. Br. (A., N.Z., not endemic.) Called also Chilian Grass. Ischaeum laxum, R. Br. (A.)

98. Reed G.— Pragmites communis, Trin. (N.Z. See 16.)

99. Rice G.— Leersia hexandria, Swartz. (A.)

100. Rice G.—Bush— Microtaena avenacea, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

101. Rice G.—Knot-jointed— M. polynoda, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

102. Rice G.—Meadow— M. stipoides, R. Br. (A.,T., N.Z.) Called also Weeping Grass.

103. Roly-Poly G.— Panicum macractinum, Benth. (A.)

104. Rough-bearded G.— Echinopogon ovatus, Palisot. (A., T., N.Z.)

105. Sacred G.— Hierochloe redolens, R. Br. (Australasia, not endemic.) Called also Scented Grass, and Sweet-scented Grass.

106. Scented G.— Chrysopogon parviforus, Benth. (A.) See also 105.

107. Seaside Brome G.— (i.q. Brome Grass. See 21.)

108. Silt G.— (i.q. Seaside Millet. See 50.)

109. Seaside Glumeless G.— Gymnostychum gracile, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

110. Snow G. (q.v.)— (i.q. Paper Grass. See 72.) (N.Z.)

111. Spear G. (q.v.)— Aciphylla colensoi. (N.Z.) Called also Spaniard (q.v.). Heteropogon contortus, Roem. and Shult. (N.Z.), and all species of Stipa (A., T.).

112. Spider G.— Panicum divaricatissimum, R. Br. (A.)

113. Spinifex G. (q.v.)— Spinifex hirsutus, Labill. (A., T., N.Z., not endemic.) Called also Spiny Rolling Grass.

114. Star G.—Blue— Chloris ventricosa, R. Br. (A.)

115. Star G.—Dog's Tooth— C. divaricata, R. Br. (A.)

116. Star G.—Lesser— C. acicularis, Lindl. (A.)

117. Sugar G.— Pollinia fulva, Benth.(A.)

118. Summer G.— (i.q. Hairy-Finger Grass. See 36.)

119. Sweet G.— Glyceria stricta, Hook. f. (A., T., N.Z.)

120. Sweet-scented G.— (i.q. Sacred Grass. See 105.)

121. Traveller's G. (N.O. Aroideae).— (i.q. Settlers' Twine, q.v.)

122. Tussock G.— (See 93 and 72.)

123. Tussock G.— Broad-leaved Oat— Danthonia flavescens, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

124. Tussock G.—Erect Plumed— Arundo fulvida, Buchanan. (N.Z.) Maori name, Tot-toi (q.v.).

125. Tussock G.—Narrow-leaved Oat— Danthonia raoulii, Steud. (N.Z.)

126. Tussock G.—Plumed— Arundo conspicua, A. Cunn. (N.Z.) Maori name, Toi-toi (q.v.).

127. Tussock G.—Small-flowered Oat— Danthonia cunninghamii, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

128. Petrie's Stipa G.— Stipa petriei (new species). See 101. /?111?/ (N.Z.)

129. Umbrella G.— (i.q. Australian Millet. See 47.)

130. Wallaby G.— Danthonia penicileata, F. v. M. (A., N.Z.)

131. Weeping G.— (i.q. Meadow Rice Grass. See 102.)

132. Weeping Polly G.— (i.q. Paper Grass. See 72.)

133. Wheat G.—Blue— Agropyrum scabrum, Beauv. (A., T., N.Z.)

134. Wheat G.—Short-awned— Triticum multiflorum, Banks and Sol. (N.Z.)

135. White-topped G.— Danthonia longifolia, R. Br. (A.)

136. Windmill G.— Chloris truncata, R. Br. (A.)

137. Wire G.— Ehrharta juncea, Sprengel; a rush-like grass of hilly country. (A., T., N.Z.) Cynodon dactylum, Pers.; so called from its knotted, creeping, wiry roots, so difficult to eradicate in gardens and other cultivated land. (Not endemic.) See 26.

138. Wiry G.—. (i.q. Paper Grass. See 72.)

139. Wiry Dichelachne G.— Stipa teretefolia, Steud. (A., T., N.Z.)

140. Woolly-headed G.— Andropogon bombycinus, R. Br. (A.)

141. Vandyke G.— Panicum flavidum, Retz. (A.)

Grass-bird, n. In New Zealand, Sphenoeacus //sic. otherwhere Sphenaeacus GJC// punctatus, Gray, the same as Fern-bird (q.v.); in Australia, Megalurus (Sphenaeacus) gramineus, Gould.

Grass-leaved Fern, n. Vittaria elongata, Swartz, N.O. Filices.

1883. F. M. Bailey, 'Synopsis of Queensland Flora,' p. 693:

"Grass-leaved fern. . . . Frond varying in length from a few inches to several feet, and with a breadth of from one to five lines. . . . This curious grass-like fern may be frequently seen fringing the stems of the trees in the scrubs of tropical Queensland, in which situation the fronds are usually very long."

Grass-Parrakeet, n. a bird of the genus Euphema. The Australian species are—

Blue-winged Parrakeet Euphema aurantia, Gould.

Bourke's P.— E. bourkii, Gould.

Grass-P.— E. elegans, Gould.

Orange-bellied P.— E. chrysogastra, Lath.

Orange-throated P.— E. splendida, Gould.

Red-shouldered P.— E. pulchella, Shaw.

Warbling Grass-P.— Gould's name for Budgerigar (q.v.).

See also Rock-Parrakeet (Euphema petrophila, Gould), which is sometimes classed as a Grass-Parrakeet.

Grass-tree, n. (2) The name applied to trees of the genus Xanthorrhoea, N.O. Liliaceae, of which thirteen species are known in Australia. See also Richea.

(2) In New Zealand Pseudopanax crassifolium, Seemann, N.O. Araleaceae. When young, this is the same as Umbrella-tree, so called from its appearance like the ribs of an umbrella. When older, it grows more straight and is called Lancewood (q.v.).

(3) In Tasmania, besides two species of Xanthorrhoea the Grass-tree of the mainland, the Richea dracophylla, R. Br., N.O. Epacrideae, found on Mount Wellington, near Hobart, is also known by that name, whilst the Richea pandanifolia, Hook., found in the South-west forests, is called the Giant Grass-tree. Both these are peculiar to the island.

(4) An obsolete name for Cordyline australis, Hook., N.O. Liliaceae, now more usually called Cabbage- tree (q.v.).

1802. D. Collins, 'Account of New South Wales,' vol. ii. p. 153:

"A grass tree grows here, similar in every respect to that about Port Jackson."

1830. R. Dawson, 'Present State of Australia,' p. 347:

"Yielding frequently a very weak and sour kind of grass, interspersed with a species of bulrush called grass-trees, which are universal signs of poverty.":

1833. C. Sturt, 'Southern Australia,' Vol II. c. iii. p. 54:

"The grass-tree is not found westward of the mountains."

1839. T. L. Mitchell, 'Three Expeditions,' vol. ii. p. 303:

"We approached a range of barren hills of clay slate, on which grew the grass-tree (Xanthorhoea) and stunted eucalypti."

1862. H. C. Kendall, 'Poems,' p. 74:

"The shimmering sunlight fell and kissed The grass-tree's golden sheaves."

1867. F. Hochstetter, 'New Zealand,' p. 132:

"Here and there, in moist places, arises isolated the 'grass-tree' or 'cabbage-tree' (Ti of the natives; Cordyline Australis)."

1874. Garnet Walch, 'Head over Heels,' p. 80:

"The grass-trees in front, blame my eyes, Seemed like plumes on the top of a hearse."

1877. F. v. Mueller, 'Botanic Teachings,' p. 119:

"How strikingly different the external features of plants may be, though floral structure may draw them into congruity, is well demonstrated by our so-called grass-trees, which pertain truly to the liliaceous order. These scientifically defined as Xanthorhoeas from the exudation of yellowish sap, which indurates into resinous masses, have all the essential notes of the order, so far as structure of flowers and fruits is concerned, but their palm-like habit, together with cylindric spikes on long and simple stalks, is quite peculiar, and impresses on landscapes, when these plants in masses are occuring, a singular feature."

1879. A. R. Wallace, 'Australasia' (ed. 1893), p. 52:

"The grass trees (Xanthorrhoea) are a peculiar feature to the Australian landscape. From a rugged stem, varying from two to ten or twelve feet in height, springs a tuft of drooping wiry foliage, from the centre of which rises a spike not unlike a huge bulrush. When it flowers in winter, this spike becomes covered with white stars, and a heath covered with grass trees then has an appearance at once singular and beautiful."

1882. A. Tolmer, 'Reminiscences,' vol, ii. p. 102:

"The root of the grass-tree is pleasant enough to eat, and tastes something like the meat of the almond-tree; but being unaccustomed to the kind of fare, and probably owing to the empty state of our stomachs, we suffered severely from diarrhoea."

1885. H. Finch-Hatton, 'Advance Australia,' p. 43:

"Grass-trees are most comical-looking objects. They have a black bare stem, from one to eight feet high, surmounted by a tuft of half rushes and half grass, out of which, again, grows a long thing exactly like a huge bullrush. A lot of them always grow together, and a little way off they are not unlike the illustrations of Red-Indian chiefs in Fenimore Cooper's novels."

1889. T. Kirk, 'Forest Flora of New Zealand,' p. 59:

"It [Pseudopanax crassifolium, the Horoeka] is commonly called lance-wood by the settlers in the North Island, and grass-tree by those in the South. This species was discovered during Cook's first voyage, and it need cause no surprise to learn that the remarkable difference between the young and mature states led so able a botanist as Dr. Solander to consider them distinct plants."

1896. Baldwin Spencer. 'Horne Expedition in Central Australia,' Narrative, p. 98:

"As soon as the came upon the Plains we found ourselves in a belt of grass trees belonging to a species not hitherto described (X. Thorntoni). . . . The larger specimens have a stem some five or six feet high, with a crown of long wiry leaves and a flowering stalk, the top of which is fully twelve feet above the ground."

[Compare Blackboy and Maori-head.

Grayling, n. The Australian fish of that name is Prototroctes maroena, Gunth. It is called also the Fresh-water Herring, Yarra Herring (in Melbourne), Cucumber-Fish, and Cucumber-Mullet. The last two names are given to it from its smell. It closely resembles the English Grayling.

1880. W. Senior, 'Travel and Trout,' p. 93:

"These must be the long-looked-for cucumber mullet, or fresh- water herring. . . . 'The cucumber mullet,' I explain, 'I have long suspected to be a grayling.'"

1882. Rev._I. E. Tenison-Woods, 'Fish of New South Wales,' p. 109:

"Though not a fish of New South Wales, it may be as well to mention here the Australian grayling, which in character, habits, and the manner of its capture is almost identical with the English fish of that name. In shape there is some difference between the two fish. . . . A newly caught fish smells exactly like a dish of fresh-sliced cucumber. It is widely distributed in Victoria, and very abundant in all the fresh-water streams of Tasmania. . . . In Melbourne it goes by the name of the Yarra herring. There is another species in New Zealand."

1889. Cassell's 'Picturesque Australasia,' vol. iv. p. 206:

"The river abounds in delicious grayling or cucumber fish, rather absurdly designated the 'herring' in this [Deloraine] and some other parts of the colony [Tasmania]."

Grebe, n. common English bird-name, of the genus Podiceps. The species known in Australia are—

Black-throated Grebe— Podiceps novae-hollandiae, Gould.

Hoary-headed G.— P. nestor, Gould.

Tippet G.— P. cristataes, Linn.

But Buller sees no reason for separating P. cristatus from the well-known P. cristatus of Europe. Some of the Grebes are sometimes called Dabchicks (q.v.).

1888. W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. ii. p. 285:

"The Crested Grebe is generally-speaking a rare bird in both islands."

Greenhide, n. See quotation. Greenhide is an English tannery term for the hide with the hair on before scouring.

1881. A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 27:

"Drivers, who walked beside their teams carrying over their shoulders a long-handled whip with thong of raw salted hide, called in the colony 'greenhide.'"

Greenie, n. a school-boys' name for Ptilotis penicillata, Gould, the White-plumed Honey-eater.

1896. 'The Australasian,' Jan. 11, p. 73, col. 1:

"A bird smaller than the Australian minah, and of a greenish yellowish hue, larger, but similar to the members of the feathered tribe known to young city 'knights of the catapult' as greenies."

1897. A. J. Campbell (in 'The Australasian,'Jan. 23), p. 180, col. 5:

"Every schoolboy about Melbourne knows what the 'greenie' is—the white-plumed honey-eater (P. penicillata). The upper-surface is yellowish-grey, and the under-surface brownish in tone. The white-plumed honey-eater is common in Victoria, where it appears to be one of the few native birds that is not driven back by civilisation. In fact, its numbers have increased in the parks and gardens in the vicinity of Melbourne."

Green-leek, n. an Australian Parrakeet. See quotation.

1848. J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. v. pl. 15:

"Polytelis Barrabandi, Wagl., Barraband's Parrakeet; Green-leek of the colonists of New South Wales."

1855. R. Howitt, 'Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 123:

"We observed m the hollow trees several nests of the little green paroquet,—here, from its colour, called the leek."

Green Lizard, n. sometimes called the Spotted Green Lizard, a New Zealand reptile, Naultinus elegans, Gray.

Green Oyster, n. name given in Queensland to the sea-weed Ulva lactuca, Linn., N.O. Algae. From being frequently found attached to oysters, this is sometimes called "Green Oyster." (Bailey.) See Oyster.

Greenstone, n. popular name of Nephrite (q.v.). Maori name, Pounamu (q.v.).

1859. A.S. Thomson, 'Story of New Zealand,' p. 140:

"The greenstone composing these implements of war is called nephrite by mineralogists, and is found in the Middle Island of New Zealand, in the Hartz, Corsica, China and Egypt. The most valuable kind is clear as glass with a slight green tinge."

1889. Dr. Hocken, 'Catalogue of New Zealand Exhibition,' p. 181:

"This valued stone—pounamu of the natives—nephrite, is found on the west coast of the South Island. Indeed, on Captain Cook's chart this island is called 'T'Avai Poenammoo'—Te wai pounamu, the water of the greenstone."

1892. F. R. Chapman, 'The Working of Greenstone by the Maoris' (New Zealand Institute), p. 4:

"In the title of this paper the word 'greenstone' occurs, and this word is used throughout the text. I am quite conscious that the term is not geologically or mineralogically correct; but the stone of which I am writing is known by that name throughout New Zealand, and, though here as elsewhere the scientific man employs that word to describe a totally different class of rock, I should run the risk of being misunderstood were I to use any other word for what is under that name an article of commerce and manufacture in New Zealand. It is called 'pounamu' or 'poenamu' by the Maoris, and 'jade,' 'jadeite,' or 'nephrite' by various writers, while old books refer to the 'green talc' of the Maoris."

Green-tops, n. Tasmanian name for the Orchid, Pterostylis pedunculata, R. Br.

Green-tree Ant, n. common Queensland Ant.

1847. L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 294:

"It was at the lower part of the Lynd that we first saw the green-tree ant; which seemed to live in small societies in rude nests between the green leaves of shady trees."

Green Tree-snake, n. See under Snake.

Grevillea, n. a large genus of trees of Australia and Tasmania, N.O. Proteaceae, named in honour of the Right Hon. Charles Francis Greville, Vice-President of the Royal Society of London. The name was given by Robert Brown in 1809. The 'Century' Dictionary gives Professor Greville as the origin of the name but "Professor Robert K. Greville of Edinburgh was born on the 14th Dec., 1794, he was therefore only just fourteen years old when the genus Grevillea was established." ('Private letter from Baron F. von Mueller.')

1851. 'Quarterly Review,' Dec., p. 40:

"Whether Dryandra, Grevillea, Hakea, or the other Proteaceae, all may take part in the same glee—

"It was a shrub of orders grey Stretched forth to show his leaves."

1888. Cassell's 'Picturesque Australasia, vol. iii. p. 138:

"Graceful grevilleas, which in the spring are gorgeous with orange-coloured blossoms."

Grey-jumper, n. name given to an Australian genus of sparrow-like birds, of which the only species is Struthidea cinerea, Gould; also called Brachystoma and Brachyporus.

Grey Nurse, n. a New South Wales name for a species of Shark, Odontaspis americanus, Mitchell, family Lamnidae, which is not confined to Australasia.

Gridironing, v</i. a term used in the province of Canterbury, New Zealand. A man purchased land in the shape of a gridiron, knowing that nobody would take the intermediate strips, which later he could purchase at his leisure. In other provinces free-selection (q.v.) was only allowed after survey.

Grinder, n. See Razor-grinder and Dishwasher.

Groper, n. a fish. In Queensland, Oligorus terrae-reginae, Ramsay; in New Zealand, O. gigas, "called by the Maoris and colonists 'Hapuku,'" (Guenther)—a large marine species. Oligorus is a genus of the family Percidae, and the Murray-Cod (q.v.) and Murray Perch (q.v.) belong to it. There is a fish called the Grouper or Groper of warm seas quite distinct from this one. See Cod, Perch, Blue-Groper and Hapuku.

Ground-berry, i.q. Cranberry (q.v.).:

Ground-bird, n. name given in Australia to any bird of the genus Cinclosoma. The species are—

Chestnut-backed Ground-bird— Cinclosoma castaneonotum, Gould.

Chestnut-breasted G.-b.— C. castaneothorax, Gould.

Cinnamon G.-b.— C. cinnamomeum, Gould.

Northern, or Black-vented G.-b.— C. marginatum, Sharpe.

Spotted G.-b.— C. punctatum, Lath., called by Gould Ground-Dove (q.v.).

Ground-Dove, n. (1) Tasmanian name for the Spotted Ground-bird (q.v.).

1848. J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. iv. pl. 4:

"Cinclosoma punctatum, Vig. and Horsf., Spotted Ground-thrush. In Hobart Town it is frequently exposed for sale in the markets with bronze-wing pigeons and wattle-birds, where it is known by the name of ground-dove . . . very delicate eating."

(2) The name is given by Gould to three species of Geopelia.

1848. J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. v. pls. 72, 73, 74:

"Geopelia humeralis, Barred-shouldered Ground-dove" (pl. 72);

"G. tranquilla" (pl. 73);

"G. cuneata, Graceful Ground-dove" (pl. 74).

Ground-Lark, n. (1) In New Zealand, a bird also called by the Maori names, Pihoihoi and Hioi.

1888. W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 63:

"Anthus Novae Zelandiae, Gray, New Zealand Pipit; Ground-Lark of the Colonists."

(2) In Australia, the Australian Pipit (Anthus australis) is also called a Ground-lark.

1848. J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. iii. pl. 73:

"Anthus Australis, Vig. and Horsf., Australian Pipit. The Pipits, like many other of the Australian birds, are exceedingly perplexing."

Ground-Parrakeet, n. See Parrakeet and Pezoporus.

Ground-Parrot, n. (1) The bird Psittacus pulchellus, Shaw. For the Ground Parrot of New Zealand, see Kakapo.

1793. G. Shaw, 'Zoology [and Botany] of New Holland,' p. 10:

"Long-tailed green Parrot, spotted with black and yellow,. . . the Ground Parrot."

1827. Vigors and Horsfield, 'Transactions of Linnaean Society,' vol. xv. p. 278:

"The settlers call it ground-parrot. It feeds upon the ground."

Ibid. p. 286:

"What is called the ground-parrot at Sydney inhabits the scrub in that neighbourhood."

1859. H. Kingsley, 'Geoffrey Hamlyn,' p. 298:

"The ground-parrot, green, with mottlings of gold and black, rose like a partridge from the heather, and flew low."

(2) Slang name for a small farmer. See Cockatoo, n. (2).

Ground-Thrush, n. name of birds found all over the world. The Australian species are—

Geocincla lunulata, Lath.

Broadbent Ground-Thrush— G. cuneata.

Large-billed G.— G. macrorhyncha, Gould.

Russet-tailed G.— G. heinii, Cab.

Grub, v. to clear (ground) of the roots. To grub has long been English for to dig up by the roots. It is Australian to apply the word not to the tree but to the land.

1852. Mrs. Meredith, 'My Home in Tasmania,' vol. i. p. 185:

"Employed with others in 'grubbing' a piece of new land which was heavily timbered."

1868. Mrs. Meredith, 'Tasmanian Memory of 1834,' p. 10:

"A bit of land all grubbed and clear'd too."

Guana, or Guano, n. i.q. Goanna (q.v.).

Guard-fish, n. Erroneous spelling of Garfish (q.v.).

Gudgeon, n. The name is given in New South Wales to the fish Eleotris coxii, Krefft, of the family of the Gobies.

Guitar Plant, a Tasmanian shrub, Lomatia tinctoria, R. Br., N.O. Proteaceae.

Gull, n. common English name for a sea-bird. The Australian species are—

Long-billed Gull— Larus longirostris, Masters.

Pacific G.— L. pacificus, Lath.

Silver G.— L. novae-hollandiae, Steph.

Torres-straits G.— L. gouldi, Bp.

Gully, n. a narrow valley. The word is very common in Australia, and is frequently used as a place name. It is not, however, Australian. Dr.Skeat ('Etymological Dictionary') says, "a channel worn by water." Curiously enough, his first quotation is from 'Capt. Cook's Third Voyage,' b. iv. c. 4. Skeat adds, "formerly written gullet: 'It meeteth afterward with another gullet,' i.e. small stream. Holinshed, 'Description of Britain,' c. 11: F. goulet, 'a gullet . . . a narrow brook or deep gutter of water.' (Cotgrave.) Thus the word is the same as gullet." F. goulet is from Latin gula. Gulch is the word used in the Pacific States, especially in California.

1773. 'Hawkesworth's Voyages,' vol. iii. p. 532—Captain Cook's First Voyage, May 30, 1770:

"The deep gullies, which were worn by torrents from the hills."

1802. D. Collins, 'Account of New South Wales,' vol. ii. p. 214:

"A man, in crossing a gully between Sydney and Parramatta, was, in attempting to ford it, carried away by the violence of the torrent, and drowned."

1862. H. C. Kendall, 'Poems,' p. 17:

"The gums in the gully stand gloomy and stark."

1867. A.L. Gordon, 'Sea-spray, etc.,' p. 134:

"The gullies are deep and the uplands are steep."

1875. Wood and Lapham, 'Waiting for the Mail,' p. 16:

"The terrible blasts that rushed down the narrow gully, as if through a funnel."

Gully-raker, n. a long whip.

1881. A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 40:

"The driver appealing occasionally to some bullock or other by name, following up his admonition by a sweeping cut of his 'gully-raker,' and a report like a musket-shot."

Gum, or Gum-tree, n. the popular name for any tree of the various species of Eucalyptus. The word Gum is also used in its ordinary English sense of exuded sap of certain trees and shrubs, as e.g. Wattle-gum (q.v.) in Australia, and Kauri-gum (q.v.) in New Zealand. In America, the gum-tree usually means "the Liquidambar styraciflua, favourite haunt of the opossum and the racoon, whence the proverbial possum up a gum-tree." ('Current Americanisms,' s.v. Gum)

The names of the various Australian Gum-trees are as follows—

Apple Gum, or Apple-scented Gum— Eucalyptus stuartiana, F. v. M.

Bastard G.— Eucalyptus gunnii, Hook.

Bastard Blue G.— E. leucoxylon, F. v. M. (South Australia).

Bastard White G.— E. gunnii, Hook. (South Australia); E. radiata (Tasmania).

Black G.— E. stellulata, Sieb.

Black-butted G.— E. pillularis, Smith (Victoria); E. regnans, F. v. M. (New South Wales). See Blackbutt.

Blue G. [see also Blue-Gum] E. botryoides, Smith (New South Wales); E. diversicolor, F. v. M. [Karri]; E. globulus, Labill.; E. goniocalyx, F. v. M.; E. leucoxylon, F. v. M. (South Australia) [Ironbark]; E. saligna, Smith; E. tereticornis, Smith; E. viminalis, Labill. (West New South Wales).

Botany Bay G,— E. resinifera, Smith.

Brittle G.— E. haemastonza, Smith; E. micrantha, Smith.

Brown G.— E. robusta, Smith.

Cabbage G.— E. sieberiana, F. v. M. (Braidwood, New South Wales).

Cider G.— E. gunnii, Hook. (Tasmania).

Citron-scented G.— E. maculata, Hook.

Creek G.— E. rostrata, Schlecht (West New South Wales).

Curly White G.— E. radiata (Tasmania).

Dark Red G.— E. rostrata, Schlecht.

Desert G.— E. eudesmoides, F. v. M. (Central Australia); E. gracilis, F. v. M.

Drooping G.— E. pauciflora, Sieb. (Drooping Gum in Tasmania is E. risdoni, Hook., N.O. Myrtaceae; the tree is peculiar to Tasmania); E. viminalis, Labill. (New South Wales).

Flood, or Flooded G.— E. gunnii, Hook. (Bombala, New South Wales); E. microtheca, F. v. M. (Carpentaria and Central Australia); E. rostrata, Schlecht; E. saligna, Smith; E. tereticornis, Smith (New South Wales).

Fluted G.- E. salubris, F. v. M.

Forest G.— E. rostrata, Schlecht (South Australia).

Giant G.— E. amygdalina, Labill.

Gimlet G.— E. salubris, F. v. M.

Green G.— E. stellulata, Sieb. (East Gippsland).

Grey G.— E. crebra, F. v. M.; E. goniocalyx, F. v. M. (New South Wales, east of Dividing range); E. punctata, De C. (South Coast of New South Wales); E. raveretiana, F.v.M; E. resinifera, Smith; E. saligna, Smith (New South Wales); E. tereticornis, Smith (New South Wales); E. viminalis, Labill (Sydney);

Honey-scented G.— E. melliodora, Cunn.

Iron G.— E. raveretiana, F. v. M.

Lemon-scented, or Lemon G.— E. citriodora, Hook. f.

Lead G.— E. stellulata, Cunn.

Mallee G.— E. dumosa (generally called simply Mallee, q.v.).

Mountain G.— E. tereticornis, Smith (South New South Wales).

Mountain White G.— E. pauciflora, Sieb. (Blue Mountains).

Nankeen G.— E. populifolia, Hook. (Northern Australia).

Olive Green G.— E. stellulata, Cunn. (Leichhardt's name).

Pale Red G.— E. rostrata, Schlecht.

Peppermint G.— E. viminalis, Labill.

Poplar-leaved G.— E. polyanthema, Schau.

Red G.— E. amygdalina, Labill. (Victoria); E. calophylla, R. Br.; E. gunnii, Hook. (Bombala); E. melliodora, Cunn. (Victoria); E. odorata, Behr (South Australia); E. punctata, De C.; E. resinifera, Smith; E. rostrata, Schlecht; E. stuartiana, F. v. M. (Tasmania); E. tereticornis, Smith (New South Wales).

Ribbon G.— E. amygdalina, Labill. Ribbony G. E. viminalis, Labill.

Risdon G.— E. amygdalina, Labill.

River G.— E. rostrata, Schlecht (New South Wales, Queensland, and Central Australia).

River White G.— E. radiata.

Rough-barked, or Rough G.— E. botryoides, Smith (Illawarra).

Rusty G.— E. eximia, Schau.

Scribbly G.— E. haemastoma, Smith.

Scribbly Blue G.— E. leucoxylon, F. v. M. (South Australia).

Scrub G.— E. cosmophylla, F. v. M.

Slaty G.— E. saligna, Smith (New South Wales); E. tereticornis, Smith (New South Wales and Queensland); E. largiflorens, F. v. M.

Spotted G.— E. capitellata, Smith (New England); E. goniocalyx, F. v. M.; E. haemastonza, Smith; E. maculata, Hook.

Sugar G.— E. corynocalyx, F. v. M.; E. gunnii, Hook.

Swamp G.— E. gunnii, Hook.; E. microtheca, F. v. M.; E. pauciflora, Sieb.; E. viminalis, Labill. (Tasmania).

Weeping G.— E. pauciflora, Sieb. (Tasmania); E. viminalis, Labill. (New South Wales).

White G.— E. amygdalina, Labill.; E. gomphocephala, De C. (Western Australia); E. goniocalyx, F. v. M. ; E. haemastoma, Smith; E. hemiphloia, F. v. M. (Sydney); E. leucoxylon, F. v. M. (South Australia); E. pauciflora, Sieb.; E. populifolia, Hook. (Queensland); E. radiata (New South Wales); E. redunca, Schau. (Western Australia); E. robusta, Schlecht. (South Australia); E. saligna, Smith (New South Wales); E. stellulata, Cunn.; E. stuartiana, F. v. M. (Victoria); E. viminalis, Labill.

White Swamp G.— E. gunnii, Hook. (South Australia).

Yellow G.— E. punctata, De C.

York G.— E. foecunda, Schau. (Western Australia).

This list has been compiled by collating many authorities. But the following note on Eucalyptus amygdalina (from Maiden's 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 429) will illustrate the difficulty of assigning the vernacular names with absolute accuracy to the multitudinous species of Eucalyptus—

"Eucalyptus amygdalina, Labill., Syn. E. fissilis, F. v. M.; E. radiata, Sieb.; E. elata, Dehn.; E. tenuiramis, Miq.; E. nitida, Hook, f.; E. longifolia, Lindl. ; E. Lindleyana, DC.; and perhaps E. Risdoni, Hook, f.; E. dives, Schauer.—This Eucalypt has even more vernacular names than botanical synonyms. It is one of the 'Peppermint Trees' (and variously 'Narrow-leaved Peppermint,' 'Brown Peppermint,' 'White Peppermint,' and sometimes 'Dandenong Peppermint'), and 'Mountain Ashes' of the Dandenong Ranges of Victoria, and also of Tasmania and Southern New South Wales. It is also called 'Giant Gum' and 'White Gum.' In Victoria it is one of the 'Red Gums.' It is one of the New South Wales 'Stringybarks,' and a 'Manna Gum.' Because it is allied to, or associated with, 'Stringybark,' it is also known by the name of 'Messmate.' . . . A variety of this gum (E. radiata) is called in New South Wales 'White Gum' or 'River White Gum.' . . . A variety of E. amygdalina growing in the south coast district of New South Wales, goes by the name of 'Ribbon Gum,' in allusion to the very thin, easily detachable, smooth bark. This is also E. radiata probably. A further New South Wales variety goes by the name of 'Cut-tail' in the Braidwood district. The author has been unable to ascertain the meaning of this absurd designation. These varieties are, several of them, quite different in leaves, bark, and timber, and there is no species better than the present one to illustrate the danger in attempting to fit botanical names on Eucalypts when only the vernacular names are known."

Various other trees not of the genus Eucalyptus are also sometimes popularly called Gums, such as, for instance—

Broad-leaved Water Gum— Tristania suavolens, Smith.

Orange G.— Angophora lanceolata, Cave.

Water G.— Callistemon lanceolatus, DeC. Tristania laurina, R. Br. T. neriifolia, R. Br.

And others.

In addition to this, poets and descriptive writers sometimes apply epithets, chiefly denoting colour or other outward appearance, which are not names of distinct species, such as Cinnamon, Morrell, Salmon, Cable, Silver, etc. [See quotation under Silver Gum.]

1642. Abel Tasman, 'Journal of the Voyage to the Unknown Southland' (Translation by J. B. Walker in 'Abel J. Tasman: His Life, etc.' 1896)

[Under date Dec. 2, 1642, after describing the trees at Fredrik Hendrik's Bay (now Blackman's Bay, Forestier's Peninsula, Tasmania) 2 to 21/2 fathoms thick, 60 to 65 feet to the first branch, and with steps 5 feet apart cut in them, Tasman says that they found] "a little gum, fine in appearance, which drops out of the trees, and has a resemblance to gum lac (gomma lacca)."

1770. 'Captain Cook's Journal' (ed. Wharton, 1893), p. 245:

"May 1st.—We found two sorts of gum, one sort of which is like gum dragon, and is the same, I suppose, Tasman took for gum lac; it is extracted from the largest tree in the woods.

"May 6th.—The biggest trees are as large or larger than our oaks in England, and grow a good deal like them, and yield a reddish gum; the wood itself is heavy, hard, and black like Lignum vitae."

1788. Governor Phillip (Despatch, May 15) in 'Historical Records of New South Wales', vol. i. pt. ii. p. 128:

"What seeds could be collected are sent to Sir Joseph Banks, as likewise the red gum taken from the large gum-tree by tapping, and the yellow gum which is found on the dwarf palm-tree."

1789. Captain Watkin Tench, 'Narrative of the Expedition to Botany Bay,' p. 119:

"The species of trees are few, and . . . the wood universally of so bad a grain, as almost to preclude the possibility of using it. . . . These trees yield a profusion of thick red gum (not unlike the Sanguis draconis)."

1790. J. White, 'Voyage to New South Wales,' p. 231:

"The red gum-tree, Eucalyptus resinifera. This is a very large and lofty tree, much exceeding the English oak in size."

1793. Governor Hunter, 'Voyage,' p. 69:

"I have likewise seen trees bearing three different kinds of leaves, and frequently have found others, bearing the leaf of the gum-tree, with the gum exuding from it, and covered with bark of a very different kind."

1820. W. C. Wentworth, 'Description of New South Wales,' p. 66:

"Full-sized gums and iron barks, alongside of which the loftiest trees in this country would appear as pigmies, with the beefwood tree, or, as it is generally termed, the forest oak, which is of much humbler growth, are the usual timber."

1827. P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i. p. 200:

"The gum-trees are so designated as a body from producing a gummy resinous matter, while the peculiarities of the bark usually fix the particular names of the species—thus the blue, spotted, black-butted, and woolly gums are so nominated from the corresponding appearance of their respective barks; the red and white gums, from their wood; and the flooded gums from growing in flooded land."

1846. J. L. Stokes, 'Discoveries in Australia,' vol. II. c. iii. p. 108:

"The silvery stems of the never-failing gum-trees."

1857. H. Parkes, 'Murmurs of Stream,' p. 56:

"Where now the hermit gum-tree stands on the plain's heart."

1864. J. S. Moore, 'Spring Life Lyrics,' p. 114:

"Amid grand old gums, dark cedars and pines."

1873. A.Trollope, 'Australia and New Zealand,' c. xiii. p. 209:

"The eternal gum-tree has become to me an Australian crest, giving evidence of Australian ugliness. The gum-tree is ubiquitous, and is not the loveliest, though neither is it by any means the ugliest, of trees."

1877. F. v. Muller, 'Botanic Teachings,' p. 7:

"The vernacular name of gum-trees for the eucalypts is as unaptly given as that of most others of our native plants, on which popular appellations have been bestowed. Indeed our wattles might far more appropriately be called gum-trees than the eucalypts, because the former exude a real gum (in the chemical meaning of the word); whereas the main exudation from the stems and branches of all eucalypts hardens to a kino-like substance, contains a large proportion of a particular tannin (kino-tannic acid), and is to a great extent or entirely soluble in alcohol, thus very different from genuine gum."

1884. R. L. A. Davies, 'Poems and Literary Remains,' p. 176:

"Golden, 'mid a sunlit forest, Stood the grand Titanic forms Of the conquerors of storms; Stood the gums, as if inspired, Every branch and leaflet fired With the glory of the sun, In golden robes attired, A grand priesthood of the sun."

1889. P. Beveridge, 'Aborigines of Victoria and Riverina,' p. 61:

"Nearly all the eucalyptus species exude gum, which the natives utilise in the fabrication of their various weapons as Europeans do glue. The myall and mimosa also exude gum; these the natives prefer before all other kinds when obtainable, they being less brittle and more adhesive than any of the others."

i891. 'Guide to Zoological Gardens, Melbourne':

"This is an exact representation of the camps which were scattered over the country not more than fifty years ago, and inhabited by the original lords of the soil. The beautiful she-oak and red-gum forest that used to clothe the slopes of Royal Park was a very favourite camping-ground of theirs, as the gum-tree was their most regular source of food supply. The hollows of this tree contained the sleek and sleepy opossum, waiting to be dragged forth to the light of day and despatched by a blow on the head. It was to the honey-laden blossoms of this tree that the noisy cockatoos and parrots used to flock. Let the kangaroo be wary and waterfowl shy, but whilst he had his beloved gum-tree, little cared the light-hearted black."

1892. 'The Times,' [Reprint] 'Letters from Queensland,' p. 2:

"The immense extent of gum-trees stretches indefinitely, blotting out the conception of anything but its own lightly-timbered pasture. It has not even the gloom and impressiveness which we associate in England with the name of forest land, for the trees are thinly scattered, their long leaves hang vertically from the branches, and sunlight filters through with sufficient force to promote the growth of the tussocked grass beneath. The whole would be indescribably commonplace, but that the vastness becomes at last by its own force impressive."

The following quotations illustrate special uses of the word in composition.

Apple Gum—

1847. L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 283:

"On the small flats the apple-gum grew."

Ibid. c. viii. p. 264:

"Another Eucalyptus with a scaly butt . . . but with smooth upper trunk and cordate ovate leaves, which was also new to me; we called it the Apple-gum."

Blue Gum—

1802. D.Collins, 'Account of New South Wales,' vol. ii. p. 235:

"The blue gum, she-oak, and cherry-tree of Port Jackson were common here."

1832. J. Bischoff, 'Van Diemen's Land,' p. 22:

"The Blue Gum is found in greater abundance; it is a loose-grained heavy wood."

1851. James Mitchell, 'Proceedings of the Royal Society of Van Diemen's Land,' p. 125:

"The name blue gum appears to have been derived from the bluish gray colour of the whole plant in the earliest stages of its growth, which is occasioned by a covering of dust or bloom similar to that upon the sloe or damson."

1884. R. L. A. Davies, 'Poems and Literary Remains,' p. 199:

"I love to see the blue gums stand Majestically tall; The giants of our southern woods, The loftiest of all."

Black-butted Gum—

1833. C. Sturt, 'Southern Australia,' vol. II. c. viii. p. 236:

"One species . . . resembling strongly the black-butted gum."

Cable Gum—

1846. J. L. Stokes, 'Discoveries in Australia,' vol. II. c. iv. p. 132:

"Cable-gum . . . like several stems twisted together, abundant in interior."

Cider Gum (or Cider Tree)—

1830. Ross, 'Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 119:

"That species of eucalyptus called the cider tree, from its exuding a quantity of saccharine liquid resembling molasses. Streaks of it were to be seen dripping down the bark in various parts, which we tasted, and found very palatable. The natives have a method at the proper season of grinding holes in the tree, from which the sweet juice flows plentifully, and is collected in a hole at the root. We saw some of these covered up with a flat stone, doubtless to prevent the wild animals from coming to drink it. When allowed to remain some time, and to ferment, it settles into a coarse sort of wine or cider, rather intoxicating."

Cinnamon Gum—

1893. 'Sydney Morning Herald,' Aug. 19, p. 7, col. 1:

"A forest only fit for urban gnomes these twisted trunks. Here are no straight and lofty trees, but sprawling cinnamon gums, their skin an unpleasing livid red, pock-marked; saplings in white and chilly grey, bleeding gum in ruddy stains, and fire-black boles and stumps to throw the greenery into bright relief."

Drooping Gum—

1846. J. L. Stokes, 'Discoveries in Australia,' vol. II. c. xii. p. 387:

"The trees, which grew only in the valleys, were small kinds of banksia, wattles and drooping gums."

Flooded Gum—

1847. L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 7:

"Large flooded gum-trees (but no casuarinas) at the low banks of the lagoons."

Lemon-scented Gum—

1860. G. Bennett, 'Gatherings of a Naturalist,' p. 265:

"Among the Eucalypti or gum-trees growing in New South Wales, a species named the lemon-scented gum-tree, Eucalyptus citriodora, is peculiar to the Wide Bay district, in the northern part of the colony."

Mountain Gum—

1833. C. Sturt, 'Southern Australia,' vol. I. c. iii, p. 118:

"The cypresses became mixed with casuarina, box and mountain-gum."

Red Gum [see also Red-gum]—

1802. G. Barrington, 'History of New South Wales,' c. xi. p. 461:

"The red gum-tree. This is a very large and lofty tree, much exceeding the English oak in size."

1846. G. H. Haydon, 'Five Years in Australia Felix,' p. 33:

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